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🏥 | Now that the mask has been relaxed outdoors, it is necessary to verify the purpose and materials of the mask [Latest knowledge to prepare for the 7th wave of corona]

Photo The use of outdoor masks will be eased ... (C) Nikkan Gendai

Now that the mask has been relaxed outdoors, it is necessary to verify the purpose and materials of the mask [Latest knowledge to prepare for the 7th wave of corona]

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Even if you wear a non-woven mask, aerosols are discharged from the gap between the mask and your face, so for example, if there is a person in a place where the air flow is not good even outdoors or if there is a person on the leeward side, you need to take measures other than the mask.

[Latest knowledge to prepare for the 7th wave of corona] "Sufficient distance is available outdoors such as running in the park or moving a bicycle ... → Continue reading

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We will deliver the medical and health articles of the evening paper "Daily Gendai". From everyday health laws to the latest medical information, all articles are based on interviews with doctors and specialists.

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Cloth mask

Cloth mask(Nunose mask,English: cloth face mask) OrCloth mask(Nu no mask) iscloth(Normallycotton,gauze), covering the mouth and noseMASKS.surgical mask,N95 masklikegas maskUnlike, there is no standard. Also,Transmission route,Particulate matterAir pollutionLittle has been investigated and no guidance is given on its effectiveness as a safeguard against However, in 2020American Chemical SocietyResearch has shown that stacking multiple materials increases the ability to trap particles, and in some combinationsN95 maskThere is also the result that it is as effective as[1].


From the latter half of the 19th century to the middle of the 20th century, it was used daily by people involved in health care.Developed countryThen, in the 1960s, the current surgical mask became the mainstream, reducing the amount used,Developing countriesIs still being used in the medical field[2].Epidemic of new coronavirus infectionOf surgical mask and gas mask(English edition)Use in developed countries revived as last resort[3]. In Japan's elementary and junior high schools,Lunch turnCan wear a maskMinistry of educationIt is described in the "Guide for food guidance"[4],ChildrenstudentIt is common to wear a commercially available white gauze mask.

how to use

Reusable cloth masks are used mainly in developing countries and especially in Asia[2].(English edition)Formed byNon-wovenMade usingsurgical mask,N95 masklikegas maskIn contrast, the efficacy is limited[6]. Unlike gas masks, like surgical masks, cloth masks do not seal around the face[2].

In a health care environment(English edition)Infection source control (source control)” for patients and by people involved in health care when surgical or gas masks are unavailable. Cloth masks are generally required to be used only as a last resort if you run out of surgical or gas masks[2]. An infectious diseaseParticulate matterAir pollutionIt is also used by the general public in family and community environments as a known defense against both[2][7].

Several fabric masks are commercially available, especially in Asia[7]. Handmade masks,bandana[5],T-shirt[5][6],handkerchief[6],Scarf[6],Towel[8]You can make instantly using.Yaeyama MincerTraditional materials such as are also used.


Regarding the use of reusable cloth masks as of 2015Randomized controlled trialAnd there is no guideline[2][8].. Most research was done in the first half of the 20th century, before the spread of disposable surgical masks. A 2010 study found that 40% to 90% of the fine particles penetrate the fabric mask[2].. The performance of cloth masks depends not only on the fineness of knitting and the number of layers, but also on the shape, compatibility, and type of knitting.[7]Change drastically[8].. As of 2006, using a cloth mask as a surgical maskUS Food and Drug AdministrationIs not authorized[6].

A computer simulation confirmed that the results are sufficient to prevent splashing and inhalation of droplets.[9].

In 2020, the ability to capture particles will increase by stacking multiple materials, depending on the combinationN95 maskResearch results that are comparable to[1].. Cloth masks that actually combine filters are on sale[10].

Also, in JapanRIKEN,Kobe University,Toyohashi University of TechnologyAre conducting simulations and experiments to measure the splash prevention effect of masks, face shields, and mouth shields.[11]..According to the results of simulations and experiments, when nothing is attached to 100%, the amount of droplets discharged can be suppressed to 20% with a non-woven mask, while it is about 18-34% with a cloth mask. Becomes[11]..In addition, regarding the amount of droplets sucked in, the non-woven fabric mask was suppressed to 30%, while the cloth mask was 55-65%, which was inferior to the non-woven fabric mask.[11].

Supercomputer "FuyueSimulation result of the amount of droplets[11]
Not wornNon-woven maskCloth maskUrethane maskFace shieldMouse shield
Amount of droplets spit out100%20%18-34%50%[12]80%90%[12]
Amount of droplets sucked100%30%55-65%[12]60-70%[12]No effect on small droplets (aerosol cannot be prevented)


The first recorded use of the cloth mask isParisOperating in 1897 in Francesurgeon(English edition)Has to do with[13].. Masks were used in the early 20th century to prevent epidemics[2][8].Gland plagueWas working in a Chinese court in the fall of 1910 whenGorendeIs the first example of protecting the user from bacteria in the experiment,Spanish coldContributed to the use of masks in[14].. The first study of mask use by health care workers was conducted in 1918.[2][8].. 1940s,Chilled silkThe mask made fromtuberculosisUsed to protect nurses from[15].

Developing countriesBut it's still being used[2], Mainly cloth masks in the 1960sNon-wovenCurrent made ofsurgical maskWas replaced by[6][8].(English edition)In Asia andWest Africa Ebola outbreak in 2014Used in West Africa during[2].

2020 year 3 month,Epidemic of new coronavirus infectionIn the United StatesCenter for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is a last resort for medical personnel because they cannot get gas masks and surgical masks.(English edition)Called for caution even in cases where a mask or homemade mask that has not been evaluated and approved by[16].. In April 2020, CDCAsymptomatic carrierInfections from patients before or during onset are significant, such as in grocery stores and drug stores, especially in areas where community-acquired infections are significant.Social distanceAdvised the public to cover their face with a cloth in public places where it is difficult to maintain[5][17][3].


[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ a b Aerosol Filtration Efficiency of Common Fabrics Used in Respiratory Cloth Masks - American Chemical Society ACS Publications
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k MacIntyre, CR; Chughtai, AA (April 9, 2015). “Facemasks for the prevention of infection in healthcare and community settings” (English). BMJ 350 (apr09 1): h694–h694. two:10.1136 / bmj.h694. ISSN 1756-1833. http://akkie.mods.jp/2019-nCoV/images/c/c0/%E3%82%B5%E3%83%BC%E3%82%B8%E3%82%AB%E3%83%AB%E3%83%9E%E3%82%B9%E3%82%AF%E5%8C%BB%E7%99%82vs%E5%B8%82%E4%B8%AD%E6%84%9F%E6%9F%93%E4%BA%88%E9%98%B2%EF%BC%9A%E7%B7%8F%E8%AA%AC_%282015%2C_MacIntyre%29.pdf. 
  3. ^ a b "The reason why the new type of coronavirus measures in the United States has turned to "Wear a cloth mask" | WIRED.jp". WIRED.jp. WIRED. 2020/4/16Browse.
  4. ^ "Chapter 5 of guidance of food". Ministry of education. 2020/4/22Browse.
  5. ^ a b c d "Use of Cloth Face Coverings to Help Slow the Spread of COVID-19" (English). US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (September 2020, 4). 2020/4/5Browse.  In this description,The United States of AmericaAt the innerPublic domainIs included.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Reusability of Facemasks During an Influenza Pandemic: Facing the Flu. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. (July 24, 2006). Pp. 6, 36–38. two:10.17226/11637. ISBN 978-0-309-10182-0. http://www.nap.edu/catalog/11637 
  7. ^ a b c Shakya, Kabindra M .; Noyes, Alyssa; Kallin, Randa; Peltier, Richard E. (May 1, 2017). “Evaluating the efficacy of cloth facemasks in reducing particulate matter exposure” (English). Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 27 (3): 352–357. two:10.1038 / jes.2016.42. ISSN 1559-064X. https://www.ceh.org.in/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/1-Shakaya-Face-Masks-JESEE-2016.pdf. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f Chughtai, Abrar Ahmad; Seale, Holly; MacIntyre, Chandini Raina (June 19, 2013). “Use of cloth masks in the practice of infection control – evidence and policy gaps”. International Journal of Infection Control 9 two:10.3396 / IJIC.v9i3.020.13. ISSN 1996-9783. http://www.ijic.info/article/view/11366. 
  9. ^ Analyze differences in non-woven fabrics and hand-made masks at RIKEN and Supercomputer Tomitake ~Simulation of aerosol infection in offices, event halls, etc. -PC Watch
  10. ^ UNIQLO releases "Airism Mask" on June 6 -Impress Watch
  11. ^ a b c d "Toyohashi University of Technology Press Release Reiwa 2020 (XNUMX) XNUMXrd Regular Press Conference”(May 2020, 10). 2021/1/17Browse.
  12. ^ a b c d Experimental values ​​by Toyohashi University of Technology
  13. ^ Lowry, HC (November 1, 1947). “Some Landmark in Surgical Technique”. The Ulster Medical Journal 16 (2): 102–13. PMC 2479244. PMID 18898288. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2479244/. 
  14. ^ Wilson, Mark (March 2020, 3). “The untold origin story of the N95 mask" (English). Fast Company. 2020/3/27Browse.
  15. ^ McNett, Esta H. (January 1, 1949). “The Face Mask in Tuberculosis: How the cheese-cloth face mask has been developed as a protective agent in tuberculosis”. AJN The American Journal of Nursing 49 (1): 32–36. ISSN 0002-936X. https://journals.lww.com/ajnonline/Citation/1949/01000/The_Face_Mask_in_Tuberculosis__How_the.30.aspx. 
  16. ^ "Strategies for Optimizing the Supply of N95 Respirators: Crisis / Alternate Strategies" (English). US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (September 2020, 3). 2020/3/28Browse.  In this description,The United States of AmericaAt the innerPublic domainIs included.
  17. ^ "Recommendation regard the Use of Cloth Face Coverings, Especially in Areas of Significant Community-Based Transmission" (English). US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (September 2020, 4). 2020/4/5Browse.

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