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In order to support the securing of income in old age, the number of voluntary applications such as iDeCo (Individual Defined Contribution Pension), which is said to be another pension, is increasing.
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Defined contribution pension
Defined contribution pension(DC: Defined Contribution Plan) IsDefined contribution pension lawBased onPrivate pension.2001/(Heisei(13 years) The operation of stakes started on October 10st. "Japanese version401 kIs also said,Japanese pensionInstitutionally, it is positioned on the top third floor.
In the active era, the subscriber specifies and pays the premium amount (ContributionThat's right)OperationThe total amount of the results of doingReceiptPaid as an amount. Benefits include old-age benefits, disability benefits, and lump-sum death benefits, and due to their nature, future benefits are undetermined and fluctuating.
As a companionDefined benefit pensionThere is. This is a pension plan in which the participants determine the target amount of retirement benefits in old age during the active age, and pay a premium in the active age that is calculated back from the future amount of benefits. In other words, it is a pension in which the amount of retirement benefits is fixed in advance.
|National pension(1st floor)|
|No. 1 insured||1,575 million people|
|No. 2 insured||4,266 million people|
|No. 3 insured||889 million people|
|Employee pension (2nd floor)|
|Welfare pension insurance||4,267 million people|
|Civil servants, etc.||(426 people)|
|Other optional pensions|
|National Pension Fund / Defined contribution pension(401k)|
/ Defined benefit pension / Employees' pension fund
In this article,Defined contribution pension lawAs for, only the number of articles is indicated.
The purpose of the defined contribution pension law isLow birthrate and aging populationIn light of changes in socio-economic conditions, such as the development of theOperate instructions at your own risk, In order to be able to receive benefits based on the results in old age, determine the necessary matters for the defined contribution pension plan and secure the income of the people in old ageVoluntary effortsTo supportPublic pensionOf people's livelihoods and improvement of welfare in combination with the benefits ofThe purpose is to contribute to (Article 1). The characteristic is that the pension amount is determined according to the profit or loss as a result of the operation instruction of the pension assets by the member. Pension assets are divided by individual,BalanceUnderstandingCareer changeEasily transfer assets over time. The advantage from the business owner's side is that once the premium is fixed, the benefit amount depends on the operation of the subscriber, so complicated actuarial calculations are not required. Also, if you calculate the cost at the time of contributiondebtThere is no need to worry.
If the agreement is established between the company and the labor union, it can be implemented from the date specified in the agreement. The size of the company at that time does not matter. There are two types of "individual pension" in which the individual pays the individual contribution, and "corporate pension" in which the enterprise pays the contribution (Article 2). The premium can be freely decided, but there is an upper limit. The contributions are subject to loss or income deduction.
Although it has the same ultimate purpose as the defined benefit corporate pension, there are differences in the arrangements and methods for achieving the objective.Employee pensionSince it is not limited to the insured person, it is different in that the expression "individual" is used.
Specified non-profit corporation2001/(13)May 10Since the Defined Contribution Pension Law was enacted in, every year on October 10st,Defined contribution pension dayAsInstituteJapan Anniversary AssociationRegistered for an anniversary.. The association regularly conducts surveys and seminars on defined contribution pension plans.
Nickname TheiDeCo(Ideco,individual-type DeINED Contribution pention plan)[Note 1].. The characteristic of the individual type here is that "the individual pays the premium". As of the end of March 2020, the number of subscribers is 3 million, which is increasing..
- To qualify,National pensionNo. 1 insured (low income andWelfare(Excluding those who are exempted from national pension insurance because they are receiving insurance), No. 3 insured, under 60 years oldWelfare pension insuranceInsured (in the case of a person who works at a business establishment that carries out the corporate DC described below, it is limited to the case specified in the agreement) (Article 62, paragraph 1).
- National pension No. 1 insured,Basic disability pensionThose who are entitled to such insurance, facility residents, etc. can join even if they are exempt from the insurance premium.
- In either caseParticipants themselves contribute in full(Article 68). From 30, it is decided that contributions will be made at least once a year on a regular basis, and it is only necessary to divide a certain period (individual-type contribution contribution unit period) not every month and make contributions for each division. .. Note that so-called "prepayment" and "additional payments" cannot be made.
- For the first insured person of the national pension, the maximum premium is 1 yen per month. HoweverNational Pension FundSubscribe toAdditional insuranceIf the payment is made, the total amount will be the upper limit (Article 69). In case of National Pension No. 1 insured,No contributions can be made for months that have not paid the national pension premium..
- Under 60Welfare pension insuranceInsured subscribers areEmployees' pension fund,Defined benefit pensionIf there is no corporate DC or pension retirement benefit plan, the maximum monthly premium is 23,000 yen (27.6 yen per year). If only enterprise type DC is implemented, the upper limit of premium is 20,000 yen per month (24 yen per year) (the upper limit of business owner's contribution to enterprise type DC is 42 yen per year (35,000 yen per month). Only when specified). In the case of establishments that carry out either defined benefit pensions or pension payment retirement benefits, the upper limit of premiums is 12,000 yen per month (14.4 yen per year) (when using both corporate DC and defined contribution pension, corporate DC Limited to the case where the upper limit of the business owner's premium to 18.6 yen per year (15,500 yen per month) is set by the agreement). For civil servants, the maximum monthly premium is 12,000 yen (14.4 yen per year).
- Payment of premiums can be made through the employer, in which case the employer cannot refuse the employee's offer without due reason (Article 70, paragraphs 2 and 3).
- For the 3rd insured of the national pension, the upper limit of the premium is 23,000 yen (27.6 yen per year).
- Incidentally Farmer's pension fundHas a national subsidy system for insurance premiums of up to 1 yen per month, but the defined contribution pension plan does not have a national subsidy system for contributions.
- The minimum amount of the premium is 1 yen (2 yen a year) for all Nos. 3, 5,000, and 6 insured persons.
In addition, the federation has created the rules for individual pensions,Minister of Health, Labour and WelfareMust be approved. Also,National Pension Fund FederationAlso serves as an asset management organization (actually, the federation has outsourced asset management services to financial institutions, etc.). Operation management businessMust be entrusted to the operation management organization(Article 60).
The characteristic of the corporate type (Corporate-type defined contribution pension system) here is that "the company pays the premium" (the entire amount is paid by the employer).Employees can make additional contributions by using the matching contributions described below. As of the end of February 2020, the number of subscribers was 2 million and is on the rise..
- The implementing company isEmployees' pension business establishmentsLimited to. Employees (employee pension No. 60 insured person, welfare pension No. 60 insured person) whose business owner is under 65 years old (if it is continuously used from 1 years old, it can be extended to 4 years old by the agreement established by the company) Limited to) as a subscriber. A defined contribution pension plan and a defined benefit pension plan can be introduced together as long as the requirements are met.
- If a certain qualification is established as a requirement of the subscriber by the agreement, a person who does not have the qualification can not be a subscriber (Article 3, paragraph 3, item 6). Here, "certain qualifications" can be defined only for "certain occupations", "constant service period", "certain ages", and "desired persons" (August 13, 8 No. 21 issue).
- Employers are involved in corporate pensions under a labor-management agreementTermsMust be approved by the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare. The employer is an asset management agency (generallyTrust bank,Life insurance companyEtc.) and an asset management contract. It is arbitrary whether the operation management work is outsourced to an operation management organization, and the company may perform the operation management work by itself.
- From 30, it is decided that contributions will be made at least once a year on a regular basis, and it is only necessary to divide a certain period (corporate-type contribution contribution unit period) not every month and make contributions for each division. .. The upper limit of the premium is a company with either a welfare pension fund or a defined benefit pension,Private school mutual aid27,500 yen (15,500 yen for individual pension simultaneous enrollment) for subscribers, and 55,000 yen (35,000 yen for individual pension simultaneous enrollment) for companies with neither. Note that so-called "prepayment" and "additional payments" cannot be made.
- According to the rules, the employee contributes the premium in addition to the premium contributed by the company.Matching contributionCan. The amount of matching contributions is determined within the range of "within the amount of contributions by the company" and "within the total amount of corporate contributions and employee contributions within the statutory contribution limit."
- From May 30, small and medium-sized enterprises that do not have a corporate pension plan will be added to the contributions of employees who join iDeCo within the range of contribution limits, and You can now contribute premiums (Small and medium business owner premium payment system, Nicknamed "iDeCo+" (Ideco Plus)). Employee contributions, along with small and medium-sized business contributions, are paid to the National Pension Fund Federation through the employers.
- “Small and medium-sized enterprises” shall be business owners with 1 employees or less (employee pension No. 100 insured). Small and medium-sized business ownerFlat rateIn order to contribute, it is necessary to obtain the consent of the labor union etc. in advance.
- If the period used by the implementing business operator is less than 3 years, all or part of the individual managed assets of that person that corresponds to the business owner's premium can be returned to the business owner (return by the business owner) ). Conversely, if the employee has worked for three years or more, the employee's entitlement will occur even if there is no employee's burden or operational gain.
Simple enterprise type
From May 30, by establishing a system in which the establishment conditions are packaged to a certain extent, documents required at the time of establishment will be reduced, the establishment procedure will be eased, and the system operation will be less burdensome. , A new corporate pension with a simple system design for small and medium enterprises was established. The difference from the general corporate type is
- According to the agreement, only a certain range of people cannot be a subscriber(All Employees' Pension Pension No. 1 insured used by the said business owner must be members).
- How to calculate the business owner's contributionFlat rateLimited to.
- There is only one option for subscriber premium.
Institution responsible for the defined contribution pension plan
The following institutions are responsible for the operation of the defined contribution pension plan. One company can also serve as multiple institutions.
- Defined contribution pension management organization
- It provides services as a window for subscribers and makes arbitrage of benefits according to the request of the beneficiary. The person who will be the operation management organization must be registered by the competent minister. In the corporate type, the company that introduces the system can also serve as the operation management organization, but many companies outsource to financial institutions and specialized companies, and the number of other registrations remains small. On the other hand, in the individual type, it must be entrusted to an operation management organization. 2020 companies are registered as of April 4, 17.
- Operation related work: Selection of investment products, presentation of investment products, provision of information on investment products.
- The operation management organization or the business owner shall at least3 and over(One or more of themprincipalMust be secured) Must be selected and presented to subscribers and operation instructors. In addition, regarding the presented operation method, it is necessary to provide the prospect of profit, the possibility of loss, and other necessary information. From May 30, the upper limit for the presentation of operating methods was set at 5 or less (35 or more and 2 or less in the case of a simple enterprise type).
- Records-related work: Management of operation instructions, record keeping, arbitrage of benefits. In particular, it is also called record keeping business.
- It is common for an operation management organization to jointly invest to create a company that specializes in records-related work and outsource the record management work. Typical examples are JIS & T and NRK.
- At least the operation management organizationonce a year , The individual managed assets amount and other prescribed matters shall be notified to the subscriber.
- Operation related work: Selection of investment products, presentation of investment products, provision of information on investment products.
- Asset management agency
- Payment of premium from companies, Conservation work for the contributed assets. Receive the operation instruction/benefit decision from the operation management organization and execute it. It plays the role of separately managing corporate assets/individual assets and pension assets so that they are not diverted to corporate activities or seized in the event of bankruptcy or personal bankruptcy. Due to the restriction that the person who will be an asset management institution will be responsible for segregation management, it is limited to trust banks, welfare pension funds, corporate pension funds, life insurance companies, non-life insurance companies, and agricultural cooperative associations. Asset management contracts are obligatory in the corporate type. For the individual type, the federation also serves as an asset management organization.
- Management product provider
- Offer individual products for the subscriber to choose from. Deposits, investment trusts, insurance, etc. are offered, but only after being selected as an investment product by the operation management organization, they are presented to the subscriber as an investment option.
The subscriber manages the assets by giving operational instructions through the operation management organization. Most operation management organizations provide services that allow operation instructions on the Internet.
- Before starting contribution of premiums, specify which product and at what ratio the premiums will be distributed from the presented operation method (in the case of corporate type, it can be set in advance in the agreement).
- Allocation change
- Change the distribution specified in the distribution specification. It does not affect the assets held at the time of the change, and only the contributions made after the change month are reflected.
- Sell your current holdings and buy another product. The profit or loss on the product will be finalized by the sale.
- Old age benefits
- If you reach the age of 60 (you can raise the age to 65 according to the rules), you can apply for a fixed-term pension for 5 to 20 years or a lifetime pension, or a lump-sum payment as stipulated by the rules. Can be used together (Article 35). This is arbitrated by the operation management organization (Article 33, paragraph 3), and when the subscriber reaches the age of 70 without requesting payment, the arbitration is automatically performed (Article 34).
- If the age of qualification loss is set to the following ages, the total period required for subscribers according to that age (sum of corporate type and individual type) differs as follows (Article 33). In the calculation of the period of total subscribers, etc., the period after the month to which the day before the age of 60 belongs belongs to the period of total subscribers.
Unqualified age Required period for total subscribers, etc. Over 60 years of age less than 61 age 10/ Over 61 years of age less than 62 age 8/ Over 62 years of age less than 63 age 6/ Over 63 years of age less than 64 age 4/ Over 64 years of age less than 65 age 2/ Over 65 years old 1
- The entitlement will be terminated when the person becomes the beneficiary of the disability benefit or when the individual managed assets are gone, in addition to the death.
- Disability benefits
- From the date when the subscriber (was) the certification of injury due to injury or illness (in principle, 1 year and 6 months after the first visit) to the day before the age of 70, the injury or illness corresponds to the prescribed degree of injury. If you come to, you can request the payment to the operation management organization as a fixed or lifetime pension for more than 5 years (Article 37). The payment conditions are as follows, and one of them must be applicable.
- Recipient of disability basic pension
- Physical disability certificatePersons who have been granted (limited to persons from Level 1 to Level 3)
- Person who received grant of nursing certificate (limited to severe person)
- Person who received grant of mental health welfare notebook (only for the first grade and the second grade)
- Death allowance
- When a member (or was a member) dies, the survivor can receive the asset balance as a lump sum payment based on the ruling of the operation management organization (Article 40).
- Lump-sum withdrawal
- If you withdraw from the list, you can receive it as a lump sum by requesting it within two years from the date of disqualification. However, if the individual managed assets are over 2 yen and the total contribution period is over 25 months, it may not be possible to receive the lump-sum withdrawal payment. Also, the recipient of disability benefits cannot claim a lump-sum withdrawal payment.
Tax system for premiums
The right to receive benefits cannot be transferred, pledged or seized. However, this shall not apply if the right to receive old-age benefits and lump-sum death payment is seized by national tax delinquent disposition (including such disposition). Taxes and other public charges cannot be imposed as standard, with the money provided as disability benefits (Article 32).
The taxation on individual and corporate defined contribution pension contributions is as follows. The feature is that tax is exempted while it is being accumulated, and that it is taxed when the reserve is received.
When contribution is made
- In case of individual type,Income deduction(Credit deduction for small business mutual aid) Is targeted,income tax,Resident taxIs reduced.
- In case of corporate type, the total amount of premiumLossIt is included. And it is not considered to be employee salary. Matching contributions are subject to income deductions as well as individual contributions.
Operational income is tax-free.
In the case of corporate type, the tax is to be levied on the reserve fund, but the tax has been frozen from the beginning, and the freeze period has been repeatedly extended, and now the freeze is extended until at least March 2023. Has been done. There is also a discussion of abolition.
At the time of payment
The taxable subject varies depending on the receiving conditions. If taxable at the time of receipt, it will be subject to tax return.
- When receiving old-age benefits
- If you receive disability benefits,income tax,Resident taxBoth are tax exempt.
- If you receive a lump sum death allowance, consider it as inherited propertyinheritance taxSubject to tax. Tax exemption up to 500 million yen per legal heir.
- If you receive a lump-sum withdrawal payment,Temporary incomeIs taxed as.
Number of Subscribers
|season||Number of subscribers|
|season||Number of subscribers||Number of implementing business owners|
|March 2003||8.8 million people||1,318 companies|
|March 2004||32.5 million people||2,379 companies|
|March 2005||70.8 million people||4,350 companies|
|March 2006||125.5 million people||6,664 companies|
|March 2007||218.7 million people||8,667 companies|
|March 2008||271.1 million people||10,334 companies|
|March 2009||311.0 million people||11,706 companies|
|March 2010||340.4 million people||12,902 companies|
|March 2011||371.3 million people||14,628 companies|
|March 2012||421.8 million people||16,440 companies|
|March 2013||439.4 million people||17,328 companies|
|March 2014||464.2 million people||18,393 companies|
|March 2015||505.2 million people||19,832 companies|
|March 2016||548.2 million people||22,574 companies|
|March 2017||591.4 million people||26,228 companies|
|March 2018||648.1 million people||30,312 companies|
|March 2019||687.8 million people||33,138 companies|
- ^ The nickname was decided by public offering.individual-type DeINED CoDerived from the ntribution pention plan."Individual-type defined contribution pension system nickname recruitment campaign". 2016/9/16Browse.
- ^ "DC (=Defined Contribution Plan) means "contributory contribution type", but in Japan it is often used as an abbreviation for defined contribution pension (corporate pension, individual pension).". Federation of corporate pensions. 2009/4/25Browse.
- ^ "White Paper on Health, Labor and Welfare 30" Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, 2018, Documents .
- ^ With the unification of the employee pension system, public employees and private school faculty members also joined the welfare pension from October 2015, 10.In addition, the occupational addition portion of the mutual aid pension has been abolished, and a new retirement pension benefit has been created.However, for the period of participation in the mutual aid pension until September 1, 2015, the occupational area addition portion will be paid according to the participation period even after October 9.
- ^ We have established "Defined Contribution Pension Day (October 10)" and "NISA Day (February 1)".Defined Contribution Pension Education Association
- ^ a b (PDF)
- ^ a b Defined Contribution Pension Statistics | Statistics |
- ^ "List of registered operating management organizations". Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. 2011/11/19Browse.
- ^ (PDF)
- ^ "Enforcement status of defined contribution pension plan (updated monthly)". Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (September 2016, 8). 2016/10/26Browse.
- Japanese pension
- Employees' pension fund
- Defined benefit pension
- Corporate pension
- Private pension
- ESOP -Employee stock ownership system
- Social insurance laborer
- DC planner
- Asset management
- Investment trust
- Defined contribution pension plan -Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare
- iDeCo Official Website -National Pension Fund Association
- Regarding defined contribution pension --Corporate Pension Association
- NPO DC / iDeCo Association -Defined Contribution Pension Education Association
- iDeCo Portal --Japan Investor Solution and Technology