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🏥 | A family member asked a person who had been treated at home due to a corona infection, could the room be isolated?


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A family member asked a person who had been treated at home for a corona infection, could the room be isolated?

 
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Next, for 1,040 men and women who have suffered from the new coronavirus and have lived with other family members during home medical treatment, regarding "the problems of living felt by the family members suffering from infectious diseases". A survey (survey period: November 2021, 11 to December 30, 12) was conducted.
 

Misawa Homes announced on May 5 the results of a survey on "changes in consciousness that occurred in consumers through the corona disaster."Key ... → Continue reading

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If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

    Survey (Survey period: November 2021th to December 11th, 30)

    Infection

    Infection(Infectious disease,English: Infectious disease,Spanish: Infection) IsinfectionTosickIs a general term forParasite-Bacteria-Fungus-ウ イ ル ス-Abnormal prionSuch asPathogenBy infectionHostA general term for diseases that occur in.

    Infectious diseasemicroorganismHas invaded,ProliferationIt happens by doing[1].

    Infectious diseases that are contagious (the disease is transmitted from humans and animals to other humans and animals one after another)EpidemicInfectious diseases that are outbreaks and are prevalentDiseaseSay.Also known as a pandemic, a pandemic, or a pandemic (both pandemic, pandemic, and pandemic).

    History of infectious diseases TheBiology With the outbreak ofPrehistoricFrom (prehistoric) to modern timesHuman capitalHas accounted for the majority of illnesses.Medical historyIt is no exaggeration to say that has begun in the history of infectious diseases.The era when there was no radical cure throughout human history is overwhelmingly long, and infectious diseases are large.disasterHas been caught.Descriptions of epidemics frequently appear in ancient, modern, eastern and western history books.PlagueIt is said that the pandemic killed about a fraction of the European population and changed the way human civilization was, and it was a pandemic all over the world in the early 1th century.Spanish coldIt is estimated that more than 1 million people have died, which has affected the world situation.

    1929/Finally the first Western medicineAntibioticsIspenicillinWas invented, but only a small proportion of infectious diseases can be treated with such antibiotics.

    In modern times,Developing countriesThen especially the three major infectious diseases[2]と 呼 ば れ るmalaria-tuberculosis-AIDSIntestinal infectious diseases are a big problem, not only in infectious diseasesHealth science-Development StudiesMultidisciplinary measures are an urgent issue. In 2013, infectious diseases killed 920 million people worldwide, accounting for about 17% of all deaths.[3]..On the other hand, in developed countriesEmerging infectious disease-Revival infectious diseaseに 加 え て,Multidrug resistanceInfestationBioterrorismThreatpublic healthWhile attracting attention as a major issue above, in patients after surgery and immunosuppressed patients with the development of advanced medical careOpportunistic infectionIt could not be said that the solution was still being reached on a daily basis, such as the increase in the number of people.Furthermore, 2019 (~ 2021)Pandemic of New Coronavirus Infection (2019-)In both developed and developing countries, a large number of people continue to be infected and die (as of May 2021, 5, the total number of infected people worldwide is 29 million and the number of deaths exceeds 1.72 million.[4]It is estimated that. ).

    The medical field for infectious diseasesInfectious diseaseIs[5].

    Many infectious diseases do not have effective treatments, but currently, the medicines used to treat infectious diseases areAntibiotics,Antiviral drug,Antifungal drug,Antiprotozoal,Anthelminticand so on.vaccinepreventionThere are some infectious diseases that can occur, but many have not succeeded in developing vaccines.

    Sort

    Classification by infection location

    Central nervous system such as the brain
    Meningitis,encephalitisな ど
    face
    rhinitis,Sinusitis,Sore throat,,Such
    first
    Epiglottitis,Retropharyngeal abscess,Subacute thyroiditis,Lemierre's syndromeな ど
    Lungs and bronchi
    pneumonia,bronchitis,tuberculosisな ど
    Heart / blood vessels
    Infective endocarditis,Myocarditis,septicemiaな ど
    Abdomen / digestive system
    Cholecystitis,cholangitis,hepatitis,Liver abscess,Pancreatitis,gastritis-Stomach ulcer,Enteritis,appendicitis,Liliopsoas abscess,ChlamydiaPerihepatitisな ど
    Urinary system
    Pyelonephritis,Cystitis,Prostatitis,vaginitis,Such
    皮膚
    Cellulitis,Gas gangrene,(theory),(Yeah),Infectious impetigo(Tobihi),Staphylococcal burn-like skin syndrome,Herpes zoster,Varieg,measles,rubella,SkinRingworm,scabiesな ど
    Joints, muscles, bones
    Infectious arthritis,Osteomyelitis,Myositis,Spine cariesな ど
    Lymph node
    Lymphadenitis
    Oral cavity
    Periodontitis,Caries,Peri-implantitisな ど

    Classification by type of pathogen

    EubacteriaInfection
    Streptococcus(Group A β hemolytic streptococcus,PneumococcusSuch),Staphylococcus aureus(Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA),Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA)),Staphylococcus epidermidis,Enterococcus,Listeria,Meningococcus,Gonorrhea,Pathogenic E. coli(O157: H7, etc.),Klebsiella(Klebsiella pneumoniae) ,,Pertussis,Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Serratia,Citrobacter,Acinetobacter,Enterobacter,Mycoplasma,ClostridiumVarious infectious diseases caused by
    tuberculosis-Nontuberculous mycobacteria,cholera,Plague,diphtheria,dysentery,scarlet fever,Anthrax,syphilis,tetanus,Leprosy,Legionella pneumonia(Legionnaires' disease),Leptospirosis,Salmonella,typhoid,Paratyphoid,Lyme disease,Tularemia,Q feverな ど
    Typhus,Tsutsugamushi disease,Japanese spotted feverな ど
    Chlamydia pneumonia,Trachoma,Genital chlamydia infection,Parrot diseaseな ど
    FungusInfection
    Aspergillosis,Candidiasis,Cryptococcosis,Ringworm,Histoplasmosis,Pneumocystis pneumonia(Old name:Carini pneumonia)Such
    ParasiticsexProtozoaInfection
    Amoeba dysentery,malaria,Toxoplasmosis,Leishmaniasis,Cryptosporidiumな ど
    ParasiticsexwormInfection
    Echinococcosis,Schistosomiasis japonicum,Filariasis,Ascariasis,Such
    ウ イ ル スInfection
    influenza,Viral pneumonia,Viral hepatitis,Viral meningitis,Viral gastroenteritis,Viral conjunctivitis,Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS),Adult T-cell leukemia,Ebola,yellow fever,coldsyndrome,Rabies,CytomegalovirusInfection,Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS),Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS),New coronavirus infection (COVID-19),New bunyavirus,Severe febrile thrombocytopenia syndrome,Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy,Varieg-Herpes zoster,Herpes simplex,Hand-foot-and-mouth disease,Dengue fever,Zika fever,Japanese encephalitis,Infectious erythema,Infectious mononucleosis,smallpox,rubella,Acute poliomyelitis(Polio),measles,Pharyngoconjunctival fever(Pool fever),Marburg hemorrhagic fever,Renal symptomatic hemorrhagic fever,Lassa fever,Mumps,West Nile fever,Herpangina,Chikungunya feverな ど
    PrionIllness / Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy
    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE),Kuru disease,Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease,Fatal familial insomnia (FFI),Gerstmann-Stroisler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS) etc.

    Classification from pathological condition

    Primary and secondary infections
    Infection with the first pathogenPrimary infection, Followed by infection by another pathogenSecondary infectionThat is.In addition, the same host can be infected by two or more types of pathogens.Mixed infectionThat is.As an example of secondary infection, even if the primary infection is eliminated with antibiotics, the antibiotic-resistant indigenous bacteria cause overgrowth.Bacterial change phenomenonThere is.
    Local and systemic infections
    It is said that the pathogen causes a lesion only at the invading / colonizing site.It is said that this pathogen spreads throughout the body, such as hematogenous, and causes symptoms.
    Persistent, subclinical and latent infections
    • : A state in which the pathogen is not completely eliminated from the living body and the symptoms have subsided.People in that stateCarrierThat.
    • Subclinical infection: Refers to the case where the disease does not occur even if infected with a pathogen.
    • Latent infection: Infection with a pathogen does not cause immediate symptoms.A condition in which an infection does not occur.That periodIncubation periodThat.

    Public health classification

    Emerging infectious disease
    Among imported infectious diseases, those that have been continuously onset in Japan.
    Example:Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome,COVID-19
    Revival infectious disease
    Due to changes in social conditions, the number of cases that had been suppressed until recent years is increasing again.
    Example:tuberculosis,syphilis,rubella,measles
    Zoonosis
    Those that infect both humans and non-human animals and require intervention in both for preventive measures.
    Example:Rabies,Echinococcus
    Epidemic
    A pathogen that reaches another individual from a diseased individual (human, animal, etc.), and the number of infected people increases in a chain reaction.
    Imported infectious disease
    Pathogens brought in from overseas via travelers and imported foods, causing infectious diseases that are rare in Japan.
    Example:Severe acute respiratory syndrome,Dengue fever,yellow fever
    Quarantine infectious disease
    Of the imported infectious diseases, those that are at risk of becoming epidemic once they enter the countryQuarantine ActHas been designated as a quarantine infectious disease.
    Example:cholera,Plague

    Legal classification in Japan

    Infectious disease lawby.

    Class I infection
    Infectivity, severity, and risk are extremely high, and urgent notification is required.
    Second kind infectious disease
    Highly infectious, severe and dangerous, requiring immediate notification
    Class XNUMX infectious diseases
    Although the infectivity, severity, and risk are not high, there is a high possibility of outbreaks, so immediate notification is required.
    Type XNUMX infectious diseases
    There is no infection between humans, but since it infects humans through animals, food and drink, etc., immediate notification is required.
    Type XNUMX infectious diseases
    CountryInfectious diseases that need to be investigated and the information necessary for the people, medical personnel, and medical institutions to be provided and disclosed to prevent the outbreak, spread, and transmission.
    Infectious diseases such as new influenza
    Infectious diseases caused by viruses that are newly transmitted from person to person
    Designated infectious disease
    Among the known infectious diseases, infectious diseases that are not classified into the above XNUMX to XNUMX categories and require interpersonal and objective measures according to the XNUMX to XNUMX categories.
    The provisions of the Infectious Diseases Control Law shall apply mutatis mutandis only for the period specified by a Cabinet Order within one year.
    After the lapse of the period, it can be extended only once and for the period specified by Cabinet Order within one year.[6]
    New infectious disease
    It is a disease that is recognized to be transmitted from an infected person to another person, and the known infectious diseases and symptoms are clearly different from those of the previous ones, and their infectivitySufferInfectious diseases that are extremely dangerous, as can be seen from the seriousness of the disease.

    Diagnosis

    Infectious diseases are often noticed by pain and fever, but these symptoms are also caused by non-infections such as tumors and allergies.DiagnosticBy appropriately narrowing down the discrimination by interviews and physical examinations based on the above, it is possible to make a diagnosis by necessary and sufficient tests.

    As an example of diagnosis by physical examination,CellulitisThings that are noticed by inspection, such as skin redness inbronchitisThings that are noticed by auscultation, such as respiratory noise inappendicitisSome things are noticed by palpation, such as McBurney's tender points in the iliopsoas sign and the Psoas sign and Obturator sign in iliopsoas abscess.

    治療

    Most infectious diseases heal spontaneously through rest, rest, nutrition, and hydration to restore immunity, or through adjuvant therapies such as sputum promotion and diuresis, but in developed countries, healing is accelerated or thorough. Often for the purpose of preventing sequelaeAntibiotics/ By antibacterial drugChemotherapy (bacteria)AndAntiviral treatmentIs used together.In addition, surgical treatment such as incision and drainage and drainage is used in combination for local infection.septicemia-shock-Systemic inflammatory response syndromeSometimes in severe infectious diseases associated with (SIRS) etc.antibodyFormulation andPlasmapheresisIs used together.

    prevention

    • Of the hostImmunologyAppropriate from daily life to maintain strengthrest-SleepNutritionRequires.but,povertyEtc. sometimes make these difficult.
    • Improving immunity to specific pathogens, if vaccines have been developed,vaccine OfvaccinationIs valid.It can prevent infection, onset, transmission, and aggravation.However, there are many infectious diseases for which vaccines have not been developed.
    • EpidemicIn order to prevent pathogens from entering the bodyTransmission routeIs effective,Infection control,disinfection-SterilizationRequires.
    • Infectious diseases at various levels of medical institutions, regions, nations, and the world to detect and prevent outbreaks at an early stage.surveillanceIs performed.

    Disinfection and sterilization

    disinfection
    Killing pathogenic microorganisms, or diminishing the ability of pathogenic microorganisms to eliminate pathogenicity.Therefore, it does not kill all microorganisms.Substances commonly used for disinfectiondisinfectantThat.
    Sterilization
    Killing or eliminating all microorganisms, with or without pathogens and non-pathogens.Sterilization in surgeryAseptic operationCalled.

    law

    The laws regarding infectious diseases include the following.

    Japan

    The United States of America

    • Law Concerning Ensuring the Health and Safety of Citizens and Response to Bioterrorism 2002[7]

    Epidemiology

    In 2010, about 1000 million people died from infectious diseases[9].. WHO kills infectious diseasesICDIt is aggregated by classification, and the data for 2002 is shown below.

    Global mortality from infectious diseases[10][11]
    Rankingcause of death2002 dead
    (a million)
    Percentage of causes of death (%)1993 dead
    (a million)
    1993 ranking
    N/AAll infectious diseases14.725.9%16.432.2%
    1Lower respiratory tract infection[Note 1]3.96.9%4.11
    2HIV/AIDS2.84.9%0.77
    3Infectious diarrhea[12]1.83.2%3.02
    4tuberculosis (ALSO)1.62.7%2.73
    5malaria1.32.2%2.04
    6measles0.61.1%1.15
    7Social Services Lizard0.290.5%0.367
    8tetanus0.210.4%0.1512
    9Meningitis0.170.3%0.258
    10syphilis0.160.3%0.1911
    11Hepatitis B0.100.2%0.936
    12-17Tropical disease (6)[Note 2]0.130.2%0.539, 10, 16–18

    The three major causes of death are HIV / AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria.Deaths from infectious diseases have decreased almost entirely, but deaths from HIV have increased four-fold.

    Historical pandemic

    Association with non-communicable diseases

    It is becoming clear in recent years that some infectious diseases are strongly associated with the development of non-communicable diseases.

    Infection rate by blood type 

    (English editionResearchers have summarized their findings to date, including the infectivity of bacteria, viruses, and infectious diseases.ABO blood typeIs related to the fact that the susceptibility of the antigen depends on the blood group antigen used.[13].. Type O is vulnerable to pesto, norovirus, parotid inflammation, and tuberculosis, type A is vulnerable to smallpox, pyogenic, and salmonella, type B is vulnerable to gonorrhea, tuberculosis, Escherichia coli, and salmonella, and type AB is vulnerable to smallpox and Escherichia coli. , Weak to salmonella[13].National Center for Biotechnology InformationIn the published medical genetics book, type O is protected from malaria, and in cholera, type O may be weaker and type AB may be stronger.[14].

    Non-human infectious diseases

    footnote

    [How to use footnotes]

    注 釈

    1. ^ For example, pneumonia, influenza, acute bronchitis.
    2. ^ Chagas disease, dengue fever, lymphofilariasis, leishmaniasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, trypanosomiasis, etc.

    Source

    1. ^ Merck Manual Medical Encyclopedia P1,082 188 Chapter Basic Knowledge of Infectious Diseases
    2. ^ About the three major infectious diseases Ministry of Foreign Affairs July 2011, Retrieved April 7, 2021.
    3. ^ GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators (17 December 2014). “Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013”. Lancet 385 (9963): 117–71. two:10.1016 / S0140-6736 (14) 61682-2. PMC 4340604. PMID 25530442. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4340604/. 
    4. ^ [1]
    5. ^ "Infectious Disease, Internal Medicine”. Association of American Medical Colleges. As of February 2015, 2originalMore archives.2015/8/20Browse. “Infectious disease is the subspecialty of internal medicine dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of communicable diseases of all types, in all organs, and in all ages of patients.”
    6. ^ About designated infectious diseases and quarantine infectious diseases (PDF) Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (read January 2020, 11)
    7. ^ Infectious disease control in the United States
    8. ^ World Health Organization (June 2009). “Age-standardized DALYs per 100,000 by cause, and Member State, 2004". April 2009Browse.
    9. ^ “Could Ebola rank among the deadliest communicable diseases?”. CBC News. (April 2014, 10). http://www.cbc.ca/news/1.2802071 
    10. ^ (PDF) The World Health Report (Annex Table 2) (Report). (2004). http://www.who.int/whr/2004/annex/topic/en/annex_2_en.pdf. 
    11. ^ (PDF) Table 5 (Report). (1995). http://www.who.int/whr/1995/en/whr95_ch1_en.pdf. 
    12. ^ See ICD-10 # A00-A79
    13. ^ a b Ewald DR, Sumner SC (November 2016). “Blood type biochemistry and human disease”. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Syst Biol Med 8 (6): 517–535. two:10.1002 / wsbm.1355. PMC 5061611. PMID 27599872. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5061611/. 
    14. ^ Laura Dean (2017). “ABO Blood Group”. Medical Genetics Summaries. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK100894/  PMID 28520352

    Related literature

    • Hiroki Chizuka "Knowledge of Infectious Diseases that Anesthetists Should Know (1st) Basic Infectious Diseases", Journal of Japanese Society of Clinical Anesthesia, Vol. 37, No. 4, Japan Society of Clinical Anesthesia, 2017, 513 -Page 531, two:10.2199 / jjsca.37.513.

    Related item

    Of the worldDisease burden(WHO, 2019)[1]
    Rankingcause of deathDALYs (XNUMX)DALYs (%)DALYs
    (Per 10 people)
    1Neonatal disease20,182.18.02,618
    2Ischemic heart disease18,084.77.12,346
    3stroke13,942.95.51,809
    4Lower respiratory tract infection10,565.24.21,371
    5diarrheaSexual illness7,931.13.11,029
    6Traffic accident7,911.63.11,026
    7COPD7,398.12.9960
    8Diabetes mellitus7,041.12.8913
    9tuberculosis6,602.42.6857
    10Birth defects5,179.72.0672
    11Back and neck pain4,653.21.8604
    12depressionSexual dysfunction4,635.91.8601
    13Cirrhosis4,279.81.7555
    14Trachea, bronchi, lung cancer4,137.81.6537
    15Kidney disease4,057.11.6526
    16HIV / AIDS4,014.71.6521
    17OtherDeafness3,947.71.6512
    18Death3,821.61.5496
    19malaria3,339.81.3433
    20Refractive error of the naked eye3,198.11.3415

    外部 リンク

    1. ^ (Excel) Global health estimates: Leading causes of DALYs (Report). who(2020-12). Download the data> GLOBAL AND BY REGION> DALY estimates, 2000–2019> WHO regions. https://www.who.int/data/gho/data/themes/mortality-and-global-health-estimates/global-health-estimates-leading-causes-of-dalys 2021/3/27Browse.. 

     

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