Photo From the 53rd NHK TV series "Ochoyan" (C) NHK
"Ochoyan" "Mitsue" Ayaka Higashino's "Like Romijuri" tragic love on the net "Crying"
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Hana confessed that she used to work as a tea child in Fukutomi, founded Okayasu in the form of a warm-up from there, and that Hana had pulled out several regular customers from Fukutomi.
Week 8 of the NHK TV series "Ochoyan" (NHK General TV / Monday-Saturday 11 o'clock, etc.) starring Hana Sugisaki → Continue reading
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Wikipedia related words
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customer (Kokyaku,British: customer) isCommercial,EconomicsAtObject,Products,Services,ideaEtc.SaleAn individual or corporation that is the target of.client (client),buyer (buyer),buyer Sometimes called (purchaser).
Electric power company-Gas companySuch asEnergyIn the supply relationship,ConsumerThe term (juyoka) is also often used..Also, depending on the target of the servicepassenger-audienceWords such as are also used.
"Customer" is a littleBusiness AdministrationCloser term (ie, slightlyLearningIn an organization, it is common to express feelings and clarify the relationship with the customer as "customer", and in the case of a deeper relationship, as "customer".
Peter DruckerIs "The purpose of business is to create customer"the purposeIs the creation of the customer) ".The purpose of the business is (shallowManagementIt shouldn't be about pursuing your organization's financial interests or just being selfish (unlike what you often think), but creating customers, that is, helping society. He said that it is to provide such products and services and to form a good relationship so that they can use them, and to become a good existence that society wants.
In a primitive society, acquaintancesBarter economyWas dependent on.afterwards,CommercePermanent social asdesireNot temporaryneedsNon-permanent relationships have come to be formed that depend on.In modern times, these distinctions are not so conscious, but industries with short-term relationships areclientThe word, an industry with a more stable and repetitive relationshipcustomerWordTend to prefer.
clientThe term is a Latin word meaning "tilt" or "bend"clientemorto clinareIt is related to the feeling of origin.People are貪欲とfearIt is widely believed to change habits only when motivated by..As a result, client acquisition is a one-off event, and professionals dealing with specific issues are asked to be one-off clients rather than always-related customers.
Clients who constantly buy from a particular seller enable regular and sustainable business transactionsCustomTo produce.This allows the seller to生産With the process (the nature and form of goods and services)Supply chainYou will be able to develop statistical models that optimize (location and transactions).
Various classifications are known.
Two categories: end user and reseller
Marketers and economists often classify into the following two categories.
- Reseller,Intermediary,Intermediate customer --Purchase a product for resale.
- End-user,End customer --ActualconsumerOr consumerPurchasing personAnd its agents.
Customers and consumers have different concepts ..client TheProductsBuyer,consumer TheProducts使用Is a person to do ..client TheIn the consumerThere may be, May have been purchased for consumption by someone else (Intermediate customer).Intermediate customers are not consumers . IndustrialIn the case of products and services, the relationship is a bit more complicated, the customer is a legal entity such as a government agency, manufacturer, educational medical institution, etc.ProductIncorporate into.In this case, it is logically a consumer,Industrial customers(industrial customers)Business-to-business customers (B2B customer, Business-to-business customers)..Similarly, customers who buy services rather than goods are rarely called consumers..
Existing customers, potential customers / prospects
Individuals and corporations who have already purchased and used products and servicesexisting customer Called (existing customers).In addition to this, it may also be a "customer" including individuals and corporations that are likely to purchase.in this casePotential customers,Prospect Sometimes called (leads, prospects, potential customers).
Three categories: customer, non-customer, and non-customer
Six sigmaThe doctrine of is to define active customers, non-customers, and non-customers.
- specificCompany OfcustomerA person who has been actively involved with a company within a certain recent period of time for a product sold.
- Not-customersIs a past customer who is no longer a customer, orCompetitorCommunicating withPotential customersAny of.
- Non-customersIs completely different fromMarket segmentPeople in.Not for sale.
Jeff Tennant, a Six Sigma consultant in the United Kingdom, said:exampleing.A supermarket customer is someone who buys milk from the supermarket.Non-customers are people who buy milk from another supermarket, while non-customers are people who don't buy milk from the supermarket at all and "have traditionally deliver milk to their homes.". '
Two categories, external customers and internal customers
- Of the organizationExternal customerIs a customer who has no direct relationship with the organization.
- Internal customerIs a customer who has a direct relationship with the organization and is usually (but not always) inside the organization.Internal customers are usuallyStakeholders,Employee, AndShareholderBut by definitiona creditorAlso included.
Before the concept of internal customers was introduced, external customers were simply called customers.[Source required].quality managementWriter Joseph M. Juran spread the concept and in 1988 hisQuality Control Handbook4th edition (Juran 1988) Introduced in..Since then, this idea has beenComprehensive quality controlAnd widely accepted in the literature on service marketing.. As of 2016, many organizations believe that satisfying internal customers is a touchstone for their products to meet the needs of external customers (Tansuhaj, Randall & McCullough 1991)..Various studies on the theory and practice of managing internal customersService departmentContinued in the industry.
Discussion against the use of the term "internal customer"
Peter Drucker,Philip Kotler, W. Edwards DemingFamous authors in the fields of management and marketing, such as, in their booksInternal customerThe term is not used.They are,customerIs regarded as an important role in the relationship between supply and demand in society.As a characteristic of customers, customers are not subordinate to suppliers, and all customers are in the same position as suppliers in negotiations."All customers can accept or reject a service or product offer," wrote Peter Dragger..
Contrary to this customer character, relationships between company colleagues are always subordinate.Company employees are obliged to follow company processes and are not authorized to select departments / colleagues to carry out their work.The relationship of "internal customers" is said to be different from that of customers because employees of the company are obliged to act within existing departments / colleagues based on the organizational structure of the company and the determined process.
ITIL,Six sigmaMany authors of the methodologyInternal customerIs defined as a department within the company that uses the results / outputs of another department within the company as input.This definition is more appropriate than the customer-supplier relationship.Peter Dragger believes there are no customers in the organization.He"Within the organizationCost centerThere is only.The only profit center is the customer whose check is not checked.Is written..William Deming told the manager at his ninth point, "Break down the barriers between departments!Each department needs to work as a team.I advise..This means that within a company, teamwork is needed, not a supplier-customer relationship. ITIL's methodology also acknowledges that "the term" colleague "is accurate in the relationship between two departments within an organization.".
- Customer centricity
- Customer relationship management
- Service level agreements
- Early adopter
- Customer(Avoid ambiguity)
- List of pages starting with "Customer"
- List of pages starting with "Customer"
- ^ What is a customer?-Kotobank
- ^ What is a consumer? --Kotobank
- ^ a b c d e f Reizenstein 2004, pp. 119.
- ^ Kendall 2007, pp. 3.
- ^ "Greed and Fear". Psychology Today. 2018/5/9Browse.
- ^ a b c d e Frain 1999, p. 161.
- ^ Blythe 2008, pp. 18.
- ^ Kansal & Rao 2006, pp. 61.
- ^ Tennant 2001, pp. 52.
- ^ a b Tennant 2001, pp. 52–53.
- ^ a b Kendall 2007, pp. 3,9.
- ^ Tennant 2001, pp. 53.
- ^ a b Kelemen 2003, pp. 28.
- ^ Stracke 2006, p. 87.
- ^ Reeves & Bednar 2005, pp. 335.
- ^ Papasolomou-Doukakis 2001, pp. 71.
- ^ "Archived copy”. As of May 2014, 2オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2013/11/22Browse.
- ^ https://scholar.google.com/scholar?as_ylo=2009&q=internal+customer+service+industry&hl=en&as_sdt=1,16
- ^ Drucker, Peter F .; Collins, Jim; Kotler, Philip; Kouzes, James; Rodin, Judith; Rangan, V. Kasturi; Hesselbein, Frances (2008). The five most important questions you will ever ask about your organization (Third ed.). Jossey-Bass. P. Under the chapter “Question 2: Who Is Our Customer?”, P. 25. ISBN 978-0-470-22756-5
- ^ Drucker, Peter F. (2002). Management Challenges for the 21st Century. PerfectBound ™, HarperCollins. P. 4 Information Challenges, under the topic “Where the Results Are”. ISBN 0-06-0546794
- ^ Deming, W. Edwards (2000). Out of the crisis.Cambridge, Mass .: MIT Press
- ^ ITIL® Service Strategy (Second ed.). TSO (The Stationery Office). (2011). P. Table 3.1 Differences between internal and external customers; under the line “Link to business strategy and objectives”. ISBN 9780113313044
- Blythe, Jim (2008). Essentials of Marketing (4th ed.). Pearson Education. ISBN 978-0-273-71736-2
- Frain, John (1999). “Customers and customer buying behavior”. Introduction to marketing (4th ed.). Cengage Learning EMEA. ISBN 978-1-86152-147-7
- Kansal, BB; Rao, PCK (2006). “Environmental Factors in Management”. Preface to Management (Parragon Books). Ganga Dhar Chaudhary. ISBN 978-81-89091-00-2
- Kendall, Stephanie D. (2007). “Customer Service from the Customer's Perspective”. In Fogli, Lawrence. Customer Service Delivery: Research and Best Practices. JB SIOP Professional Practice Series. 20. John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 978-0-7879-8310-9
- Kelemen, Mihaela (2003). Managing quality: managerial and critical perspectives. SAGE. ISBN 978-0-7619-6904-4
- . Cengage Learning EMEA. ISBN 978-1-86152-546-8.
|title=Is mandatory. (Description)
- Reeves, Carol A .; Bednar, David A. (2005). “Defining Quality”. In; Wood, Michael C .. Joseph M. Juran: critical evaluations in business and management. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-32571-4
- . SAGE. ISBN 978-0-7619-2674-0.
|title=Is mandatory. (Description)
- Stracke, Christian (2006). “Process-oriented quality management”. In Ehlers, Ulf-Daniel; Pawlowski, Jan Martin. Handbook on quality and standardisation in e-learning.Springer. ISBN 978-3-540-32787-5
- Tennant, Geoff (2001). Six Sigma: SPC and TQM in manufacturing and services. Gower Publishing. ISBN 978-0-566-08374-7
- (1988). Quality Control Handbook (4th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-033176-1 (1988). Quality Control Handbook (4th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-033176-1 (1988). Quality Control Handbook (4th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-033176-1
- Tansuhaj, Patriya; Randall, Donna; McCullough, Jim (1991). “Applying the Internal Marketing Concept Within Large Organizations: As Applied to a Credit Union”. Journal of Professional Services Marketing (Taylor & Francis) 6 (2): 193–202. two:10.1300 / J090v06n02_14.
- Forget demographics.Target community (marketing) instead
In addition,商標It also refers to independence in a harmonious manner while sharing such things.
Example of goodwill division (Japan)
In some cases, a good relationship is maintained even after independence, but in other cases, it is cut off.
Retail and manufacturing
- SenbiyaSohonten → Kyobashi Senbiya, Ginza Senbiya
- Kimuraya Sohonten → Sapporo Kimuraya,Okayama Kimuraya,Kimuraya(FukuokaKurume)Such
- Sakuraya(Shinjuku) → Sakuraya from Ogikubo Camera(Ogikubo)
- Sogensha(Osaka) → Tokyo Sogensha(Tokyo)
- Sanyo Electric → After that, it was absorbed and merged with Sanyo Electric in 1986.
- Matsushita Electric Industrial → Matsushita Electric Works
- After that, Matsushita Electric IndustrialPanasonicThe company name was changed to Panasonic Electric Works in line with the change of company name, and eventually it was integrated again into Panasonic.
- Tanabe Pharmaceutical(Former: Gobei Tanabe Shoten, Osaka) → Tokyo Tanabe Pharmaceutical(Former: Motosaburo Tanabe Shoten, Tokyo)
- Seiko Instruments(Former Daini Seikosha → Seiko Electronics Industry → Seiko Instruments) → Seiko Epson Corporation(Former Yamato Kogyo → Suwa Seikosha)
- Takamizawa Electric Mfg. Co., Ltd.(Bankruptcy later) → Takamizawa Cybernetics
- Dumpling king → Osaka Ohsho
- Rikimochi Shokudo
- Ramen Jiro
- Daiei(Later bankruptcy → Reconstruction, nowKadokawa movie) → Daiei TV,Video kyoto
- Noville(Former Thinks, Tokushima, conglomerate mainly for the amusement and restaurant industries) →Axus(Former Selva, Tokushima, specialty store-based retailers)
- Teiko Promotion(Tokyo Teiken) → Osaka Teiken, Fukuoka Teiken, Hachinohe Teiken
- Kyoei Boxing Gym → Kyoei Sapporo Akasaka, Hakata Kyoei, Kyoei Kanuma
- New Japan Kimura Boxing Gym → New Japan Osaka-New Japan Sendai・ New Japan Kasuga ・ New Japan Shunan ・ New Japan Omiya
- U-FILE CAMP → U-FILE CAMP Gifu
- Super Hotel