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🏥 | Are the Omicron strains "BA2.75" and "BA.5" immune?Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo


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Omicron strains BA2.75 and BA.5 are less effective against immunity?Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo

 
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Specifically, we conducted an animal experiment, using the blood of hamsters infected with "BA.5" to examine the function of neutralizing antibodies in the blood against "BA2.75". 2.75" was confirmed to be 5/12 compared to "BA.1".
 

"BA.2.75", which is known as a new variant of the Omicron strain of the new coronavirus and is spreading in Japan... → Continue reading

 MEDIAN TALKS

To the Japanese medical community, which is facing the super-aging society and the tightness of medical resources at the same time, from each viewpoint, we will convey the voice of medical personnel striving to provide better medical care as it is, from a clinical perspective, a field perspective , This is a blog site for patients.


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SARS Coronavirus 2-Omicron Strain

New Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) > Variant of SARS-CoV-2 > Omicron strain (Strain B.1.1.529)
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SARS Coronavirus 2-Omicron Strain(Thirds Coronavirus Two Omicron Turnip,English: SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant,alias: Lineage B.1.1.529) IsNew coronavirus infection Cause of (COVID-19)ウ イ ル スKnown asSARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)Mutant strainIs[1]..The first known case is2021March 11Republic of South AfricaからwhoFirst reported to (WHO)[2].

On November 11, the same year, WHOVariant of concern(VOC)Greek alphabet15th character ofOmicron (ο: Omicron)Based onOmicron strainNamed (Omicron variant)[3][4][5][6].

The Omicron strain has many mutations, some of which areNew oneIs[7], Some mutations are most common at the time of discovery of the Omicron strainvaccineWas using for the targetSpike proteinAffects.Depending on the level of this mutationInfectious,Antigenic escape,Vaccine resistanceConcerns have surfaced.As a result, the Omicron strain was designated as a variant of concern in a short period of time, and some countries introduced a travel ban targeting some African countries such as South Africa in order to delay the spread of the infection. rice field.

Omicron strains from the end of the same year2022Until then, it was the mainstream stockDelta stockHas become the mainstream stock in the world by replacing.In addition, sub-strains such as BA.2, BA.4, and BA.5 have also emerged, replacing existing strains and causing epidemics frequently ().#SublineSee also).

Features

name

August 2021, 11,WHOThe Technical Advisory Group on the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 in(English editionDeclared B.1.1.529 as a Variant of ConcernGreek script OfOmicron (ο: Omicron)Specified as[5][8][9]..previousMu strain(μ: Mu) Is the next Greek letterNew (ν: Nu)Xi / Xi (ξ: Xi)Was to be skipped, but the reason is NewEnglishof"New"When[5][6], Xi in English notation of Xi / Xi is commonChinese surnameBecause it is easy to confuse with[6][10][11]..Especially when it comes to flying Xi / XiChugokuGeneral Secretary of the Communist PartyandHead of state OfXi JinpingIt was also pointed out that (Xi Jinping) may have avoided duplication with the surname.[5][12]"We did not use xi because it is a common surname," WHO explained. "We follow a disease nomenclature that prevents attacks on specific cultures, societies, nations, regions, ethnic groups, and occupations." doing[13][Note 1].

Some English speakers may mispronounce the name of the variant as "Omnicron", probably because they are not familiar with the Greek alphabet.[15][16][17][18].

GISAIDThe project isidentifierAssign GR / 484A,(English editionProject assigned clade identifier 21K[3].

Mutation

There are numerous mutations in the Omicron strain, and scientists are concerned about some mutations.[19].. 32 mutations were generated by infectionantibodyAnd many that are widely administeredvaccineMainantigenAffects peaplomers, which are the targets of.Many of these mutations have not been observed in other strains.[20][21]..There are 30 mutant strainsamino acid縺 螟 螟 Fang 縺 迚 ケ 蠕 エ 倥 ¢ 賨 賨 车㸺 㸺 3 縺, 縺 蟆 蟆 & 縺谺  螟 AAnd there is one small insert.Fifteen of them are receptor binding domains (RBDs)[Note 2](residue319-541).Many changes and deletions have also been made in other genomic regions.Of note is that it increases the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2.[23]FoorinCutting siteIs to have three mutations in[24]..The mutations in the genomic region are:[25].

geneamino acidRemarks
(English edition
  • nsp3: K38R, V1069I, Δ1265, L1266I, A1892T
  • nsp4: T492I
  • nsp5: P132H
  • nsp6: Δ105-107, A189V
  • nsp12: P323L
  • nsp14: I42V
(English editionA67V, Δ69-70, T95I, G142D, Δ143-145, Δ211, L212I, ins214EPE, G339D, S371L, S373P, S375F, K417N, N440K, G446S, S477N, T478K, E484A, Q493R, G496S, Q498R, N501Y, Y505H T547K, D614G, H655Y, N679K, P681H, N764K, D796Y, N856K, Q954H, N969K, L981FChanges in half of 30 (15) are located in the receptor binding domain (residues 319–541)[Source required]
(English editionT9I
(English editionD3G, Q19E, A63T
(English editionP13L, Δ31-33, R203K, G204R
Source: EDCD Threat Assessment Brief[26] CoVariants[27]

Subline

As a sub-strain of Omicron strain, as of July 2022BA.1 / B.1.1.529.1,BA.2 / B.1.1.529.2,BA.3 / B.1.1.529.3,BA.4 / B.1.1.529.4,BA.5 / B.1.1.529.5and so on[29]..They share many mutations, but their content is significantly different.

BA.1 and BA.2 share 32 mutations, but 28 differences[30]..This suggests that, unlike some other major mutants, BA.2 needs to have its own name based on the Greek alphabet.[30].. BA.2 became popular all over the world from March to May 2022[31].

VOC system monitored by WHO (VOC-LUM)[Note 3]) Of "Omicron strain substrain under surveillance(Omicron subvariants under monitoring), out of BA.2022 strains as of July 7BA.2.12.1BA.2.75(BA.2 subtype), and moreBA.4,BA.5Is specified[3][31].

BA.2.12.1 in December 2021AmericaDetected by[3], Has L452Q mutation, etc.[32].. Since mid-March 2022, the countryNew York Stateな どEast coastPopular[32], The whole country until around JuneLatin AmericaIt has become the mainstream system in some countries of[31][33].

Both BA.4 and BA.5 were detected in South Africa in January 2022.[3], Although many mutations are common to the BA.2 lineage, there is a 69/70 deletion in the peplomer.Delta stockWas also seen inL452RHave mutations etc.[33][34]..Of these, the BA.5 system has been available since June of the same year.EuropeAnd America,AsiaInfection is spreading all over the world[31][33][35], As of the end of August, it has replaced other strains and has become the mainstream strain.[31].

On the other hand, BA.2.75 (commonly known asCentaur[36]) In July 2022IndiaDetected by[3], L452 and Q493R are not mutated, but have more mutations in peplomer compared to the original BA.2.[31][37]..For this reason, it has been pointed out that it may be easier to bind to cells, and it was formed by vaccination and past infections.Neutralizing antibodyThere is concern about the spread of infection due to escape from[36][37].

Recombinant

Recombinant with Delta strain (generated by mixing genes)XDandXFHas been discovered, "DeltacronIt is also called.Also, a recombinant of BA.1 and BA.2.XEHas also been discovered[38]..These may have both characteristics, but as of March 2022, details such as infectivity, severity, and vaccine efficacy have not been clarified.[38].

Vaccination

WHOConcerns the possibility that numerous mutations may weaken the immunity of previously infected or vaccinated people.It is also possible that immunity does not work effectively on Omicron strains compared to previous mutant strains.The effect of the mutation, if any, remains unclear as of the end of November 2021. WHO is especially in countries with low vaccination ratesMedical collapseWarns that it may happen.Mortality and morbidity can be extremely high where vaccination rates are low. WHO in all countriesCOVID-19 vaccineEncouraging inoculation rates to increase[39].

Cardiff University OfEpidemiologistProfessor Paul Morgan also recommends vaccination, saying:

"The most likely result is a slowdown rather than a complete loss of immunity. The virus is all on its surface.EpitopeThere is no possibility of losing.Because if that happens, the peplomer will no longer function.Therefore, antibodies and antibodies made against previous versions of the virus or against vaccinesT cellsSome of the clones may be ineffective, while the rest remain effective.Half, two-thirds, or otherwise of the immune response may be ineffective, and if half remain, more booster is better. "[40]

At least the onset prevention effect has decreased over time after inoculation compared to the conventional mutant strains.[41]..As of July 2022, due to concerns about further epidemics in the futurePfizer,ModernaDevelopment and testing of vaccines for Omicron strains are underway, and inoculation in Europe and the United States is being considered after the fall of the same year.[42][43].

Immunology

Many mutations in peplomer are also present in other variant of concern, with increased infectivity.Antigenic escapeIs related to.According to the computational modelCellular immunityIt is suggested that there is a possibility of escaping[21].. July 2021, 11,EcdcIs in recoveryserumAnd as an assessment of the neutralizing capacity of the vaccine is urgently needed to assess the potential for antigenic escape, it is expected that these data will be available within 2-3 weeks.[25].

April 2021 (2021 – 11)NowIt is unclear to what extent the Omicron strain will spread to people with high levels of immunity.It is also unclear whether the Omicron strain causes mild or more severe COVID-19.According to pharmaceutical companies, vaccines can be renewed to fight new mutants in about 100 days if needed.[44].

National Institute for Communicative Diseases, South Africa (en: National Institute for Communicable Diseases) Expert Anne von Gottberg believes that immunity conferred by a previous mutant strain does not provide protection from the Omicron strain.[45].

Signs and symptoms

Symptoms specific to the mutant strain have not yet been associated and, like other mutant strains, some infected individuals are asymptomatic.[46].

(English editionChairman's(English editionSaid that the first person to encounter this mutant was a patient with fatigue and pain, but no coughing, odor or taste changes.[47].

(English edition"It is encouraging to see doctors reporting that South Africa has a younger average age and that the Omicron strain causes mild symptoms without increasing hospitalization. However, the variant strain infection causes COVID-19. On the other hand, we need to see what happens when we move to the most vulnerable group of senior citizens. "[48]..However, the WHO said in an update on the mutant strain, although it was not possible to determine whether it was due to a particular mutant strain, "preliminary data suggest that hospitalization rates are increasing in South Africa." rice field[49].

Diagnosis

CurrentPCR testCan detect Omicron strains.Some laboratories have shown that widely used PCR tests do not detect one of the three target genes (“S gene target failure”).[50]. But,Alpha strainSimilarly, partial detection also functions as a marker for mutant strains.[50]. for that reason,COVID-19 rapid antigen testIs unaffected in most cases[46].

prevention

WHO, like other mutants, recommends adequate ventilation in closed spaces, avoiding congestion and close contact, wearing appropriate masks, washing hands frequently and being vaccinated. ing[51][52].

WHO called on countries to do the following:[53].

  • Strengthen monitoring and sequencing efforts to better understand the widespread SARS-CoV-2 mutants
  • Metadata associated with the complete genomic sequence,GISAIDSending to a public database such as
  • (English editionTo report to WHO the first case / cluster associated with a viral infection of concern through this mechanism.
  • Understand the potential impact of viruses of concern on the epidemiology, severity, effectiveness of public health and social measures, diagnostic methods, immune responses, antibody neutralization, or other related characteristics of COVID-19. Conduct field surveys and laboratory evaluations in collaboration with the international community where capacity exists to deepen

August 2021, 11,BiontechIs the currentvaccineHe said he would know in two weeks if he was effective against the mutants and if needed updated vaccines could be shipped in 100 days.Moderna,Johnson & Johnson,AstraZenecaAlso is studying the effect of mutant strains on vaccine efficacy[54].. Same day,NovavaxAnnounced that it is developing an updated vaccine for the Omicron strain, which is expected to be ready for testing and production within a few weeks and will require two doses.[55][56].. Aug. 11,ShinobuSaid that inactivated vaccines against mutant strains could be mass-produced rapidly, and that they were monitoring studies and collecting samples of mutant strains to determine if new vaccines were needed.[57].Gamalaya InstituteIt is,Sputnik LightIs effective against variant strains,Sputnik VStarted adaptation and said the modified version could be ready for mass production in 45 days[58].

On November 11, WHO said that even vaccinated people are expected to be infected, albeit in small numbers and in predictable proportions.[59].. Same day,Pfizer OfChief executive officer(CEO)Albert BourlaPfizerRNA virusOf antiviral drugs(English editionAbout the development ofFDA OfEmergency use permissionThe company believes that it is possible to treat Omicron strains.[60][Citation needed medicine].MerckRidgebackIs an RNA virus antiviral drug for the treatment of infections caused by the Omicron strain.MolnupiravirIs being evaluated[61].

November 11th, CEO of Moderna(English editionWarned that the effect and immunity of existing vaccines against conventional strains is much weaker, and it will take several months to manufacture a vaccine specialized for Omicron strains.United KingdomEconomic newspaperFinancial TimesIssued in an interview with[62].

治療

Corticosteroids(English editionIs known to be effective in managing patients with severe COVID-19.The impact on the effectiveness of other therapies is currently being evaluated[63][64].

Monoclonal antibodySimilar studies and studies have been conducted in connection with (moAb) treatment.vitroPreclinical data on pseudoviral data from the highly conservedEpitopeshows that several moAbs designed using[65].

In addition, KakkonyuIs also effective for treatment[66].

Epidemiology

The number of cases of Omicron strains is throughout South Africa, mainlyGautengIs increasing in[19]..Some evidence indicates that Omicron strains have an increased risk of reinfection.Studies are underway to assess infectivity, mortality, and other factors.Evidence of the effects of this mutant and vaccine efficacy is under investigation[52][67].

2020年の同国の感染率は11月11日に最低になった。その後少し経った2021年の症例は1月中旬に最大となり、前年と同様に症例が11月11日に最低となったが、その後再び急速に増加し、11月25日までに4倍に増加した[68].

Delta stockThere is still great uncertainty about the infectivity compared to, but the guess is 100%.[69][70]From 500%[71]May increase (2 to 6 times).When the mutant strain was identified, the number of cases was small but increasing in the country.Is the Omicron strain itself more contagious than the Delta mutant strain, or is there an obvious rapid infection?(English editionIt is not yet clear whether it is due to other factors such as[72][73].

The mutant strain is estimated to have emerged in September or October 2021.[74]..The country was thought to be relatively COVID-19 absent by testing, vaccination, recovery, etc., but has already affected a significant proportion of aircraft passengers from the country since the first single case. It looks like it is a concern.This shows that the absolute growth is large.However, it is possible that it had changed to its current form as early as 2020.[75][76].

statistics

The likelihood of detecting cases varies significantly, especially depending on the country's sequencing rate (about 50% in the country with the highest sequencing rate, compared to 19 for all COVID-0.05 cases in the country with the lowest sequencing rate). Less than% are sequenced).South Africa, for example, sequences significantly more samples than most other countries on the African continent, albeit at a much lower rate than most Western countries.[77][78].

Confirmed cases by country
Country / territoryNumber of infected persons confirmed as of December 2021, 12 (GISAID[79]Number of infected persons confirmed as of December 12 (other sources)Suspicious number of cases
South African flag South Africa1,24719,070[80]
British flag United Kingdom5,00014,909[81]200,000[82][83] 53,881[84]
Danish flag Denmark27311,559[85]-
Norway flag Norway1791,176[86]-
Canadian flag Canada71488[87]1,801[88]
United States flag America461321[89]-
Australian flag Australia344280[90]-
German flag Germany24277[91]-
Dutch flag  Netherlands151105[92]-
Belgian flag Belgium15417[93]-
French flag France62133[94]-
Swiss flag Switzerland13013[93]-
Argentina flag Argentine2119[95][96]80[97]
Republic of Korea flag  South Korea9114[98]-
Israeli flag Israel9067[99]-
Botswana flag ボツワナ8423[100]-
Spanish flag Spain6014[91]-
Japanese flag Japan850[101]-
Indian flag India4050[102]-
Zimbabwe flag Zimbabwe-50[103]-
Ghana flag Ghana4033[100]-
Irish flag Ireland3239[104]-
Portugal flag Portugal2337[105]6[106][93]
Swedish flag Sweden5228[107]-
Estonia flag エストニア-26[108]
Namibian flag Namibia1718[109]-
Hong Kong flag Hong Kong188[110]-
Austrian flag Austria5717[93]-
Russian flag Russia316[111]-
Italian flag Italy2513[112]-
Brazilian flag Brazil1911[113]-
Iceland flag アイス ランド-12[114]4[115]
Kingdom of Thailand flag Thailand1211[116]5
Zambia flag Zambia-11[117]-
Finnish flag Finland334[118][119]
Romanian flag Romania213[120][121]-
Singapore flag Singapore1324[122]-
Nigerian flag Nigeria116[123]-
Uganda flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu-7[124]-
Rwandan flag Rwanda16[111]-
Turkish flag Turkey36[125]-
Montenegro flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu15[126]-
Flag of Slovenia スロベニア24[127]-
Greek flag Greece23[93]-
Croatian flag Croatia23[93]-
Cyprus flag Cyprus-3[128]-
Kenya flag Kenya-3[129]-
Flag of senegal セネガル73[130]-
Malawi flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu33[131]-
Palestine Autonomous Region-3[111]-
Taiwan flag Republic of China-3[132]-
Flag of Slovakia Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu33[133]-
Fiji flag Fiji-2[134]-
Jordan flag Jordan42[135]-
Latvian flag ラトビア-2[136]-
Lebanese flag Lebanon42[137]-
Nepal flag Nepal22[138]-
Philippines flag The Philippines22[139]-
レ ユ ニ オ ン72[140]-
Bangladesh flag Bangladesh22[141]-
Czech flag Czech Republic52[93]-
Chilean flag チリ22[142]-
Hungarian flag Hungary-2[143]-
Lithuanian flag リトアニア32[144]-
Mauritius flag Mauritius-2[145]-
Flag of Mozambique Mozambique172[146]-
Oman Flag Oman-2[147]-
Algerian flag アルジェリア-1[111]-
Bahrain flag バーレーン-1[148]-
Cambodia flag Cambodia11[149]-
Flag of the People's Republic of China Chugoku12[150][151]-
Cuban flag Cuba-1[152]-
Ecuador flag Ecuador11[153]-
Indonesian flag Indonesia13[154]-
Kuwait flag クウェート-1[155]-
Liechtenstein flag Lichtenstein21[156]-
Luxembourg flag Luxembourg11[93]-
Malaysia flag Malaysia11[157]-
Maldives flag Maldives11[158]-
Mexican flag Mexico71[159]-
Morocco flag Morocco-1[160]-
New Zealand flag New Zealand11[161]-
Pakistan flag Pakistan11[162]-
Polish flag Poland21[111]-
Puerto Rico flag プ エ ル ト リ コ31[163]-
Sierra Leone flag シエラレオネ11[164]-
Saudi arabia flag Saudi Arabia-1[165]-
Sri Lanka flag Sri Lanka21[166]-
Trinidad and Tobago flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu11[167]-
Tunisia flag Tunisia-1[168]-
United Arab Emirates flag United Arab Emirates-1[169]-
 Global total (91 countries and territories)8,88629,688> 200,000

History

Number of reported cases

On November 2021, 11, South Africa first reported the Omicron strain to WHO.[4]The first known sample was reportedly collected from Botswana on November 2021, 11.[21]..Later detected in South Africa[170], One infected personHong KongWas traveling to[171][172]. further,IsraelThen,MalawiOne traveler returning from[173], Two people who returned from South Africa,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euOne infected person who returned from Japan was identified.One case confirmed in Belgium before November 1thEgyptMay have been infected with[174].

All four early cases reported by Botswana occurred in individuals who had completed vaccination.All three early cases and one suspicious case reported by Israel occurred in individuals who had completed vaccination.[173]..Vaccination was completed in one of the suspicious cases in Germany[175].

On November 11, two cases were detected in the United Kingdom, two cases in Munich, Germany, and one case in Milan, Italy.[176]. NetherlandsInsurance MinisterAmsterdam Schiphol AirportOf the 2 passengers on two flights from South Africa (taking off shortly before banning travel from South Africa) arriving in, 600 had a positive COVID-61 test, after which 19 had Omicron strains. Turned out to be[177]..Entry into the Netherlands generally requires vaccination, PCR testing, and recovery from infection. One was an airplane from Johannesburg, Gauteng, where Omicron stocks dominate.Due to new restrictions, two passengers were inspected and quarantined.[178].

XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,Australia OfSydneyTwo cases were detected in. Both from South AfricaDoha International AirportI had arrived in Sydney the day before via. The two were completely vaccinated but were in quarantine.Twelve other travelers from the country were also in quarantine for 2 days, but about 12 other passengers and crew on the plane were instructed to quarantine.[179].DenmarkTwo travelers from South Africa who arrived in Tokyo tested positive for COVID-2.Then, on November 19, it was confirmed that he was infected with the Omicron strain.[180][181].. Same day,AustriaAlso confirmed the first Omicron strain[182]..In the Czech RepublicNamibiaA case of Omicron strain was reported by a traveler who spent time in[183]..Canada tooNigeriaReported two first cases of Omicron strain from travelers from, which became the first reported case of Omicron strain in North America.[184].

November 11th, AustraliaDarwin in the Northern TerritoryPositive cases were recorded in.Infected on November 11th in South AfricaJohannesburgRepatriated from Darwin, where he was taken to a quarantine facility where a positive test was recorded.[185]..Two more people who traveled from southern Africa to Singapore via Singapore were also positive.[186]..Portugal reported cases of 13 Omicron strains, all of which were members of the football club[187]..Sweden also confirmed the first case on November 11[188].SpainWas the first case of a traveler from South Africa[189]

Positive cases were recorded in Sydney, Australia, on November 11, from a person who was acting locally after visiting southern Africa before arriving in Sydney before travel restrictions.[190].

Market reaction

Driven by travel-related stocks on November 2021, 11 due to concerns about the potential economic impact of Omicron stocksDow average stock priceIt led to a decline in the global market, including the worst decline in 2021.Brent crude oilWest Texas IntermediatePrices fell 10% and 11.7%, respectively[191].

CryptocurrencyThe market has also fallen[192][193].South African randAlso recorded the lowest ever in 2021U.S. dollarTraded over 16 rand against, losing 11% of its value as of November[194][195][196].

International reaction

On 2021 November 11, WHO advised countries not to impose new travel restrictions and"Risk-based and scientific"recommended to take an approach[197].. Same day,European Center for Disease Control and Prevention(ECDC) reported that modeling results suggest that a strict travel ban could delay the impact of the variant strain on European countries by two weeks, allowing countries to take action.[25]. On the same day after the WHO announcement, several countries announced travel bans from South Africa in response to the identification of the variant strain.The United States has banned travel from eight African countries.[198]In particular, it did not ban travel from European countries where cases have also been detected, Israel, Canada and Australia.Other countries that have banned travel from South Africa include:Japan-Canada-EU-Israel-Australia-United Kingdom-SingaporeThere is[199][200][201][202][203][204][205].. Brazil(English editionRecommended travel restrictions on new mutants[206].(English editionHas issued a state of emergency ahead of the potential spike in Omicron strains, even though no Omicron strains have been detected in either the state or the United States.[207].. On 11 November, Switzerland introduced mandatory inspection and quarantine for all visitors arriving from countries where the mutant was detected, including the original Belgium and Israel.[208].

In response to this reaction, South Africa(English edition Of(English editionDefended the country's response to a pandemic and said the travel ban violates the WHO's "norms and standards."[209]..The ban on travel is likely to have a significant impact on the country's economy and could hide the discovery of new variant of concern in other countries.Low vaccination rates in developing countries create opportunities for new variants to emerge, and these countries are struggling to acquire intellectual property rights to develop and produce vaccines.[210]..At the same time, in the countryVaccine evasionAnd indifference has delayed vaccination, and as of November 2021, only 11% of the population has been fully vaccinated.[211].

On November 11, WHO needs to prepare for this variant by accelerating vaccination of high-priority groups and strengthening the healthcare system, with very high global risks and serious consequences. I warned each country that there is. WHOTedros AdanomThe Executive Secretary described world affairs as dangerous and volatile, and the current system prevents countries from warning other countries of the inevitable landing threats, so a new pandemic handling. Asked for an agreement. CEPI CEO Richard Hatchet said the mutant meets the prediction that transmission of the virus in low-vaccinated areas will accelerate evolution.[212].

In preparation for the Omicron strain reaching the United StatesJoe BidenThe president said the mutant was "a cause of concern, not a panic," and the government was ready for the mutant and repeatedly controlled it.The president also said that a large blockade similar to that of 2020, near the beginning of the pandemic, is "not an option for now."[213].

In mid-December, several Canadian provinces reinstated restrictions on events such as gatherings and sporting events, and stepped up enforcement of proof of vaccination orders.British Columbia Explicitly Bans 'Organized New Year's Eve Events' That Don't Sit[214][215][216]Meanwhile, Quebec announced a partial lockdown on December 12, ordering all bars, casinos, gyms, schools and theaters to close, imposing limits on restaurant capacity and opening hours, and restricting professional sports. Banned crowds at events[217].

On December 12, the Dutch government announced a lockdown aimed at preventing the spread of mutated strains during the holiday period.[218].

In late December, the UK changed the interval between booster vaccinations from the usual six months to prepare for an outbreak of the Omicron strain, as two doses were not enough to stop infection in some countries. South Korea and Thailand shortened to 12 months, Belgium to 2 months, France, Singapore, Taiwan, Italy and Australia to 6 months, and Finland to 3 months for at-risk groups.Antibody levels begin to decline at 4 months, but usually the longer the interval between shots, the longer it takes for the immune system's response to mature.[219].

Travel restrictions in each country

Since November 2021, 11, which was designated as a Variant of Concern (VOC) by WHO, travel restrictions have been placed in each country.

European Union flag European Union

British flag United Kingdom

  • Mandated quarantine for travelers from six countries: South Africa, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Lesotho and Eswatini from 11:26 pm on November 12[221].

Swiss flag Switzerland

United States flag The United States of America

  • From November 11, South Africa, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Namibia, Lesotho, Eswatini, Mozambique,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euRestrict travel from eight countries, excluding American citizens and residents[223].

Australian flag Australia

  • Announced that it will restrict travel from nine countries, including South Africa and Zimbabwe.Returned Australians will be quarantined for 9 days[224].

Japanese flag Japan

  • From midnight on November 11, the government will take measures to isolate six countries, South Africa, Eswatini, Zimbabwe, Namibia, Botswana, and Lesotho, at accommodation facilities designated by the country for 27 days after entry.[225].. 27th afternoon, Mozambique, Malawi,ZambiaAnnounced that it will cover 9 countries including[226].
  • On the afternoon of November 11th, it was announced that foreigners would be banned from entering the world from midnight on the 29th.In addition, 30-day quarantine is required for Japanese return from countries where Omicron strains have been confirmed.[227].

Philippines flag The Philippines

  • On November 11, entry from South Africa, Botswana, Eswatini, Lesotho, Mozambique, Namibia and Zimbabwe was immediately suspended.Even if you have stayed for the past two weeks, you are prohibited from entering the country.[228].
  • November 11, in a country subject to immigration banAustria, Czech,Hungary,Netherlands,Switzerland,Belgium,ItalyAdded 7 European countries. No entry until December 12th[229].

Singapore flag Singapore

  • Quarantine from Botswana, Eswatini, Lesotho, Mozambique, Namibia, Zimbabwe for 11 days and returnees from South Africa for 27 days after 11:59 pm on 10 November[230].

Republic of Korea flag South Korea

  • Eight African countries were obliged to quarantine their own citizens entering from the target countries for 8 days from midnight on the 28th, and foreigners from the target countries were prohibited from entering the country.[231].

Flag of the People's Republic of China Chugoku

  • Macau flag Macau
    • After midnight on November 11, people with a history of staying in South Africa, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Namibia, Lesotho, Eswanity, Mozambique, and Malawi will be banned from boarding commercial aircraft to Macau within the last 28 days, and measures will be taken at the water's edge. Strengthened[232].
  • Hong Kong flag Hong Kong
    • On November 11, it announced the tightening of immigration restrictions and banned foreigners from eight countries in Southern Africa.Hong Kongers will spend the first 26 days in quarantine in a government facility and another 8 days in a quarantine hotel[233].

Indonesian flag Indonesia

  • South Africa, Botswana, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Lesotho, Mozambique, Eswatini, from November 11th in the last 29 days,NigeriaTravelers who have stayed in Indonesia will be banned from entering the country, and Indonesian citizens will be quarantined in designated facilities for 14 days.Extend the quarantine period from 3 days to 7 days for all other travelers[234].

Kingdom of Thailand flag Thailand

  • From December, entry from eight countries including South Africa, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Namibia, Lesotho, Eswatini, Mozambique and Malawi will be restricted.[235].

Israeli flag Israel

  • Announced that all foreigners will be banned from entering the country after midnight on November 11th.[236].

Saudi arabia flag Saudi Arabia

  • Banned entry from South Africa, Botswana, Eswatini, Lesotho, Mozambique, Namibia and Zimbabwe[237].

United Arab Emirates flag UAE

Brazilian flag Brazil

  • On November 11, a measure was promulgated to ban foreign travelers departing from or passing through South Africa, Botswana, Eswatini, Lesotho, Namibia and Zimbabwe from boarding international flights to Brazil within 27 days prior to boarding.[238].

Chronological Table

2021

11

  • 26 days - Israeli flag IsraelConfirmed the infected person of the mutant strain for the first time in[243][244].. WHO has released the mutant strain "Strain B.1.1.529"Omicron strain],Variant of concernSpecified to[245].
  • 28 days - Dutch flag NetherlandsOf the 61 new coronavirus-infected passengers on flights from South Africa, 13 were confirmed to be infected with the Omicron strain for the first time.Australian flag Australia, Denmark,Canadian flag CanadaConfirmed the infected person of Omicron strain for the first time in[251][252][253].Japanese flag Japanso,NamibiaA male who returned from Japan was confirmed to be positive for the new coronavirus on the night of the 1th, confirming whether it is an Omicron strain.[254].
  • 30 days - Japanese flag Japan OfFumio KishidaPrime MinisterAs announced on November 11, the day before, Omicron strains, such as those in South Africa, have been confirmed for immigration procedures for unnecessary and urgent purposes such as tourism for foreigners.African continentIn principle, it will be banned at midnight (Japan time) on the same day for all countries and regions around the world, including the nine countries ofJapaneseRegarding the waiting and quarantine measures for returnees for a certain period of time, he said, "If you return from 9 countries / regions including 14 countries where Omicron strains have been confirmed, strict quarantine measures will be taken."The Government of Japan has announced that short-term entry for business purposes11/8In addition to shortening the waiting period to 3 days, international students and technical intern trainees were also allowed to enter the country with conditions in principle.[260].

12

  • 16 days - Mainichi NewspapersBut outside the airport quarantine facilityJapanese flag JapanIt was reported that the first Omicron community-acquired person was confirmed in Tokyo.Hirokazu MatsunoChief Cabinet Secretary"I don't think there was a community-acquired infection," he explained at a press conference.After that, the Mainichi Shimbun allegedly canceled this article, reexamined the content of the article, and reposted the article.[263].
  • Late- Flag of the People's Republic of China ChugokuXi'an CityLockdown (city blockage) is carried out at.Ordered the citizens to forbid unnecessary and unurgent going out except for the purchase of daily necessities and groceries by the minimum number of people.[264].

2022

1

  • 3 days - Flag of the People's Republic of China ChugokuHenan ProvinceIn addition to implementing lockdowns and prohibiting all citizens from going out unnecessarily and driving automobiles including public transportation such as fixed-route buses and taxis, in principle, the school will also carry out lockdowns.・ Issued an order to close restaurants, etc.[265].
  • Early --On the video posting site,Flag of the People's Republic of China ChugokuIgnoring the ban on going out in principle due to the lockdown of Xi'An City, a large number of citizens, including a man who tried to cross the river to escape from the city, and citizens who tried to go shopping, were in charge of the district. There is a video posted that you can be beaten by others[266].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ However, "Xi" is not the most common surname in China, which is the 331st in descending order.[14]In addition, there is no font that is pronounced "shi (xi)" other than "Xi" and is used more often as a surname than "Xi".[14].
  2. ^ A site that binds to a receptor on the virus side[22].
  3. ^ Abbreviation for "VOC lineages under monitoring"[3].

Source

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  33. ^ a b c Mutant strains of the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), which may increase infectivity / transmission and change in antigenicity (18th report) --National Institute of Infectious Diseases (July 2022, 7)
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  35. ^ [Explanation] Derivatives of Omicron strains "BA.4" and "BA.5" How much should we worry about? --BBC News (March 2022, 6)
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Related item

外部 リンク

Neutralizing antibody

Neutralizing antibody(Chuwa Kotai,British: neutralizing antibody, NAbs) IsPathogenAnd infectious particles細胞Protects cells by neutralizing their biological effects onantibodyIs.Pathogens and infectious particles lose infectivity and pathogenicity due to neutralization[3]..Neutralizing antibodyウ イ ル ス,Intracellular bacteria,(English editionAgainstAdaptive immune system OfFluidPart of the response.Neutralizing antibodies are the surface structure of infectious particles (antigen) By specifically bindingHostPrevents interactions that can infect and destroy cells.By neutralizing antibodyImmunologyBecause the immune system eliminates infected particles before infection occursSterilization immunity(British: sterilizing immunity) Also known as[4].

mechanism

Viral particles and intracellular bacteria utilize molecules on their surface to enter the cell of the target cell.Cell surface receptorInteracts with and invades the cellReplication cycleTo start[5]..Neutralizing antibodies can bind to pathogens, inhibit infectivity, and block molecules required for cell entry.This is due to the static interference of antibodies against the attachment of pathogens and toxins to receptors on host cells.In the case of viral infection, neutralizing antibody (NAb)Envelope virusOf glycoproteins or non-enveloped virusesCapsid proteinCan be combined with.In addition, neutralizing antibodies can act to prevent structural changes that are often required for particles to successfully enter cells.For example, neutralizing antibodies mediate the membrane fusion required for entry into host cells.Viral protein OfStructural changeCan be prevented.In some cases, the virus cannot infect even after the antibody has dissociated.The pathogen-antibody complex is eventually taken up by macrophages and degraded.[6].

Neutralizing antibodies are also important in neutralizing the toxic effects of bacterial toxins.An example of a neutralizing antibodyDiphtheria antitoxinAnd this isDiphtheria toxinCan neutralize the biological effects of[7]..Neutralizing antibodies are not effective against extracellular bacteria because the binding of the antibody does not interfere with bacterial replication.Here, the immune systemOpsonization,complementOther antibodies, such as activationFeaturesKill bacteria using[8].

Difference between neutralizing antibody and binding antibody

Not all antibodies that bind to pathogenic particles are neutralizing antibodies.Non-neutralizing antibodies (ie, binding antibodies) specifically bind to the pathogen but do not interfere with the infectivity of the pathogen.This can be due to not binding to the proper area.The non-neutralizing antibody flagged the particle and that it was targetedImmune CellsPlays an important role in informing against.The particles are then processed and, as a result, destroyed by the mobilized immune cells.[9]..Neutralizing antibodies, on the other hand, can neutralize the biological effects of antigens without the need for immune cells.In some cases, non-neutralizing antibodies or inadequate amounts of neutralizing antibodies bound to viral particles may be utilized by several viral species to facilitate uptake into host cells. ..This mechanismAntibody-dependent enhancement of infectionKnown as[10]. this isDengue virus,Zika virusObserved in[11].

Production

AntibodiesB cellsProduced and secreted by. B cellsBone marrowWhen produced in, the gene encoding the antibody is randomGenetic recombination(V (D) J gene rearrangement), As a result, all mature B cells(English edition Ofamino acidThe array is differentantibodyTo produce.Therefore, all B cells produce antibodies that specifically bind to different antigens.[12]..The strong diversity of the antibody repertoire allows the immune system to recognize pathogens of various morphologies and sizes.At the time of infection, only antibodies that bind with high affinity to pathogenic antigens are produced.This is a single B cell cloneClonal selectionRealized by. B cellsInnate immune responseReleased from infected cells as part ofinterferonIs detected and mobilized to the infected site. B cells are just antibodies immobilized on the cell membraneB cell receptorIs presented on the cell surface. When the B cell receptor binds to a high affinity allogeneic antigen,Intracellular signal transductionCascade is triggered.In addition to binding to antigens, the immune system against pathogens細胞As part of the response, B cellsHelper T cellsProduced byCytokineIt also needs to be stimulated by. When B cells are fully activated, they proliferate rapidly.Plasma cellsDifferentiate into.The plasma cells then secrete large amounts of antigen-specific antibodies.[13]..After the first encounter with the antigen by vaccination or natural infectionImmunological memoryThis allows the neutralizing antibody to be produced more rapidly after the next exposure to the virus.

Virus neutralizing antibody avoidance

Viruses use various mechanisms to produce neutralizing antibodiesAvoidanceTo[14]..Of the virusgenomeIs at a high rateMutationTo do.Mutations that allow the virus to evade neutralizing antibodies are selected, thereby predominant.Conversely, antibodies are in the process of immune responseAffinity maturationEvolves at the same time, thereby improving the recognition of viral particles.Conserved parts of viral proteins that play a central role in viral function are less likely to evolve over time and are therefore more vulnerable to antibody binding.However, the virus has antibodies in these areasThree-dimensionalIt has evolved specific mechanisms for access to, making it difficult to combine.Antibodies are difficult to bind to viruses with a low density of surface structural proteins.Some viral glycoproteins are N- and O-linkedGlycosIs highly glycosylated to form the so-called glycan shield.This may reduce antibody binding affinity and promote avoidance of neutralizing antibodies.HumanAIDSIs the cause ofHIV-1Utilizes both of these mechanisms[15][16].

Medical use of neutralizing antibodies

Neutralizing antibodyPassive immunityIt can be used in patients without having a healthy immune system. In the early 20th century, infected patientsAntiserumWas being injected.Antisera against infectious pathogensPolyclonal antibodyOf patients who have previously been infected and recovered, includingserumIs.This indicates that the antibody can be used as an effective treatment for viral infections and toxins.[17]..Antisera are a very crude treatment because antibodies in plasma have not been purified or standardized and plasma can be rejected by donors.[18]..It also depends on donations from recovered patients and cannot be easily scaled up.However, because serum therapy is available relatively quickly, it is still used today as the first line of defense in the event of an outbreak.[19][20]..Serum therapy2009 Swine Flu Global Epidemic[21]AndWest African Ebola hemorrhagic fever epidemic[22]At that time, it was shown to reduce patient mortality.Also,COVID-19Is being tested as a promising treatment for[23][24]..Use a mixture of antibodies obtained from a healthy personImmunoglobulin therapyTo fight infectious diseasesImmunodeficiency or ImmunosuppressionIt is administered to patients who have been treated.   

Purified for more specific and robust treatmentPolyclonal antibody or Monoclonal antibody(MAb) can be used.Polyclonal antibodies target the same pathogen, but differEpitopeA collection of antibodies that bind to.Polyclonal antibodies are obtained from human donors or animals exposed to the antigen.Antigens injected into animal donors are designed to produce neutralizing antibodies as much as possible.[25]..Polyclonal antibodyCytomegalovirus(CMV),Hepatitis B virus(HBV),Rabies virus,Measles virus,Respiratory syncytial virusHas been used as a remedy for (RSV)[18].Diphtheria antitoxinIsDiphtheria toxinContains polyclonal antibodies against[26]..By treating with an antibody that binds a plurality of epitopes, a therapeutic effect is exhibited even when the virus is mutated and one of the epitopes changes its structure.However, treatment using polyclonal antibodies is convenient for production reasons.(English edition(English editionThere is a problem that is low.Monoclonal antibodies, on the other hand, all bind to the same epitope with high specificity.These antibodies allow mass production of mAbsHybridoma technologyCan be produced in[17]..MAbs for infectious diseases cease to function if the virus mutates the target epitope of the mAb or if multiple strains are in circulation.An example of a drug that uses a monoclonal antibody is against Ebola.ZMap[27], Against RSVPalivizumaband so on[28]..Many mAbs for other infections are in clinical trials.

Neutralizing antibodyVaccinationIt also plays a role in active immunization by.Understanding the binding site and structure of neutralizing antibodies in the innate immune response can rationally design vaccines to stimulate the immune system to produce neutralizing antibodies rather than binding antibodies.[29][30]..Introducing a virus weakened by vaccinationB cellsAllows the production of neutralizing antibodies. After the second exposure, it produces virus-specific antibodiesMemory B cellsThe presence of is a faster neutralizing antibody reaction.Effective vaccines induce the production of antibodies that can neutralize most of the viral variants, but viral mutations that result in antibody evasion require the vaccine to be updated accordingly.[31]..Some viruses evolve faster than others, so vaccines need to be updated accordingly.As a well-known exampleinfluenzaThere is a virus vaccine.This should be updated annually taking into account the recent circulating strains of the virus[14].

Neutralizing antibodyMultiple sclerosisMay also be useful in treating[2]..This type of antibodyRetro virusAbility to fight infections, but in some cases given into the body to treat multiple sclerosisMedicineTo attack.Recombinant protein preparations, especially animal-derived medicines, are generally targeted by neutralizing antibodies.Examples include Rebif, Betaseron, and Avonex.

Methods for Detection and Quantification of Neutralizing Antibodies

Neutralization assay (test)(English edition(Compare the number of viral plaques in the control well with the number of inoculated cultures), microneutralized (filled with a small amount of serum)Microtiter plateDo it in), andColorimetric assay(Depends on biomarkers that indicate viral metabolism inhibition) [32]It can be implemented and measured in a variety of ways, including the use of techniques such as.

Widespread neutralizing antibody

Many of the neutralizing antibodies produced by the immune system are highly specific for a single viral strain due to affinity maturation by B cells.[13].. Some highly genetically variable pathogens, such as HIV, constantly alter their surface structure so that neutralizing antibodies with high specificity to the old strain cannot bind to the new viral strain.Such immune avoidance strategies prevent the immune system from developing immunological memory for pathogens.[33]..Widespread neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs), on the other hand, have the special ability to bind and neutralize multiple strains of viral species.[34].

bNAb was initially discovered in HIV patients[35]..However, bNAb is a very rare entity.,Screening studies (intra-living organisms) showed that only 1% of all patients develop bNAb against HIV.[36].. bNAb can neutralize a wide range of viral strains by binding to conserved regions of viral surface proteins (which cannot be mutated because they are functionally essential for viral replication). Most binding sites for bNAb to HIV are the envelope (Env) protein, which is the exposed surface antigen of HIV.gp120andgp41It is on a trimer consisting of subunits).These sites include the CD4 binding site or the gp41-gp120 interface.[37].Los Alamos National LaboratoryHIV Database is a comprehensive resource with a wealth of information on HIV sequences, bNAbs and more.[38].

In addition, bNAb is influenza[39],Hepatitis C[40],Dengue fever[41],West Nile virus[42]It has also been found in other viruses such as.

Research

Preliminary studies are underway to identify and test bNAb against HIV-1[43].. bNAb is used in rationally designed vaccine studies to stimulate bNAb production and boost immunity to the virus.No known antigens that induce bNAb production in animal models or humans[34].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
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  3. ^ "Neutralizing antibody”. Biology-Online (2008). April 2009, 7Browse.
  4. ^ Dutta, A; Huang, CT; Lin, CY; Chen, TC; Lin, YC; Chang, CS; He, YC (6 September 2016). “Sterilizing immunity to influenza virus infection requires local antigen-specific T cell response in the lungs.”. Scientific Reports 6: 32973. bibcode2016NatSR ... 632973D. two:10.1038 / srep32973. PMC 5011745. PMID 27596047. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5011745/. 
  5. ^ Principles of Virology, Volume 1: Molecular Biology (4th ed.). ASM Press. (2015). P. 31. ISBN 978 – 1555819330 
  6. ^ Principles of Virology, Volume 2: Pathogenesis and Control (4th ed.). ASM Press. (2015). P. 125. ISBN 978-1-555-81951-4 
  7. ^ Treffers, Henry P. (2014). “Neutralizing antibody”. Access Science (McGraw-Hill). two:10.1036/1097-8542.450600. https://www.accessscience.com/content/neutralizing-antibody/450600. 
  8. ^ Janeway's immunobiology (8th ed.). Garland Science. (2012). P. 388. ISBN 978-0-8153-4243-4 
  9. ^ Schmaljohn, AL (July 2013). “Protective antiviral antibodies that lack neutralizing activity: precedents and evolution of concepts.”. Current HIV Research 11 (5): 345–53. two:10.2174 / 1570162x113116660057. PMID 24191933. 
  10. ^ Tirado, SM; Yoon, KJ (2003). Viral Immunology 16 (1): 69–86. two:10.1089/088282403763635465. PMID 12725690. 
  11. ^ Supasa, Piyada; Wongwiwat, Wiyada; Rouvinski, Alexander; Barba-Spaeth, Giovanna; Duangchinda, Thaneeya; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; “Dengue virus sero-cross-reactivity drives antibody-dependent enhancement of infection with zika virus”. Nature Immunology 17 (9): 1102–1108. two:10.1038 / ni.3515. PMC 4994874. PMID 27339099. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4994874/. 
  12. ^ Jung, David; Alt, Frederick W (January 2004). “Unraveling V (D) J Recombination”. Cell 116 (2): 299–311. two:10.1016 / S0092-8674 (04) 00039-X. PMID 14744439. 
  13. ^ a b Janeway's immunobiology (8th ed.). Garland Science. (2012). Pp. 389–404. ISBN 978-0-8153-4243-4 
  14. ^ a b VanBlargan, Laura A .; Goo, Leslie; Pierson, Theodore C. (2016). “Deconstructing the Antiviral Neutralizing-Antibody Response: Implications for Vaccine Development and Immunity” (English). Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 80 (4): 989–1010. two:10.1128 / MMBR.00024-15. ISSN 1092 – 2172. PMC 5116878. PMID 27784796. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5116878/. 
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  16. ^ Guha, Debjani; Ayyavoo, Velpandi (2013). “Innate Immune Evasion Strategies by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1” (English). ISRN AIDS 2013: 954806. two:10.1155/2013/954806. ISSN 2090-939X. PMC 3767209. PMID 24052891. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3767209/. 
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