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🏥 | It goes well with cocoa!6 recipes for using "ginger mirin" to help prevent diabetes


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It goes well with cocoa!6 recipes for using "ginger mirin" to help prevent diabetes

 
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Vitamin B1 of pork enhances the fatigue recovery effect when taken with mirin.
 

Simply boil "ginger", which is widely known for its warming effect, and "mirin", which suppresses the rise in blood sugar levels. → Continue reading

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Thiamin

Thiamin(British: thiamin, thiamine) IsVitamin B1(British: vitamin B1),vitaminamongWater soluble vitaminsIt is a physiologically active substance classified into.NutrientsOne of. other than this,Thiamin,AnoylinAlso called.

In Japan in 1910Umetaro SuzukiWas extracted from rice bran and named averic acid. It was found that the cause of the "acid" of averic acid was that the nicotinic acid contained in the ingredient actually came from the weak acidity, and the ingredient with a pure anti-beriberi effect excluding the ingredient was changed to oryzan in 1912. Announcement.

CarbohydrateAnd branchfatty acidUsed in the metabolism ofberiberiCauses symptoms such as and.yeast,豚 肉,Germ,beansIt is contained in many kinds.

The coenzyme form isThiamine diphosphate(TPP).

Construction

The molecular formula is C12H17N4OS .

2-methyl-4-amino-5-hydroxymethylpyrimidine (PyrimidinePart, OPM, hexagonal part on the left half of the structural formula) and 4-amino-5-hydroxyethylthiazole (ThiazolePart, Th, pentagonal part in the right half of the structural formula)Methylene groupConnected through. In vivo, in each tissueThiamine pyrophosphate(Thiamin diphosphate). Thiamine diphosphate functions as a coenzyme for various enzymes in the living body. Thiamine triphosphate isSynaptic vesiclesAtacetylcholineIt is said to promote the release of erythrocytes and participate in neurotransmission.

Physiological activity

The blood concentration is usually 68.1±32.1 (ng/mL), and it is said that deficiency symptoms such as beriberi occur when it falls below 40 (ng/mL). The phosphate group is bonded to the hydroxy group (OH group) on the right side of the structural formula. There are thiamine monophosphate (TMP, thiamine monophosphate), thiamine diphosphate (TPP, thiamine pyrophosphate), and thiamine triphosphate (TTP, thiamine triphosphate) depending on the length of the phosphate to be bound.

Physical property

  • Molecular weight 300.81
  • Water soluble. Solubility increases with heating.
  • Insoluble in alcohol.
  • colorless.
  • Decomposes easily under alkaline conditions.
  • Stable under mildly acidic conditions.

CAS number 59-43-8

Foods containing a lot

yeastIt is,Alcohol fermentationByPyruvateDecarbonateethanolCan generatePyruvate dehydrogenase(EC 1.2.4.1)ofCofactorIt is possible to synthesize thiamin which is a self-retaining substance, and at the same time, it is possible to absorb thiamin existing in the medium and accumulate it in cells. Depending on the species, up to 10% of its dry weight can accumulate thiamin[3].Sake leesContains yeast, and therefore contains thiamine.

Precautions when ingesting

The daily requirement is 1 mg for adult men and 1.1 mg for adult women. In addition, 0.8 mg/1,000 kcal of ingested energy is required.

About half to one-third of the total amount contained in food is lost during cooking. It is water-soluble and will be washed away when food is exposed to water. If you use boiled or boiled soup, you can recover the amount that has been washed away from the ingredients. When polishing rice, do it quickly and with a small amount of water,Unwashed rice-Barley rice-brown riceAlternatively, use enhanced rice.

As the decomposition progresses under alkaline conditions,baking sodaWhen used for cooking, it will be decomposed.garlicincludeAllicinCombined withAlithiaminThen the absorption efficiency will improve (see detailsgarlicchecking).

The demands increase considerably due to intense exertion and the development of debilitating diseases. On the other hand, intake of lipids reduces the demand a little. The amount that can be stored in the body is small and the absorption efficiency is not high. Absorption efficiency may be further reduced when the gastrointestinal tract is weakened, such as beriberi during progression. In such cases, it is recommended to take a high absorption vitamin B1 derivative. Even if it is ingested excessively, it is excreted promptly, so there is no problem.

Deficiency

Anoilinase

Anoilinase (=Thiaminase) Breaks down vitamin B1酵素Is. Anoilinase isBracken,spring,Koi,Crucian carpSuch asFreshwater fishInternal organs of theclamIncluded in. Also, when heated, this enzyme is usually inactivated. It is said that there are several percent of humans who carry anoillinase-producing anoillinase bacteria as enterobacteria. However, even if you carry this bacterium,beriberiAlmost no subjective or objective symptoms of[5].

Excess disease

Disorders in long-term, high-dose administration are currently unknown. Excessively taken thiamin is promptly excreted in urine.

Biochemistry

Thiamine pyrophosphokinase (EC 2.7.6.2) Is converted to thiamine diphosphate.

EC 2.7.6.2 ATP + thiamine = AMP + thiamine diphosphate

Thiamine diphosphate is a thiamine diphosphate kinase (EC 2.7.4.15) Is converted into thiamine triphosphate.

EC 2.7.4.15 ATP + thiamine diphosphate = ADP + thiamine triphosphate

Physiological activity

Thiamine diphosphate functions in vivo as a coenzyme for various enzymes and as a carrier for aldehyde group transfer.

For example,TCA cycleInvolved in an important reaction at the entrance of the. The TCA cycle is a pathway that metabolizes carbohydrates in cells and synthesizes ATP, which is said to be an energy storage form in vivo.GlycolysisOccurred inPyruvateDecarbonateAcetyl CoAConvert toPyruvate dehydrogenase complexInvolved in the reaction (EC 1.2.4.1, EC 1.8.1.4, EC 2.3.1.12 trienzyme complex).

pyruvate + CoA + NAD+ = CO2 + acetyl-CoA + NADH + H+

EC 1.2.4.1 pyruvate + [dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase] lipoyllysine = [dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase] S-acetyldihydrolipoyllysine + CO2
EC 1.8.1.4 protein N6-(Dihydrolipoyl) lysine + NAD+ = protein N6-(lipoyl) lysine + NADH + H+
EC 2.3.1.12 CoA + enzyme N6-(S-acetyldihydrolipoyl) lysine = acetyl-CoA + enzyme N6-(Dihydrolipoyl) lysine

Of the reactions catalyzed by EC 1.2.4.1,Pyruvate (CH3COXNUMX from COCOOH2) Withdrawal (DecarbonationIn the reaction), it plays an important role as a coenzyme.

Ingestion of lipids reduces thiamin requirement, which is due to β-oxidation of lipids to synthesize acetyl-CoA, which bypasses the above reaction and is supplied to the TCA cycle, resulting in a rotational rate of the above reaction. Because it falls. Similarly, increased exertion and debilitating illness increase demands because the TCA cycle turns faster in response to increased ATP consumption in the body.

Pentose phosphate pathwayAlso by transketolaseNADPHAndDeoxyribose,RiboseIs involved in the production of pentoses. It is also involved in the decomposition of alcohol. Its antineuritic effect is known, but the mechanism of action is unknown.

Research

Japanese Pharmacological SocietyIn the journalnicotineAntagonism has been reported[6][7][8][9][10][11][12].. In experiments on the human body,smokingGeneral symptoms of time (pallor of the face,nausea,vomiting,Tremor, Respiratory distress, palpitations, etc.) have been significantly reduced.[13].

footnote

  1. ^ American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. “Thiamine Hydrochloride”. Drugsite Trust (Drugs.com). NovemberBrowse.
  2. ^ "Office of Dietary Supplements-Thiamin". ods.od.nih.gov (September 2016, 2). NovemberBrowse.
  3. ^ Akio Iwashima,Accumulation of vitamin B1 by yeast"Chemistry and Biology" Vol.27 (1989) No.12 P779-786, two:10.1271 / kagakutoseibutsu1962.27.779
  4. ^ Hiroyuki Sakima, Kei Kei, Yasuhiro Ichikawa and othersA Case of Remarkable Pulmonary Hypertension Due to Vitamin B1 Deficiency ``The Japanese Journal of Pediatric Cardiology,'' Vol.29 (2013) No.6 p.352-356, two:10.9794 / jspccs.29.352
  5. ^ Makoto Matsuda,Kanehiro Takagi and his critics: Japan's first medical debate on the cause of beriberi Kanehiro Takagi 2007 p.164-200, NCID BA86477780
  6. ^ Iwao Yamamoto; Heitaro Iwata; Yasuo Tamori; Masami Hirayama "First Report on Nicotine Antagonism of Vitamin B1" "Journal of Pharmacology, Japan" Vol. 1, No. 52, Japanese Pharmacological Society, 3.two:10.1254 / fpj.52.429. 
  7. ^ Iwao Yamamoto; Heitaro Iwata; Yasuo Tamori; Masami Hirayama "First Report on Nicotine Antagonism of Vitamin B1" "Journal of Pharmacology, Japan" Vol. 2, No. 53, Japanese Pharmacological Society, 2.two:10.1254 / fpj.53.307. 
  8. ^ Yasuo Tamori "Study on Nicotine Antagonism of Thiamine", Journal of Japanese Pharmacology, Vol. 54, No. 3, Japanese Pharmacological Society, 1958.two:10.1254 / fpj.54.571. 
  9. ^ Iwao Yamamoto; Reizo Inoki; Koji Mizoguchi; Akira Tsujimoto "Study on Nicotine Relationship between Nicotine and Thiamine in Pyruvate Oxidation", Journal of Japanese Pharmacology, Vol. 58, No. 2, Japanese Pharmacological Society, 1962.two:10.1254 / fpj.58.120. 
  10. ^ Kihei Otori "Study on Nicotine On Antagonists for Lethality and Convulsions by Nicotine", Journal of Japanese Pharmacology, Vol. 60, No. 6, Japanese Pharmacological Society, 1964.two:10.1254 / fpj.60.573. 
  11. ^ Heitaro Iwata; Akira Inoue "Antagonism between Nicotine and Thiamine and their derivatives in guinea pig atrial specimens", Journal of Japanese Pharmacology, Vol. 64, No. 2, Japanese Pharmacological Society, 1968.two:10.1254 / fpj.64.46. 
  12. ^ Heitaro Iwata; Akira Inoue, "The Role of Thiamine in Neural Function," Journal of Japanese Pharmacology, Vol. 68, No. 1, Japanese Pharmacological Society, p. 3, 1972.two:10.1254 / fpj.68.1. 
  13. ^ Yasuo Tamori "Study on Nicotine Antagonism of Thiamine", Journal of Japanese Pharmacology, Vol. 54, No. 3, Japanese Pharmacological Society, p. 578, 1958.two:10.1254 / fpj.54.571. 

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