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🌐 | Japan Meteorological Agency renews HP for the first time in 19 years ... There are confused voices on the net


The Japan Meteorological Agency renews its website for the first time in 19 years, but there are confused voices online.

If you write the contents roughly
The display of information has been greatly revised, such as viewing the disaster prevention weather information published in the municipalities on one page for each field such as heavy rain, earthquakes, and volcanoes.

Japan Meteorological Agency renews Hope Page for the first time in 19 years.There are pros and cons on the internet about the major changes ... → Continue reading


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Disaster prevention weather information

Disaster prevention weather informationWhat is (Bosaikishojoho)?Japanese Meteorological AgencyHas announcedweather-Earthquake-VolcanoA general term for forecasts and information regarding the above.disasterThere are two types of information: information to protect yourself from information and information to help you in your daily life.[1].. On the other hand, information based on past observations is classified as "meteorological statistical information", except for a part such as analytical rainfall.

Vigilance level

Eruption alert level

Heavy rain / flood / storm surge alert level

2019May 5Heavy rain alarm,Earth and sand disaster caution information, Designated riverFlood forecastandclimax5 levels for alarmVigilance levelOperation of (heavy rain, flood, high tide warning level) has started. Since alert level 5 is information on disaster occurrence, it is necessary to evacuate from dangerous areas at the alert level 4 level.[2][3][4].. Also, it has been one year since the start of operation2020On May 5, 29 color schemes were also set for each alert level[5].

Warning level color scheme
  • Alert level 5 (black/RGB=12.0.12,  )
  • Alert level 4 (purple/RGB=170.0.170,  )
  • Alert level 3 (red/RGB=255.40.0,  )
  • Alert level 2 (yellow/RGB=242.231.0,  )
  • Alert level 1 (white/RGB=255.255.255,  )

Correspondence with alarms and disaster prevention information

The information for protecting yourself from disasters is ranked as follows in order from the one with the lowest severity.[3][6].

Alert level 1[Note 1]
  • (Possibility of warning level <early warning information> is [High] or [Medium] by the next day)
Alert level 2[Note 2]
  • Warning( yellow[Note 3]<Distribution level: caution[Note 4]〉)
    There is a risk of disaster.Sediment disaster-洪水-climaxIn the stage, local governments will start collecting information, and residents will check the information outdoors and check disaster prevention supplies and evacuation routes and destinations[3][6][7].
Equivalent to alert level 3[Note 5]
  • alarm( "Red"[Note 3]<Distribution level: vigilance[Note 4]〉)
    Serious disasters can occur. In case of sediment-related disasters, floods and storm surges, local governmentsEvacuation preparation information(Because evacuation becomes difficult at this stage in high tideEvacuation advisoryAs a guideline for issuing a warning, elderly people (people requiring assistance during a disaster) immediately start evacuating from a dangerous place, and other people prepare to evacuate and, in some cases, evacuate.[3][6][7].
Equivalent to alert level 4[Note 6]
  • Earth and sand disaster caution information( purple[Note 3]<Distribution level: very dangerous[Note 4]= Light purple[Note 7]/ Extremely dangerous[Note 4]= Dark purple[Note 7][Note 8]〉)
    The risk of disaster is increasing during the warning announcement period. Local governmentEvacuation instructionsAs a guideline for issuing a warning, the stage where the elderly have already evacuated, and the general public immediately started evacuating from a dangerous place or finished evacuating as much as possible.[3][7].
  • Flood risk information( purple[Note 9])
    Stages when river flooding can occur at any time[8].. As a guideline for local governments to issue evacuation advisories and evacuation instructions, elderly people have already completed evacuation, and ordinary people are immediately starting evacuation from dangerous places or ending evacuation as much as possible.[3][7].
Equivalent to alert level 5[Note 10]
  • Special alarm( black[Note 3])
    A stage where the risk of a major disaster is extremely high[3][9].. People who have already evacuated should be vigilant and take the best actions to save lives.[3].
  • Flood occurrence information( black[Note 9])
    Stage where river flooding has already occurred[8].. People who have already evacuated should be vigilant and take the best actions to save lives.[3].
  • Disaster occurrence information
    When it is understood that a disaster is actually occurring, it will be issued within the range possible, inform the occurrence of the disaster, and ask residents to take the best action to save their lives.[10].



Information that contains information about the danger of a disaster.

  • Early warning information --This is an early notification of the possibility of issuing an alarm in the future. Forecasts up to the next day are announced three times a day at regular times, and forecasts are announced two to five days ahead at regular times twice a day. Two levels, [High] and [Medium].At this stage, there are four types of targets: heavy rain, storm (storm snow), heavy snow, and waves.[11].
  • Weather warning -Announced when a meteorological phenomenon may cause a disaster. Municipal unit. Heavy rain, flood, heavy snow, strong wind, wind and snow, waves, storm surge, dense fog, thunder, dryness, avalanche, icing, snow accretion, snow melting, frost, low temperature warnings. Specific criteria are observed and forecast values ​​such as rainfall and wind speed, which may vary depending on the region.[6].
  • Weather warning -Announced when a meteorological phenomenon may cause a serious disaster. Municipal unit. There are heavy rain, flood, heavy snow, storm, storm snow, wave, and storm surge warnings. Specific criteria are observed and forecast values ​​such as rainfall and wind speed, which may vary depending on the region.[6].. Furthermore, for heavy rain, heavy snow, storms, storms, waves, and high tides, if the risk of disaster is significantly increased,Special alarmWill be announced[9].
  • Special alarm -The risk of serious disasters has increased significantly. Decades of rain, wind, snow, high tide, high waves, tsunami of 3m or more, eruption that threatens the living area, earthquake motion with seismic intensity of 6 or more (Earthquake early warning), etc. far exceed the warning announcement standard. The state in which the phenomenon has occurred or is expected.2013May 8Start operation from[9].

Those that comply with warnings and warnings

  • Weather information -The purpose is roughly divided into four.
    1. When calling attention as a preliminary step for warnings and alerts
    2. When supplements (additional information) are added during the announcement of warnings/warnings
    3. When calling for further caution during the announcement of warnings/warnings
    4. Providing information about long-term and socially significant phenomena such as high temperatures and rainy seasons at that time
Prefecture unit. Heavy rain, heavy snowfall, typhoons, storms, storms, high waves, low pressure, lightning, hail, light rain, long rain, tide levels, strong winter pressure distribution, yellow sand, etc.[12].
  • Typhoon information -Announce integrated information about typhoons. There are two types: a typhoon route map that shows the forecast circle on the map at a minimum of 3 hours interval for real-time/prediction of the course and strength, and the probability of entering the typhoon storm region shown in time series and map format.[18].
  • Designated river flood forecast -When a flood disaster is likely to occur, the water level and flow rate of each river will be announced. ConventionalFlood controlIt is an extension of what was announced for activities for citizens, and serves both for flood control and for citizens (in addition to this,Flood alarmThere is also information dedicated to flood control). Jointly announced by the prefecture or the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism and the Meteorological Agency for each river (water system). There are four types of flood caution information, flood warning information, flood danger information, and flood occurrence information.The first one is equivalent to the flood warning of the weather warning, and the last three is equivalent to the flood warning of the weather warning.[8].

Weather forecast etc.

Forecast by point/region

  • (Prefecture weather forecast)-Three times a day at regular times and sudden weather changes, announce the general condition, weather and wind, waves until the next day, the maximum and minimum temperatures and precipitation probability until the next day. Area within the prefecture (primary subdivision area)[19].
  • Weekly weather forecast -Every day, from the next day to 7 days later, the general condition/weather, maximum/minimum temperature and precipitation probability are announced. Three levels of forecast reliability are added. As a general rule, the area within the prefecture (primary subdivision area). Strictly speaking, there are 3 types of general weekly weather forecast, local weekly weather forecast, and prefecture weekly weather forecast.[20].
  • Regional time series forecast -Announces changes in weather, wind and temperature every 1 hours until 3 hours after 24 times a day and during sudden weather changes. Area within the prefecture (primary subdivision area)[21].
  • Seasonal forecast -Weekly, monthly, or annually, a long-term outlook such as temperature, precipitation, snowfall, and sunshine hours is announced in three stages divided by normal deviation. A local unit that divides the country into 3 or 11. 7 types: 1-month forecast, 3-month forecast, warm season forecast, cold season forecast[22].
  • Abnormal weather early warning information -An early predictor of weather far from normal that would affect society. Targets temperature and snowfall. Specifically, twice a week, the 2-day average temperature or the 5-day snowfall from 14 to 7 days later is announced in three stages divided by normal deviation. The country unit divided into 3[23].
  • Amedus Tabular format-From time to time, the observation data of precipitation, wind direction and speed, temperature, sunshine duration, and snow depth (the elements vary depending on the station) from the previous day to the latest on the day are presented in table format for each station.[24].. On the website of the Japan Meteorological Agency, links to observation data of AMeDAS at airports are summarized under the title "Airport Meteorology" along with AMeDAS.
  • Wind profiler -Hourly observation data of hourly wind direction and velocity at intervals of 9 km from the ground to an altitude of about 1 km is presented in tabular format for each observatory. Wind speeds at altitudes of 1 km are also announced in map format[25].

Area forecast

  • Weather map -Several times a daySurface weather mapAnnounced. Preliminary weather charts every 3 hours from 9:3 am to 3:9 pm, live weather charts for Asia at 24:48 am and 9:4 pm, forecast weather forecast for XNUMX hours and XNUMX hours ahead (forecast at XNUMX:XNUMX am and pm) Four kinds. In addition to these, high-rise weather maps and numerical weather forecast maps have been announced for practical use (not posted on the disaster prevention weather information page).[26].
  • Weather distribution forecast -It shows the distribution of weather, temperature, precipitation, and snowfall every 1 hours up to 3 hours at a fixed time of 24 times a day.Mesh forecastAnnounce[27].
  • Analytical rainfall-Precipitation short-term forecast ――Every 10 minutes, we announced a mesh forecast with a side of 12 km showing the analysis and forecast of precipitation distribution every hour from 6 hours before to 1 hours later, and every hour from 1 hours to 7 hours. Announcing a mesh forecast of 15km on each side.This is an integrated analysis of weather radar and rain gauge data held by the Water Management and Land Conservation Bureau, Road Bureau, and Japan Meteorological Agency of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism.Numerical forecastData is also taken into consideration[28].
  • radar-Precipitation Nowcast -Announced a mesh forecast of 5 km per side, showing analysis and prediction of precipitation distribution every 3 minutes, every 1 minutes from 5 hours before to 1 hour. It is more accurate than short-term precipitation forecasts. Integrated analysis of weather radar and rain gauge data held by the Water Management and Land Conservation Bureau, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, Road Bureau, and Meteorological Agency, including wind speed data[29].
  • Heavy rain / flood warningRisk distribution --Updated every 10 minutesSoil rainfall index-Surface rainfall index-Basin rainfall indexAnnouncing a mesh forecast with a side of 2km based on the forecast values ​​up to 5 hours ahead. In 5 stages, it is divided into red "warning", light purple "very dangerous", dark purple "extremely dangerous", etc.[30].
  • Lightning Nowcast - 10分ごとに、3時間前から1時間後までの10分ごとの雷活動度分布の解析・予測を示した、一辺1kmのメッシュ予報を発表。活動度1から4までと"なし"の5段階で、活動度1は空の状況や続報に注意する段階、活動度2以上は安全確保をする段階、活動度3以上は実際に落雷が観測されている段階。雷監視システム(ライデン)と気象レーダーのデータなどを統合解析したもの[31].
  • Tornado Occurrence Accuracy Nowcast -Every 10 minutes, from 3 hours before to 1 hour after 10 minutes every 1 minutes tornado occurrence accuracy (tornado is likely to occur immediately combined with the probability that has already occurred) distribution analysis / prediction Announced the mesh forecast for 1km on a side. Activity level 2 to 3 and 1 levels of "none", activity level 1 has a hit rate of 5-60% and capture rate of 70-2%, but there are many missed shots, but there are few misses, and activities that are affected by gusts are performed. At the stage where it is necessary to pay sufficient attention, activity 5 has a hit rate of 10-20% and a capture rate of 30-2%, but there are few misses, but there are many oversights, and all people are careful of sudden gusts. However, if there is any sign of cumulonimbus approaching, it is at the stage of ensuring safety. In addition, activity level XNUMX is the standard for announcement of tornado caution information. The gust hazard index calculated from the numerical gust "gust-related index" data and the meteorological (rainfall) radar data also adds to the meteorological (wind speed) Doppler radarMesocycloneAnalysis by adding detection data[32].
  • Meteorological satellite-Japan and global every 10 minutes, or Japan every 2.5 minutes, announcing the observation images from 1 day and 3 hours ago, respectively. There are three types: infrared images that capture clouds except near the surface of the earth, visible images that capture the appearance of the clouds and the surface, and steam images that capture water vapor and clouds. Geostationary meteorological satelliteSunflower 8(As a backup9 No.) Observation[33].
  • AMeDAS map format-Anytime, from the day before to the latest on the day, the observation data of precipitation, wind direction and speed, temperature, sunshine duration, and snow depth (elements vary depending on the observation station) are divided into regions suitable for screen display. Presented in map format for each[24].
  • Yellow sand information -From 7 days before, at observation points around Japan on the dayYellow sandAnnounces the observation status of the program in the "live map". In addition, once a day at a fixed time, we announced a mesh forecast of 1 km on a side, which was a forecast of the concentration distribution of yellow sand around Japan every 4 hours until 6 days later, in a "prediction map". Forecast, horizontalVisibilityThe distribution around the surface (from the surface up to about 1km), which is a measure of the deterioration of water and the dirt on the laundry, and the distribution of the entire atmosphere (from the surface to about 23km), which is a measure of the cloudiness of the color of the sky, are shown. Observations are reported from each observation point (visual inspection in Japan), and forecasts are based on numerical forecast data.[34].
  • UV information ――At the fixed time once a day, the observation status of ultraviolet rays on the previous day and the day, and the forecast of ultraviolet rays on the day and the next day are announced with a mesh forecast of about 1 km on each side.There are two types of forecasts: a "prediction map" that considers clouds and a "clear weather forecast map" when there are no clouds.In addition, UV observation values ​​at three points in Japan are announced every hour.UV intensityUV indexExpressed by (UV index), it is recommended to refrain from going out during the day as much as possible and always use a long-sleeved shirt, sunscreen, and hat for "very strong" and "extremely strong" of 8 or more.Observations are based on analysis from AMeDAS sunshine duration data, and forecasts are based on numerical weather prediction data. Altitude, snow cover, and snow cover averaged by a 20km mesh.aerosol・The weather is a factor that determines the amount of ultraviolet rays[35].



  • Maritime alarm -When a weather phenomenon may cause a disaster, it will be announced when the numerical standard has already been reached or is expected to be reached within 24 hours. A sea area unit that divides the sea near Japan into 30 to 40. Typhoon, storm, strong wind, wind, swell, icing, thick fog warning[36].. Although not shown on the disaster prevention weather information page, there are also warnings of volcanic events (such as eruptions) and tsunami.

Maritime forecast etc.

  • -Announces coastal meteorological observations and weather, visibility, and wave forecasts for sea areas at fixed times twice a day. Sea area unit[37].


  • -Every 5 minutes or 10 minutes, the actual tide level, astronomical tide level and normal deviation for the past 3 days are announced. Data from observatories such as the Japan Meteorological Agency, Japan Coast Guard, MLIT Port Bureau, Geospatial Information Authority of Japan, and local governments[38].
  • -From time to time with coastal observation pointsSea buoyAnnounces wave height, cycle, pressure, and water temperature. JMA observation data[39].

Although it is not shown on the disaster prevention weather information page, in addition to this, actual conditions and forecast maps of waves on the coast and the open sea, sea surface temperature, surface water temperature and ocean current distribution in the sea near Japan, tidal observation data, general sea ice information, sea ice forecast map , Announced sea surface temperature, ocean current one-month forecast, etc.[40].


Airfield alarm,Airfield forecastHowever, it is not shown on the disaster prevention weather information page.



  • Tsunami warning --Announced when there is a risk of a disaster caused by a tsunami.The specific standard is when the wave height of the tsunami is expected to be 0.2 m or more and 1 m or less.It will be announced within 3 minutes after the earthquake."The coast of Japan is divided into 60-70"Tsunami forecast area"unit.People in the sea should immediately get out of the sea and leave the coast[41].
  • Tsunami warning -Announced when a tsunami may cause a serious disaster. The concrete standard is when the wave height of the tsunami is expected to exceed 1 m. If it is expected to exceed 3m, it will be called a "tsunami warning." It will be announced with the goal of approximately 3 minutes after the earthquake. Unit of "tsunami forecast area". People along the coast or along the river should immediately evacuate to safe places such as hills and evacuation buildings[41].

Incidentally,Earthquake early warningDoes not take the form of announcement on the homepage, only the past announcement status is announced[42].

Those that comply with warnings and warnings

  • Tsunami information -As supplements and follow-ups when tsunami warnings and tsunami warnings are announced, the estimated tsunami arrival time at each tsunami forecast area, expected tsunami height, high tide time at each point, estimated tsunami arrival time, coastal Announced tsunami observations at each location, offshore tsunami observations, and predicted tsunami height and arrival time for each coastal "tsunami forecast area"[41].
  • Tsunami forecast -Announce that there is no risk of disaster due to tsunami after the earthquake[41].


  • Earthquake information -After the earthquake, the epicenter and scale of the earthquake, and the seismic intensity of each region or municipality of 188 categories in Japan are announced as "seismic intensity preliminary information", "information about the epicenter", "information about the epicenter and seismic intensity", and "information about the seismic intensity of each area". .. In addition, when a large earthquake occurs abroad, "information on teleseismic earthquakes", "Notice of renewal of epicenters of remarkable earthquakes" after detailed analysis and determination of epicenter and scale of large earthquakes, "earthquake frequent occurrence" ”Information on the frequency” and “Estimated seismic intensity distribution map” when seismic intensity 5 or more is observed[43].
  • Information related to Tokai earthquake - Pre slipBased on observationsTokai earthquakeAnnouncement of prediction. Three levels of investigation information (color level blue), Tokai earthquake caution information (same yellow), and Tokai earthquake prediction information (same red) related to the Tokai earthquake. In the caution information, the disaster prevention work team is on standby. Predictive information is linkedDeclaration of cautionIs announced and evacuation measures and traffic regulations will be implemented.[44].



  • Eruption alarm -Announced when a volcanic eruption may cause a life-threatening disaster. Two types of "eruption warnings (around the crater)" that do not affect the residential area and "eruption warnings (residential area)" that affect the residential area, and "eruption warnings that affect the surrounding waters in the case of a submarine volcano" (Surrounding sea area)". The volcanoes subject to eruption alert levels are linked to this.[45].

Those that comply with the alarm

Usage and problems

Depending on the type of disaster, or even the same type, the type and timing of disaster prevention weather information released by the Japan Meteorological Agency will differ. For example, the same heavy raintyphoonとTorrential rainHowever, because the size, duration, and prediction accuracy are different, the timing of information release is not the same. If the announcement is made too early, the forecast may be inaccurate, or the recipient may not last long for the crisis.On the other hand, if the announcement is made too late, the forecast may be accurate and the crisis may be high, but disaster prevention actions may not be in time. It can happen. For example, the timing of the heavy rain warning/alarm announcement is to first determine the amount of rainfall required for evacuation, then set the time required for evacuation preparation, the time required for disaster prevention agency preparation, and the time required for communication. It will be announced 2 to 6 hours before the warning/warning standard is reached as the time for which accuracy such as forecasted rainfall can be secured, even though it is estimated (as of 2012)[46][47]. For this reason, the Japan Meteorological Agency recommends that disaster prevention weather information be used at appropriate times in order to protect people from disasters.[48].

On the other hand, there is a problem with information. In the interim report of the JMA's Study Group on Improving Disaster Information, it was pointed out that if the maximum level of information, such as warnings, is issued frequently, the awareness of the crisis will decline. It has also been pointed out that heavy rainfall may cause confusion and the difficulty of transmitting information itself due to the large amount of information coming in under the imminent situation where various disasters such as sediment disasters and floods occur simultaneously. In addition, since warnings/alarms are now on a municipal basis, it becomes difficult to convey detailed information switching on TV or radio, and more effective means of transmission in mass media are being considered.[47]. Under these circumstances, in 2013Meteorological Service LawThe establishment of a "special warning" was decided by the Cabinet Order related to the revision, and it was implemented from August of the same year.[9].

In September 2013, the study group should unify each information into five levels from 9 to 5 as a general rule, except for phenomena such as heavy rain and storms that cannot classify Level 1 (stage at which a disaster occurred). There are recommendations, it has been reported to be scheduled to be carried out in the prospect of the 5[49].

Revision and addition of provided information

  • 1996March Season forecast started[22].
  • 2005Of the previous yearNiigata/Fukushima heavy rain,Fukui heavy rain,10 typhoons landedIn response to the frequent occurrence of storm and flood damages, etc., improvement of disaster prevention weather information and warnings is reported in the policy review within the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism.[7]. 
  • 2005 Launch of landslide disaster warning information started in Kagoshima prefecture, where preparations are complete[7].
  • In 2005, started operation of "Disaster Prevention Information Provision System" as disaster prevention weather information for disaster prevention organizations such as municipalities[50].
  • 2007 March 3 Expansion of disaster prevention information provision system for municipalities[50].
  • April 2007, 4 Regarding display of typhoon information, changed to a form that indicates the range that passes through the storm warning area, and the forecast circle is changed to a detailed form according to the forecast time[51].
  • April 2007, 4 Changed flood forecast to five alert levels[52].
  • July 2007, 7 Accelerate update of tsunami forecast[53].
  • December 2007, 12 Eruption warning, eruption forecast, and eruption warning level were introduced as disaster prevention information for volcanic activity.[54].
  • 2008Internal sediment disaster warning information covers all prefectures[7].
  • March 2008, 3 Launched "Tornado caution information" as disaster prevention information for gusts such as tornadoes and downbursts[55].
  • 2008/3/26Ogasawara IslandsStarted warning, warning, regional time series forecast, weekly weather forecast[56].
  • May 2008, 5 Heavy rain warning (sediment disaster) criteria for rainfallSoil rainfall indexAdded to the criteria for flood warnings, in addition to rainfall, basin rainfall index[57].
  • 2009 Extending observations by weather radar to 5-minute intervals[7].
  • 2010May 5 Launch of tornado accuracy nowcast and thundercast nowcast[58].
  • May 2010, 5 As a general rule, the units for issuing warnings and warnings are municipalities (some areas are set by dividing the municipalities),Tokyo 23 WardIs eachspecial areaSubdivided into[59].
  • 2012June 6 In weather information, when a serious disaster is imminent, we will start to announce it in a "headline-only short sentence" format.[60].
  • 2013August 8 Launch of "Special Warning" to be announced when the risk of serious disaster is extremely high[9].
  • 2017May 5 Starts improvement measures by adding a note to weather warnings and weather information, mentioning the possibility of future warning levels, and showing them in color-coded time series[61].
  • July 2017, 7 Changed the standard of heavy rain warning (flood damage) from rainfall to surface rainfall index. Also, for heavy rain warning (flood damage) and flood warning, we started to provide the risk distribution of 4km mesh.[57].
  • 2018June 6 Short-term precipitation forecast expanded from 20 hours to 6 hours[62].
  • October 2018, 10 A new smartphone page has been added to the Japan Meteorological Agency website to make it easier to see the distribution of rainfall and risk levels and to display them in conjunction with location information.[63].
  • May 2019, 5 Starting to describe the corresponding warning level in heavy rain warning, sediment disaster warning information, designated river flood forecast and storm surge warning[3][64].

Cases outside Japan

Meteorological authorities other than Japan also have classes for warnings, but the concepts are not the same.

It is not a category like "alarm" or "warning",Eruption alert levelSome areas use alert levels such as.


注 釈

  1. ^ At this time, it is only heavy rain that is clearly classified as warning level 1. People who are difficult to evacuate, such as the elderly and vulnerable people, do not hesitate to evacuate even at this stage.
  2. ^ Expressions at the alert level for heavy rain, sediment disaster, flood, and high tide. However, the storm surge warning, which states that "it is likely to switch to an alarm", is equivalent to alert level 3.
  3. ^ a b c d JMA websiteWeather warning / advisoryColor scheme.
  4. ^ a b c d For heavy rain warnings (landslides) and flood warnings on the Japan Meteorological Agency websiteRisk distributionExpression.
  5. ^ Expressions at the alert level for heavy rain, sediment disaster, flood, and high tide. The action that residents should take in the target area is "preparation for evacuation, prompt evacuation of dangerous places from the elderly".
  6. ^ Expressions at the warning level for heavy rain, landslides, floods, and storm surges. The action that residents should take in the target area is "to quickly evacuate everyone from a dangerous place."
  7. ^ a b For heavy rain warnings (landslides) and flood warnings on the Japan Meteorological Agency websiteRisk distributionColor scheme.
  8. ^ It is considered that the dark purple of sediment-related disaster warning information (risk distribution) will be equivalent to warning level 5 in the future, but at this stage, the appearance of dark purple and the occurrence of disasters are not always directly related to the area. Due to some issues, it is equivalent to Level 4 for the time being.
  9. ^ a b JMA websiteDesignated river flood forecastColor scheme.
  10. ^ Expressions at the alert level for heavy rain, sediment disaster, flood, and high tide. However, at this time, only heavy rain special warning and flood occurrence information are available. High tide warning is equivalent to level 4.
    As alert level 5 is a situation in which a disaster has already occurred (or is very likely to have occurred), the actions that residents should take in the target area are "take the best action to save lives." I am trying.


  1. ^ "Information to protect yourself from disasters""Information useful for living'Japanese Meteorological Agency,2013May 6Browse
  2. ^ "Revision of guidelines regarding evacuation advisories (March 31, 3)»Cabinet Office: Disaster prevention information page, viewed June 2019, 6
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Knowledge / Explanation> "About correspondence between disaster prevention weather information and alert levels'' Meteorological Agency, read June 2019, 6
  4. ^ "Disaster alert level It is necessary to raise evacuation behavior'Kumamoto Daily Newspaper, June 2019, 6, viewed June 18, 2019
  5. ^ "Five color schemes have been set to clearly convey the level of caution for heavy rain (PDF) Read Cabinet Office (Disaster Prevention), May 2, 2020, May 5, June 29, 2020
  6. ^ a b c d e "Explanation of alarms and warnings""Types of alarms and warnings, Meteorological Agency, read June 2013, 6
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h "1st document 3 Recent improvement of disaster prevention weather information and current state of weather forecasting technology (PDF) ”Japan Meteorological Agency Study Group on Improving Disaster Prevention Weather Information, October 2012, 10
  8. ^ a b c "Explanation of designated river flood forecast”. Japan Meteorological Agency. 2019/5/13Browse.
  9. ^ a b c d e "About special alarm""About announcement standard of special warning'' Meteorological Agency, read June 2013, 9
  10. ^ Revision of guidelines regarding evacuation advisories-Operation of warning levels, etc.- (PDF) -Cabinet Office (Disaster Prevention) March 2019 (viewed July 3, 2020)
  11. ^ "Early warning information (possibility of warning level)'' Meteorological Agency, read June 2019, 6
  12. ^ "Explanation of weather information, Meteorological Agency, read June 2013, 6
  13. ^ "Explanation of record short-time heavy rain information, Meteorological Agency, read June 2013, 6
  14. ^ Japan Meteorological Agency Forecast Department. “We will start providing new snow information”. Japan Meteorological Agency. 2019/11/13Browse.
  15. ^ "Explanation of sediment disaster warning information, Meteorological Agency, read June 2019, 5
  16. ^ "Explanation of tornado caution information""Press release material, Japan Meteorological Agency, viewed May 2019, 5
  17. ^ "Explanation of high temperature caution information, Meteorological Agency, read June 2019, 5
  18. ^ "Type of typhoon information and expression method, Meteorological Agency, read June 2013, 6
  19. ^ "Explanation of weather forecast, Meteorological Agency, read June 2013, 6
  20. ^ "Explanation of weekly weather forecast, Meteorological Agency, read June 2013, 6
  21. ^ "Explanation of regional time series forecast, Meteorological Agency, read June 2013, 6
  22. ^ a b "About seasonal forecast""Types and contents of seasonal forecasts""How to read probability expressions, Meteorological Agency, read June 2013, 6
  23. ^ "About abnormal weather early warning information, Meteorological Agency, read June 2013, 6
  24. ^ a b "About AMeDAS, Meteorological Agency, read June 2013, 6
  25. ^ "About Wind Profiler""Wind profiler, Meteorological Agency, read June 2013, 6
  26. ^ "About weather map, Meteorological Agency, read June 2013, 6
  27. ^ "Explanation of weather forecast, Meteorological Agency, read June 2013, 6
  28. ^ "Analytical rainfall""Precipitation short-term forecast and precipitation nowcast""Future rain (precipitation short-term forecast), Meteorological Agency, read June 2019, 5
  29. ^ "Precipitation short-term forecast and precipitation nowcast""Radar Nowcast (Precipitation, Lightning, Tornado): Nationwide, Meteorological Agency, read June 2013, 6
  30. ^ "Sediment disaster warning information/Heavy rain warning (landslide disaster) risk distribution""Heavy rain warning (flood damage) risk distribution""Flood warning risk distribution'' Meteorological Agency, read June 2019, 6
  31. ^ "What is Lightning Nowcast""Thunder Nowcast perspective""Lightning monitoring system, Meteorological Agency, read June 2013, 6
  32. ^ "Tornado occurrence accuracy Nowcast""Tornado occurrence probability Nowcast perspective""Numerical forecast and radar forecast, Meteorological Agency, read June 2013, 6
  33. ^ "Meteorological satellite""About meteorological satellite observation""About satellite image""Meteorological satellite (high frequency), Meteorological Agency, read June 2019, 5
  34. ^ "How to use yellow sand information""Yellow sand information (live map)""Yellow sand information (forecast map), Meteorological Agency, read June 2013, 6
  35. ^ "Explanation of UV information""What is UV index, Meteorological Agency, read June 2013, 6
  36. ^ "Maritime alarm, Meteorological Agency, read June 2013, 6
  37. ^ "Maritime forecast, Meteorological Agency, read June 2013, 6
  38. ^ "Tidal level observation information'Explanation of tide level observation information, Meteorological Agency, read June 2013, 6
  39. ^ "Wave observation information, Meteorological Agency, read June 2013, 6
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  41. ^ a b c d "About tsunami warning/warning, tsunami information, tsunami forecast""Tsunami forecast area, Meteorological Agency, read June 2013, 6
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外部 リンク


市町村(Shichoson) isJapan OfBasic local public bodiesIsCity() ""town(Machi / Cho) ""village(Mura / Son) "is a general term.Municipalities are wide-area local public bodiesPrefecturesWith (Todofuken)Local government lawInOrdinary local governmentHas been defined.

The municipalities areSpecial local governmentIsTokyo Ward(special area) Together with JapanBasic municipalityIs. In general, including municipalities and special wardsMunicipality(Municipalities) orMunicipal DistrictIt ’s called (Shichosonku),TokyoInspecial area(23 wards of Tokyo) Is the central part,Municipalities(Kushichoson)[1].

2018(Heisei30 years)May 10Current(FukuokaNakagawa CityThe number of municipalities and special wards (enforcement of the city system) is as shown in the table below.Great Heisei mergerBefore1999(11)May 3Compared to the number at the time, it has decreased to more than half[2].

Basic municipality2018/10/1(December 1999, 3)
Municipalities total1,718(3,232)
special area23(23)
Grand total1,741(3,255)

Local government lawIn the following, only the article name is described.


1889(Meiji 22), alongside the prefectural systemMeiji constitutionAs the local system below,Hokkaido-OkinawaOn the mainland exceptMunicipal system and municipal system(Law No. 21, April 4, 25) came into effect. They areLocal governmentAs a law targeting municipalities andAdministrationOffice workPolicemenLocal government system (Meiji 19 YearRoyal Decree No. 54) has been established separately.

1911(Meiji 44)Municipal system(Act No. 44 of April 4, 7)Municipal system(Law No. 44 of April 4, 7) and has undergone major revisions since then.

1947(Showa 22)Local government lawIt was abolished due to the enactment, but it is said that there is still a "disposal that the town (village) becomes a city""Municipal system enforcementIs the remnant of this.


Requirements to be a city

The towns and villagesCityIn order to be, the following requirements must be met (8 article(Item 1).

  • Population over 5. However1965After (40),Law on special cases of merger of municipalities(Heisei 16Under the new law of Law No. 59, if the provisions of Article 7) are applied, it will be over 3.
  • There are more than 6% of all units in the central city area.
  • 6% or more of the total population are those engaged in commerce and industry and other urban business categories and those who belong to the same household.
  • ConcernedPrefectures OfOrdinanceIt has urban facilities and other urban requirements specified in.

Requirements to be a town

VillagetownIn order to become, the prefectures to which the village belongs must meet each requirement (population, number of consecutive units or consecutive rates, required public offices, etc., employment population ratio by industry, etc.) (Article 8) 2). The population requirement is most in 5000 prefectures, followed by 8000 prefectures.

There are no special rules regarding village requirements.If it does not meet the conditions for becoming a town, it is automatically a village.

Population requirements for becoming a town

Lower limitPrefectures(* The presence or absence of a village is as of 2010/22)
There is a villageNo village
1 million 5,000 peopleTochigi prefecture flag Tochigi
1 million 0,000 peopleIwate prefecture flag Iwate Gunma prefecture flag Gunma Tokyo flag Tokyo Niigata Prefecture Flag NiigataFukui prefecture flag Fukui Kagawa prefecture flag Kagawa
8,000Aomori prefecture flag Aomori Yamagata prefecture flag Yamagata Fukushima flag Fukushima Nagano Prefecture Flag Nagano Osaka Prefecture Flag Osaka
Nara prefecture flag Nara Shimane prefecture flag Shimane Kochi prefecture flag Kochi Oita Prefecture Flag Oita Okinawa prefecture flag Okinawa
Ishikawa Prefecture Flag Ishikawa Shizuoka prefecture flag Shizuoka
7,000Saga Prefecture Flag Saga
5,000Hokkaido flag Hokkaido Miyagi prefecture flag Miyagi Akita prefecture flag Akita Ibaraki prefecture flag Ibaraki Saitama prefecture flag Saitama
Chiba prefecture flag Chiba Kanagawa prefecture flag Kanagawa Yamanashi prefecture flag Yamanashi Gifu Prefecture Flag Gifu Aichi prefecture flag Aichi
Kyoto Prefecture Flag Kyoto Wakayama prefecture flag Wakayama Tokushima prefecture flag Tokushima Fukuoka prefecture flag Fukuoka Kumamoto prefecture flag Kumamoto
Miyazaki Prefecture Flag Miyazaki Kagoshima prefecture flag Kagoshima
Mie prefecture flag Mie Shiga prefecture flag Shiga Yamaguchi prefecture flag Yamaguchi Ehime prefecture flag Ehime
4,000Tottori prefecture flag TottoriHiroshima prefecture flag Hiroshima Nagasaki Prefecture Flag Nagasaki
3,000Toyama Prefecture Flag Toyama Okayama prefecture flag OkayamaHyogo prefecture flag Hyogo

In principle, this is the case of a single town system, and some prefectures have established special cases to promote mergers.

Transition to city/town

In order for a town/village to become a city or a village to become a town, based on the application of the relevant municipalityPrefectural governor Prefectural assemblyImmediately after the decisionMinister of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsReport to Article 8 (3).

Transition is not obligatory. For exampleIbarakiMiuraとTokai villageBoth meet the requirements to be a town (Ibaraki Prefecture has a population requirement of 5000), but they are not towns.

"Transition" due to abandonment

When a town or village is abandoned and at the same time a new city or town is created, the town or village appears to have "migrated" to it. However, in this case, the old towns/villages and the new cities/towns are separate local public bodies even if they have the same name (excluding the “city”, “town”, and “village” parts), and the legality is not continuous.

actuallyAbandonmentAlthough such cases occur due to (merging/transferring, so-called municipal mergers), it is not obligatory to select a new municipality even if it meets the requirements of the city or town.Great Heisei mergerBecame the first new "village" inKumamotoMinamiaso villageHas a population more than double the population requirement (3 people) to become a town due to the merger of the three former villages,Mount AsoNango ValleyWe chose to be a village with an emphasis on the natural environment and the image of rural areas.

"Relegation" to a town/village

"Demotion" due to migration

If a city that does not meet the requirements after becoming a city becomes a town or village, or if a city that does not meet the requirements after becoming a town becomes a village, follow the same procedure as above for moving to a city or town. Take (Article 8 paragraph 3). When a city becomes a town or village, or a town becomes a village, some tasks can be transferred to the prefectural jurisdiction. This can be expected to reduce the burden, but on the other handLocal allocation taxThere is a demerit that the amount of delivery will be reduced, and the amount of office work such as changing the notation of staff business cards and printed materials will occur.

According to the Local Autonomy Law, there is no difference in the “case” or hierarchical relationships between municipalities. Therefore, there is no concept of "demotion" or "promotion", but the consciousness that the city feels higher than the town/village and the town feels higher than the village exists among the residents.[4].. For these reasons, in order to avoid negative impacts on motivation of residents and staff, attachment to the local area, image, etc., it is unlikely that migration to towns and villages will be considered in the first place, 2019 (Reiwa 4) There is no example that has been done so far. For example, at the peak, it had a population of about 6000.HokkaidoUtashinai CityIs less than the population requirement (5000 people) to become a town due to depopulation, but it is not a village yet.[5].. Fall into serious financial difficulties2006Hokkaido where the transition to the town was examined in earnest (18)YubariBut I was not selected[5].

"Demotion" due to decommissioning

When a city or town is abandoned and a new town or village is created at the same time, it appears that the city or town has been “relegated” to a town or village. However, in this case, the old city/town and the new town/village are separate local public bodies even if they have the same name (excluding the “city”, “town”, and “village” parts), and the legal personality is not continuous. In fact otherAbandonmentThere is such a case when the or boundary change is involved. For example, the following examples are given.

Shibuya Town, Kanagawa Prefecture →Shibuya Village(CurrentYamato)
Part of the town area was transferred to another city, the remaining town area was abolished, and at the same time a new village was established.
Miyata Town, Nagano Prefecture →Komagane→Miyata
After becoming a city by merging with other local governments, it was separated and reestablished as a new village.

As a case where "demotion" is avoided,Kami TownThere is.Great Heisei mergerAt the time of MiyagiKami-gunThen.Nakashinta Town,Onoda Town,Miyazaki Town,Sima TownThere was a plan to create Kami city by merging four towns. However, because Sekima-cho left the merger talks on the way, the total population fell below 4 and the conditions of the municipal system were not met, and the density of buildings in the center did not meet the requirements of the town prescribed by the prefectural ordinance. However, it was said that the merger would "regrade" to the village. There is no difference in “rank” between cities, towns, or villages, but the terms “demotion” and “promotion” are used in the news of Nishinihon Shimbun, for example, and the voices of the citizens who say “sorry” or “poor story” are covered. It was being done. As a result of amending the prefectural ordinance, it was finally decided to merge as Kami-cho.[4].


The municipalities areSelf-governmentAndOrdinance,RuleHas the autonomy legislative power to enact etc.

Differences between cities, towns and villages

Regarding the handling under the Local Autonomy Law, there is no big difference between the names of cities, towns and villages. Rather, there are large differences in population size and administrative capacity between cities that share the same name,Government-designated city,Core cityas well as the Special city(The system was abolished in 2015 and integrated into the core city system. However, there are transitional measures) and the special provisions regarding the distribution of office work and the administrative district system (only for ordinance-designated cities) are established (252-19,Article 252-20), is very different from other cities and towns.

Municipalities do not have parliamentary ordinances, but instead are general meetings of voters.Municipal general meetingCan be provided (Articles 94 and 95 of the same law), but there are only a few examples. A case of Ashinoyu Village (now part of Hakone Town) in Ashigarashimo District, Kanagawa Prefecture under the enforcement of the town and village system, and Utsuki Village (current part of Hachijo Town. (See section)) has been reported.2006(Heisei18 years) with multiple debtFiscal rebuilding organizationKiso County, Nagano PrefectureOtaki VillageHave been considered as a bill (rejection in the parliamentary resolution).

6 villages in the Northern Territories

ロシア Effective dominationdoingNorthern TerritoriesHas 6 villages in Japan[6].. However, it has lost its function as a basic municipality in Japan, and can only perform business related to family register.NemuroIs acting on your behalf.

Main infrastructure

As a voting body for municipalitiesMunicipal assemblyBut as an executive agencyMayor, VariousAdministrative committeeAnd so on. Municipalities have no councilsVoting rightIt is also possible to set up a general meeting of all persons.Chief(Mayor,Mayor, The village chief,special areaWard mayor)WhenLocal assemblyDepends on the residentselectionElected by.

"City" "Village" in the municipalities

Most of the "-towns" and "-muras" in the municipality area, even if they are official, do not have a legal personality and are only geographical areas, like the characters (bruise). HistoricallyEdo PeriodIt originates from the towns and villages, but it is not in a simple correspondence relationship at present because of a series of decommissioning for a long time. Most of the towns and villages of the Edo periodLarge printLeave a trace on the parcel.

However, the names of "-town" and "-village"Local autonomous district,Special merger wardThere is also. Local autonomous regions are subordinate organizations of municipalities. The merger special ward has a legal personality,special areaSame asSpecial local governmentAnd in most cases it was an independent municipality until very recently.

Prefectures where no village exists

1962(Showa 37)Hyogo,1970(Showa 45)KagawaAt the end of the year, the village disappeared due to the town system being enforced. For a long time, these two prefectures had no villages, but due to the great merger of Heisei2004(16)HiroshimaStarting with the disappearance of the village in, 11 prefectures have lost the village due to the great merger of the Heisei era.

Note that “city” and “town” exist in all prefectures.

List of prefectures without villages

RegionPrefecture nameExtinction dateRemarks
Kanto regionTochigi prefecture flag Tochigi2006(18)May 3Kuriyama VillageDue to the new mergerFlag of Nikko, Tochigi.svg NikkoBe part of.
Chubu regionIshikawa Prefecture Flag Ishikawa2005(17)May 3Yanagita VillageDue to the new mergerFlag of Noto Ishikawa.JPG Noto TownBe part of.
Fukui prefecture flag Fukui2006 year (Heisei 18 year)May 3Nadasho VillageDue to the new mergerOi Fukui chapter.JPG Oi TownBe part of.
Shizuoka prefecture flag Shizuoka2005 year (Heisei 17 year)May 7Yongsan VillageBut,Flag of Hamamatsu, Shizuoka.svg Hamamatsu cityMerged into.
KinkiMie prefecture flag Mie2006 year (Heisei 18 year)May 1UdonomuraDue to the new mergerFlag of Kiho Mie.JPG New systemKihochoBe part of.
Miyagawa VillageIs a new system due to a new mergerFlag of Odai Mie.png OdaimachiBe part of.
Shiga prefecture flag Shiga2005 year (Heisei 17 year)May 1Kuchiki VillageDue to the new mergerFlag of Takashima Shiga.JPG TakashimaBe part of.
Hyogo prefecture flag Hyogo1962(37)May 4Due to the enforcement of the town system in AyamuraFlag of Harima, Hyogo.svg Harima TownBecomes
ChugokuHiroshima prefecture flag Hiroshima2004(16)May 11Toyomatsu VillageDue to the new mergerFlag of Jinsekigogen Hiroshima.JPG Kamiishi Kogen TownBe part of.
Yamaguchi prefecture flag Yamaguchi 2006 year (Heisei 18 year)May 3Hongo VillageDue to the new mergerFlag of Iwakuni, Yamaguchi.svg IwakuniBe part of.
Shikoku regionKagawa prefecture flag Kagawa1970(45)May 2(Old) due to the enforcement of the town system in Saita VillageZaita TownBecomes
→2006(18)May 1, New systemFlag of Mitoyo, Kagawa.svg MitoyoBecomes
Ehime prefecture flag Ehime2005 year (Heisei 17 year)May 1Asakura VillageとSekizen VillageIs a new system due to a new mergerFlag of Imabari Ehime.svg ImabariBe part of.
Kyushu regionSaga Prefecture Flag Saga2006 year (Heisei 18 year)May 3Sifuri VillageDue to the new mergerFlag of Kanzaki Saga.JPG KanzakiBe part of.
Nagasaki Prefecture Flag Nagasaki2005 year (Heisei 17 year)May 10Oshima villageDue to the new mergerFlag of Hirado, Nagasaki.svg Hirado CityBe part of.

How to read "town" and "village"

"town"Is"Butterfly"Or"Town","village"Is"So"Or"MuraHowever, the reading is clearly defined for each town and village.

Basically, the reading of “town” and “village” tends to be fixed in each prefecture, but there may be a small number of exceptions due to phonological relations and customs.

There are variations in how to read "town", but all the towns in the Kanto region are "towns", and the towns in the Kinki and Shikoku regions are "cho".Excluding HokkaidoEast JapanThere are many "towns", but especiallyIwateとMiyagiThen, both are mixed in a ratio that cannot be said to be large. vice versa,West JapanTends to have a lot of "butterflies",KyusyuHowever, there is no clear law because there are variations in each prefecture.

The reading of “village” is fixed for each prefecture except Kagoshima prefecture. Everything from eastern Japan to the Kinki region is "mura", but in some parts of western Japan it is "son", and Okinawa Prefecture, which has 19 villages, is all "son".

Reading of "town"

* Of the mixed examples, when the same reading accounts for about 8% or more of the total number of towns in each prefecture, the reading on the majority side is shown, and the rest is noted as an exception. In addition, when listing individually, the multiple side is on the upper side.

RegionName of prefecturesreadingRemarks
Hokkaido regionHokkaido flag HokkaidoButterfly**129 towns out of all 128 towns.Mori TownOnly one town is "town"
Tohoku regionAomori prefecture flag AomoriTown※*22 towns out of all 19 towns.Oirase Town-Nanbu Town-Hashikami3 towns are "chou"
Iwate prefecture flag IwateMixedButterflyShizukuishi Town-Shiwa Town-Yahaba Town-Kanegasaki Town-Hiraizumi Town-Sumita Town-Otsuchi Town-Iwaizumi Town-Hirono Town(9 towns)
TownKuzumaki-Iwate-Nishiwaga Town-Yamada Town-Karumai Town-Ichinohe(6 towns)
Miyagi prefecture flag MiyagiTownMisato Town-Kami Town-Matsushima Town-Shichigahama Town-Kawasaki Town-Murata-Okawara Town-Shibata Town-Marumori Town-Zao Town-Shichikashuku Town(11 towns)
ButterflyRifu Town-Yamato Town-Osato Town-Watari Town-Yamamoto Town-Onagawa-Sima Town-Wakuya Town-Minamisanriku Town(9 towns)
Akita prefecture flag AkitaTownGojome Town-Hachirogata Town-Igawa Town-Fujisato-Ugo Town-Kosaka Town(6 towns)
ButterflyMisato Town-Santan Town-Happo Town(3 towns)[7]
Yamagata prefecture flag YamagataTown※*19 towns out of all 18 towns.KawakitaOnly one town is "chou"
Fukushima flag FukushimaTown(All 31 towns)
Kanto regionIbaraki prefecture flag Ibaraki(All 10 towns)
Tochigi prefecture flag Tochigi(All 11 towns)
Gunma prefecture flag Gunma(All 15 towns)
Saitama prefecture flag Saitama(All 22 towns)
Chiba prefecture flag Chiba(All 16 towns)
Tokyo flag Tokyo(All 3 towns)
Kanagawa prefecture flag Kanagawa(All 13 towns)
Chubu regionNiigata Prefecture Flag Niigata(All 6 towns)
Toyama Prefecture Flag Toyama(All 4 towns)
Ishikawa Prefecture Flag IshikawaMixedTownKawakita Town-Tsubata Town-Uchinada Town-Shiga Town-Nakanoto Town-Anamizu Town(6 towns)
ButterflyHodatsu Shimizu Town-Noto Town(2 towns)[7]
Fukui prefecture flag FukuiButterfly(All 8 towns)
Yamanashi prefecture flag YamanashiButterfly**8 towns out of all 7 towns.Fujikawaguchiko TownOnly one town is "town"
Nagano Prefecture Flag NaganoTown※*23 towns out of all 22 towns.AnanOnly one town is "chou"
Gifu Prefecture Flag GifuButterfly(All 19 towns)
Shizuoka prefecture flag ShizuokaButterfly**12 towns out of all 11 towns.Mori TownOnly one town is "town"
Aichi prefecture flag AichiButterfly(All 14 towns)
KinkiMie prefecture flag Mie(All 15 towns)
Shiga prefecture flag Shiga(All 6 towns)
Kyoto Prefecture Flag Kyoto(All 10 towns)
Osaka Prefecture Flag Osaka(All 9 towns)
Hyogo prefecture flag Hyogo(All 12 towns)
Nara prefecture flag Nara(All 15 towns)
Wakayama prefecture flag Wakayama(All 20 towns)
ChugokuTottori prefecture flag Tottori(All 14 towns)
Shimane prefecture flag Shimane Butterfly**10 towns out of all 9 towns.KawamotoOnly one town is "town"
Okayama prefecture flag OkayamaButterfly(All 10 towns)
Hiroshima prefecture flag Hiroshima(All 9 towns)
Yamaguchi prefecture flag Yamaguchi (All 6 towns)
Shikoku regionTokushima prefecture flag Tokushima(All 15 towns)
Kagawa prefecture flag Kagawa(All 9 towns)
Ehime prefecture flag Ehime(All 9 towns)
Kochi prefecture flag Kochi(All 17 towns)
Kyushu regionFukuoka prefecture flag FukuokaTown※*30 towns out of all 29 towns.Onga TownOnly one town is "chou"
Saga Prefecture Flag SagaButterfly**10 towns out of all 9 towns.Kohoku TownOnly one town is "town"
Nagasaki Prefecture Flag NagasakiButterfly(All 8 towns)
Kumamoto prefecture flag KumamotoTown※*23 towns out of all 20 towns.Asagiri Town-Yamato-cho-Hikawa Town3 towns are "chou"[7]
Oita Prefecture Flag OitaTown(All 3 towns)
Miyazaki Prefecture Flag MiyazakiButterfly(All 14 towns)
Kagoshima prefecture flag Kagoshima(All 20 towns)
Okinawa regionOkinawa prefecture flag Okinawa(All 11 towns)

Reading of "village" (Son / Mura)

Prefectures that do not have any villages are omitted from the table.

RegionName of prefecturesreadingRemarks
Hokkaido regionHokkaido flag HokkaidoMura(15 villages in total)
Tohoku regionAomori prefecture flag Aomori(8 villages in total)
Iwate prefecture flag Iwate(5 villages in total)
Miyagi prefecture flag Miyagi■Ohira VillageOnly one village
Akita prefecture flag Akita(3 villages in total)
Yamagata prefecture flag Yamagata(3 villages in total)
Fukushima flag Fukushima(15 villages in total)
Kanto regionIbaraki prefecture flag Ibaraki(2 villages in total)
Gunma prefecture flag Gunma(8 villages in total)
Saitama prefecture flag Saitama■HigashichichibuOnly one village
Chiba prefecture flag Chiba■Chosei VillageOnly one village
Tokyo flag Tokyo(8 villages)
Kanagawa prefecture flag Kanagawa■Kiyokawa VillageOnly one village
Chubu regionNiigata Prefecture Flag Niigata(4 villages in total)
Toyama Prefecture Flag Toyama■Funabashi VillageOnly one village
Yamanashi prefecture flag Yamanashi(6 villages in total)
Nagano Prefecture Flag Nagano(35 villages in total)
Gifu Prefecture Flag Gifu(2 villages in total)
Aichi prefecture flag Aichi(2 villages in total)
KinkiKyoto Prefecture Flag Kyoto■Minamiyamashiro VillageOnly one village
Osaka Prefecture Flag Osaka■Chihaya Akasaka VillageOnly one village
Nara prefecture flag Nara(12 villages in total)
Wakayama prefecture flag Wakayama■Kitayama VillageOnly one village
ChugokuTottori prefecture flag TottoriSo■Hiyoshitsu VillageOnly one village
Shimane prefecture flag Shimane Mura■Tomio VillageOnly one village
Okayama prefecture flag OkayamaSo(2 villages in total)
Shikoku regionTokushima prefecture flag Tokushima■Sanagawauchi VillageOnly one village
Kochi prefecture flag KochiMura(6 villages in total)
Kyushu regionFukuoka prefecture flag Fukuoka(2 villages in total)
Kumamoto prefecture flag Kumamoto(8 villages in total)
Oita Prefecture Flag Oita■Himejima villageOnly one village
Miyazaki Prefecture Flag MiyazakiSo(3 villages in total)
Kagoshima prefecture flag KagoshimaMixedMuraMishima village-Toshima Village(2 villages)
SoYamato Village-Uken Village(2 villages)
Okinawa regionOkinawa prefecture flag OkinawaSo(19 villages in total)

Statistics and listings

Number of municipalities by prefecture

Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsThe number of municipalities based on the summary of is shown below. The latest merger of municipalities was April 2014, 4, and the latest municipal organization came into effect on October 5, 2018.[8].

PrefecturesBasic municipality(BasicLocal government) Number
Number of municipalitiesCitytownvillagespecial areaTotal number of basic municipalities
Hokkaido flag Hokkaido17935129150179
Aomori prefecture flag Aomori4010228040
Iwate prefecture flag Iwate3314154033
Miyagi prefecture flag Miyagi3514201035
Akita prefecture flag Akita251393025
Yamagata prefecture flag Yamagata3513193035
Fukushima flag Fukushima59133115059
Ibaraki prefecture flag Ibaraki4432102044
Tochigi prefecture flag Tochigi2514110025
Gunma prefecture flag Gunma3512158035
Saitama prefecture flag Saitama6340221063
Chiba prefecture flag Chiba5437161054
Tokyo flag Tokyo3926582362
Kanagawa prefecture flag Kanagawa3319131033
Niigata Prefecture Flag Niigata302064030
Toyama Prefecture Flag Toyama151041015
Ishikawa Prefecture Flag Ishikawa191180019
Fukui prefecture flag Fukui17980017
Yamanashi prefecture flag Yamanashi271386027
Nagano Prefecture Flag Nagano77192335077
Gifu Prefecture Flag Gifu4221192042
Shizuoka prefecture flag Shizuoka3523120035
Aichi prefecture flag Aichi5438142054
Mie prefecture flag Mie2914150029
Shiga prefecture flag Shiga191360019
Kyoto Prefecture Flag Kyoto2615101026
Osaka Prefecture Flag Osaka433391043
Hyogo prefecture flag Hyogo4129120041
Nara prefecture flag Nara39121512039
Wakayama prefecture flag Wakayama309201030
Tottori prefecture flag Tottori194141019
Shimane prefecture flag Shimane 198101019
Okayama prefecture flag Okayama2715102027
Hiroshima prefecture flag Hiroshima231490023
Yamaguchi prefecture flag Yamaguchi 191360019
Tokushima prefecture flag Tokushima248151024
Kagawa prefecture flag Kagawa17890017
Ehime prefecture flag Ehime201190020
Kochi prefecture flag Kochi3411176034
Fukuoka prefecture flag Fukuoka6029292060
Saga Prefecture Flag Saga2010100020
Nagasaki Prefecture Flag Nagasaki211380021
Kumamoto prefecture flag Kumamoto4514238045
Oita Prefecture Flag Oita181431018
Miyazaki Prefecture Flag Miyazaki269143026
Kagoshima prefecture flag Kagoshima4319204043
Okinawa prefecture flag Okinawa41111119041
Grand total1718792743183231741


Link to list by prefecture

History of merger of municipalities

1950Items after (25) are listed on each of the following pages in list format.

Before that,Category: Japanese countiesEach of the followingcountyItems (not belonging to the countyTokyo islandsRefer to items such as each municipality.


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