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Japanese culture

In this sectionJapan OfcultureIn general, it covers a wide range of events from the past to the present, and provides an overview and links.

The classification is still under development and organization, and is not official. Other than those that originated in Japan, those that are deeply rooted in Japan are included in this article.

Overview

cultureIs the wordart,LearningThose with a high degree of achievement created by humans (High culture) And has been formed by human society for many years.CustomAnd the system of behavior. In the latter sense, customs related to daily life such as clothing, food, and housing,Entertainment,moral,ReligiousからPolitics,Economy such as社会ConstructionThe category is very wide.JapanCulture is not something that can be simply grouped together, but it contains various elements, from ancient times to the Middle Ages.Chugoku,Korea,IndiaAsia's neighboring countries centered on, and the WestAge of DiscoveryHitSengoku period-Azuchi-Momoyama PeriodIn modern times after the Meiji era, under the influence of Europe and the United States, it has been repeatedly absorbed and sorted, and various modifications have been made to achieve a unique development.Japanese traditional culture is derived from JapanShintoAndBuddhismAnd Chinese culture,Western cultureIt has changed with the times while fusing foreign cultures such as.However, even if there are major changes on the surface, the people who live there often inherit the traditions and customs, so the way of thinking and behavior is often unchanged.[1].

As a concept that characterizes Japanese culture,和The word "wa" is often used (eg Japanese, Japanese, Japanese poems, Japanese clothes, Japanese food, Japanese-style inns, etc.). "Wa" has long been a term for Japan, and is used in contrast to things from foreign countries such as Han / Tang (China) and Western (Western Europe).Also"YamatoThe word "(Yamato)" is sometimes used (example:Yamato language,Yamato soul,Yamato pictureSuch). "Yamato" refers to the current Nara prefectureOld country nameBut at the same time, "Yamato administrationIs the birthplace of ", and refers to the whole of Japan.

Relationship between Japanese culture and religion

Since ancient times in Japanshamanism,animism,Worship of the sun god,Ancestor worshipPantheisticWorship of nature,AnimismThere,Polytheismbased onReligiousThere is a culture.Okinawa FaithIt also retains its ancient form.

Although it is based on polytheism, if there is a characteristic unique to this country, it is the idea that "everything, including tools, words, and sighs, has life."Needle memorial service[2], AndKotodama,breathThere is also the idea (for example) of enshrining even the invading enemy.Chinese cultureThen.Confucianism"Enemy whips even dead, grudges carved into stone"[Source required]However, in Japan, "even if it is an enemy, it does not whip the dead, and the grudge is flushed into the water."

Far from India, "Buddhism-Esoteric Buddhism'[3]Has been accepted from the continent and established its own Buddhist and esoteric culture. VariousTraditionMany of the customs and customs originated in Buddhism, and are ancient.ShintoIt has shaped the foundation of Japanese beliefs and culture while interacting with each other. Also,HinduismAlthough not directly transmitted to Japan, it has a great influence on Buddhism and esoteric Buddhism, so there are Hindu-derived gods in Japanese Buddhism and Shintoism, which have a cultural influence.

Like other East Asian countries, "Confucianism'[4]Or "TaoismBut the impact is not as great as in China or the Korean Peninsula.[5]..ConfucianismParents / childrenSystem[Source required]AndHead,FamilyIt affects social systems such as institutions.Meiji RestorationOverwhelmed by Western thought, but conservative in the palaceChinese scholarDue to the influence ofEducationWas incorporated into. Taoism is better than itselfYin Yang,Yawata,ShushidoetcNara periodからHeian periodExtremely prosperousOnmyojiWith the rise of Confucianism, the idea is still inherited as a custom, but it has changed to something unique to Japan as well as Confucianism. As a concrete example,Zodiac signs,Family crest OfNine days,chirashi sushiThe four colors and five colors of the are based on the Ying-Yang Five Elements.martial artsShinto is the basis, and Confucianism and TaoismZen BuddhismEtc.Eye openWith spirit哲学HadArtIt is said that it became.

Japan has long been a Shinto and BuddhistGod Buddha practice(Shinto-Buddhism mixed), but at the beginning of the Meiji era, Shinto and Buddhism were re-established.分離AndAbolition of BuddhaMany Buddhist and Shinto heritage sites were lost in the waves. ShintoNational ShintoIt was separated from Buddhism and indigenous customs, reorganized into a religion centered on the imperial family, and linked to politics and education. Japanese traditional Buddhism also expanded its power during this periodNew religion,キ リ ス ト 教We cooperated with this to counter the threat of the Japanese society, and continued to have a strong influence on Japanese society as in the Edo period.Imperial Japanese ConstitutionAlthough freedom of religion was stipulated, the government placed Shinto and shrines at the top of other denominations based on the interpretation that "Shinto is not a religion" (shrine non-religious theory). But,Second World WarLater State ShintoNational hegemonyIt is said that it became a means ofGHQShinto was separated from politics and education by the instruction of, and was positioned as a religion on the same level as other religions. Buddhism also "Funeral buddhismThe religion tends to become a mere ghost to the extent that it is ridiculed, and the cultural values ​​centered on Shinto and Buddhism are fading from the daily consciousness of Japanese people.

Buddhism, esoteric Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, or Christianity is based on ancient Shintoism, even if it is not the embodiment of pure religious values.[6]The soil of today's Japanese spirit and culture was formed by mixing various foreign religions, including. The values ​​based on these mixed religions are JapanCustomsCustom, Deeply rooted in culture,Festival,traditional culture,martial arts,Agriculture:,forestry,Fishing industry,building,Civil engineering,New Year,ShichigosanIt has an influence on various situations such as, and there is an aspect that the essence of Japanese culture and spirit cannot be talked about without religion centered on Shinto.

In some cases, such Japanese religious values ​​are effective in the problems of the modern world.methodologyFor example, "Satoyama"Or"Guardian ForestCulture and "No waste (object)The idea isEnvironmental protectionIn response to "(frugality,brewing TheShintoism) ”TraditionFood crisisOn the other hand, it may suggest a solution to the problem. On the other hand, it has been said that "everything is flushed into the water" due to the steep terrain and heavy rainfall, but the meaning of the term is diminishing from the viewpoint of environmental problems and resource conservation due to water pollution.

traditional cultureIn traditional sports, or in everyday lifebow・ Etiquette ・Dietary mannersAs a feature that can be seen widely in型The point of respect for "(form)" has been mentioned, and it has been regarded as a beauty of Japan. I've taken them from everywheremoralDue to the influence of (the influence of each academic discipline is large) and the spirit of avoiding collision with people and respecting harmony, it is often the case that respect and consideration for the other person is silently included. Lifestyle in recent yearsWesternDue to"Etiquette" and "manner"Replaced by these Japanese traditionalNorm awarenessThere are also voices that are worried about the corpse of.

History

original

Jomon PeriodIt is thought that people from the continent and the south brought culture after the Japanese ancestors who came from the north settled in the Japanese archipelago long ago, but from an early stage Japan was different from the continent. An endemic culture has grown.JapaneseThere is no language that has been proven to have a phylogenetic relationship.

Applicable culture: Paleolithic culture,Jomon culture,Yayoi culture

Ancient times

Former HanFrom around the time ofChugokuHe began to actively tribute to the dynasty of China and began to accept Chinese artifacts, which were an advanced cultural country.Metalware(ball,mirror,SwordKind etc.)漢字,BuddhismIs a typical example. LaterEnvoy,EnvoyWas dispatched, and international students learned about advanced culture and brought it back to Japan. In this way, foreign cultures were incorporated on top of the culture unique to Japan.

Mid 9th centuryAcceptanceWith the annual dispatch, the envoy to Tang was cut off,894Although the envoy to Tang was plannedMichio ShinoharaIt was canceled due to the opinion of. After that, Chinese artifacts (Karamono) And culture are ChineseSea commerceThe aristocratic community continued to value karamono. At the same time, the influence from foreign countries is being digested uniquely to Japan, and "National cultureThe era has arrived. From kanji among aristocratic womenWonderLetters are born,The Tale of Genji,Pillow soshikoRepresented byWakaAnd stories,Diary literatureLiterary arts became popular. Even in the field of artHoryuji temple,Toshodaiji TempleWhile the influence of China etc. was strongly seen in the architecture of UjiByodo-in TempleThen, it is an expression that Japanese people like. Such a cultural styleJapanese styleCall.

Applicable culture: Ancient tomb culture,Asuka culture,Hakuho culture,Tenpyo culture,Konin-Jōgan culture,National culture,Inseikibunka

中 世

From the end of ancient times to the Middle AgessamuraiIs emerging,horseback archery, Inuoumono and other samurai-specific cultures were born, with the theme of battleMilitary story(Heike storyEtc.) was also born. The statue has also been replaced by one with a strong body (Kong wrestler statueEtc. can be said to be the representative). In the capital and rural areasSarugaku,DakurakuDances such as have developed.Kiyomori Taira Of宋Since the trade withJapan Song TradingWas actively performed. In this era, the traffic of Zen Buddhist monks was constant,ZenCulture brought in with the sect (Vegetarian food,Ink painting, Cafe habits, etc.) had a great influence on the subsequent development of Japanese culture.Tenryuji Ship,Joint tradeAs a result, traffic to and from China continued, and a large amount of bronze coins were imported and karamono were prized. The Muromachi period was a world of war, butHigashiyama cultureSarugaku (mainly in the age ofcan),tea ceremony, Shoin (Shoin) And so on, and many of the cultures that are said to be "Japanese" today were created in this era.

Applicable culture: Kamakura culture,Muromachi culture(Kitayama Culture-Higashiyama culture)

The early modern period

Azuchi-Momoyama PeriodNew in EuropeDifferent cultureWas brought (Nanbanculture).gunChanged the battle format and paved the way for unification of the world.Foreign words,tempuraFood and drink were also reported.JesuitsSuch asMissionaryWeキ リ ス ト 教The Tokugawa Shogunateスペイン-PortugalMissionaries were banished and then banned because they doubted their territorial ambitions and hated a particular religion to become a major force in the country. In this way, the Edo Shogunate banned Christianity andIsolationWill choose the path of. Missionaries andKorean troop dispatchLetterpressed by a technician who was taken prisoner of warPrintPublished books have begun to appear on the market.

The administration is stable, and due to "isolation" Netherlands-clear-Mr. Lee-Ryukyu-AinuIn Japan, which is isolated from other foreign countries,Amakusa / Shimabara IkkiA period of peace has continued for a long time since the suppression of, and a unique culture has developed again.Terakoya,Clan schoolReading and writing due to the spread ofabacusHas become widespread and encouraged by the ShogunateConfucianismIn addition to theHerbalismSuch asnatural ScienceGrow up. A play among the common peoplekabuki,Ningyo Joruri) And publications (Ukiyo Soshi,Reading bookEtc.), andUkiyo-eWas loved and the worldly culture flourished.Grand SumoIt was around this time that the box office began.Also, by studying the ancient times before Japan was influenced by the Chinese character culture, we try to know the original way of Japan.SinologyAlso rises, at the end of the Edo periodEmperorCreated the ideological ground of the movement.

Even in the seclusion system, exchanges with China and Korea continued in a restricted manner. Although exchanges with the West were severely restricted, through Dejima in Nagasaki NetherlandsTrade with was carried out. Chinese and Western cultures coming from Nagasaki stimulate the curiosity of intellectualsWestern studies,Dutch studies(Medicine),Herbal medicineHas developed. This flow isBakumatsuToImperialismOf the eraWesternIt becomes a force to respond to the approach ofOpeningIt became one of the driving forces of.

Applicable culture: Momoyama culture,Kanei culture,Genroku culture,Horeki / Tenmei culture,Chemical culture

Modern

Opening of the country at the end of the Edo period,Meiji RestorationAfter that, it became a national goal to modernize Japan by incorporating Western cultures and systems. New customs are brought one after anotherCivilizationThe trend has spread. The government led the active introduction of Western culture,RokumeikanIn the era, there was a superficial rapid westernization, but there was also a reactionary movement to review the Japanese tradition. "Japanese spirit Western talentWas often used. Enlightening thinkers deny feudal ideas and customs, introduce Western political systems and cultural artifacts, and media such as newspapers and magazines.TrainThe development of transportation has spread new cultures in various places,Common peopleIt had a great impact on my life. However, areas far from urban areas (RuralIn the department), traditional agriculture-based events and lifestyles continued.

TaishoAround the time, Western-style culture gradually permeated mainly in cities against the backdrop of rising enrollment rates.Department storeThe consumer culture and popular culture represented by are established. Due to the influence of American popular culture, the cityCafe,moviesEro guro nansens became popular as the enjoyable culture of the pavilion spread. On the other hand, the gap between rich and poor has also increased,Labor dispute,SocialismExercise will occur. Urban slums have also become a social problem.

Showa first yearGreat DepressionThe economy was exhausted and the rural areas were devastated. People's expectations gathered in the military, and politicians accused of being weak lost credibility. EventuallySino-Japanese warWhen, the crackdown on communism and socialism increased, and the crackdown on liberalism was also suppressed. The excellence of Japan and the Japanese people was explained in order to raise the fighting spirit. Internationally criticized by Britain and the United States,Japan-Germany Ikoku UnionTie. Japan isolated from the worldAttack on Pearl HarborByPacific WarOpened the war and participated in World War II,National WarBecause of this, food and resources were controlled.

At the end of the Pacific War, the Allied naval blockadeAir raidDue to the labor shortage caused by the recruitment of working men, Japan will suffer a serious food shortage and shortage of supplies. Popular culture and traditional culture were also controlled by the government to carry out the war.

Modern culture: Civilization,Meiji Restoration,Taisho democracy,Showa culture

modern

Japan isPotsdam DeclarationAccept and surrender,U.S. ForcesMainlyAlliesWhen occupied by the military, most of JapanGHQWas placed under the jurisdiction of. According to the instructions of GHQ, the Japanese governmentPrivileged class, Armed andMilitarismElimination, dismantling, expulsion and democratization of industry and economy. Withdrawal from the former colonies and occupied Soviet military areas and demobilization from the battlefield progressed, forcing the Japanese to live a difficult life for some time after the war.

After the war, modern American culture became a national admiration,High economic growthAs a result, Japan will achieve dramatic industrialization and urbanization. Along with this, traditional lifestyles have undergone revolutionary changes, and many of the traditional lifestyles have been lost. However, postwar Japan was not a copy of the United States. While accepting the modern culture of the United States, it sublimates into a unique Japanese form, and a diverse and rich food culture,Anime,ComicA new Japanese culture was born. Next to Americaeconomic superpowerJapan regained confidence and became 1970Osaka ExpoThen, "progress and harmony of humankind" was sung.

In foreign countries except East Asia, some traditional artifacts such as "Samurai" and "Geisha" were known as Japanese culture until recent years.Bubble eraSince the 1990s, modern Japanese anime and manga have been attracting attention from all over the world as being beautiful and cool. EspeciallyAnime,Comic,movies,Food culture:Has penetrated into urban areas of Europe, America and Asia, and stores and facilities related to them (sushiBars andComicThere are many shops)

Summary

Japanese culture has been around since recorded historyChugokuBelonging to a cultural region, it has aspects of imported culture and translation culture, actively ingests foreign cultures, fuses them with traditional cultures, and makes them Japanese to form a unique culture. However, it was also greatly influenced by Chinese culture. South Korea-Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euUnlike, politically, it has never been ruled by Chinese dynasties since the 7th century.Heian periodとEdo periodAlthough opportunities for exchange with foreign countries have decreased, Japan's unique culture has matured significantly during this period.

The mighty Chinese empire唐In times of prosperity, aristocrats modeled on Chinese cultureTenpyo cultureThe advanced culture that international students have learned has become a policy norm.Chinese textIt was important for the aristocrats to read and write fluently.

Since the Heian period, "national culture" has emerged, but until this time the center of culture was aristocrats and temples. At the end of the Heian periodTaira administrationFrom the periodKamakura PeriodOverJapan Song TradingIs doneNew BuddhismAt the same time, Chinese culture such as vegetarian cuisine and literary paintings flowed in. Many of the traditional Japanese cultures that followed followed the flow of cultural artifacts taken from Song during this period. During the Kamakura period, the culture of samurai, centered on the Kanto region, emerged alongside the dynasty culture of Kyoto.

In the Muromachi periodNichimei TradingChinese culture continued to be brought in by the Chinese culture, and the textiles, pottery, and calligraphy imported during this period flowed into the techniques of traditional crafts that remain today. From the Muromachi period to the Azuchi-Momoyama periodSengoku DaimyoAs a result, local cultures were born in various places.

Edo Period,IsolationConfucian scholars tended to idealize China, as exchanges with China continued through Nagasaki.In addition, when Dutch studies became popular, studies such as national studies that tried to return to ancient Japan in search of the identity of the country "Japan" also emerged.Also, during the Edo period, mainly in the three major cities of Edo, Kyoto, and Osaka.TradesmanIt was a time when the culture of Japan flourished.

After that, modern Japanese culture reached a major turning point twice during the Meiji Restoration and the Allied Occupation (although this is a perspective centered on urban areas,folkloreRather, it emphasizes the cultural disruption brought about by World War II and high economic miracle). The traditional culture that we Japanese imagine today is something that was born after the Meiji era (eg, Shinzen marriage) or what is commonly referred to as a foreign culture (eg, the legend that "storks carry babies". This is Europe. Although it is a folk tale, it is well established locally in Japan). "After the Meiji Restoration-Second World WarIn the "until surrender" era, imperialist nationsColonyIn the international environment of competitionWesternOverwhelming文明And Japan in front of advanced cultureidentityThe issue was how to perceive.

Before World War IIImperialismIn the times, there was a movement to actively incorporate Western culture and values ​​in order to make Japan a powerful country (De-sub thought) And the movement to emphasize tradition for independence (Nationalism), And a move toward a coalition of Asian nations against Western civilization (Asianism) Existed. These three tides often clashed, leading to extreme Western worship, leading to the advancement of Japanese culture into Asia, and even disdain for Western civilization. Eventually these three streams merge andGreater East Asia mutual prosperity areaIt leads to.

After World War II, actively embraced American culture (Americanization) Although the movement has become dominant and the Americanization of Japanese culture has progressed, these three values ​​seem to continue to influence as the undercurrent of attitudes regarding Japanese foreign culture.

Japanese culture theory

It is thought to characterize Japanese culture or the JapaneseconceptMany Japanese culture theory and Japanese theory centered onJapanese theorySee item).

What is claimed to be Japanese temperament

Even in Japan, it is natural for individuals to seek their own interests and compete with others who have conflicting interests, but ostensibly, it is a virtue to suppress self-assertion.ValuesCompared to people in a relatively thin society, it is often said that they tend to achieve their own profits by overtaking the other person by using it in the opposite way, without breaking the ostensibly tatemae. There is a strong objection that this is a narrative like other "○○ culture theory". Regardless of the truth, there are the following specifically.

  • bow-salute: There are many opinions about the development of such courtesy in Japan. Of course, the bottom of my heart is different.
  • Honest and Tatezen: Since it is supposed to value "wa" ostensibly, it is said that there is a strong tendency to say only safe things ostensibly and expect the other party to "see". It is said that when there is no need to consider the ostensible convention of "wa", such as when facing a private space or a person with no interest, it tends to be more explicit. ..
  • "Hare (sunny)" and "ke (褻)"
  • Uchi and Soto
  • Nemashiri : A method of negotiation in which interests are adjusted in advance at informal meetings.
  • Rigging: How to solve the problem through discussions by senior management. If a solution is reachedHand-madeThe ritualistic behavior is done. During the withering periodRice fieldThe origin of the outbreak was discussions between villages about water intake to the area, and in recent years many have started civil engineering and construction.Public worksIt was widespread as a business practice of distribution methods. In other countriescartelSimilarly, in commercecrimeIt is becoming caught as an act.
  • "shameCulture ・ Culture of humility
  • (I.e.Ethics
  • "GovernmentObedience toPoliticsIndifference to.
  • Squeak
  • Mono no aware
  • "Frequency"And" Omonpakaru "
  • Sports Club-Village society
  • Death from overwork

Japan as seen from a foreign country

Many foreigners visited or lived in Japan from the Edo period to the Meiji period, and many records and works left by them are transmitted.Rutherford Allcock"The Land of the Great",Ernest Sato"The Meiji Restoration as seen by a diplomat" is still being read.In addition, as a discussion of modern Westerners' view of Japan through these works,Kyoji Watanabe"The Remnants of the Dead World"Yuuhiro HirakawaThere are books such as "The Genealogy of Japanese Soul and Western Talent".

Japanese cultureEuropeThe first thing that attracted attention was ukiyo-e and other works of art.After that, it was the first non-Western nationModernizationGlobal interest in Japan, which succeeded in winning the Sino-Japanese War and won the Russo-Japanese War, also increased.The culture of "Japan", which was imaged from a foreign country, is exaggerated in one aspect or confused with China due to curiosity (exoticism) for a culture that is completely different from Christian culture, especially in Western countries. It tends to be transmitted as (stereotype, crest type), and many of them seem to be "biased recognition" from the perspective of Japanese people.in recent years,Anime,Comic,karaoke,デ ジ タ ル ア ー ト,Computer artな どMade in Japan,ゲームSuch asPop cultureIs attracting attention overseas, and more and more people have a different image of "Japan".In Hollywood movies, there are movements such as making works that try to draw Japan in earnest, remaking Japanese movies, and appointing Japanese directors.[Source required].

Folktales, folklore, old tales

Various legends and legends all over JapanFolk tale-Old taleEtc. are transmitted.


clothes

OldJomon PeriodFound in the ruins ofJewelSuch asTrinkets(Accessories),Japanese mythSeen inThree kinds of sacred treasures(Magatama ・mirror) Etc. including early clothingBody decorationIs authoritativemagicIt is believed that it had a certain meaning.

laterRitual systemWith the introduction of, the difference in status and class will be expressed in earnest, mainly made by the government. Temporarily cut off continental cultureHeian periodIs a national styleHeian costumeAlso developed.

Then, depending on the timesClothingAlthough it changed rapidly, it was classified to some extent by status.Meiji EraSince then, Western-style clothing has gradually been adopted by the military, government offices, schools, etc., and today it is commonplace.OutfitWearing, sunny days, happy days ("Hare and Ke"), etc.kimonoThere are many styles such as wearing.

traditional outfit

For detailed types and details of costumeskimonoas well as the Category: KimonoSee.

Currently commonly knownclothes
Modern generalCeremonial occasionCostume
Other
Accessories / Carrying items
Makeup / decoration
Textiles, sewing related
All over JapanfabricFor traditional crafts ofTraditional craftsSee.
Changes with the times
Non-popular fashion

食

Japanese food is "Japanese(Academically, "Japanese cuisine")West AsiaIt ’s quite different from the food inEast Asia,Southeast AsiaIn each country, dishes similar to Japan,FoodstuffAnd many more.

However, in terms of food etiquette, it is unique compared to other East Asian countries.東アジア諸国でのIn East Asian countriesMealHow toHot potThere are many ways to eat dishes that are served on a large plate.日本では平安時代のIn Japan during the Heian period貴族Rite betweenBanquetWas eaten asLarge dishIn this form, the master and the guest sat in a chair, a desk was placed, and a platter of food was placed on a table called a "pedestal", which was set aside.

In the Middle Ages, it was used as a samurai ritual and banquet dish instead of a large dish.Honzen cuisineIs established.Honzen-ryori is a tableware for personal use, with the owner and the customer sitting on the floor.Genius) Is characterized by a special set that serves multiple dishes.

In other East Asian countries, straight chopsticks, which do not use chopsticks and separate dishes with each person's chopsticks, are an expression of dearness, but in Japan, straight chopsticks are a violation of etiquette (recently, for hygiene reasons, East). The custom of using chopsticks has become established in Asian countries as well).Also, it is allowed to have tableware such as bowls and plates, and only Japan eats with chopsticks (in other areas where chopsticks are customary, spoons are used when eating soup and rice. Is common).There are many customs that can not be seen outside of Japan, such as being allowed to make soup noodles with soba noodles and udon noodles.[Source required]..In recent years, low-fat Japanese food has been highly evaluated and is said to be a healthy diet.

local cuisineThere are differences in eating habits between the mountains and the plains, and between the coastal and inland areas, even in relatively small areas, and from the Edo period to the early Meiji periodAbandoned DomainMany of them have a foundation in the previous feudal era.このため、食文化はFor this reason, the food culturePrefecturesThere are various food cultures in each of the smaller regions.

Today's Japanese generally eat three meals, morning, noon, and night.With the development of preservation technology, fresh seafood can be obtained anywhere in Japan (Japan has the highest consumption of seafood in the world).Rather than cooking at homeEating out-Half boardThere are more opportunities to do it. Since the 20th century, the number of people who eat only traditional Japanese food has decreased due to the active adoption of foreign food culture.

Japanese people like seafoodeggTo eat raw,SeaweedSome people outside Japan feel strange about eating and their food culture.

In addition, each food field has its own skills and has many years of training and experience.Professional craftsman(Example: sushi chef).

Japanese food (Japanese food)
Cuisine
drink
Food / Ingredients / Ingredients
Common peopleFood-FoodstuffからbrandIncluding items.
meat
seafood
Seaweed
Vegetables
Potatoes
Mushrooms
fruit
citrus
manufactured food
seasoning
Japanese sweets
Cooking method
Tableware,Manners
Manners
Types of Japanese food

Housing / architecture

Japanese housing

In various parts of Japan, houses have been built using building materials that have been in the area for a long time.そのような地域差がありながらも、日本全国どこでもDespite such regional differences, anywhere in JapanThuHouses (Japanese houses, Japanese-style houses) have been built using.この背景には、豊富なBehind this is abundantwoodThere was a humid climate and the presence of engineers who were familiar with the nature of trees.

Most of the houses until recent yearswoodenWas, but nowReinforced concrete,Steel structureThe number of houses (detached houses, apartment houses) is increasing.In addition, imported materials are now commonly used in wooden houses, and quality is being standardized and standardized.

Japanese architecture

Kofun periodThe previous one(I.e.See also
Wooden architecture
Gosho / Rikyu
Shrine
Temple
Castle
Private house
Modern and contemporary architecture
Meiji EraSince then, European architectural styles and techniques have been introduced, and Japanese architecture has changed significantly.

Japanese concept and consciousness of space

Life

Traditional crafts

Called "local" in various parts of JapangiftThere are goods, but these daily necessities are the result of the ingenuity of the local people who have tried to make products that match the local nature, history, industry, and traditions.また、日用品も、現代では多くが大企業の工場で作られるようになったが、その技術も、古くから培われてきたIn addition, many daily necessities are now made in factories of large companies, but the technology has been cultivated for a long time.Traditional craftsMany of them are produced by applying the technology of.

Street culture

It shows the characteristics of the streets of Japan that are not found or are few in other countries.

  • vending machine ――In Japan, a wide variety of vending machines are installed throughout the city.最も多いのはMost oftenBeverageIs for sale.The number of installed units in Japan exceeds 800 million.This is much more common than in other countries and is becoming a major feature of Japan.
  • tissueFree distribution of
  • Coin parking
  • MASKS

Japanese funeral

ReligiousIn the present age when consciousness is fadingfuneralIs also a divine style, especially if there is a religious belief and it is done in a Christian or new religious style.Funeral festivalExceptBuddhismBuddhist style using the format ofFuneralIs often done.

Since the Middle Ages, even among the common peopleHomeWas established, and its prosperity and continuity were emphasized.In addition, the Middle Ages was a time of frequent wars and disasters, and the common people urged mourning.Kamakura BuddhismIn light of this situation, the Buddhist priests began to actively hold funerals and memorial services for their ancestors from the perspective of saving the common people as if they were nobles of status.As a result, Japanese Buddhism became popular in the process of becoming "Funeral buddhism", And the common peopleBodhi TempleとDanyaThe relationship was established and generalized in the Edo period.The situation is the result of being handed down to the present day, rather than a pure religious event.customIt can be said that it has become (in modern times, "Funeral buddhismThe height of the funeral fee and the Dharma name fee is noticed, and it may be taken in a negative sense).

In recent years, the number of people who have doubts about the commercialized Buddhist funerals is increasing, and the number of simple divine funerals is also increasing.さらにfurtherNatural burial(Bone scatter,Space burial, Etc.) are also beginning to permeate as a form.

wake,Funeral home,Mourning,Recollection,Legal affairs,The Orchid Bon Festival,Cluster amaryllis

Japanese wedding

Marriage agency,Matchmaking,Conclusion,matchmaker,Wedding hall,San-san-ku-do,Makeover,On the floor,Honeymoon

Rite of passage

Shichigosan,Entrance ceremony,Graduation ceremony,Coming-of-age ceremony,farewell party,Sixtieth birthday-Kouki-77 Years of age-Umbrella life-Yoneju-Life expectancy-Shirasu,Young people's inn,Former clothes,Retirement,Priest-Profitability-Shaving

Family system

Originator-Branch house,Family,Adopted child,Married woman,Living in a room,Back home・,Name-Name,Special adoption,Unregistered person,stillbirth,Foster parents

Social system

Get together,Neighborhood association,Circular board,Neighboring group,Contact network,COMPA-Joint party,Fire brigade

Gifts and rituals

Nakamoto,Year-end gift,New Year's card,Summer greetings,Visit in the cold,Fire visit,Illness,,,Iron-Mizuhiki-Folded,Incense-Incense return,Ceremonial occasion,Inexhaustible lecture-Yoritomoko,Return,New Year's gift

Ceremony

Ground breaking ceremony,Cornerstone,Upper building ceremony, ~ Open (office, piano, mirror, etc.), ・Open,One tightening-Three tightened

School system / educational institution

(For more information"Japanese education""School systemSee the section See Other Sections)

Maternal and child health handbook,Nursery,Kindergarten,Authorized child institution,Preschool education,Classroom visitation
5 days a week,Happy Monday system,Graduation trip

Cohabitation with handy capper

(For details, see "Welfare for the Elderly," "Social Welfare," and other sections.)

Daily necessities / daily necessities

Furniture
Other
Electric appliances

Event

Japanese Koyomi

Japanese Koyomiabout,Template: Seasonal topics,Template: Today's Koyomi,Template: What day is it todaySee also

Calendar noteContents of

Annual event

ReligiousAnnual event The#religionDescribed in.
For each day's eventsMetalink 365 daysSee.
Events related to agriculture were also big events until around the prewar period, but they are decreasing due to the decrease in farmers and mechanization. (Agricultural calendarreference)

1 - New Year(Three days1 to 3 days),New year decoration,Chinese food,Zoni,First dream,New year's card,Shoto,Seven herbs porridge,New Year's party,Kagami mochi(Mirror opening),Left justice,The beginning(2 days),Beginning of the princess(2 days),Start working(4 days)
2 - 節 分,spring equinox,Spring fight,バ レ ン デ ー(14 days)
3 - (I.e.(3 days),graduate,springCluster amaryllis,White Day(14 days)
4 - Admission,New semester,April Fool's Day (April Fool's Day)(1 days)Buddha society(The 8th)
5 - may Day(1 days),Dragon Boat FestivalFestival (5th),Golden week(Varies every year depending on the length of consecutive holidays, mainly on the 3rd, 4th, and 5th),母 の 日(2nd Sunday)
6 - Change clothes,Father's Day(3nd Sunday)
7 - Tanabata(7 days),Summer greeting card
8 - Afternoon heat,Obon,Summer gift
9 - New semester,Disaster prevention(1 days),Autumn equinox,Fifteen nights,autumn'sCluster amaryllis,敬老の日(3rd Monday)
10 - Change clothes - Halloween(31 days)
11 - Shichigosan,Black friday(4th Friday)
12 - Year-end gift,Year-end party,Christmas(24th, 25th),Paying for work,New Year's Eve-Exile bell(31 days),New year's soba

Those with no fixed date
(I.e.
Most of the country is warm and humidClimatic zoneBelongs toSpring Summer Autumn WinterIn a country whereweatherFrom the conditionsRice cultivationbySettledLife became the basis of life.それゆえ、この国に棲む人々は四季の移ろいに敏感で、穏やかではあるが自然に対してTherefore, the people of this country are sensitive to the changing seasons and are calm but against nature.SensitivityA keen national character was nurtured.In addition, because it is an island country surrounded by the sea and independent, it gives a certain degree of control to contact with other ethnic groups, and in addition to the above-mentioned characteristics, it also serves as a foundation for creating a unique, delicate and fertile culture. It was.

Local festival

Local festivalaboutCategory: Japanese Festival

As an event to worship God at the festival that has been held for a long time in JapanMikoshiIt is often done using the or Shintai.It also has the meaning of praising God, praying for a good harvest and good health, and blowing away evil things.Various festivals are held at any time of the year, and there are no particular days when the festivals are concentrated in one day, such as "Christmas" and "Halloween" in the Christ sphere, but in terms of seasons, it is summer. Much done,Bon dance,fireworksMany tournaments are held.

Religious

In Japan, the constitution says "Religious freedomIs sung, and various religions are worshiped.Buddhist altar (BuddhismAccording to the ancestors and deceased) and the Kamidana (ShintoSome households have both (worshiping the god of the god), while in recent years, more and more households have neither.

Many people are personally involved in a particular religion or sect, but the Japanese as a whole have little religious consciousness, and in factNo religionThe majority are close to.一般的にTypicallyfuneralIs often done in Buddhist styleweddingThere is a mixed phenomenon of religious forms such as Christianity or God.Rather than enthusiastically worshiping a particular religion on a daily basis, there is a marked tendency for individuals, families, or groups to be involved as religious events as appropriate.墓式に関しては、家族の関わる仏教各宗派に属するものが圧倒的に多いが、最近ではMost of the tomb ceremonies belong to Buddhist denominations involving families, but these daysNo religionThe number of things is increasing.宗教施設の中にはSome religious facilitiesGod Buddha practiceThere are also examples of worship as the gongen of.またAlsoWorld profitSome are (worldly)WishThe place where religious acts are performedFolk beliefNot limited toShrineAlso in, these areAttractionsIt is often the case.

Shinto

Buddhism

Shinto Buddhism, folk beliefs, new religions

By definition, some are included in the above two items.

キ リ ス ト 教

There are Christian churches in various places, and many Japanese people are familiar with events such as Christmas, but the number of Christians is as small as 0.8% of the population. Most Catholic.

言语

Japanese languageFor more information aboutJapanese dialect,JapanSee.

For Japanese law, official documents, etc.JapaneseIs used, and Japanese isOfficial terminology(There is no legal statement other than that Article 74 of the Court Law stipulates that Japanese be used in courts). Most of the scenes actually used are in Japanese.

The words that have been used since ancient timesYamato languageHowever, due to the influence of China, a high rateChinese languageIs used, and after the Meiji eraEnglishSuch asForeign wordsAnd translated itJapanese-made ChineseIs also widely used.English conversationMany Japanese people are not good at it, but foreign words derived from English (eg global standards) are often used.Japanglish"English" unique to Japan is also born. Due to historical background and progress of internationalizationSign,SignboardEtcEnglish,Korean(Korean),Chinese,Portuguese,RussianEtc. are also being written together.

There are various in JapanesedialectThere are considerable differences depending on the region. But in the Meiji eraTokyo dialectBased onStandard language-common languageSince the establishment of the dialect, traditional dialects have tended to decline nationwide, including Tokyo, due to the influence of school education and the media.

Japanese

漢字
Kana
grammar
Other

OkinawaとKagoshimaAmami archipelagoThe dialects in are collectively referred to as "Ryukyu dialectIs called. The languages ​​of the Ryukyu Islands differed so much that they could not communicate with each other on the mainland and verbally, and the languages ​​were so diverse that it was difficult to communicate with each other.RyukyuIt is also called "Ryukyuan languages". Currently in Okinawa PrefectureUchina YamatoguchiIn Japanese calledNew dialectIs being spoken.

handicappedWords used by

Deaf, hard to hearDeaf personBetweensign languageIs widely used.DeafnessFor those who have not completely lost their hearing,OralismSome people use it, but there are limits. At first glance, Japanese Sign Language looks similar to Japanese, but it has its own elements. The word order is not always the same as in Japanese.

Blind, hard to seeVisually impairedWas devised so that all letters can be represented by the arrangement of dots.BrailleThere is.

Non-Japanese

Ainu
in JapanHokkaidoAroundKuril,KarafutoBut it was used.AinuWas used by, but nowadays few people use it for daily conversation, and it is a crisis language (a language in which there is a risk that there will be no speakers), with the number of people who can speak only a few hundred people.
Other
Live a lot in JapanKoreans in Japan・ The majority of Koreans use Japanese.Korean(Korean) is also used, and in Japan there are many speakers next to Japanese. However, Korean spoken in Japan was influenced by Japanese andKorean in JapanIt is a Japaneseized Korean language called.
OtherBrazilian OfPortugueseEtc. are often spoken in some areas.

Entertainment and leisure

Entertainment

Travel / sightseeing / excursion

Japanese people areTravelLike,Tourism-VacationIt is said that I like it.

play

Traditional

NATURE

Spring:

Summer:

Fall:

  • Bonfire,, various autumn taste hunting

Winter / snow

School / ball games

Modern

Sports

Originally,SportsSince is a Western concept, physical activity that competes for victory or defeat before modern times is simply "Competition", And for combat techniques,"Martial arts""martial artsIt is more correct to call it.

Traditional sports

Sports since modern times

Since the Meiji era, influenced by foreign countriesサ ッ カ ー,Tennis,baseball,ボ ー ト,landSuch competitions were introduced mainly in schools.GolfBecame popular after the war as a social gatheringReceptionIt is often done in.In addition, the above-mentioned Ko-Budo was arranged in a modern way by incorporating Western sports and became a modern martial art.

Training and improving skills of athletes

Sports as recreation

Literature / arts / media

Hobbies / Preferences / Culture

literature

literature

Art

Art

Crafts

Crafts-Pottery

Geido

Geido

Music

Music

movies

movies

Gardening

Gardening
  • Garden plant
chrysanthemum-morning glory-primrose-Iris-evergreen-Selaginella-Ardisia crispa-Tenjin-Yabukouji-Whisk fern-Chosei Ran-Fukiran-Oriental run-Cherry Blossoms-camellia...

Learning

Learning
Other

Information / communication / mass media

情报-communication-Mass mediaDevelopment has a great influence on Japanese culture.

sub culture

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ For example, even if the residence changes from a Japanese-style tatami room to a Western-style room, it does not change in that you take off your shoes and go up indoors.
  2. ^ The idea that tools including needles, such as needle memorial services, also have a soulBuddhismThen it was considered an evil way
  3. ^ There are many religious studies that make Buddhism and esoteric Buddhism different religions
  4. ^ There is also the view that Confucianism is a philosophy or idea but not a religion.
  5. ^ Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euAlso accepted Chinese character culture and Confucianism, but the influence is now diminishing
  6. ^ Old timesChristianculture
  7. ^ "Karaoke, Emoji ..." Mr. Obama welcomes Prime Minister Abe with JapaneseSankei Shimbun 2015.4.28

Related item

外部 リンク



 

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