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🏥 | The University of Tokyo elucidates the genetic population structure of Japanese people at the prefectural level


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The University of Tokyo elucidates the genetic population structure of Japanese people at the prefectural level

 
If you write the contents roughly
By cluster analysis, 47 prefectures were divided into Okinawa prefecture and other prefectures, and other than Okinawa prefecture, they were roughly divided into three clusters: Kyushu / Chugoku region, Tohoku / Hokkaido region, and Kinki / Shikoku region.
 

Yusuke Watanabe and Mariko Isshiki (at the time of research) and Associate Professor Jun Ohashi of the University of Tokyo Graduate School of Science are at the prefectural level ... → Continue reading

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Prefectures

Prefectures(Todofuken) isJapan OfWide-area local public bodiesIs都""road""Prefecture""PrefectureIs a generic term.

Currently47 prefecturesExists, and the breakdown is1 prefecture 1 prefecture 2 prefectures 43 prefectures(Tokyo:Tokyo1, Road:Hokkaido1, prefecture:KyotoandOsaka2, prefectures: 43) other than those.

市町村With (Shichoson)Ordinary local governmentKind of.

Overview

Prefectures in JapanAdministrative divisionone of.

Municipalities are "basic local public bodies" (Local government lawArticle 2 paragraph 4), On the other hand, prefectures are regarded as "wide-area local public bodies that include municipalities" (paragraph 5 of the same Article), and handle wide-area affairs and liaison affairs related to municipalities.

All over Japan1724 municipalities(792 city,743 town,Village 189)as well as23special area(Tokyo Ward), All municipalities and special wards47 prefectures(1 capital,1 Road,2 prefectures,43 prefectures) Is included in any one[1], A two-stage local system.

As a voting body in prefecturesParliament (prefectural assembly), As an enforcement agencyGovernor(Governor Department). others,Public Safety Commission(Prefectural Public Safety Commission)Police headquarters,Board of education,Election Management Committee,Audit CommitteeSet up committees and committees and their secretariat. PrefecturesAutonomyHaveOrdinance・Establish rules,Local tax・Assuming and collecting contributions,Local bondHas the authority to issue.

Organizations that are the center of administrative work of prefectures andGovernment buildingIs referred to as the prefectural office, and is a city within the prefecture (Prefectural office location) Is installed.Some prefectures have the same city name as the prefecture name, while others have different names (#namereference).

1947(Showa22 years)May 5 OfThe Constitution of JapanOn the same day as the enforcementLocal government lawIs also enforced, mainly in prefectures and municipalitiesLocal autonomyThe system has started.The Local Autonomy Law stipulates a unified prefectural system.However, among the prefectures, the capital is characterized by having a certain authority to coordinate the special wards.There are no legal differences between prefectures, and the differences in names are exclusively historical.[2].. Roads are treated the same as prefectures under the Local Autonomy Law, but in addition to having a slightly different police organization from prefectures (Police lawArticles 46 and 51),River law(Article 96),Road law(Article 88), etc. have special rules about roads.

When referring to some of the prefectures in Japan, there is also a usage such as "prefecture" if Hokkaido is not included, and "prefecture" if Tokyo is not included.

History

Institutional change in the Meiji period

Edo Period OfBakuhan systemIn the era, there was territorial rule and divisional rule,Meiji RestorationBy the way,CentralizationThe system was established.

1871(Meiji4 years)Abandoned DomainIn each of the prefectures/prefectures/agencies/capitals that were sequentially installed before and afterMinistry of InteriorThe governor-appointed governor was in charge of administration and was positioned as a national administrative agency. On the other hand, a private election for eachParliamentHas been installed,Local autonomyExisted.

Prefecture

1868(Keio4th year, XNUMXst year of Meiji),Edo ShogunateDirect control of (Affairs-Flag bookThe territory of the Meiji era政府Became under the direct control of.the governmentSandu(Edo-Osaka-Kyoto),5 ports openedImportant areas that have jurisdiction overPrefectureAnd other thanPrefectureAs a matter of fact, "Chinese Affairs" was placed in the prefecture, and "Chinese Affairs" in the prefecture.ClanIs as it isDaming(Mouhou) ruled.

1869May 9(Meiji 2May 7), has been issued by princes for some timeRedemptionAfter accepting the wishes of theWisdomAs a result, it was entrusted with the rule of each clan (some clan was abolished).

At this point, the princes have full control over the territory and the people.EmperorAlthough it was supposed to be redeemed toBakuhan system OfEdo ShogunateMeiji government took over the status ofPrefectural Sanji systemIs called (only prefectures are under direct control).

1869May 9(Meiji 2May 8), the official edict ofKyoto-Tokyo-OsakaIt is decided to call all the prefectures except for the other prefectures (Kanagawa Prefecture-Niigata Prefecture-Echigofu-Kaifu-Degree-Narafu-Hakodate-Nagasaki) Changed its name to prefecture. At this point,Emperor Yukiyuki TokyoでTokyoI was there,Takagoza(Indicates the whereabouts of the EmperorThroneAnd the place where this isImperial PalaceIt is said that there is no move, so Kyoto Prefecture, which has the high Goza, has a higher ranking than Tokyo Prefecture. In addition, before this proclamation of the Prime MinisterEdo prefectureIt was renamed from Edo to Tokyo at the same time.

1871May 8(Meiji 4May 7) Made inAbandoned DomainAs a result, the feudal clan became a prefecture and the whole country became a direct control of the Meiji government. As a result, 1 messenger (Pioneer) 3 prefectures (Tokyo, Kyoto, Osaka) 302 prefectures. At this point, it was almost the same as the boundaries of the feudal domain and the territory of the Edo period.EnclaveWas found all over the country, hindering prefectural administration. In December of the same year, this was consolidated and merged (First prefecture integration), and became one prefecture with 1 prefectures and 3 prefectures.

1876(Meiji 9) Large-scale merger of prefectures (First prefecture integration) Is done,1878Established in (Meiji 11)Local three new lawOne of theCounty, town and village organization lawDue to the merger and change of area due to, due to the division movement, although it temporarily decreased to 37 prefectures1889(22th year of Meiji)Municipal system-Municipal system,1890(23th year of Meiji)Prefecture system-County systemAfter the establishment ofHokkaido Government) 3 prefectures (Tokyo, Kyoto, Osaka) became 43 prefectures. Since 1890 (Meiji 23), no prefecture mergers or divisions have taken place,1943(Showa 18) officiallyInlandTransferredKarafuto AgencyIn addition to the addition ofTokyoNext to the present (at the end of the war, 1 city (Tokyo) 2 agencies (Hokkaido agency/Karafuta agency) 2 prefectures (Kyoto/Osaka) 43 prefectures).

Incidentally,1902(35th year of Meiji),Ministry of InteriorWill abolish 47 prefectures from 19 prefectures and integrate them into 28 prefectures.Prefectural abolition billWas planning[3][4].1903(Meiji 36) The first in NovemberKeitaroCabinetByCabinetDecided[5], Next day1904It was scheduled to come into effect in April (Meiji 37).But in December of the same yearDissolution of the House of RepresentativesAnd March 1904Russo-Japanese Waroutbreak[6]ByParliamentIt was not submitted to[7][8][9].

After the abandonment of prefectures, the prefectural directors were renamed "prefectural ordinances" from "prefectural government", and the ministers of prefectures such as Kyoto, Tokyo, and Osaka were renamed "prefectural governors" to "prefectural governors."1886After (Meiji 19), both were "GovernorWas called. Prefectural governor and prefectural ordinance (prefectural governor)Ministry of InteriorDispatched fromOfficialsMet. On the other hand,1878It is one of the three local new laws enacted in (Meiji 11)Prefectural assembly rulesPrefectural assembly will be set up by (not applied to Hokkaido),Local autonomyIt also had a personality as the subject.

1889(Meiji 22)Municipal systemBegins, butCityIs representative ofCity councilAnd like the presentMayorWas not. However, while the cities under “prefecture” had “mayors recommended by the city council”, the cities under “prefecture” (Tokyo city-Kyoto City-Osaka), there is no mayor, and the prefectural governor also played the role (Municipal system exceptionreference). In these three cities,1898(Meiji 31) Only in October was the mayor born.

The prefecture as a national administrative agency isEdictBy the "local government system"MunicipalitiesaslawIsPrefecture system(Meiji 23 Law No. 35: Meiji 32, Law No. 64 completely revised).

OkinawaThe background of the establishment of "prefectures" is different from the other 42 prefectures.

Agency

Changes in the number of prefectures
dateQuantity■Remarks
1868May 8
(Keio4May 6)
2 prefecturesAs the first prefectureHakodate,KyotoSettings.
Or later,Prefectural Sanji systemBelow, the areas directly controlled by the government become prefectures
1869May 9
(Meiji 2May 8)
-Fu-ken(PioneerInstallation)
1871May 8
(Meiji 4May 7)
3 prefectures 302 prefecturesAbandoned Domain.. All prefectures except Hokkaido are prefectures
1872May 2
(Meiji 5May 1)
3 prefectures 72 prefecturesMay 1(Previous yearMay 12)- First prefecture integration
1875May 123 prefectures 59 prefecturesBefore the second prefecture integration
1876May 13 prefectures 35 prefecturesDecember 12th of the previous year ~
Second prefecture integration.. The smallest number of prefectures after abandoned clan
1879May 43 prefectures 36 prefecturesOkinawaInstallation
1880May 33 prefectures 37 prefecturesTokushimaSeparation
1881May 2Sakai prefectureTransfer,FukuiSeparation
1881May 93 prefectures 38 prefecturesTottoriSeparation
1882May 23 prefectures 41 prefecturesPioneerThree prefecturesTransition to
1883May 53 prefectures 44 prefecturesToyama,Saga,MiyazakiSeparation
1886May 13 prefectures 41 prefectures 1 agencyThree prefecturesHokkaido GovernmentTransition to
1887May 113 prefectures 42 prefectures 1 agencyNaraSeparation
1888May 123 prefectures 43 prefectures 1 agencyKagawaSeparation
1899May 3Prefecture systemIs enforced in 3 prefectures and 4 prefectures, excluding Hokkaido and Okinawa prefectures
All 3 prefectures and 42 prefectures become "local governments"
1943May 13 prefectures 43 prefectures 2 agencyKarafuto AgencyCabinet decision to transfer inland
1943May 71 prefecture 2 prefectures 43 prefectures 2 officesTokyo PrefectureTokyoTransition to
19451 prefecture 2 prefectures 42 prefectures 2 officesOkinawa goes under US administration
1946May 61 prefecture 2 prefectures 42 prefectures 1 officesNational Administrative Organization LawThe enforcement of the Karafuto Agency will be officially abolished.
1946May 91 prefecture 1 prefecture 2 prefectures 42 prefecturesHokkaido government moved to Hokkaido due to prefectural system revision
1947May 5Local government lawPrefectural government becomes "ordinary local public entity" by enforcement
1972May 51 prefecture 1 prefecture 2 prefectures 43 prefecturesOkinawa returnReturned Okinawa Prefecture
* Pioneer andPrewarInForeign landExcluded.

"HokkaidoIs called1869(2th year of Meiji)7 OfPioneerThe same year as the installation,MatsumaechiAnd the area called "Ezochi",11 counties in 86 countries in HokkaidoIt started even though it was established. this isRitual systemUnder 68CountryTheGoki ShichidoIt is consistent with the usage divided into.Oshima IslandAbout some of theTate prefectureAbsorbed by Hirosaki PrefectureAomoriWas transferred to the pioneering envoy.1882(15th year of Meiji) The pioneer ambassador was abolished and the province was divided into threeHakodate-Sapporo-NemuroAlthough three prefectures were set up,1886It was abolished in (Meiji 19) "Hokkaido GovernmentWas installed.

At that time, the jurisdiction of the Hokkaido Government was called "Hokkaido", but "Hokkaido" is simply a regional name.RegionIt is the name of the municipality, not the current "road" (InlandTransferredKarafutoInKarafuto AgencyCommon with the nomenclature). Therefore, the term "agency" was used when paralleling with other prefectures as a local government.

Under the Hokkaido government system (Meiji 19th Royal Decree No. 83 (later amended)), the Hokkaido government secretary was appointed as the governor of another prefecture.1901(Meiji 34), (Meiji 34 Law No. 2) and (Meiji 34 Law No. 3) were promulgated and a parliament was established.CorporationIt became a local government with a personality. In addition, the authority of the parliament was narrower in the Hokkaido association than in the prefectural association. Then, Karafuto (Common lawIn Article 1 paragraph 2Inland(Included in) was abolished and newly addedKarafuto AgencyWas officially added and became two offices.

Showa period system change

都

Second World WarIn1943(18)May 7,Tokyo Metropolitan GovernmentBy the enforcement of (Law No. 18 of 89),Tokyo city TheTokyoAbsorbed byTokyo", and was stripped of the municipality and autonomy. Under the Tokyo Metropolitan Government system (Korean Decree No. 18 of 504), the "Tokyo Metropolitan Secretary" was made the secretary and Tokyo was established.Internal affairsBe a bureaucratShigeo OdateWas appointed as the first generation.

The Tokyo Metropolitan Government established a metropolitan assembly, and ward associations were also set up in each ward of the former Tokyo city, but the state's control over the ward was particularly strong.

Prefecture

After the war1946(Showa 21) With the revision of the prefectural system in September, and was abolished and integrated into the prefectural system, and the law was renamed the prefectural system.According to the supplementary provisions of this revised law, the local government, which was conventionally called Hokkaido local expenses, is now called "road".

1947(22)May 5With the enforcement of the Local Autonomy Law, the government system of the Hokkaido government was abolished, and the Hokkaido government agency, which was a local government agency, became "Hokkaido" which is one of the ordinary local public bodies.

After the enforcement of Local Autonomy Law

Prefectures

1947(Showa 22) March,The Constitution of JapanAs the law planned in Article 92Local government lawWas promulgated. Among them, the prefectures are not in the position of the former “subordinate body of the central government”,市町村Similar toOrdinary local governmentPositioned as a member of parliamentGovernorAlsoelectionWas chosen by. However,1947The first prefectural election for governors implemented in April (Showa 22) is not based on the local autonomy law that had not yet been enacted, but the prefectural system (prefecture system) and Tokyo Metropolitan Government system revision introduced a public election system for local ministers. It was done on the basis of that. At this time, 4 prefecture (Tokyo) 1 way (Hokkaido) 1 prefectures (Kyoto/Osaka prefecture) 2 prefectures. afterwards,1972(Showa 47)AmericaReturned to OkinawaOkinawaHas been set up, and it has become 43 prefectures again.

While the prefectural governor is elected, it has its origins before the warAgency delegationSystem is2000It survived for a long time until it was abolished in 12. Prefectures are usually on a par with municipalities as local public bodies, but prefectures市町村As a wide-area local public body that includes the above, the wide-area local governments, those related to communication adjustments related to municipalities, and those deemed unsuitable by ordinary municipalities due to their size or nature are processed (Local Autonomy Law (2nd Article 5))).

However, the definition of “unit” such as “capital”, “road”, “prefecture”, and “prefecture” is not specified in the Local Autonomy Law, and the current prefecture name is the same as Article 3, Paragraph 1 of the same law. It is used based on the rule that "the name of the local government is the conventional name". However, "city" is not just a name, but has a character different from "prefecture". That is, according to the Local Autonomy Law, the "ward" of the "city" is "special areaIt is said that (Local Autonomy Law Article 281 Paragraph 1), it is different from "prefecture". Even if you are a prefectureLaw on the establishment of special wards in metropolitan areasIt is possible to set up a special ward based on the above, and the prefectures that cover the special ward are, in principle, regarded as the "capital" for the application of the provisions of the Local Autonomy Law and other laws and regulations (Article 10 of the same law).

Okinawa

Okinawa The1945From (20) (officiallySan Francisco Peace TreatyCame into effect1952(27)May 4From)1972(Showa 47)Under US occupationThen, because it was not under Japanese rule, the treatment of Okinawa at this time was delicate,国会Then "Ryukyu government","Nansei IslandsIs used, and the number of prefectures is counted as "1 prefectures" of "1 prefecture, 2 prefectures and 42 prefectures", and Okinawa is not included in the number of prefectures.[10].

Return to OkinawaWas established beforeAct on Special Measures for Return of Okinawa", the former Okinawa Prefecture "will continue to exist as a prefecture prescribed by the Local Autonomy Law."

system

Voting body

Tax paid to prefectures

Abandonment

The merger of prefectures or the establishment of new prefectures is called "decommissioning", and can be divided as follows.

  • Abolish multiple prefectures and establish new prefectures (union).
  • Abolish one prefecture and make that area an area of ​​another prefecture (transfer).
  • Abolish one prefecture and set up multiple prefectures in that area (division).
  • Establish a new prefecture by separating part of the prefecture area (separation).

Regarding decommissioning, “boundary change” (changing only the area without setting or abolishing prefectures)市町村Including the transfer of the prefecture to which the company belongs)Article 6 of the Local Autonomy Lawas well as the Article 6-2Stipulated in.

Principle procedure for disposal and consolidation

By law (Article 6, paragraph 1). This lawArticle 95 of the ConstitutionIt is understood that it is a "special law that applies only to one local public entity" (a special law for local autonomy) defined in stipulations. No (Detailed rulesArticle 261 of the Local Autonomy Law-Article 262).

Merge and transfer exceptions

With the revision of Law No. 16 in 57, a new procedure for merging/transferring was established by a simple method.

  • When abolishing multiple prefectures and establishing new prefectures in all areas
  • When one prefecture is abolished and the entire area is changed to another prefecture

Only

  • Apply by the decision of the relevant prefectural assembly,
  • Determined by the Cabinet after approval by the Diet.

It was made possible to follow the procedure (Local Autonomy Law, Article 6-2).

this is,NaganoYamaguchi VillageとGifuNakatsugawaAt the time of the merger with, the fact that it was necessary to enact a law for mergers of municipalities that span prefectures (new mergers) was highlighted, andPrefectural systemIt was established with the intention of promoting voluntary merger of prefectures as the first stage of introduction.

Decommissioning and Governor/Member

  • In the case of a merger, the governors of the relevant prefectures and members of the parliament will lose their jobs, and the governor's election and the member's election will be held in the newly established prefecture.
  • In the case of transfer, the governor and councilor of the transferred prefecture will lose their jobs, but the governor and councilor of the transferred prefecture will not lose their jobs.
  • In the case of a division, the governors and members of the prefectures to be abolished will lose their jobs, and the governors' elections and members' elections will be held in the newly established prefectures after the division.
  • In the case of separation, the prefectural governors and members of the prefectural government will not lose their jobs, and the prefectural governor's election and the members' election will be held in the newly established prefecture.

Boundary change

Border change of prefectures is basically based on the law (Special Act on Local Autonomy) as in the case of abandonment and consolidation, but in the following cases, it will be "change itself" (Local Autonomy Act No. 6). Article 2).

  • When there is a change in the boundaries of municipalities that are also boundaries of prefectures
  • When municipalities were set up across the boundaries of prefectures

In these two cases, the relevant municipalities/prefectures will apply through the decisions of the respective parliament and will be determined by the Minister of Internal Affairs and Communications (Article 7 paragraph 3).

  • When the area that did not belong to the area of ​​the local government was transferred to the area of ​​the municipality

This is because the change is due to the change in the area of ​​the municipality, like the change of the boundary of the municipality.

Change of prefecture

Even when the whole municipality or county is transferred to another prefecture, it is a boundary change between prefectures and is subject to the law (as of September 25, 9).

Union of municipalities that span prefectures

When a municipality belonging to a different prefecture is abolished and a municipality is established in that area, the relevant municipality/prefecture applies for each through a vote of the Parliament and is determined by the Minister of Internal Affairs and Communications (Article 7, paragraph 3). ).

Conventionally, the unification of municipalities that cross the boundaries of prefectures (abolishing multiple municipalities and establishing new municipalities in that area) is also subject to the newly enacted law under Article 6 Clause 1. It was supposed to be (No. 28 of own departure from June 6, 29).

For that reason,2005(Heisei(17) The merger of Yamaguchi Village in Nagano Prefecture and Nakatsugawa City in Gifu Prefecture will take the form of transfer to Nakatsugawa City. Taking this as an opportunity, it was decided that the amendment under Law No. 16 in 57 would be similar to the procedure for changing the boundaries of municipalities across prefecture boundaries.

Area where division theory exists

1876In some prefectures where a large-scale merger was carried out (Meiji 9), there are some prefectures that were divided again due to the division movement.1888(Meiji 21) At the endKagawa EhimeNo division of prefectures has been implemented since it was separated from.

However, even now, there are voices calling for the division of prefectures, such as the mayors, prefectural governors, and online. Here, we list the prefectures where the mayor or prefectural governor suggests division or separation of prefectures.

Fukui
2006(18) In early March,ReinanCorresponds to (Wakasa region)Tsuruga,Obama City OfMayorIs "(ifPrefectural systemWhen it is laid)ReihokuIf the (Echizen region) enters Hokuriku, it will enter Kinki even if it has no relation to Reihoku," he said, suggesting the withdrawal from the southern part of Fukui prefecture.
Nagano
Chikuma PrefectureHas been split and transferred to Nagano Prefecture, and there have been many movements for splitting. After the merger of both prefectures, it was created as a song song for geography education within the prefecture.Shinano countryWas widely sung as a de facto prefectural song, and was made a symbol of the integration of prefectural awareness (formally established as a prefectural song in 1968).
Yamaguchi Shimonoseki,FukuokaKitakyushu
Kanmon StraitShimonoseki City and Kitakyushu City, which are located on both sides of theStateDoes not belong toKanmon Special CityThere is a movement to form.
Hyogo
Goki ShichidoOut of (XNUMX Goki)Kinai-Sanin road-Sanyo road-NankaidoAcross (most in 47 prefectures),Regulatory countryThen.Settsu-Tamba country-Tajima country-Harima country-Beautiful land-Bizen country-Awaji countryThere is a theory of separation because it spans 7 countries (after 11 countries in Hokkaido) and has different history and climate. Described as 7 borders, 6 republics, 5 ethnic groups, 4 languages, 3 religions, 2 letters, 1 nation.ユ ー ゴ ス ラ ビ ア"Hyogoslavia" was even compared to[11].

List

Indicates the location on the map. Separated from Hokkaido and Okinawa.

Major remote island affiliations that are unclear or omitted in the map above are as follows.

By region

Here is a list of prefectures according to the most common regional divisions. For other regional divisionsRegion of JapanSee.

Regions and Prefectures of Japan no labels.svgislandsRegionPrefectures
Hokkaido  Hokkaido regionHokkaido
Honshu  Tohoku regionAomori Iwate Miyagi Akita Yamagata Fukushima
  Kanto regionIbaraki Tochigi Gunma Saitama Chiba Tokyo Kanagawa
  Chubu regionNiigata Toyama Ishikawa Fukui Yamanashi Nagano Gifu Shizuoka Aichi
  KinkiMie Shiga Kyoto Osaka Hyogo Nara Wakayama
  ChugokuTottori Shimane Okayama Hiroshima Yamaguchi
Shikoku  Shikoku regionTokushima Kagawa Ehime Kochi
Kyushu, Okinawa  Kyushu and Okinawa regionFukuoka Saga Nagasaki Kumamoto Oita Miyazaki Kagoshima Okinawa

Alphabetical order/basic data

ISO/JIS
number
PrefecturesreadingPrefectural office
Location
Largest cityflagRegionarea
(kilometer2)
populationThe population density
(People/km2)
Municipality
village
Quantity
国会constant
Masses / Reference
2323AichiAichi PrefectureNagoya cityNagoya cityAichi prefecture flagCentral part5,172.407,484,0941,446.95415 / 8
0202AomoriAomori prefectureAomoriAomoriAomori prefecture flagTohoku9,645.401,308,649135.74003 / 2
0505AkitaAkitakenAkita CityAkita CityAkita prefecture flagTohoku11,637.541,022,83987.92503 / 2
1717IshikawaIshikawa PrefectureKanazawaKanazawaIshikawa Prefecture FlagCentral part4,186.151,154,343275.81903 / 2
0808IbarakiIbaraki KenMitoMitoIbaraki prefecture flagKanto6,096.932,917,857478.64407 / 4
0303IwateIwatekenMoriokaMoriokaIwate prefecture flagTohoku15,275.021,279,81483.83303 / 2
3838EhimeEhime KenMatsuyama CityMatsuyama CityEhime prefecture flagShikoku5,676.101,385,840244.22004 / 2
4444OitaOitakenOita CityOita CityOita Prefecture FlagKyusyu6,340.611,166,729184.01803 / 2
2727OsakaOsaka PrefectureOsakaOsakaOsaka Prefecture FlagKinki1,904.998,838,9084,639.94319 / 8
3333OkayamaOkayama PrefectureOkayama CityOkayama CityOkayama prefecture flagChugoku7,114.621,922,181270.22705 / 2
4747OkinawaOkinawanNahaNahaOkinawa prefecture flagOkinawa2,281.001,434,138628.74104 / 2
3737KagawaI don't knowTakamatsuTakamatsuKagawa prefecture flagShikoku1,876.73976,756520.51703 / 2
4646KagoshimaKagoshima KenKagoshimaKagoshimaKagoshima prefecture flagKyusyu9,188.101,648,752179.44304 / 2
1414KanagawaKanagawa Prefecture横 浜 市横 浜 市Kanagawa prefecture flagKanto2,415.819,127,3233,778.23318 / 8
2121GifuGifuken(I.e.(I.e.Gifu Prefecture FlagCentral part10,621.292,032,533191.44205 / 2
2626KyotoTodayKyoto CityKyoto CityKyoto Prefecture FlagKinki4,612.202,610,140565.92606 / 4
4343KumamotoKumamoto KenKumamoto-shiKumamoto-shiKumamoto prefecture flagKyusyu7,409.321,786,969241.24504 / 2
1010GunmaGunmakenMaebashiTakasakiGunma prefecture flagKanto6,362.281,973,476310.23505 / 2
3939KochiKouchikenKochiKochiKochi prefecture flagShikoku7,103.91728,461102.53402 / *
1111SaitamaSaitama prefectureSaitamaSaitamaSaitama prefecture flagKanto3,797.757,261,2711,912.06315 / 7
4141SagaSakenSaga CitySaga CitySaga Prefecture FlagKyusyu2,440.64833,245341.42002 / 2
2525ShigaShigakenOtsu CityOtsu CityShiga prefecture flagKinki4,017.381,413,184351.81904 / 2
2222ShizuokaShizuoka KenShizuoka CityHamamatsu cityShizuoka prefecture flagCentral part7,778.703,701,181475.83508 / 4
3232Shimane ShimanekenMatsueMatsueShimane prefecture flagChugoku6,708.23694,188103.51902 / *
1212ChibaChiba PrefectureChibaChibaChiba prefecture flagKanto5,157.646,224,0271,206.85413 / 6
1313TokyoTokyo Metropolitan areaShinjuku ward (Tokyo 23 Ward)Setagaya (Tokyo 23 Ward)Tokyo flagKanto2,190.9013,513,7346,168.16225 / 12
3636TokushimaTokushima KenTokushimaTokushimaTokushima prefecture flagShikoku4,146.93756,063182.32402 / *
0909TochigiTochigikenUtsunomiya CityUtsunomiya CityTochigi prefecture flagKanto6,408.091,974,671308.22505 / 2
3131TottoriTottorikenTottori CityTottori CityTottori prefecture flagChugoku3,507.05573,648163.61902 / *
1616ToyamaToyama KenToyamaToyamaToyama Prefecture FlagCentral part4,247.611,066,883251.21503 / 2
4242NagasakiNagasaki KenNagasakiNagasakiNagasaki Prefecture FlagKyusyu4,132.321,377,780333.42104 / 2
2020NaganoNaganoNagano cityNagano cityNagano Prefecture FlagCentral part13,561.562,099,759154.87705 / 2
2929NaraNarakenNaraNaraNara prefecture flagKinki3,690.941,365,008369.83903 / 2
1515NiigataNiigata PrefectureNiigataNiigataNiigata Prefecture FlagCentral part12,584.102,305,098183.23006 / 2
2828HyogoHyokenKobe CityKobe CityHyogo prefecture flagKinki8,400.905,536,989659.14112 / 6
3434HiroshimaHiroshima KenHiroshima cityHiroshima cityHiroshima prefecture flagChugoku8,479.382,844,963335.52307 / 4
1818FukuiFukuikenFukui CityFukui CityFukui prefecture flagCentral part4,190.43787,099187.81702 / 2
4040FukuokaFukuoka provinceFukuoka CityFukuoka CityFukuoka prefecture flagKyusyu4,986.405,102,8711,023.46011 / 6
0707FukushimaFukushima KenFukushimaIwakiFukushima flagTohoku13,783.751,913,606138.85905 / 2
0101HokkaidoHow are youSapporoSapporoHokkaido flagHokkaido83,424.225,383,57968.617912 / 6
2424MieMiekenTsu CityYokkaichiMie prefecture flagKinki5,774.391,815,827314.52904 / 2
0404MiyagiMiyagi KenSendai citySendai cityMiyagi prefecture flagTohoku7,282.142,334,215320.53506 / 2
4545MiyazakiMiyazaki KenMiyazaki CityMiyazaki CityMiyazaki Prefecture FlagKyusyu7,735.311,104,377142.82603 / 2
0606YamagataYamagata KenYamagataYamagataYamagata prefecture flagTohoku9,323.151,122,957120.43503 / 2
3535Yamaguchi Yamaguchi KenYamaguchi CityShimonosekiYamaguchi prefecture flagChugoku6,112.301,405,007229.91904 / 2
1919YamanashiYamanashi KenKofu CityKofu CityYamanashi prefecture flagCentral part4,464.99835,165187.02702 / 2
3030WakayamaWakayama PrefectureWakayama CityWakayama CityWakayama prefecture flagKinki4,724.68963,850204.03003 / 2

Name

Of the government office that is the origin of the current prefecture
Government building location and county at the time of installation[12]
PrefectureCountyLocationCurrent location
Hokkaido GovernmentSapporo-gunSapporo 
to East Malaysia
North
AomoriTsugaru-gunAomori
IwateIwateMorioka
MiyagiMiyagi-gunSendai
AkitaAkita DistrictAkita[13]
YamagataMurayamaYamagata
FukushimaNobuoFukushima
Seki
to East Malaysia
IbarakiIbaraki-gunMito
TochigiToga DistrictTochigiUtsunomiya[14]
GunmaGunma-gunTakasakiMaebashi
SaitamaSaitama DistrictIwatsuki[15]Saitama[16]
ChibaChiba千葉
TokyoToshimaTokyoShinjuku[17]
Kanagawa PrefectureTachibanaju神奈川Yokohama[18]
中
unit
Niigata PrefectureKambara-gunNiigata 
ToyamaShinkawa-gunToyama
IshikawaIshikawaMikawaKanazawa[19]
FukuiAsuwa-gunFukui 
YamanashiYamanashiKofu
NaganoMizuuchi-gunNagano
GifuAtsumi-gunGifu
ShizuokaAbe-gunShizuoka
AichiAichi-gunNagoya
Near
Ki
MieMie-gunYokkaichiTsu
ShigaShigaOtsu 
KyotoKuzuno京都
OsakaTosei DistrictOsaka
HyogoYabe-gunHyogoKobe
NaraSoegami-gunNara 
WakayamaNagusa-gun和 歌 山
中
Country
TottoriOmi-gunTottori
Shimane ShimaneMatsue
OkayamaMino-gunOkayama
HiroshimaNumata CountyHiroshima
Yamaguchi YoshikiYamaguchi
four
Country
TokushimaMeito-gunTokushima
KagawaKagawa-gunTakamatsu
EhimeHot springsMatsuyama
KochiTosa DistrictKochi
nine
State
FukuokaSawara-gunFukuoka
SagaSaga佐賀
NagasakiHeki-gunNagasaki
KumamotoAkita CountyKumamoto
OitaOita-gunFuchuOita[13]
MiyazakiMiyazaki-gunKamibeppuMiyazaki[13]
KagoshimaKagoshima DistrictKagoshima 
OkinawaShimajiriNaha

As is clear from the table (location and county of government office when the prefecture was established), the principle of prefecture name is the location of the government office. However, if the place name on which the prefecture name is based falls under the following, the prefecture name does not match the current city name of the residence.

  • When the "county name" does not match the "city name" of the government building location (prefectures where the "location county" column is colored blue in the table, except for the two prefectures whose city name was changed later)[20].
  • If it is not the current location of the government building (Tochigi-Gunma-Saitama-Mie)[19][21][22].
  • If it does not exist as a "city" due to a city merger (Tokyo-Kanagawa-Hyogo).
  • If neither "city name" nor "county name" (Hokkaido-Ehime-Okinawa)[23].

1888Since (Meiji 21), there is no change in the place name part of the prefecture name, and now the place name part of the prefecture has become established. Refers to the entire Aomori Prefecture rather than the city) usage is generally used, but is originally a place name showing only a part of the area. Especially when the prefecture name does not match the city name of the government office building, it is often misunderstood that the prefecture name is originally a place name pointing to the entire area. The place name part of the current prefecture name indicates the whole area of ​​prefecture.HokkaidoとEhimeOnly.

The principle of using the location of the government building for the prefecture name isNaming rules in the Sanjo system of the prefectureTheAbandoned DomainIt is believed that it was inherited afterwards. Throughout the Edo periodClan namingIt was not recognized that there was a unified policy in (in the first place, the name "han" itself is not the official one at that time),castle townName (eg "Kagoshima clan"),Regulatory countryIt was unclear whether to refer to a wide-area place name (for example, "Satsuma Domain") or the family name of the lord (for example, "Shimadzu Domain"). City name or village name of the government office location (exceptionally, the county name is used in some cases, and the regulatory country name is also used in prefectures and prefectures)[24]) Is the only thing that has come to be used exclusivelyPrefectural Sanji systemAfter that.

after that,Abandoned DomainRight afterFirst prefecture integrationThere were many cases where the prefecture name based on "city name" was renamed to "gun name" at the time of and immediately after that (within about 7 months), and the specific reason is not always clear. In addition, this renameBoshin WarThe theory that it was based on a clear political will to display "reverse" in (Award and punishment), but this theory"Forward and Reverse" evaluation criteria are not clear,Cannot demonstrate the existence of political willThere are problems such as.

Renamed immediately after the first prefecture integrationSince then, the change of the prefecture name due to the relocation of the prefectural office has been exceptional. Even if the prefectural government offices are inherited, the prefectural name is also inherited (Abandoned domain # Transfer from the first prefecture integration to the second prefecture integration"Integration", "Transfer" andAbandoned clan prefecture # Second prefecture integrationSee "Transfer"). The obvious exception is the prefecture's name, which is a "grand name" that symbolizes the entire jurisdiction.Ishitetsu prefectureとKamiyamaAs a new "elegant name" when they mergeEhimeIt was the same as the case namedShirakawaAccording to the principleKumamotoOnly two cases have been renamed to. Cases corresponding to exceptions have also been abolishedShinkawa Prefecture-Asuwa prefecture-Meito prefectureWhen we reinstated, instead of the original prefecture nameToyama-Fukui-TokushimaIt is limited to 3 cases.First prefecture integrationAfter that, the case where the prefectural office was moved to another city (Tochigi) And the place name that is the basis of the prefecture name disappeared (Shimane,Kanagawa TownThe name of the prefecture has not changed.

English name of prefecture

PrefectureEnglish"Prefecture" is used as a translation, but this wordCentral governmentDispatched fromPrefectural governor(Prefect) has a sense of word of jurisdiction (similar example: France), the governor has been electedAfter the warIn, this word does not match the word sense,PrewarIt is still used by the convention from. In addition,TokyoIn the case of, "metropolis" is also used.HokkaidoIn some cases, "prefecture" is not used and "Hokkaido" is sometimes used.

symbol

Many prefecturesPrefecture flag,Prefecture badge,symbol markHave been established. They areNational Athletic MeetIn addition to being used for events such as, it is also displayed at the facilities of prefectures, and is used as a sign of facilities managed by prefectures.

Also, in many prefectures,flower, "Of the prefectureThu, "Of the prefecture(I.e.Has been established. Some of them have designated "prefecture fish" and "prefecture beast". Detail isList of symbols of prefecturesSee.

See below for other symbols.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

Source

  1. ^ Find out the number of municipalities | General counter for official statistics(Retrieved September 2020, 10)
  2. ^ Hiroshi Shiono, Administrative Law III, 3rd Edition, p. 137, Yuhikaku,2006
  3. ^ "Prefectural abolition bill (submitted for dissolution)”(Japanese). National Archives Digital Archive.National Archives of Japan. 2020/12/31Browse.
  4. ^ However, strictly speaking, the bill does not mention Hokkaido and Okinawa prefectures.In addition, Hokkaido at that time was a public corporation with "Hokkaido local expenses" which is different from the prefectural system.Hokkaido GovernmentWas governing.Also, "Okinawa Prefecture"1879It was established in (Meiji 12), but1909Until (Meiji 42), the prefectural system like other prefectures was not enforced.
  5. ^ Mitsuo Takenaga. “First Katsura Cabinet's prefectural abolition plan and Tsugunori Fukuoka / Mayor Matsue's move to Tokyo (Matsue City History Study 1)". Shimane Regional Material Repository. Matsue City Board of Education. 2020/12/31Browse.
  6. ^ "Russo-Japanese War chronology". Russo-Japanese War Special Exhibition. National Archives of Japan Center for Asian Historical Records. 2021/1/2Browse.
  7. ^ Nikkei Inc., Nikkei BP. “Kita Kanto 3 prefectures are "Utsunomiya prefecture" 28 phantom prefectural plans | Entertainment! | NIKKEI STYLE”(Japanese). NIKKEI STYLE. 2020/12/19Browse.
  8. ^ Tadamitsu Saito (2013). “Attachment to the Prefectural Abolition Law [Complete Map of the Empire of Japan]”. Japan Map Society "Map" Vol. 51, No. 3: 17. 
  9. ^ "Tadamitsu Saito, "Attachment to the Prefectural Abolition Law [Complete Map of the Empire of Japan]", "Map" Vol. 51, No. 3, 2013, pp. 17-18”. J-STAGE. 2020/12/19Browse.
  10. ^ 国会議事録第6回衆議院地方行政委員会10号(昭和24年11月25日)門司委員、あるいは国会議事録第38回参議院文教委員会9号(昭和36年03月09日)Mitsuyoshi YajimaAnd many more
  11. ^ “Hyogo responds to SNS posts by the Hyogo Slavia Federation”. Kobe newspaper(July 2018, 8). https://www.kobe-np.co.jp/news/sougou/201808/0011576140.shtml 2018/12/19Browse. Although it was an article in August 2018, there is also a statement in the text that ""Hyogoslavia" became a hot topic on the Internet several years ago."
  12. ^ Only the type that has been changed while maintaining the place name part goes back to before the change.If a prefecture with the same place name is once abolished, it will be the government building when it is revived.As a county in Tokyo, Kyoto, and OsakaEdo Castle-Nijo Castle-Osaka CastleI marked the county.
  13. ^ a b c Oita and Miyazaki renamed the prefectural office location name to match the county name after the prefecture was established. Akita also renamed the county name after entering the Meiji era, but before the prefecture was established.
  14. ^ The difference between the prefecture name of Tochigi prefecture and the location name of the prefectural office is that the conflict between Utsunomiya prefecture and the former Tochigi prefecture continued for a long time, so instead of moving the prefectural office from Tochigi to Utsunomiya, the prefecture name remains "Tochigi prefecture". By doing so, both faces are raised.
  15. ^ When Saitama Prefecture was established, Iwatsuki was planned to be the prefectural capital, but a temporary government building was set up in Urawa, and Urawa became the prefectural capital without moving to Iwatsuki.Urawa is not Saitama-gun but Adachi-gun.
  16. ^ Urawa City, which was the prefectural capital, merged with Omiya City and Yono City.Later, Iwatsuki City, which was the original planned location of the prefectural office, was incorporated.
  17. ^ Shinjuku Ward is also a part of the former Tokyo City, and the current location of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Building is the former Yodobashi Ward, which was Toshima County (later Minami Toshima County ⇒ Toyotama County) before the incorporation of Tokyo City.
  18. ^ "Kanagawa" as the name of the municipality has disappeared, but now Yokohama City "Kanagawa Ward" exists as the base of the prefecture name.
  19. ^ a b IshikawaIs based on the county to which Mikawa (currently Hakusan City) belongs, which is not the current location of the prefectural office, but Kanazawa, the current location, is also in Ishikawa County.
  20. ^ First prefecture integrationSince then, there are cases where the “county name” of the government office is used as a prefecture name, and those that do not currently exist as prefectures (including those that were once abolished and revived under a different prefecture name)Iwai prefecture-Okitama Prefecture-Bandai prefecture-Shinji prefecture-Inba Prefecture-Iruma-Ashigara-Shinkawa Prefecture-Asuwa prefecture-Chikuma Prefecture-Nukata prefecture-Dokai prefecture-Inugami-Shikama Prefecture-Hojo Prefecture-Fukatsu-Oda-Meito prefecture-Mitan prefectureThere are 19 cases (Fukutsu prefecture → Oda prefecture are renamed due to the relocation of the government building, so there are 18 prefectures in total).
  21. ^ Present in Maebashi cityGunmaThe office was located in Gunma-gun since the law, but in the early Meiji eraAn area that is effectively one with Seta-gun, And the county was eventually reset accordingly, so we considered it to be "not the county of the current location".
  22. ^ Cases where the location of the government building, which is the basis of the prefecture name, is not the actual locationFirst prefecture integrationからFirst prefecture integrationThere are many places up to, and the planned place name was used as a nonexistent example.Mizusawa-Inba Prefecture-FukatsuAnd adjacent place names were usedKisarazu-HamadaThere are such cases (dissolved discrepancies in a short period of time, since there are many cases where it is not obvious whether or not they are applicable, it is difficult to list all of them without excess or deficiency).
  23. ^ A non-existent case where a place name that is neither "city name" nor "county name" is used isFirst prefecture integrationAfter thatIshitetsu prefecture-Kamiyama-ShirakawaThere are 3 cases. BesidesNanao PrefectureIn the example, "common name of city = name of castle" is used.
  24. ^ Specifically, the entire government was a former Shogunate territory.Sado prefecture,Hida Prefecture,KaifuAlso played a role in postwar processing of the Boshin WarEchigofu, Had a direct jurisdiction over the relatively small area (mainly the old flag territory)Kawachi Prefecture,Settsu prefecture,Mikawa PrefectureThere is a similar exampleMusashichi Prefectural Government,Hitachi Prefecture Prefectural Government,Shimosui Prefectural Government,Kazusa Awachi Prefectural GovernmentThere is, but SadoFirst prefecture integrationExcept left overAbandoned DomainIt has disappeared due to renaming and integration before.

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外部 リンク

Data clustering

Clustering (British: clustering),Cluster analysis(Cluster Kaiseki),Cluster analysis(Cluster bunseki) is a method (especiallyMultivariate analysisA type of method).UnsupervisedA data classification method, that is, a method that automatically classifies given data without external criteria.Also, thatalgorithm.

Various methods have been proposed, but they can be broadly divided into a hierarchical method in which data is classified hierarchically and a non-hierarchical method in which data is classified into a specific number of clusters.As a typical method of eachWard's method,K-meansand so on.

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Footnote/Source


 

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