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🏥 | "Sperm donation" suddenly emerged in the "Refreshing" special feature. Surprising voices one after another


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"Sperm donation" suddenly emerged in the "Refreshing" special feature. Surprising voices one after another

 
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Sperm donation that is attracting particular attention from women who cannot have children because of their husband's azoospermia, female couples, or single mothers.
 

"Sperm donation" featured in "Refreshing" has risen to the top of the Twitter trend.I have doubts about the topic itself ... → Continue reading

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Sperm donation

Sperm donationWhat is (sperm)?MaleIs paid or free of chargesemenIs to provide.The purpose of the recipient isArtificial inseminationMost of them are raised bySperm bankIt is done through a facility called.

Actual offer

Sperm donors usually enter into contracts to sell sperm and often continue to donate sperm for the contracted minimum period (6-12 months).Certain conditions (age and medical history) must be met to provide.In the United StatesFDAWas founded byHuman Cell and Tissue or Cell and Tissue Bank Product (HCT / Ps)There are regulations by the government and regulations unique to each state.In the case of Zytex International, one of the oldest sperm banks in the United States, it costs about $ 1 to $ 1 each time.[1]..In Japan, there are no restrictions by the national or local governments, and dozens of individual sperm donation sites have been launched.The usage fee varies, such as free of charge, actual cost only, and about 1 yen each time.

Close marriageFrom the perspective of preventing sperm banks, sperm banks usually have strict limits on the number of births per donor.In 1, the Health Science Council's Expert Committee on Assisted Reproductive Technology announced that the number of births per donor should be limited to 2000.[2]..However, some sperm donation volunteers in each country, including Japan, are working far beyond these standards, and self-restraint from an ethical point of view is required.[3]..However, as will be described later, the standards differ greatly from country to country, and their validity is controversial.

provider

Many US donors are 18-25 years old due to financial motives, but there is growing concern and interest in the resulting sperm offspring.The children thus created are also interested in their lack of a father and a keen interest in learning about their biological father.[Source required].

All donors limit the number of children produced by their sperm, but nevertheless find that they are secretly placed in another sperm bank over the internet. A man who posted to a website called DonorSiblingRegistry.com claims that sperm donation has made him the father of at least 650 children.These worries are double.Although rare, recessive genetic disorders can lead to unrealistic kinship with common traits in the future.In Japan as well, we will work outside the standards set by the "Special Committee on Assisted Reproductive Technology" report (2000) of the Health Science Council (the number of births per donor is limited to 1). Is considered a problem from an ethical point of view[Source required]..On the other hand, the number of births per donor varies greatly from country to country, with a population of 1 million in Denmark up to 570 and in the United States up to 12 per 85.[4], The validity of Japanese standards is controversial.


Regulation and donor tracking

The law on sperm donation depends largely on the jurisdiction.The donor and recipient are usually anonymous to each other.And the recipient may not receive any specific details about the donor, such as height, weight, hair color, or educational background.Nowadays, some countries give people who want to know about donors the right to know various levels of information, such as their personal information.As a result of the efforts of the donor's children, some countries have made it mandatory for all future donors to disclose this information (eg New Zealand, UK).However, it is usually anonymous in North America.

Tracking by registration

Tracking with DNA database

Donor-child relationship

Children produced by many sperm donations do not recognize the term "donor" as a proper expression.Appropriately, they seem to want things like "biological father," "genetic father," "father who gave up rights," and "male ancestor."[Source required].

Morality and ethics about sperm donation are expected to spark even more heated debate.However, many justify sperm donation as morally acceptable for having children.[Source required].

footnote

  1. ^ AFPBB News
  2. ^ Report on assisted reproductive technology by donating sperms, eggs, embryos, etc.
  3. ^ Sperm donor fathers 46 children UPI.com December 2008, 12
  4. ^ * en: Sperm donation laws by country --Sperm donation related laws in each country (Wikipedia English version)

外部 リンク

Single-parent family

Single-parent family(I am alone)motherorfatherEither one of theChild(Children) Consists of家庭Say.Single-parent householdIt is also called (I want to tanshin).

Mother and child familyMother and child household(I want to leave it) orFatherless family(I'm foolish), the family of father and childrenFather and son household(I want to pray) OrFamilyIt's called "Fushai". Also, the parents of such a familySingle mother(British: single mother, Abbreviation:Shinmama), for fathersSingle father(British: single father) Is called.Incidentally,EnglishThe name "single mother" derived from "single mother"Chisuko Ikegami"Life and sex of women who have not chosen to marry a single mother" ( 1982) Was recognized in Japanese society.[Source required]In this item, unless otherwise specified, "JapanSingle-parent homes inIs described.

Japanese single-parent family

The number of single-parent households with unmarried children under the age of 20 (estimated) was 2016 for mothers and children and 123.2 for fathers and children in 18.7.[1], Both households have an increasing tendency compared to 58 (71.8 and 16.7 respectively)[2].. The ratio of single-parent households to the household structure was 2017% in FY7.2, showing a gradual increase from 1986% in 5.1.[3].. The reason why there are more mother-to-child families is, for example, when a couple with children divorcesParental authorityIt is often the case that the child becomes a child. 1960(Showa 35), the proportion of fathers who became parents was 47%, 1996(8), 78% of mothers have parental authority[4].

Cause

More than 9% of the reasons for becoming a mother and child household are reasons other than bereavement with a spouse.[5].. In general, the reasons for the occurrence of single parents are as follows.

  • Divorce of parents
  • One of the parents died after birth of the child
  • A child is born after the death of his father
  • One of the parents is missing (evaporation)
  • One of the parents is detained by law
  • One of the parents is hospitalized due to mental disability
  • One of the parents has a severe disability and the other is rearing
  • The other is rearing due to abuse or abandonment by one of the parents
  • Birth without marrying
  • The circumstances when the mother conceived due to abandoned child etc. are unknown

However, if one of the parentsSingle assignmentDue to the reasons such as the above, "when the base of living is temporarily placed separately from the home" is not included.

Poverty of single-parent families

Labor Policy Research and Training OrganizationSurvey of[6]According toMinistry of Health, Labor and WelfarePublicPoverty lineThe proportion of households that fell below this was 51.4% for mother-child households and 22.9% for father-child households, which is a large difference from 5.9% for two-parent families. Furthermore, the proportion of “Deep Poor” households whose disposable income is less than 50% of the poverty line is 13.3% for mother-child households, 8.6% for father-child households, and 0.5% for two-parent households. .. In the case of mother-child households, households with older children have higher financial difficulties.

“Income disparities among families with children have been widening over the past 15 years, and the income disparities are particularly large within independent mother-child/father-child households.” The bias of households toward low-educational groups remains stable.” “From the estimation results of the factor decomposition method, the disparity in household income between educational backgrounds contributes to the widening income gap among independent single-parent households. Living with an adult relative had the role of buffering the difference in class between single-parent households."[7]The poverty of single-parent families varies depending on the sex, educational background, and cohabitation of the parents.

Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare"Guide for Child Abuse"[8]In, single-parent homes including unmarriedChild abuseIs listed as one of the risk factors. Survey that more than half of families who suspect child abuse or abuse attending a certain nursery school are single-parent families[9]AndAbandoned childcareThat the probability of occurrence of babies in households with low birth weight infants and single-parent homes is relatively high[10]and so on.

Poverty of a single parentThe vicious circle of povertyThere is a danger of falling intoChildren's cafeteria[11][12]And holding free cram school[13]Private support such as is also provided.

Administrative support

For a single-parent familyMunicipalitiesMainlyParenting,MedicalVarious kinds of support such as subsidies are being provided to the above. AlsoEmployment support,Job trainingEach measure such as. In addition, although it is not intended for single-parent families only, it is economically poor (=povertyWe have established welfare assistance, employment consultations, childcare consultation services, etc. Furthermore, although not a governmental organization, the Maternal and Child Widow Welfare Federation provides support by contacting governmental agencies.

Allowance for single-parent families, reduction/subsidy system, services

Various systems have been established by the government for mother-child and father-child families.

  • Children's allowance -0 years old or older junior high school graduate living in Japan (=Compulsory educationAllowance for children up to the completion of the course).
  • Child-rearing allowance -Allowance provided by local governments for children, such as single-parent families, who cannot receive childcare only from one of their fathers or mothers because of divorce of their parents. 1 yen per month for one child.
  • Child-rearing allowance-For single-parent families supporting children under the age of 18. 1 yen per child per month.
  • Welfare -When financially in need, welfare costs are paid according to the situation. (Life assistance, housing assistance, education assistance, medical assistance, childbirth assistance, livelihood assistance, funeral assistance, nursing assistance)
  • Housing allowance-Payment conditions are set by the local government.
  • income tax-Resident taxPreferential tax exemption- Single parent deductionAnd residence tax exempt households.
  • National pension-National Health Insurance(Tax) exemption-Reduced or exempted if both incomes are low.
  • TransportationDiscount system-There is a discount system for single-parent families. For example, households receiving child rearing allowances can purchase JR commuter pass tickets at a 3% discount.
  • Depending on the local governmentPublic transport(路線バス、地下鉄、路面電車、新交通システム)や民営の路線バスが無料で乗車できるWelfare boarding certificate,福祉回数券,福祉タクシーチケットが交付されるとこもある。
  • Water and sewerageExemption system-may be exempted by the municipality.
  • Public housingRent reduction and exemption system-Some local governments may be exempt.
  • Oversized trashExemption system for processing fees such as
  • ChildcareFee reduction / exemption
  • LunchCost reduction / exemption
  • Public High School Tuition Reduction/Exemption
  • Single-parent family, etc.MedicalSubsidy program-Up to 18 years old, subsidize part of medical expenses.
  • Medical expenses subsidy system for children-In recent years, it has been substantial in any local government.
  • System (Maru Yu)
  • Mother and childwelfareLending system- joint guarantorIs required, but you can get a loan at no interest rate.If you cannot set up a guarantor, you can get a loan at a low interest rate.
  • Mother-child dormitory (facility support for mothers and children)-If the child is under the age of 20, he/she can live at a burden according to his/her income.Welfare,Resident taxExempt households are free.
  • Helper dispatch- Ceremonial occasion,Sudden illnessWhen it is difficult to continue working, the temporaryHouseworkIf you need helphome helperWill be dispatched.
  • Single-parent rest home-Some local governments may assist you in using recreational facilities.
  • Family Support Center-Keeps children in case of emergency.
  • Short stay (short-term child care support project)-The government will take care of your child for a short period of time.
  • Depending on the local governmentPublic housingの抽せん倍率が優遇されるとこもある。
  • Depending on the local governmentRent guarantee companyの利用を条件に公営住宅の入居のさいに必要な連帯保証人を免除することもある。
  • 自治体によっては指定収集袋の減免制度もある。
  • Depending on the local governmentpublic bathhouseの入浴券が交付されるとこもある。

Disparities in public support between father and child families and mother and child families

Country(Japanese goverment, Main jurisdiction:Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare)・MunicipalitiesSupport system is economically difficult compared to father and son households (=poverty) Is mainly composed of mother and child households, which is equipped with a parenting support system for father and child households.Mother and child, father and son and widows welfare lawThen, by adding "equal" to the definition of mother-child family, it is said that the family of father-child is included.

Furthermore, under the lawMinorLimited to families with children (under 20). When the child was 20 years old, a woman who was a mother of a mother and child family said,widowHowever, men who were fathers of father-and-child families are not covered by the support, and there is little support for father-child families and widows compared to mother-child families and widows.

Traditionally, father and child familiesHouseworkIt is said that there is a higher need for support such as childcare and childcare consultations, and conventionally support other than financial support has been provided. On the other hand, in the family of father and son,TochigiKanuma City,ChibaNoda-shi,TokyoMinato-kuThere was a case where a child support allowance (there was no entitlement to the family for parents and children) was set independently, and the need for support was appealed.[14].. As a result, from August 2010, child-rearing allowances will be included in the family for parents and children.

Works dealing with single-parent families

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ "28 national single-parent household survey results report”. Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. 2020/3/15Browse.
  2. ^ Ministry of Health. 58 national mother and child household survey. Ministry of Health 
  3. ^ Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare Policy Director (Statistics / Information Policy, Policy Evaluation) (December 2018.12). 29 National Lifestyle Basic Survey. Policy Director, Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare 
  4. ^ "Part 1 Part 1 Chapter 2 Section 3 4 Divorce/Remarriage". 10 welfare white paperMinistry of Health, Labor and Welfare (June 1988, 6). As of March 15, 2006オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2008/9/30Browse.
  5. ^ "29 White Paper on Health, Labor and Welfare -Social Security and Economic Growth-”. Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. 2019/3/8Browse.
  6. ^ https://www.jil.go.jp/press/documents/20191017.pdf
  7. ^ Tomohiro Saito, "Income Disparity and Social Stratification of Single-parent Households," Sociology of the Family, Vol. 30, Japan Society for Family Sociology, 2018, pp. 44-56, two:10.4234 / jjoffamilysociology.30.44.
  8. ^ https://www.mhlw.go.jp/seisakunitsuite/bunya/kodomo/kodomo_kosodate/dv/dl/130823-01c_004.pdf
  9. ^ Katsumi Ito, "Issues of Child Abuse and Support for Nursery Schools," Bulletin of the Humanities Society of Sapporo Gakuin University, Sapporo Gakuin University Research Institute, February 2020, pp. 2-133.
  10. ^ Zhou Yan Fei, "Empirical Analysis of Causes of Child Abuse by Mothers," "Medical Care and Society," Vol. 29, No. 1, Institute of Medical Sciences, 2019, pp. 119-134, two:10.4091 / iken.2019.001.
  11. ^ (日本語) Possibility of "dining room activity", (2018-03-16), two:10.15099/00018341, https://doi.org/10.15099/00018341 2020/4/22Browse. 
  12. ^ "The ever-increasing number of children's restaurants is the largest ever, increasing by 1,400 to 3,718 nationwide (Makoto Yuasa)-Yahoo! News”(Japanese). Yahoo! News Individual. 2020/4/22Browse.
  13. ^ INC, SANKEI DIGITAL. “Learning support for children in poverty A private organization tries a free cram school”(Japanese). Sankei News. 2020/4/22Browse.
  14. ^ "The voice of the child-rearing allowance "for parents and children" spreads". Red flag(July 2008, 7). http://www.jcp.or.jp/akahata/aik07/2008-07-17/2008071702_04_0.html 

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