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🏥 | Juntendo University investigates the actual situation of sports doctors and activities that are indispensable in the field of sports


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Juntendo University investigates sports doctors and actual activities that are indispensable to sports sites

 
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Athletes supported were also at a wide range of competition levels, regardless of whether they were professional sports or amateur sports (Japanese representatives, business teams, youth, universities, high schools, elementary schools, etc.).
 

With the growing interest in sports in Japan and the improvement of international competitiveness, the role played by medical professionals in the field of sports is also ... → Continue reading

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amateur

amateur(British: amateur) Is a person who does arts, scholarship, sports, etc. as a hobby or an extra skill, not as a profession.[1]..Also known as an amateur or a lover.Often"FlaxIs abbreviated.The antonym isprofessional(Professional. A person who earns money)[1].

Overview

"Amateur"Latinof"amator"(= Lovers) is the etymology[2]..In sports, the claim that "what you play sports must be amateurs" or the claim that "sports should follow the amateur spirit"Amateur rhythmと 呼 ば れ る[3].

About distinguishing between professionals and amateursJapan Golf Association"We impose appropriate restrictions on amateurs who play purely against the challenge of golf, not for money, while ensuring that they do not violate the profession of professional golf players." The significance is sung[4].

Amateurs and amateurism have a history of playing an important role in the field of sports, but there are many other fields that are developing with the free participation of people.for example,Amateur radio ThewirelessContributed greatly to the technological development ofApplication softwareMade free of charge in the field ofFree softwareBut,Computer programHas contributed to the development of.In particular, the "bazaar method", in which software is developed in a way that many volunteers participate, is considered to be an excellent method.[5].

Other,Entomology-astronomyAmateurs have played a certain role in such fields as[6][7]..On the other hand, most amateurs "contempt the efforts of professionals and are selfish.RulesIt is also pointed out that academically it is nothing more than a "research pretend" because it "shakes"[8].

Amateur in sports

Instead of competing for rewards, enjoy sports as a hobbyPure loversIs called an amateur[2],That精神(Spirit) Is called amateurism.[2].

Sports that are based on amateurism and sports that are performed only by amateurs are called amateur sports.The antonym isProfessional sports.

Modern sports competitions have a history of being developed by amateurism. Started in 1896Modern olympicLimited qualifications to amateurs,Olympic charter"Amateur clause" was established.People were delighted to attend the tournament in the spirit of amateurism.It was generally inherited by the regulations of the Olympic committees of each country and by the International Federation (although there are some differences in interpretation).However, since 1945, due to the changing social situation and the improvement of the standard of sports, the situation has occurred that the traditional way of thinking of amateurism can not cope with it, and the sports world is finally moving toward easing amateur regulations. ,1962 TocricketAbolished amateur regulations,1968 For tennisWimbledon TournamentWas open to professionals[2].. Finally in 1974Olympic charterThe provisions regarding amateurs have also been deleted from the "Amateur Clause".

History

United Kingdom and America

In the 18th century British sports world, "gentlemanIs used as a synonym for amateur, and at that time it was said that "if you are not a gentleman, you are not an amateur."[2].. The word "amateur" was first introduced into sports in sports.1839 Of boat races made in EnglandHenry Royal RegattaIs[2]..The qualifications set by the Henry Royal Regatta in 1839 were the first amateur regulations in the world (although not codified).[2]..The regulation was first codified1866 British Athletics Championships[2].. (However, the content was to keep out not only those who make a living from sports but also all workers with professions from amateurs. In the UK, there is a strong class consciousness, "Sports are among upper class people. "What to do" was the (upper class) social convention at the time.[2].

However, the sea was sunkThe United States of AmericaThen,1868 Although the rules for participation in amateur competitions have been decided (the purpose is very different from that in the UK),Professional baseballCreation and development of, large prize moneygamblingThis is because corruption has progressed due to increased and rampant behavior, and it has become necessary to clarify the distinction between professional athletes and amateur athletes.In the United States (as in the United Kingdom) there was no content to exclude the working class[2].

In the UK as well, the social status of workers gradually improved, opening the way for workers to participate in sports, and sports becamePopularizationProceeded to[2].

Modern olympic

Modern olympic The1896 Athens OlympicsAlthough it started in, the qualifications for participation were limited to amateurs.International Olympic CommitteeIt is,1901 For the first time, we made a rule common to each sport, but the content is that those who fall under the following three are not recognized as amateurs.[2].

  1. Those who play for money
  2. Those who play with professionals
  3. Those who receive money as gymnastics teachers or trainers

When many people compete in sports, people with similar qualities tend to benefit from those who have been well trained over the years.Aristocrats紳士Because he has income from territories and does not have to spend time on labor to earn living expenses, he can spend a lot of time on training.

As mentioned above, the working class is now able to enjoy sports as an amateur, that is, as a hobby, but as people in the working class try to devote most of their day-to-day training to sports. This raises the question of how to get the living expenses needed to live (in the case of workers who do not have income from the territory).

Large-scale competitions in sports attract people's attention.Places of interest are usually used for advertising.National powers have focused on the Olympics and have come to use it as a place for national promotion.It is my soul to give the viewers the impression that the country (system) is superior by letting the players from their own country take the top ranks.Nazi GermanyIt is,1936 OfBerlin olympicThepropagandaUsed for the purpose of.

Second World WarLater,Soviet Socialist RepublicSuch asCommunismCountries (Eastern countries) Use the Olympics for promotional purposes and counter it,The United States of AmericaSuch as資本主義Countries (Western countries) Also came to do that.

In socialist countries, there is a need to compensate the lives of athletes, and the state trains athletes (providing a free living environment where they can concentrate solely on training).State amateur) Appeared in the United States奨 学 金Introducing athletes (scholarship amateurs) who are engaged in sports, even in many other capitalist countries.sponsor,CompanyAthletes used for promotion in return for the assistance of (the living environment and tools are prepared)commercial・ Amateur) was born[2].

For example, "State amateur"" Is a person who has been given enough environment by the state to concentrate on sports, and since he does not earn money during training period or while he is a competitor, he is "amateur" for the time being, but if he wins a medal Blessed more than the average person after retiring from a competitor in the futurepensionThere was another form of financial reward, such as being given.It is arguable whether state amateurs can be considered as an amateur category.Similarly, it remains arguable whether commercial amateurs fall into the amateur category (even if they don't get cash, they are actually paid in kind that can be converted into money).

Since 1945, due to the changing social situation and the "improvement of the standard" of sports (≈ quality and skill that requires an extraordinary amount of training), the traditional way of thinking of amateurism has become impossible to cope with.[2].. (In the Western world (capitalist countries), for sports competitions and athletesCommercialismThe erosion of was also intense. ) Finally, we are moving toward the relaxation of amateur regulations.1962 TocricketAbolished amateur regulations,1968 For tennisWimbledon TournamentWas open to professionals[2].

The IOC has been criticized by the West for State Ama, and because of the financial rewards that could be gained by having professional players participate.1974 ToAustriacapitalViennaThe 75rd held inInternational Olympic Committee General Assemblyso,Olympic charterRemoved the amateur clause from[9]With the aim of making the Olympics "open", it has become possible to participate regardless of whether it is an amateur or a professional, and some athletes have turned from amateurs to professionals, and some athletes have declared themselves to be professionals.

Amateur competition in Japan

As an element that has been the driving force behind Japanese sportsSchool sportsとCorporate sportsThere is.All of these were launched as amateur sports, but as with the Olympics, it is no longer possible to find meaning in being amateurs.Even at present, there is a way of understanding that these are amateur sports, but it ignores the definition of amateurs and the current state of school sports and corporate sports, and is a somewhat classical recognition and definition method.

School sports are sports that are carried out in high school and university athletic clubs.In particular, the latter has a history of playing a leading role in Japanese sports until corporate sports were established.In judo, there are cases where even athletes who have formally shifted to corporate sports are actually practicing in school sports such as their school of origin.Currently, these top players are admitted in the hope that they will play an active role in sports, and in return they are exempt from tuition and club fees.These are "sportsScholarship studentIt is called "institution", but this is an economic reward, and at this point it becomes "not an amateur".In particular, private school players are sometimes considered a type of state amateur.

Corporate sports started as clubs and circles within the company. Since the 1960s, national league games have been held.Corporate amateurA form called (or corporate amateur) was established, and it came to play a leading role in domestic sports in place of the university sports before that.Corporate amateur is a system that makes money from the company to which the company belongs, in the name of the welfare and health promotion of employees and staff, or the external advertising effect of the company.For example, even if you practice during working hours, or even if you are not engaged in the company business exclusively for sports activities, you can make them pay wages as if they were working, or pay money from the company for the maintenance of the gymnasium and the ground. It was a mechanism to let them do it.There is room for debate as to whether such corporate amateurs can be called "amateurs" as well as state amateurs.Sports activities by companies are justCorporate mecenatIt may be sorted out or abolished depending on the performance of the company or the overall recession.It can be assumed that the league itself can no longer exist.

The form of social sports in athletic clubs, sports clubs, etc., which occupy an important position in Western Europe, is in Japan.レ ク リ エ ー シ ョ ンIt is popular as a sport and lesson.Champion sports ・ It is the mainstream of this social sport to train top-level athletes.水 泳,Artistic swimming,Figure skating,gymnastics,GolfIt has been limited to some competitions. Since the 1990sJ LeagueActively recommended these forms of sports clubs.again,バ ブ ルIn the recessionary phase after the collapse, there have been cases where teams thrown out by companies due to economic judgment actively switch from corporate sports to social sports.Due to these circumstances, social sports are becoming more important in Japan as a third place for sports after existing school sports and corporate sports. In the J-League, it is obligatory to own teams by age group (youth, junior youth, junior), and there are other clubs that own women's teams and amateur teams.In addition, there are clubs that are embarking on the spread of a wide range of sports and training of players, not limited to soccer. J-League-led clubs already have a mechanism to earn income, so it is possible to spend money on players as far as the club's finances allow.In addition, other sports clubs are also funded by the commercial use of top-level athletes and by the club's own sponsorship.It is common with the J.League club to spend money on players within this range.In addition, the world of minor martial arts, minor martial arts and martial arts, excluding judo, wrestling and sumo, has long been practiced centered on social sports, including the training of top-level athletes.Although this social sport is regarded as a "true amateur", it is difficult for the poor to participate due to the large amount of money spent by themselves and their families, and the factors that cause discrimination in economic power in the sports world and "Sports aristocratic returnThere is a criticism that.

In Japan, all sports except baseball and boxing have different degrees, but it can be understood that the current situation is as described above.Top-level athletes are often no longer amateurs, but non-amateurs can compete in the Olympics and other international competitions.Also at domestic competitionsNational body,Inter High,Inter CollegeIs gradually being revised in the direction in which it is possible to participate.For this reason, there is no particular problem with being non-amateur, so there is no problem with the actual situation of the players.

baseball

In Japanese baseball,Japanese professional baseballCollectively other thanAmateur baseballIt is categorized into.This interpretation is a dualism of "all amateurs except professionals", and this definition of "amateur" is extremely peculiar compared to other sports.As for sports other than baseball, baseball has a great influence on the classical understanding that school and corporate sports are unconditionally amateurs.

This peculiarity is that the actual situation of the players (especially many of the top level) is not amateurhigh school baseball,College baseball,Adult baseballOften becomes a problem in[Note 1]..As for the actual situation of the players, even in these baseball games, there is no difference from the student sports and corporate sports of other sports.The very peculiarity of Japanese baseball lies in the fact that it completely ignores the reality of these players and claims to be "amateur" baseball, which claims that amateur baseball players are "amateur" to the last. It is something to do.For this reason, it is necessary to understand the actual situation and the tatemae separately.

Even more peculiar is that baseball does not belong to the organization that controls other sports (Takanoren TheHigh bodyToJapan Student Baseball Association TheJapan Athletic AssociationOther sports standards and trends are related to baseball because the organization for participating in external competitions and the organization for participating in domestic competitions are different. It doesn't apply at all. Japanese baseball already has its own rules regarding "amateur" regulationsLocal rulesAs already mentioned.Also, in other sports, the "non-amateur" state has been confirmed as a recent trend, but there are often times when amateur baseball in Japan is required to make a clear difference from professional baseball due to historical circumstances. There may be a sharp return to amateurism.

boxing

Boxing "professionals" and "amateurs" in Japan also have a unique personality.As a categorization[Need explanation]Japan Boxing Commission(JBC) andJapan Professional Boxing AssociationWhat (JPBA) is involved in is "professional boxing",Japan Boxing Federation(JABF) is referred to as "amateur boxing", but JBC / JPBA considers all competitions not related to the group to be "amateur", while JABF considers all competitions not related to the group to be "professional". ..However, in Japan, neither JBC / JPBA nor JABF is under the direct control of the competition group (The Father Fight, FormerJapan Women's Boxing AssociationEtc.), so there is a contradiction that they are included in both "professional" and "amateur" depending on the viewpoint from a third party.

In JBC / JPBA, "Professional boxerAthletes who have not received rewards for their activitiesBoxing gymThere are also companies that own and hire the athletes they belong to as "employees", and in reality it is said that "amateur" and "professional" in other sports are mixed.

Golf

For golfProfessional golferThere are amateur qualifications as well as qualifications asJapan Golf AssociationIs in control.Violations of amateur qualification rules, such as receiving rewards for golf, will result in loss of amateur qualification and become "neither professional nor amateur".[10].

Other than sports

Shogi

In shogi,Japan Shogi Federation,Japan Women's Professional Shogi AssociationBelong toPlayer,Female playerIs "professional" and the others are "amateur", and the right to participate in so-called amateur shogi competition is limited to the latter.However, aiming to be a professionalEncouragementIt is normal for a former encouragement member who entered but could not become a professional to participate in an amateur shogi tournament, or for top amateurs to participate in a professional shogi tournament (according to the rules unique to the shogi tournament).[11]..In the past, although he was not a member of the Shogi Federation, he made a living from betting shogi.Serious masterThere was also a profession called (There is an example of a serious teacher participating in an amateur shogi competition,Amateur MeijinThere is also a winner).Nowadays, the profession of a serious player has disappeared, and with the exception of some female players, professional players make a living through games and dissemination activities, and there are players who rely on side jobs and support from sponsors as before. Therefore, the line between professionals and amateurs has settled down to the classic classification of "professionals who receive rewards in the game, amateurs other than that" (because of the improved treatment of professional shogi players and the crackdown on betting shogi). "The situation will change in the direction of clarifying the line between professionals and amateurs," which is the opposite of sports).

However, clarifying the boundaries does not necessarily mean that the barrier between professionals and amateurs will be higher.81Dojo,Shogi Club 24With the spread of online shogi, it has become an environment where amateurs and professionals can play against each other, and an example of a promising amateur who has improved his skills with online shogi has entered the professional team.[12]Or, an example of encouraged members using online shogi as a place to practice[13]There is also.In addition, there are cases where top amateurs who participated in the amateur frame in professional shogi tournaments show a fight that is equal to or better than professional shogi players, as a special case.Seiji SegawaProfessional transfer exams are held, and evenProfessional transfer exams are institutionalizedHas reached.

Therefore, in the general interpretation as of November 2019, "Go players" and "Women's shogi players" who belong to the "Japan Shogi Association" or "Japan Women's Professional Shogi Association" are defined as "professionals".Paradoxically, others are "amateurs."Can be considered.

wireless

Wireless communicationAmateur radio stationDue to the historical background of wireless communication, which was pioneered and developed byInternational Telecommunication UnionBy the International Telecommunication Union CharterWireless communication rulesOr JapaneseRadio ActAlso in controlAmateur radioIs positioned,Frequency bandAndNational qualificationIsAmateur radio engineerbyWireless worker licenseThe system also exists separately from commercial business radio[14].

Radio ActIt is classified by action, as in "Amateur business".In other words, whether it is amateur radio or not is not personal.Wireless workersEven if you are a person who does ham radio as a profession, you can do amateur radio separately (if the qualification classification is accepted).

Amateur radioIs active in times of disaster, for example in JapanGreat Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake,Great East Japan EarthquakeIt plays an important role in emergency communications in the event of a large-scale disaster.

AndJapan Amateur Radio FederationBy (JARL)Emergency communicationSupport and activation of wireless activities in the category of hobbies[15].

Amateur code

The Japan Amateur Radio League (JARL) defines the following for "amateur".

  • Amateurs are good working people
  • Amateurs are healthy
  • Amateurs are kind
  • Amateurs are progressive
  • Amateurs are international

The above five items are proposed to amateur radio operators.

Related terms

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Japanese professional baseball(Independent League)one ofKansai Independent League (2nd generation)(Formerly BASEBALL FIRST LEAGUE)Hyogo Blue ThundersIsAshiya UniversityAthletes who are still in school belong to it.According to the definition of the Japanese baseball world, this is a "professional baseball player while being a college student", which causes friction between Ashiya Gakuen and the amateur baseball world.Ashiya GakuenThe baseball club is disconnected from the amateur baseball world. BFL itself is also the governing body of adult baseball.Japan Baseball FederationThere is no agreement on the match between the teams belonging to BFL, and it is impossible to play against the teams belonging to BFL and the adult teams / club teams.note that,Japan Baseball OrganizationAs for (NPB), about university students belonging to independent league baseball teams, "Professional baseball draft conferenceRegarding the treatment in, the status of "university student" has priority over the position of belonging to an independent league, and if there is no plan to graduate by the end of the next year, it will not be nominated. "Independent league / Hyogo baseball team challenge Regulation wall, exchange battle is not possible ...-Independent league / Hyogo baseball team challenge regulation wall, exchange battle is not possible ... Sankei Shimbun 2014.1.28).No matter how good a female amateur figure skating player is, she is a high school student and a college student until she gets tired of her status.

Source

  1. ^ a b Japanese Dictionary, Mentions in the World Encyclopedia, Daijibayashi. “What is an amateur?”(Japanese). Koto bank. 2020/6/10Browse.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Shogakukan "Encyclopedia Nipponica" "Amateurism"
  3. ^ Yasuhiro Nagai "About amateurism in sports"Shimane University Ronshu Educational Science" No. 14, Shimane University, February 1965, pp. 2-41.
  4. ^ "Rules of golf". www.jga.or.jp. 2020/6/10Browse.
  5. ^ Nikkei Cross Tech (xTECH). “Bazaar method”(Japanese). Nikkei Cross Tech (xTECH). 2020/6/10Browse.
  6. ^ Kawakami, Yasuko (2018-03-05) (Japanese), The role of amateurs in entomology, Entomological Society of Japan, two:10.20848 / kontyu.21.1_70, https://doi.org/10.20848/kontyu.21.1_70 2020/6/10Browse. 
  7. ^ Hiroyuki Tomioka (November 2018). “The trajectory of amateur astronomers”. Astronomical Monthly Report. 2020/6/9Browse.
  8. ^ ""Research Pretend" Q & A". www.hmt.u-toyama.ac.jp. 2020/6/10Browse.
  9. ^ Olympic Story Part 4 Ama and Pro <2004> Yomiuri Shimbun-January 1, 24
  10. ^ Amateur Qualification Rules Frequently Asked Questions (PDF) Retrieved March 2014, 3, Japan Golf Association.
  11. ^ There is a restriction that those who withdraw from the first stage of the encouragement society or above cannot return to the amateur shogi tournament sponsored or co-sponsored by the Japan Shogi Association for one year.
  12. ^ The first foreign female shogi player in history, Karolina female second grade. Learn about shogi at NARUTO and hone your skills with online shogi [Carolina Women's Class 2 Introduction Part XNUMX] Japan Shogi Federation, July 2017, 3 (viewed March 1, 2017).
  13. ^ Document Souta Fujii XNUMXth Dan-How was the youngest Go player in history born? My Navi Publishing, July 2016, 12 (viewed March 21, 2017).
  14. ^ However,JapanLike commercialWireless workersIn some countries, qualifications allow amateur work.
  15. ^ "JARL official website". 2011/10/30Browse.

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