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📦 | The 10th Great East Japan Earthquake Online Memorial Ceremony Held Fellowship for Japan


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The 10th Great East Japan Earthquake Online Memorial Ceremony Held Fellowship for Japan

 
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As one of the things we can do even from a remote place such as New York, we pray for the victims and send the message "I will never forget" to the people living in the disaster area.
 

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disaster

disaster(Sai,British: disaster) is due to natural phenomena and artificial causes,Human lifeAnd a situation in which social life is damaged[1][2].

Definition and overview

A "disaster" is limited to situations that affect humans. For example, a flood or landslide is not called a disaster because no one will be injured or lost if no one lives there. Also, the term “disaster” is often attributed to natural phenomenaNatural disasters(Natural disaster), but due to human causesACCIDENT,事件(Human disaster) may also be included in the disaster. Usually, it refers to the scale that human life is destroyed and needs some kind of assistance, and human disasters of scale less than that are excluded.[1][2].

The nature of natural disasters is the inability to control the event that causes the disaster. The phenomenon of earthquakes and heavy rain cannot be stopped.Artificial rainfallHas also been studied,DroughtIt has not yet reached the level of technology to prevent On the other hand, fires and traffic accidents are by themselves humans, and are events that human control is effective to some extent. This is the difference between natural disasters and man-made disasters.[3][4].

However, it is not always clear how to use incidents/accidents and disasters.Politics,Administration,SociologyFrom the perspective, we consider natural disasters and human disasters that have a large social impact to be disasters. on the other hand,Occupational safetyScenes andSafety engineeringFrom the perspective of, in the case of occupational safety (in terms of occupational safety)Industrial accident).

There are two major causes of disasters. Phenomena that trigger disasters, such as external forces such as earthquakes and floods (hazard) Is called an incentive. On the other hand, the vulnerability of society to disasters, such as the population concentration in cities, or, to the contrary, the disaster prevention capabilities of society, such as the earthquake resistance and rescue capabilities of buildings, is a predisposition. A disaster is caused by a trigger acting on a predisposition, and it can be considered that a disaster occurs when an external force (trigger) exceeding disaster prevention power (predisposition) is hit. This external forceprobabilityThe larger the scale, the lower the frequency. Therefore, it turns out that "absolute safety" is impossible. And, while well understanding the incentives, reducing vulnerability, which is a predisposing factor (improving disaster prevention capabilities), reduces damage.[5][6][7].

For example, occurred in 1995magnitude(M) 7.3'sHyogoken Nanbu Earthquake(Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake) Caused more than 6 deaths, but five years later, in M5, which occurred in 2000.Tottori-ken Seibu EarthquakeThen there were no deaths. this is,Between HanshinTo saycityIndicates that the concentration of population on the islands increased the scale of social turmoil, or vulnerability. It is often thought that “a large external force causes a big disaster”, but in reality, even if the external force is the same, the vulnerability of society and the high level of disaster prevention change the nature of a disaster. Also, from this, it can be seen that there are more or less human factors in disasters classified as “natural disasters”.[5].

The areas damaged by the disasterDisaster area(Hisaichi), what was damagedVictim(Hisashisha). Adopted in 1993Vienna Declaration and Action Plan”, mentions natural and human disasters,United Nations CharterInternational humanitarian lawAccording to the principles ofHumanitarian assistanceStresses the importance of doing.

Depending on the extent of the disaster, "emergency" "emergency" (emergency). This is because governments and governments switch to actions based on special legal systems that are different from normal times.Emergency declaration, A severe disaster that requires switching to a social system that differs from normal times.

View of disaster

Think about preventing disasters. If the external force that causes a disaster can be completely controlled, the disaster will disappear, but it is impossible with the current science and technology, and economically impractical. On the other hand, disasters are probabilistic, and one day there will be major disasters that society has never experienced or has forgotten. Moreover, due to economic limitations, it is not possible to infinitely strengthen disaster prevention facilities. Therefore, there is no absolute safety for disasters.[9][10].

On the other hand, the improvement of flood control technology has made it possible to prevent a certain level of flood damage, which creates a "controllability" of flood damage.[10].. Also on earthterrainIt is, so to speak, made by repeating disasters, and it is possible to estimate the types of disasters that the land is likely to suffer in the long term by using the topography and strata as clues.[11].

Disasters affect the life and property of society or individuals.riskIs. Considering housing as a familiar example, the values ​​for the risk of disaster are avoidance type (to seek a safe living with less effort and expense in preparation for rare disasters), intention type (rather than preparing for infrequent disasters, It seeks low cost and comfort, which are the immediate merits), and can be classified into three types in between. From a risk management point of view, the oriented type can be regarded as a kind of "bet" that saves the effort and cost of disaster prevention and gains in other aspects. In the first place, disaster prevention tends to feel like a distant connection in everyday life, even though it is difficult to decide whether to live or die when faced with a disaster. In order to prevent this, it is necessary to deepen the concrete understanding of the disaster risk in the local area.[12].

One of the processes that explains the psychology of people facing a disaster is the anxiety model. When anxiety is aroused, people try to eliminate it by the following three patterns.[13].

  • 1. Voluntary resolution-Get information, determine if harm is done to you, and how to avoid it[13].
  • 2. Dependence on others-leave decisions to trusted people[13].
  • 3. Stop thinking-stop thinking. Believe it is safe. Reject[13].

When judging evacuation in the event of a disaster, what is desired for survival is 1. trying to do the best effort to protect one's life by self-solving, 2. dependence on others and 3. stop thinking. Work in a direction that hinders efforts. However, for example, there is a tendency to seek responsibility to the government as an insider's control over flood damage.2. As a psychological characteristic of human beings, it is not easy to carry out a voluntary solution because it promotes thinking stop. Therefore, it is necessary to lead to voluntary resolution through disaster prevention education and enable flexible judgment in the event of a disaster.[13].

In addition, as the word "disaster comes when you forget it", even if you experience a big disaster, the words and lessons of the ancestors who pass on the experience are gradually forgotten,weatheringIt is always done. Even after the modern tsunami damage and relocation to higher ground, there are areas where homes have gradually been restored to more convenient beaches and housing can be built again. Regarding the relocation of the hill, even if the fear of the tsunami outweighs the inconvenience of “separation of work and housing” at first, it will change over time, so consideration must be given to maintaining this. Even if protected by a dike, it is necessary to make efforts to convey lessons learned without depending on it.[14][15].

Disaster and law

Disasters are sometimes defined by law, but their targets and scales are not uniform.

Type of disaster
For example in JapanDisaster Countermeasures Basic LawThen, the disaster is defined as "storm, tornado, heavy rain, heavy snowfall, flood, landslide, debris flow, storm surge, earthquake, tsunami, eruption, landslide or other abnormal natural phenomenon, or a large-scale fire or explosion or the degree of damage caused by these. Damage caused by causes specified by Cabinet Order similar to Article 2 (1 of Article 2015, as of July 7)[16].. Here, as a cause specified by a Cabinet Order similar to these, "a large amount of radioactive material is released, the sinking of ships accompanied by the distress of many people and other large-scale accidents" are stipulated (Article 1 of the Enforcement Ordinance of the same Act). )[17].. Therefore, disasters under the Basic Law for Disaster Management include disasters due to causes other than natural disasters.
In addition,Public Civil Engineering Disaster Restoration Project Cost National Treasury Burden LawCovers only natural disasters, but the Public School Facilities Disaster Recovery Costs National Treasury method also covers artificial disasters such as fires.[18].
Disaster scale
There is no quantitative standard for disasters in Japan's Basic Act on Disaster Countermeasures, and it is assumed that people's lives, bodies, and property will be seriously damaged.[18].. on the other hand,Disaster Relief ActIn, the standard is set by the number of dwelling houses that have been lost according to the population of the municipality for the target disaster[18].

Type of disaster

The major disasters are shown along with their classification.

Sociological definition

Natural disasters
Meteorological disaster
(I.e.(heavy rain·Torrential rain) Due to- 洪水(RiverFlood ofInland flood),Sediment disaster (Slope failure,Landslide,Earth and stone flow,Landslide)Such
WindDue to-strong winds / storms,竜 巻,climax,(I.e.
snowDue to- avalanche,Snowfall,Blizzard
ThunderDue to- Lightning
Due to medium to long term weather-drought[18](Drought), cold damage[18](Cold summer),heat wave,Cold wave
Other- Frostharm[18],(I.e.harm[18], Land uplift and subsidence[18],Damage
Earthquake
Caused by earthquake- Liquefaction,(I.e.,Debris avalanche, Landslide, fire (earthquake)
eruption
Caused by eruption- Ash fall,Cinder,Lava flow,Pyroclastic flow,, mountain collapse, tsunami
Man-made disaster
Train accident,Aviation accident,Marine accident,Traffic accident,火災(Both are limited to large ones)
爆 発accident,Coal mine accident,Oil spill,Chemical substancepollution,Nuclear accident(Nuclear disaster[Note 1]
terrorism(Terrorism disaster),戦 争(War damage, Armed attack disaster[Note 2]
NBCdisaster[Note 3],CBRNEdisaster[Note 4], Armed attack nuclear disaster[Note 5]

[19][20]

In addition, the extent of damage and the extent of its spread are more remarkable than other disasters.Large-scale disaster", but there is no specific definition. Focusing on the spread of damage,Wide area disasterSometimes called. These often require external help due to tremendous damage. In addition, a disaster of a scale that crosses prefecturesSuper wide area disasterHowever, this is because Japan's disaster countermeasures are divided vertically by municipalities and prefectures, and there are difficulties in coordinating disaster countermeasures such as large-scale evacuation and relief across prefectures. Is a term created from[21].

In addition to this, a disaster that is called a "double punch" of so-called disasters, in which multiple incentives overlap,Compound disaster". For example, in 2011Great East Japan EarthquakeIn the disaster area of ​​the earthquake and tsunamiFukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant AccidentThere has occurred. October 2004Niigata Chuetsu EarthquakeDisaster area in July of the same year(I.e.Have been hit by theHeavy snowWas hit by[22].

Safety engineering definition

What is caused by a sudden event is called an emergency disaster, and what is called an "accident" caused in everyday life is called a daily disaster. In safety engineering, daily disasters,Industrial accidentTreat a wide range of events including disasters as disasters. Accidents in which three or more workers were killed or injured during work at one timeSerious disaster".

Man-made disaster
Daily accident (accident) or occupational accident
Fall,Fall, Injury from falling objects,Poisoning,Drowning,burn,Electric shock
More
ProductAccompanied by defectsProduct accident,Food accident,Medical accident
Riot,crime

Disaster prevention and response

Preventive measures against disasters prevent damage from occurringDamage controlAnd, if damage occurs, reduce it so that the recovery will be smooth.Damage reductionIs roughly divided into On the other hand, response after a disaster occurs, such as rescue and operation of shelters.First aidrestoration-reconstructionIs roughly divided into These areDisaster preventionCompose[8].. In addition to these, research on the mechanism of natural disasters and technology to prevent them, prediction of disasters (hazard analysis), and dissemination of such knowledge (disaster prevention education) are also important factors.[5].

Disaster prediction

Frequency of natural disasters is inversely proportional to scaleprobabilityPhenomenon. In other words, as the external force that causes a natural disaster increases, the frequency decreases, and the upper limit cannot be theoretically specified.HistoryThe information on natural disasters that can be obtained from records is reliable for a few hundred years, and some large disasters with low frequency, such as "once every 1,000 years", cannot be understood. .. For this reason, in hardware measures, "design standard external force" (unplanned force) is set, and structures such as levees are designed so that external forces below that level will not cause any damage. Hazard map is created by setting the external force of and the damage is assumed in that case. However, when setting the design standard external force, the higher the setting, the more expensive it is, so it is necessary to make adjustments such as tradeoffs with economic efficiency and the agreement of the residents.[23].. In addition, the return interval of these external forcesProbability yearThat.

On the other hand, the damage assumption is only conceivable at this stage, and there is always the possibility of "unexpected" situations that exceed the assumption. It is as if the Great East Japan Earthquake had exceeded the scale of damage that was previously assumed. Therefore, it is also required to be able to deal with "unexpectedness".[24].

Disaster history

The most damaging natural disaster

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Refers to the damage caused to the lives, bodies or property of the people byNuclear Emergency Preparedness ActArticle 2).
  2. ^ Legal terms. A person's death or injury, fire, explosion, release of radioactive material, or other human or physical disaster caused directly or indirectly by an armed attack (Civil protection lawArticle 2 No. 4).Disaster Countermeasures Basic LawThe concept of disaster interrorismSince the damage caused by is not included in the concept,Emergency lawDefinition provided for the maintenance ofArticle 9 of the Constitution of JapanAllows the government戦 争To doRight to engageCan not be defined as "preparing for the war").
  3. ^ nuclear weapons,Biological weapons,chemical weaponDue to the disaster.
  4. ^ For NBC disasterRadioactive materialExplosiveIncluding accidents caused by accidents and accidents.
  5. ^ Legal terms.Nuclear power plantDisasters caused by attacks on nuclear facilities and nuclear facilities. Damage caused by radioactive materials or radiation released outside the nuclear power plant following an armed attack (Part 105 of Article 7, Article XNUMX of the Civil Protection Act).

Source

  1. ^ a b Haruo Hayashi "How to survive disasters -Introduction to crisis management-", "Disaster Prevention Course Volume 4 Disaster Prevention Planning Theory], p. 134.
  2. ^ a b Goto and Takahashi, 2014, 19.
  3. ^ Norio Okada "Disaster Prevention by Residents -Starting Risk Management-", "Disaster Prevention Course Volume 4 Disaster Prevention Planning Theory, 101-102.
  4. ^ Mizutani, 2002, Pages 2-3.
  5. ^ a b c Haruo Hayashi "How to survive disasters -Introduction to crisis management-", "Disaster Prevention Course Volume 4 Disaster Prevention Planning Theory, 134-136.
  6. ^ Mizutani, 2002, Pages 1-2.
  7. ^ "To reduce heavy rain and flood disasters, 77-79, 92.
  8. ^ a b Yoshiaki Kawada "Crisis Management Theory -Toward a Safe/Safe Society-", "Disaster Prevention Course Volume 4 Disaster Prevention Planning Theory, 41-42.
  9. ^ Haruo Hayashi "How to survive disasters -Introduction to crisis management-", "Disaster Prevention Course Volume 4 Disaster Prevention Planning Theory, 135-137.
  10. ^ a b Hideyuki Horii, Toshitaka Katada "Support for Independent Solutions", "Safety/security and regional management, 102-104.
  11. ^ Mizutani, 2002, 10.
  12. ^ Norio Okada "Disaster Prevention by Residents -Starting Risk Management-", "Disaster Prevention Course Volume 4 Disaster Prevention Planning Theory, 103-105, 124-130.
  13. ^ a b c d e Hideyuki Horii, Toshitaka Katada "Support for Independent Solutions", "Safety/security and regional management, 94-108.
  14. ^ Norio Okada "Disaster Prevention by Residents -Starting Risk Management-", "Disaster Prevention Course Volume 4 Disaster Prevention Planning Theory, 99-101.
  15. ^ Toshitaka Katada "The Future of Tsunami Disaster Prevention-Building a Community Coexisting with Nature-",Safety/security and regional management, 50-56.
  16. ^ "Disaster Countermeasures Basic Law". e-Gov Law Search. Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsAdministration Bureau. 2015/9/22Browse.
  17. ^ "Ordinance for Enforcement of Disaster Countermeasures Basic Act". e-Gov Law Search. Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsAdministration Bureau. 2015/9/22Browse.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h Kagiya Hajime, "How the Local Disaster Prevention and Crisis Management Works of Local Governments, Illustrated" by Gakuyo Shobo, 2019, page 11.
  19. ^ Goto and Takahashi, 2014, 20.
  20. ^ Mizutani, 2002, Pages 5-6.
  21. ^ Goto and Takahashi, 2014, Pages 20-21.
  22. ^ Goto and Takahashi, 2014, 21.
  23. ^ Hideyuki Horii "Social Technology for Realizing Safety and Security in Local Communities",Safety/security and regional management, 214-216.
  24. ^ Yuichi Tatano "Large-scale disaster and disaster prevention plan-Challenges of comprehensive disaster prevention studies", "Safety/security and regional management, 169-182.

References

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