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🏥 | "Procurement of corona vaccine should be done with the help of the private sector" Advocated by a doctor who handles one of the leading PCR tests and vaccinations in Japan


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"Procurement of corona vaccine should be done with the help of the private sector" Advocated by a doctor who handles one of the leading PCR tests and vaccinations in Japan

 
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That said, the new scheme also prevented medical institutions from buying from pharmaceutical companies as needed.
 

Road to corona convergence (2) The inoculation rate is too slow compared to major countries.Japan is a vaccine defeated country.New Corona Wakuchi ... → Continue reading

 Daily Gendai Healthcare

We will deliver the medical and health articles of the evening paper "Daily Gendai". From everyday health laws to the latest medical information, all articles are based on interviews with doctors and specialists.


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Pharmaceutical

Pharmaceutical industry(No, no, no,British: pharmaceutical industry) Refers to a series of industries that develop, develop, produce, and market approved drugs.[2].. Various legal rights are involved in the pharmaceutical industry, such as legal restrictions, patent rights, and advertising restrictions.

In particularPharmaceuticalWhat is (seiyaku)?MedicineIs to manufacture.Chemical industryRelated to. ThatCompanyIt is,Pharmaceutical companyCalled. Pharmaceutical companiesResearch and DevelopmentFrom the perspective of, the number of employees is large, and the huge cost is required to develop a new drug, so that the pharmaceutical company is often a large-scale company. In recent yearsBiotechnologyAgainst the background of the development of (biotechnology), many companies are focusing on drug discovery that applies that technology.

The pharmaceutical industry is closely related to medical care, and the demand for pharmaceuticals is increasing due to the aging of the population and the increase in population worldwide. The global pharmaceutical market is said to be about 80 trillion yen (2006), of which the Japanese pharmaceutical market is 7 trillion yen (2004).

History

Ancient medicine is mainly derived from botanical ingredients, according to cuneiform records around 2100 BCSumerians TheMuskAnd the roots of white pear trees[3].

During the Renaissance, medicinal herbs were established all over Europe, and many medicinal plants were brought to Europe from the United States and India through maritime trade routes.[3].. However, until the Renaissance period, herbal medicine was the main drug because the separation and purification technology was undeveloped.[3].

Modern science advanced rapidly in the 18th century[4].. In the field of organic chemistryFriedrich Weller Organic compoundIsUreaThe synthesis of the compound brought great progress, and many organic compounds were discovered and synthesized thereafter.[4].

By the end of the 19th century, the pharmaceutical industry had risen, and pharmaceuticals were manufactured based on by-products from the dyeing industry (for example,Aniline dyeDerived fromAcetanilide),Germany,スイスBecame the most advanced country in the fields of organic chemistry and synthetic medicine[5].. Thus by the 20th centurySalicylic acid,Acetylsalicylic acidNow some pure synthetic medicines such as (aspirin) are produced[5].

Industrial features

The pharmaceutical industry has four main characteristics.

  • Being an industry closely related to life.
  • Being an industry of various items and small quantity production.
  • Be an R&D oriented industry.
  • Added valueIt is a highly knowledge-intensive industry.

There are various opinions about the characteristics of the industry other than the above, but the first point is that pharmaceuticals have the meaning of curing diseases and saving lives. In the 20th century, what made humanity the happiest thing is medicine (especiallyAntibiotics) Is said to be.

Contribution to society

The pharmaceutical industry isQuality of lifePlays a major role in improving the

In particular,

Is contributing to society by saying thatMalignant tumorAnd diseases of the central nervous system,AllergiesIt is expected to establish a cure or preventive method for symptoms.

In addition, it has contributed significantly to the financial side, such as the illness that required medical treatment costs until then, with the advent of new drugs to dramatically reduce the medical treatment costs.

Flow of drug release

stageRelated standards
Drug discovery
非 臨床 試 験 (Animal experimentation)Good Laboratory Practice(Good Laboratory Practice)(GLP)
Clinical trial (Clinical trial)(Good clinical practice)(GCP)
Approval#Regulatory body
Pharmaceutical(Good Manufacturing Practice)(GMP)
quality managementQuality Management System(Quality management system)(QMS Ministerial Ordinance)When,Good Quality Practice(Good quality practice)(GQP Ministerial Ordinance)
Shipping wholesale salesGood Vigilance Practice(Good vigilance practice)(GVP Ministerial Ordinance)

Research and Development

Enormous research and development costs are required to carry out new drug development.

The cost required to research and develop a new drug and launch it is said to be tens of billions of yen. 2001Tufts UniversityAccording to the announcement1990 eraAs a result of trial calculation based on the US data, it is estimated that the R&D cost required for a global pharmaceutical company to launch one new drug will reach 1 billion yen. This amount includes R&D expenses for new drugs that have not been launched. However, even if such a large amount of money is spent to develop a new drug, many of it will not be commercialized because it will be tested for safety, efficacy and quality before it is released.

As a result, the pharmaceutical industry has the highest ratio of R&D to sales among all industries, with an average of 3% for all industries, while it exceeds 8% for the pharmaceutical industry. This suggests the R&D orientation of the pharmaceutical industry, but on the other hand, in order to conduct sufficient R&D, it is important to ensure that the profitability of the pharmaceutical industry is higher than that of other industries. It is generally high.

Current status of new drug development

Until now, the characteristic of pharmaceuticals has been to analyze and research substances obtained by organic synthesis, fermentation, extraction from animals and plants, etc. to find the ingredients that are the basis of new drugs, but this method can be used to create new drugs. It was previously pointed out that there is a limit. Therefore, nowGenome projectOf humans analyzed bygeneThe mainstream is to research and develop new drugs by applying biotechnology based on information.

In addition, it is considered that such genetic information is useful for medical treatment in new fields such as gene therapy and regenerative medicine, and at present, a practical therapeutic method is being established.

Pharmaceutical company

Even on a global scale, there are various companies in each country, such as companies based on traditional medicine, and companies that were born after World War II. However, in recent years, the pharmaceutical industry has undergone a major reorganization around the world, and major European and American companies have fought over the world, and some Japanese companies are being acquired by these Western companies.

In response to such a situation, large-scale reorganization of companies is underway in Japan as well, in order to compete with Westerners.Among them, the movement that can be called "disease separation" is conspicuous, and until then, many manufacturers handled both medical (hospital medicine) and over-the-counter medicine, but medical companies and over-the-counter medicine companies. The case of dividing is conspicuous (Yamanouchi PharmaceuticalとFujisawa Pharmaceutical→Astellas Pharma(For medical use)Zepharma(Over-the-counter medicine, nowDaiichi Sankyo Health Care),SankyoとDaiichi Pharmaceutical→Daiichi Sankyo(Medical) and Daiichi Sankyo Healthcare (over-the-counter drug),Chugai Pharmaceutical→ Over-the-counter drug departmentLionTransferred toTakeda Pharmaceutical→ Takeda Consumer Healthcare (currently)Arinamin Pharmaceutical) As divided, etc.).

Pharmaceutical companiesPatentYou can make a profit from your income,BlockbusterIt is possible to monopolize the market if it succeeds in development. However, research and development requires huge amount of money,Drug priceRevisions made it difficult to recover development costs, and the patents on drugs that had become a pillar of earnings before developing new drugs expired.Generic drugThere are many cases in which management goes bad[6].

Regulatory body

Sales and marketing

Sales channels to medical personnel

Sales channels to general consumers

Pharmaceuticals in Japan

decree

The pharmaceutical industryJapan OfPharmaceuticals and medical devices lawAbove isPharmaceutical manufacturing industryIt is classified into the above, and it is necessary to obtain approval from the pharmaceutical manufacturing industry when manufacturing pharmaceutical products. In addition, when marketing manufactured drugs, it is necessary to obtain a license for the drug manufacturing and sales business.

History of Japanese pharmaceutical industry

The Japanese pharmaceutical industry has a long history,Nara periodAlso served as a relief facility for the poorPharmacyIs made,ShosoinHowever, there are still drugs that were said to have been imported from the Chinese dynasty at the time. But at this timeMedicinal herbWas the center of the medicine, so should I just take it?Crude drugIt is thought that it was an era when it was something to cultivate rather than to create medicine. Even today, herbs areFolk remediesIt is also used in medicine and is used as a raw material for medicines, and in a broad sense it is familiar with pharmaceuticals.

ContinueHeian periodThe medicinal herbs occupy the center of the medicine even after entering, so to speak, the medicinal herb era will continue for a long time. By this time imported booksHerbal medicineThe introduction of knowledge onMedical mindWas compiled, but the specific drug (combined drug) is created in JapanKamakura PeriodAfter that.

From the Kamakura periodMuromachi Period,Azuchi-Momoyama PeriodIs the era of war, and the shrine that was helping the poor from war was the main agent of pharmaceuticals,Todaiji Temple"Kiomaru"Saidaiji Temple"Toshinshintan" etc. are made. Also in individual homesFamily medicineIt is assumedJapanese and Chinese medicineIt was from the Kamakura period that it began to be created. There are "Sankogan" and "Utsu's elixir" as family medicines created at that time, and Sankogan is made.Sankomaru Main StoreIs the oldest pharmaceutical company in Japan that continues from the Kamakura period.Utsu SeimeimaruDespite changing the name, this is also a pharmaceutical company that has continued since the Azuchi-Momoyama period.

The drug that was created in small household units came to be created nationwideEdo PeriodTo be taken from. In the Edo period, Japanese herbs were mainlyHerbal medicineHas spread andHerbalismAlso develops. Demand and manufacturing of medicines increased due to population increase and development of distribution network. Around this timePurple cloud,Medium plaster,Seven clothes,Ryukakusan,Hiya Kyomaru,XNUMX poisonsSuch a drug is made. Still continuesNanafuku PharmaceuticalAnd Ryukakusan,Hiya PharmaceuticalUses the drug of the same name as the beginning of its founding.

It was from the Edo period that the pharmaceutical industry developed as a commerce, and each country made its own medicine.Drug dealerIn OsakaDosho TownGathered inStock companyIt was established as one of the two) and took over the distribution of imported Chinese herbs, and flourished as the center of the Japanese pharmaceutical industry. Dosho-cho is still known as the "medicinal town," with the headquarters of major pharmaceutical manufacturers lined up. Headquarters is (or was) located hereTakeda Pharmaceutical,Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma,Shionogi Pharmaceutical,Ono Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.Such a manufacturer is a long-established major manufacturer that has continued since this time.

Also represented by Toyama drug salesPlacement sales businessIt has spread rapidly all over the country since this time. In addition to Toyama drug sales,YamatoDrug sales,OmiDrug sales,Tashiro drugIs famous and has roots in TashiroHisamitsu PharmaceuticalAnd the roots of Omi drugTakeda Teva PharmaceuticalThere are many manufacturers whose roots are the placement sales business.

After that, after the middle of the Edo periodDutch studiesIs introduced,Dismantling new bookMany Western medical books represented byVocational school,Narutaki Cram SchoolSuch asprivate schoolHas been opened in various places,Western medicineKnowledge will come in.

Meiji RestorationAfter that, I actively tried to introduce Western medicine, established a pharmaceutical department,Japanese PharmacopoeiaThe establishment and administration of the pharmaceutical system has started. However, until that time, imports and sales of drugs were the main focus,World War IIf the import of drugs is disrupted in Japan, it will be an urgent task to domestically manufacture the drug from a military perspective, and as a result, new drug manufacturers will be established one after another in Dosho Town.aspirinThe pharmaceutical industry in Japan has started modern development based on synthetic chemistry.

However, in the modern sense, the development of the pharmaceutical industry wasSecond World WarAfter that,InfectionIt was an epoch-making antibiotic effective againstpenicillinAndtuberculosisIs a silver bulletstreptomycinThe domestic production is the beginning. Penicillin and streptomycin are not chemically synthesized,cultureBecause it was a drug mass-produced byfermentation-brewingFood manufacturers with technology play a major role, and many manufacturers still carry out pharmaceutical business.Meiji Confectionery,Kyowa Hakko KirinIs a typical example.

after that,1961 Was introduced inUniversal insurance systemWill make it easier for the public to receive medical treatment at medical institutions andprescriptionNeedPrescription drugDemand grows and grows rapidly. Until thenOver-the-counter medicineSales of (OTC drugs) were the mainstream, but in the 1960s, pharmaceutical industry and medical institutions introduced technological innovations, introduced new technologies, and strengthened sales promotion. In the early 1970s, it had grown to a 1 trillion yen industry, contributing to the development of the pharmaceutical industry to date.

Japanese pharmaceutical company

The sales volume of Japanese pharmaceutical companies remains relatively low compared to global companies. For example, Takeda Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., which boasts the largest sales in Japan, is not in the top 10 on a global scale. This is because the number of Japanese pharmaceutical companies exceeds 2,000 and the top concentration of sales is low due to its wide base, and R&D expenses are relatively low, and there are few new drugs worldwide. However, due to the active expansion and acquisition of foreign-affiliated manufacturers in Japan, it is an urgent task to strengthen the international competitiveness and capital of domestic-affiliated manufacturers, and large-scale mergers are continuing. ..

Japanese industry association

statistics

Pharmaceutical Company Sales Ranking (World Market)

The data is Cegedim Strategic Data Co., Ltd. (CSD official) Listed the top 20 companies based on a survey and announcement by the Ute Brain Division.

All exchange rates are converted at the end of December/YoY changes are based on the closing currency. In principle, sales of ethical drugs, contrast agents, vaccines, and royalties are totaled. Details Undisclosed manufacturers include OTC and diagnostics. Japanese manufacturers other than Chugai are the figures for the fiscal year ending March. Japanese translation of "Teva Pharmaceutical Industries"

2011 Pharmaceutical Manufacturer Sales Ranking (World Market)
RankingManufacture nameHeadquarters countrySales (million dollars)
1PfizerUnited States flag The United States of America57,747
2NovartisSwiss flag スイス47,925
3Merck (MSD)United States flag The United States of America41,289
4SanofiFrench flag France40,607
5RocheSwiss flag スイス36,439
6GlaxoSmithKlineBritish flag The United Kingdom34,293
7AstraZenecaBritish flag The United Kingdom32,981
8Johnson & JohnsonUnited States flag The United States of America24,368
9Eli LillyUnited States flag The United States of America22,608
10Abbott LaboratoriesUnited States flag The United States of America22,435
11Bristol-Myers SquibbUnited States flag The United States of America21,244
12Takeda PharmaceuticalJapanese flag Japan17,556
13Teva Pharmaceutical IndustryIsraeli flag イ ス ラ エ ル16,689
14AmgenUnited States flag The United States of America15,582
15Boehringer IngelheimGerman flag Germany13,976
16Bayer HealthcareGerman flag Germany13,774
17Astellas PharmaJapanese flag Japan12,523
18Novo Nordisk ãƒ‡ãƒ³ãƒžãƒ¼ã‚¯11,557
19Daiichi SankyoJapanese flag Japan11,535
20Otsuka HoldingsJapanese flag Japan10,106

Pharmaceutical Company Sales Ranking (Japan Market)

Data is from IMS Japan (IMS official), domestic top line market data, 2012 pharmaceutical market statistics-lists the top 20 companies based on sales data.

The sales amount is aggregated at the distributor level (Distributor level).

2012 Pharmaceutical Manufacturer Sales Ranking (Japan Market)
RankingManufacture nameGlobal Headquarters CountrySales (millions of yen)
1Takeda PharmaceuticalJapanese flag Japan712,715
2Astellas PharmaJapanese flag Japan646,254
3Daiichi SankyoJapanese flag Japan516,170
4Mitsubishi Tanabe PharmaJapanese flag Japan406,899
5Chugai Pharmaceutical (Roche Group)Swiss flag スイス398,973
6Merck (MSD)United States flag The United States of America394,971
7NovartisSwiss flag スイス390,058
8EisaiJapanese flag Japan350,429
9PfizerUnited States flag The United States of America335,899
10GlaxoSmithKlineBritish flag The United Kingdom309,775
11Otsuka PharmaceuticalJapanese flag Japan273,723
12SanofiFrench flag France271,380
13Kyowa Hakko KirinJapanese flag Japan233,358
14AstraZenecaBritish flag The United Kingdom226,034
15Sumitomo Dainippon PharmaJapanese flag Japan201,625
16Shionogi PharmaceuticalJapanese flag Japan192,888
17Bayer drugGerman flag Germany189,776
18Japan Eli LillyUnited States flag The United States of America185,002
19Ono Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.Japanese flag Japan165,008
20Abbott JapanUnited States flag The United States of America139,490

footnote

  1. ^ Health at a Glance 2013 (Report). OECD. (2013-11-21). Pp. 104-105. two:10.1787 / health_glance-2013-en. ISBN 978-92-64-205024. 
  2. ^ John L. McGuire, Horst Hasskarl, Gerd Bode, Ingrid Klingmann, Manuel Zahn "Pharmaceuticals, General Survey" Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology" Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2007. two:10.1002 / 14356007.a19_273.pub2
  3. ^ a b c Atsushi Tachibana eds. "Pharmaceutical Science and Medicinal Chemistry" Kagaku Dojin, 2007, p.3
  4. ^ a b Atsushi Tachibana eds. "Pharmaceutical Science and Medicinal Chemistry" Kagaku Dojin, 2007, p.4
  5. ^ a b Atsushi Tachibana eds. "Pharmaceutical Science and Medicinal Chemistry" Kagaku Dojin, 2007, p.5
  6. ^ A large number of major pharmaceutical companies are recruiting for early retirement. - NHK[Broken link]

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