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🏥 | CureApp Co., Ltd. and Sawai Group Holdings Co., Ltd. Development of DTx in the NASH area ...


CureApp Co., Ltd. and Sawai Group Holdings Co., Ltd. Develop DTx in the NASH field…

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In October 2016, CureApp and the University of Tokyo Hospital jointly started clinical research on this app at a single facility. A clear effect of weight loss and improvement of liver fibrosis has been observed.

CureApp Co., Ltd. (Headquarters: Chuo-ku, Tokyo, President: Kota Satake, hereinafter referred to as CureApp) is Sawa… → Continue reading

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Institutional joint clinical research

    Cognitive behavioral therapy

    Cognitive behavioral therapy(public relations,(British: cognitive behavioral therapy, Stands for: CBT) Focused on traditional behaviorBehavior therapyFromAlbert Ellis OfRational emotive behavior therapyAndAaron Beck OfCognitive therapyHas developed by focusing on cognition such as thinking with the advent ofPsychotherapyIs a general term for the techniques of[1].. The term "cognitive behavioral therapy" is often used in countries other than the United States.Aaron Beck OfCognitive therapy(Cognitive therapy)[2], This section emphasizes the explanation of cognitive-behavioral therapy as a generic term, which is the original meaning.Philosophically, of ancient RomeStore school,BuddhismInspired by the 1950s and 1960sRational emotive behavior therapy,Cognitive therapyHas its origin in[3]..Both aim to correct logical mistakes in thinking that cause inappropriate reactions, and cognition, emotions, and behavior are said to be closely related.[1].. TraditionalPsychoanalysisIn無意識Unlike, it focuses on observable conscious thinking, and is therefore measurable, and many research studies have been conducted.[3].

    Cognitive behavioral therapydepression,panic disorder,Obsessive-compulsive disorder,insomnia,Drug addiction,Eating disorder,schizophreniaEvidence has been reported based on scientific evidence in such cases.[4][5]..Also reduce suicide attempts by about half[6]..In addition to being performed by experts, these techniques can be manualized, soSelf help・ You can do it yourself like a manual.There is also dialogue with a computer program called computer CBT.Computer CBT is useful in rural areas where practitioners are scarce[7].

    Also, the strong aspect of behavior therapy isObsessive-compulsive disorderAgainstExposure Reaction Interference ActAndPost-traumatic stress disorderAgainst (PTSD)Continuous exposure therapyIs.The latter one is "traumaIncluded in "Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Focused on".

    For third-generation cognitive-behavioral therapyMindfulness cognitive therapy,Acceptance & Commitment TherapyIt is effective not only for depression and anxiety but also for pain.Borderline personality disorderSpecialized techniqueDialectical behavior therapyAnd this is瞑想It is a composition that combines the technique of and cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Differences between cognitive therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy

    Cognitive therapyThe term (Cognitive therapy) isAaron BeckRefers to the technique developed by[2]..Also, it is explained in this article.Cognitive behavioral therapy(Cognitive Behavior therapy) is originally a general term for various techniques, but often refers to Aaron Beck's cognitive therapy in countries other than the United States.[2]..Cognitive Therapy Institute(English editionBecause in the UK we use the term cognitive behavioral therapy to refer to cognitive therapy.EuropeI presume that it is not necessary to distinguish between the two.[8].

    In addition, the term cognitive-behavioral therapy may collectively refer to things that are not based on cognitive and behavioral theories.[9]..Pure behavior therapy deals with behavior, but cognition, such as thought, is neither the subject of important intervention nor the subject of explanation.[9]..Similarly, focusing solely on cognitive changes is not cognitive-behavioral.[9]..That is, it is cognitive-behavioral when dealing with cognition and intervening there.[9]..In this case, symptoms and dysfunctional behavior are considered to occur through cognition and are improved by changes in thoughts and beliefs.[9].

    Brief history and introduction of each method

    The "cognitive revolution" emerged in the early 1960s, and in the early days, Ellis and ...Aaron Beck, Meichenbaum, Mahony, etc. pointed out the limits of behavioral methods[9].. In the 1970s, he was famous for his research on information processing and learning.Albert BanduraHas published the first influential text on cognitive modification, and more and more theorists have identified themselves as cognitive-behavioral theories.[9].

    The same era continued from the 1920sActivismIn response, in 1967, Nyser published a book called "Cognitive Psychology," giving a name to a new field and shaping it, and cognitive psychology took over activism.[11]..At that time, ethology was said to be able to be observed as an objective psychology without the concept of the mind in its excessive tendency, but it is a so-called award that is a strengthening factor that changes the behavior of animals. And when deciding on punishment, we cannot ignore the many strengthening factors that do not satisfy biological needs and the self-contradictions about children's acquisition of language regardless of award and punishment. rice field.[11].

    Behavior therapyAnd in cognitive behavioral therapy, conventionalPsychoanalysisBecause it is based on the information provided by introspection, without the high level of abstraction such as無意識,Defense systemPreconditions for psychoanalysis such as[12]..The focus is on conscious thinking.[3].

    Rational therapy
    Rational emotive behavior therapy TheAlbert EllisProposed in 1957[13]Is considered to be the first cognitive-behavioral therapy[9]..The goal of his technique is to identify irrational beliefs (irrational beliefs) and correct them through logical examination (ie refutation).[9].. He said, "You don't have to spend years on treatment," and challenged a time-consuming technique (psychoanalysis).[14].
    Cognitive therapy
    Cognitive therapy TheAaron BeckDeveloped by.It corrects cognitive distortions called automatic thinking, and also focuses on the underlying part of the perception called schema.[15].

    Focusing on cognition such as thinking and language, instead of focusing only on traditional behaviors and emotions[1].

    Self Instruction Training
    Donald MeichenbaumDeveloped in the 1970s by[9]..The name cognitive-behavioral therapy first appearedDonald MeichenbaumThe title of the work.
    Problem-Solving Therapy
    Proposed by D'Zurilla and Goldfried in 1971[9].

    In the 1980s, it was Paul Salkovskis of the United Kingdom who actively integrated cognitive-behavioral therapy into cognitive-behavioral therapy.Obsessive-compulsive disorderApplied to the treatment of[16]..Psychoanalytic traditions have failed to seek causes for obsessive-compulsive disorder treatment due to past memory suppression, but cognitive therapy to make rational assessments of obsessive-compulsive thoughts, and gradually to those who avoid it. In connection with the behavioral therapy of desensitization[16].

    Third generation cognitive behavioral therapy

    Also called contextual cognitive behavioral therapy.Focusing on cognitive function,MindfulnessacceptanceIt is pointed out that there is something in common that they place importance on[17].

    Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT)
    Mindfulness cognitive therapyIs a training that incorporates meditation techniques and concentrates on the state as it is, without being bound by the thoughts that occur automatically. In 1979, applied Buddhist practice to patients with painMindfulness stress reduction methodBased on (MBSR), it was converted to mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) in the 1990s for the treatment of depression.otherAcceptance & Commitment TherapyThere is (ACT), which focuses on the aspect of acceptance.
    Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT)
    Dialectical behavior therapyFrom the 1980s to the 90sMarsha Linehan Borderline personality disorderIf you develop a technique specializing in and feel that your emotions are inappropriate, take the opposite action orZenIs the technique ofMindfulnessIt has elements such as one's breathing and just observing one's feelings until they leave without acting.[18]..The book was originally written as "Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder".Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Borderline Personality DisorderIs[19].


    CBT strength[20]
    high strength


    Low strength
    Personal CBT
    Collective CBT
    Group-based mental education
    With supportSelf help
    (Implemented with the therapist)
    No supportSelf help
    (Books, workbooks, computer programs, etc.)

    For individual CBT, 30 to 60 minutes of sessions will be held once every 1 to 2 weeks, for a total of 1 to 5 sessions.[4]..Many cognitive-behavioral therapies for uncomplicated depression and anxiety end in 12 to 16 sessions[9]..Personality disorders often take more than a year[9].

    Self help

    For cognitive behavioral therapy, many self-help manuals have been published for each problem.Therefore, you can do it yourself.

    Improving Access to Psychotherapy in the United Kingdom

    The United Kingdom promoted cognitive-behavioral therapy, receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy on the Internet for mild cases, consulting with moderate to psychiatrists, and allowing drug therapy to be used in combination with cognitive-behavioral therapy in severe cases.[20][21]..Suicide rates fell by 1997% between 2007 and 15.2 under the Blair administration[21]..For mild to moderate patientsEvidence-basedPsychotherapyIs given,Economic Cooperation Development OrganizationThe (OECD) says it has an advanced mental health system that other countries should refer to.[22].

    Japanese insurance system

    Since April 2010, cognitive therapy / cognitive behavioral therapy health insurance can be applied up to 4 times for patients with mood disorders such as depression.

    Affinity with scientific evidence

    Cognition and behaviorPsychoanalysisUnlike, you can study because you can observe with the research techniques currently available.[12]..Along with this, a huge number of research studies have been conducted.[3].

    Medical care guidelines

    In the United Kingdom and the United States, it has become the first choice in treatment guidelines for depression and anxiety disorders.[23][24][25].

    schizophreniaCognitive-behavioral therapy for patients is also recommended by the American Psychiatric Association's treatment guidelines.[5],UK National Institute of Medical Technology(NICE) says it is recommended for all patients[26].

    The World Health Organization's post-trauma care guidelines prioritize "trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy" over antidepressants.EMDRIs recommended[27].

    BritishBorderline personality disorderThe clinical practice guidelines are for prioritizing improvement of repeated self-harm.Dialectical behavior therapyIs recommended[28].


    It has been approved that the effect is comparable to drug therapy and the duration of the effect is longer.There is evidence from many clinical studies that it is highly effective against depression and anxiety disorders.[23].

    Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for psychosis (CBTp) is 34Randomized controlled trialAnd someMeta-analysisHas been found to significantly reduce the severity of symptoms and significantly improve negative symptoms, negative mood and social anxiety.[5]..In schizophrenia, 25% -55% do not completely recover from symptoms even with pharmaceutical treatment, and three-quarters discontinue the drug within 4 months, so cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention is recommended. Ru[5].

    Computer CBT (CCBT) for depression and anxiety has been found to be useful in rural, rural and remote areas where practitioners are scarce and as effective as for urban people.[7].

    A systematic review and meta-analysis under the Cochrane Joint Program found that cognitive-behavioral therapy reduced suicide attempts by about half.[6].

    Criticism and doubts

    For clinical trials of antidepressants for depressionplaceboEven in the administration group (which does not contain the active ingredient), the symptoms improve to some extent, suggesting that the hopes and expectations of taking the drug improve negative thinking.[29]Therefore, the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy is alsoPlacebo effectThere is criticism that it may be[Source required]..Familiar with the placebo effectIrving KirschAccording to the report, there is a difference in the effect in follow-up studies, and it is easy for antidepressants to relapse when treatment is stopped, but cognitive behavioral therapy has a lower recurrence rate than antidepressants in the long run.[30]..However, for long-term effects studies of cognitive-behavioral therapy, as long as both the patient and the therapist are aware of the treatment (which can be said to apply to any psychotherapy), as in the acute phase of treatment.Double blindIs impossible, and it has been pointed out that there is a major flaw in the long-term effect research method of cognitive behavioral therapy.[31].

    In 2013, Doug Berger stated that the symptom of negative thinking was the cause of depression in the premise of cognitive-behavioral therapy, but in medicine and psychiatry the symptom is the cause of the illness. Pointed out that this is the only example[31]In addition, it raises doubts that treatments (as a method of cognitive-behavioral therapy research) may not be randomly assigned to patients by a double-blind method.[31]..Even with the double-blind method, both the patient and the therapist will be willing to correct negative thoughts, and hopeful expectations will create a bias.[31]..In addition, the method of studying the effects of single blindness, which the evaluator of the study does not recognize the treatment content but is recognized by both the patient and the therapist, distorts the results.[31].. In 2010Meta-analysisAccording to the report, the single-blind study is more effective than the double-blind study.[32]..However, the formal definition of single-blind is a mechanism in which only the patient is aware of the treatment.[33].

    Berger then evaluates the response in the depression trial as a response with a 50% improvement, criticizing that while relieving psychological distress, the underlying part of depression has not really changed. Is[31]..Negative thoughts such as "I'm a bad person" may also result from a depressed mood, which is alleviated by the hope and support given by the therapist, but still remains painful.[31](The evaluation method such as this improvement rate is the same for the antidepressant drug test).There is already a bias when recruiting clinical trials for psychotherapy, and people with severe depression who do not respond to psychotherapy are difficult to be adopted in clinical trials and are not suitable for daily clinical trials. Point out[34].

    Therefore, Berger is not considered to be double-blind,Evidence-basedIt cannot be said to be (EBM), and the data so far are merely "uncontrolled research results."[31]..In addition, at EBM, randomized controlled trials (randomly assigned, double-blind trials) have the strongest evidence next to meta-analyses combined with randomized controlled trials.[35]..Also, in a single-blind drug study, the subjects are not informed of the allocation group, but psychotherapyRandomized controlled trial The difference in single-blind (RCT) is that the evaluator of efficacy is not informed of the allocation group.Methods have also been developed to overcome the problems of psychotherapy RCTs, and evaluator-blinded studies do not show 50% -100% higher effect sizes.[36].. In addition,Antidepressant OfDouble blindAlso in the study, antidepressants were given to doctors and subjects depending on the presence or absence of side effects.placeboThere is a problem that it can be detected which one was administered.[37].

    However, another question arises with antidepressants, and analysis of the data obtained reveals that there are no clinically significant differences compared to placebo.[38].

    If you have severe symptoms, it is often painful and many people cannot tolerate the pain and give up halfway.[Source required](The same is true for drug trials, for example, in antipsychotic trials, 18% "in 74 months" dropped out of the trial due to ineffectiveness or side effects.[39]).Antipsychotics are used for schizophrenia.The dropout rate of antidepressants used in depression, which is the main target of cognitive-behavioral therapy, was "in 6 weeks (1 and a half months)", 26.1% for SNRI antidepressants, and 28.4% for SSRIs. Is[40]is there.


    • Japanese Society of Behavior Therapy(Currently, Japan Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Society)
      • Certified Behavior Therapist
      • Professional behavior therapist
    • Japan Cognitive Behavior Counseling Association
      • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Counselor
      • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Practical Nurse


    [How to use footnotes]
    1. ^ a b c Kaneo Nedate, Masaya Ichii 1995, pp. 29.
    2. ^ a b c “Does Cognitive Therapy = Cognitive Behavior Therapy?”Beck Institute Blog. (21 February, 2007). http://www.beckinstituteblog.org/2007/02/does-cognitive-therapy-cognitive-behavior-therapy/ April 2015, 6Browse. 
    3. ^ a b c d Gonzalez-Prendes, A. Antonio (2012). “Cognitive Behavioral Therapy”. Oxford Bibliography. two:10.1093 / obo / 9780195389678-0149. http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780195389678/obo-9780195389678-0149.xml. 
    4. ^ a b "Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)”. National Health Service. April 2015, 7Browse.
    5. ^ a b c d Kimhy, D .; Tarrier, N .; Essock, S .; Malaspina, D .; Cabannis, D .; Beck, AT (2013). “Cognitive behavioral therapy for psychosis --training practices and dissemination in the United States”. Psychosis 5 (3): 296-305. two:10.1080/17522439.2012.704932. PMC 3811971. PMID 24187582. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3811971/. 
    6. ^ a b Gøtzsche, Peter C; Gøtzsche, Pernille K (2017). “Cognitive behavioral therapy halves the risk of repeated suicide attempts: systematic review”. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 110 (10): 404-410. two:10.1177/0141076817731904. PMC 5650127. PMID 29043894. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0141076817731904. 
    7. ^ a b Vallury, Kari Dee; Jones, Martin; Oosterbroek, Chloe (2015). “Computerized Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Anxiety and Depression in Rural Areas: A Systematic Review”. Journal of Medical Internet Research 17 (6): e139. two:10.2196 / jmir.4145. PMID 26048193. http://www.jmir.org/2015/6/e139/. 
    8. ^ Judith S. Beck (2001). “Why Distinguish Between Cognitive Therapy and Cognitive Behavior Therapy”. Cognitive Therapy Today 6: pp. 1-4. http://www.beckinstitute.org/InfoID/150/RedirectPath/Add1/FolderID/177/SessionID/%7B0D09F15E-3892-4E06-BB1E-1B50944EA9E9%7D/InfoGroup/Main/InfoType/Article/PageVars/Library/InfoManage/Zoom.htm 
    9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Knapp & Beck 2008.
    10. ^ Beck xnumx, p. 351.
    11. ^ a b Elna Rossi, Francis J. Valera, Jeremy W. Hayward, (Translation) Yasuji Yamaguchi, Naoko Yamaguchi "5. Cognitive Psychology" "Thorough Discussion Mind and Life-With the Dalai Lama on" Science of the Mind " Dialogue, 1995, pp. 115-142.ISBN 4-7917-5382-8. 
    12. ^ a b Beck xnumx, p. 346.
    13. ^ Beck xnumx, p. 345.
    14. ^ Michael T. Kaufman (July 2007, 7). “Albert Ellis, 93, Influential Psychotherapist, Dies”. New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/07/25/nyregion/25ellis.html April 2015, 6Browse. 
    15. ^ Keio University Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Study Group / Editing "Manual for Cognitive Therapy / Cognitive Behavior Therapy Therapists for Depression 21 Health and Labor Sciences Research Fund Subsidy Mental Health Science Research Project" Research on the Implementation Method and Effectiveness of Psychotherapy ""April 2012.https://www.mhlw.go.jp/bunya/shougaihoken/kokoro/dl/01.pdf. (Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare
    16. ^ a b Catherine Korin et al. (Supervised) Ken Ikeda (Translated)Ken Kosuda"Obsessive behavioral rituals are an attempt to control intrusive ideas Paul Salkovskis," Psychology Encyclopedia, Sanseido, 2013, pp. 212-213.ISBN 978-4-385-16224-9. The Psychology Book 2012
    17. ^ Mental Science No.149 / 1-2010 Hiroaki Kumano P.131
    18. ^ Benedict Carey (June 2011, 6). “Expert on Mental Illness Reveals Her Own Fight”. The Newyork Times. April 2013, 1Browse.
    19. ^ Marsha M. Linehan, (Translated)Hiroshi Ohno, (Translation) Akira Iwasaka, Koichiro Izawa, Ritsu Matsuoka, Rumi Ishii, Masahiro Asami "Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder-Treatment of BPD with DBT" Seishin Shobo, 2007.ISBN 978 – 4414414240. ,Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder
    20. ^ a b NICE Pathway --Generalized anxiety disorder (Report). National Institute for Health and Care Technology Evaluation. http://pathways.nice.org.uk/pathways/generalised-anxiety-disorder#content=view-index April 2015, 7Browse.. 
    21. ^ a b “Saving the Heart: Achievements in UK Suicide Prevention and Team Medical Care without Relying on Medicine”. Mainichi Shimbun Tokyo morning edition(July 2010, 7) 
    22. ^ Making Mental Health Count --The Social and Economic Costs of Neglecting Mental Health Care (Report). OECD. (2014-07). Pp. Country press releases --UK. two:10.1787 / 9789264208445-en. 
    23. ^ a b Eiji Shimizu, "A Book That Understands All About Cognitive Behavior Therapy," 2010. pp.14-15
    24. ^ UK National Institute of Medical Technology (2009-08). CG90: Depression in adults (Report). http://www.nice.org.uk/CG90. 
    25. ^ CG113: Generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia) in adults: Management in primary, secondary and community care (Report). UK National Institute of Medical Technology. (2011-01). http://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/CG113. 
    26. ^ CG178: Psychosis and schizophrenia in adults: treatment and management (Report). National Institute for Health and Care Technology Evaluation. (2014-02). Chapt.1.3.4. http://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg178. 
    27. ^ World Health Organization (2013). Guidelines for the Management of Conditions Specifically Related to Stress.World Health Organization. ISBN 978-92-4-150540-6. https://hdl.handle.net/10665/85119 April 2021, 10Browse. 
    28. ^ UK National Institute of Medical Technology (2009a-01). CG78: Borderline personality disorder --Clinical guidelines (Report). National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. P. http://guidance.nice.org.uk/CG78 April 2013, 3Browse.. 
    29. ^ Marchesi C, De Panfilis C, Tonna M, Ossola P (2013). “Is placebo useful in the treatment of major depression in clinical practice?”. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 9: 915-20. two:10.2147 / NDT.S44519. PMC 3699255. PMID 23836976. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3699255/. 
    30. ^ Irving Kirsch 2010, pp. 215–218
    31. ^ a b c d e f g h Berger, D. Psychiatric Times, July 30, 2013. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Escape From the Binds of Tight Methodology
    32. ^ Lynch D, Laws, KR, McKenna PJ. Cognitive behavioral therapy for major psychiatric disorder: does it really work? A meta-analytical review of well-controlled trials. Psychol Med. 2010; 40: 9-24.
    33. ^ Friedman LM, Furgerg CD, DeMets DL. Fundamentals of Clinical Trials, Third Edition. Springer; 1998 (or internet search for: “definition of single-blind”).
    34. ^ Rao TS, Andrade C (2013). “Screening for disease, psychological testing, and psychotherapy Looking behind the mirror”. Indian J Psychiatry 55 (2): 103-5. two:10.4103/0019-5545.111446. PMC 3696229. PMID 23825840. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3696229/. 
    35. ^ Kiichiro Tsutani, Tomoya Masaki "Evidence-based medicine (EBM) genealogy and direction The role and future of the Cochrane Joint Program in Health Care Evaluation(Pdf) "Japan Evaluation Study" Vol. 6, No. 1, March 2006, pp. 3-3, NOT 40007259318.
    36. ^ Yukiko Kikuchi "Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Schizophrenia in the United Kingdom" "17 Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare Research Grant Subsidy Disability Health and Welfare Comprehensive Research Promotion Project Report』, Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, pp. 2-3, 2005. 
    37. ^ Irving Kirsch 2009, pp. 14–16 (Translation is Irving Kirsch 2010, pp. 29–30)
    38. ^ Moncrieff, Joanna; Kirsch, Irving (2015). “Empirically derived criteria cast doubt on the clinical significance of antidepressant-placebo differences”. Contemporary Clinical Trials 43: 60-62. two:10.1016 / j.cct.2015.05.005. PMID 25979317. 
    39. ^ Lieberman JA, Stroup TS, McEvoy JP, et al. (September 2005). “Effectiveness of antipsychotic drugs in patients with chronic schizophrenia”. N. Engl. J. Med. 353 (12): 1209-23. two:10.1056 / NEJMoa051688. PMID 16172203. 
    40. ^ Machado M, Iskedjian M, Ruiz I, Einarson TR. Remission, dropouts, and adverse drug reaction rates in major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis of head-to-head trials. Curr Med Res Opin. 2006 Sep; 22 (9) : 1825-37.


    Japanese self-help literature

    • Written by David D. Burns Translated by Soichiro Nomura et al. "I don't feel good, goodbye compact version How to overcome" depression "by yourself" Seiwa Shoten, 2013
    • Kirk D. Strothal, Patricia J. Robinson Translated by Setsuko Taneichi "Mindfulness & Acceptance Workbook for Depression ACT (Acceptance & Commitment Therapy) to get out of depression and lead a lively life" Seiwa Shoten, 2018
    • S. Supradrin, Dialectical Behavior Therapy Workbook, To Control Your Emotions, Kongo Publishing, 2009

    Related item

    外部 リンク

    Academic societies in Japan, etc.
    Academic societies other than Japan


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