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📦 | Is it possible to "share tacit knowledge" by teleworking? "Knowledge creation" is an issue related to the future of the company


What is lacking in photo telework?

Is "tacit knowledge sharing" possible with telework? "Knowledge creation" is an issue related to the future of the company

 
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Perhaps someone in the world will develop technologies and services that enable tacit knowledge sharing online, but I'm not aware of such decisive measures at this time. ..
 

Various companies are conducting spectacular experiments in telework, which has rapidly penetrated the corona wreck.Go in a real face-to-face place ... → Continue reading

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Tacit knowledge

Tacit knowledge(Tacit knowledge,British: Tacit knowledge) Is knowledge that is used empirically, but cannot be easily explained in words.knowledgeThe concept contained in empirical knowledge and physical knowledge[1]..For example, how to distinguish minute sounds[2], What you are doing when you identify the face you remembered, etc.[3].Michael polannieIs named[2][1].Experience knowledgeBoth[2].

Tacit knowledge can be explained in wordsExplicit knowledge[2]..Although it is difficult to explain body movements as tacit knowledge, empirical knowledge can express the process of recognition in words.

Overview

I can't explain it easily, but there is knowledge that I understand and use.[2]..Distinguishing someone's face can be remembered by showing them a picture, but it's hard to explain how they connect their features, which is tacit knowledge.[3].

For example, when riding a bicycle, once a person learns how to ride a bicycle, he or she will not forget how to ride it over the years.Despite the many difficult techniques to ride a bicycle.And it is difficult to explain to people how to ride it in words.[Note 1].

Therefore, if we try to exclude human factors from knowledge as "arbitrary", we will neverSteps to followIt also denies the implicit process of "knowing" that cannot be reduced to, and destroys the knowledge itself. It is widely practiced to equate "tacit knowledge" with simply "unspeakable knowledge."Ayumi YasutomiIs a misunderstanding as pointed out by[4].

Frame of reference (British: frame of reference), But the cognitive dimension of tacit knowledgeBusiness Administration-SociologyAttempts to theorize are still in the developing stage.

Polanyi's Tasit Knowing

HungaryFromChemist-philosopher-Sociologist OfMichael polannieIs the work "The Dimension of Tacit Knowledge"[5][6] In Tasit Knowing (British: tacit knowing), A scientific discovery (Emergence) Knowledge[7]To sayconceptWas presented, and "something" was called a remote item and a proximity item, respectively.This tendency is modernLearningPolanyi turned from a chemist to a philosopher because he found it in[8].

Difference from explicit knowledge

Tacit knowledge is from three perspectivesExplicit knowledgeCan be distinguished from[9].

  • Symbolizable and Knowledge Transfer Mechanisms-Explicit knowledge is knowledge that can be symbolized (words, sentences, figures) and is easy to convey.On the other hand, tacit knowledge has an intuitive nature and cannot be clearly expressed, and is not knowledge that can be easily understood or used.
  • Methods for Acquisition-Explicit knowledge is created by logical reasoning and is acquired through hands-on experience in relevant contexts.Tacit knowledge, on the other hand, is acquired only through hands-on experience in the relevant context.
  • Aggregability and position in the body of knowledge-Explicit knowledge is aggregated in a single direction and accumulated in an objective form.On the other hand, tacit knowledge has a decentralized nature that is not easily aggregated because it depends on the personal context.

Tacit knowledge in knowledge management theory

In theory using Polanyi's terminology,Knowledge managementUsed in the field of野 中 郁 次郎There is "tacit knowledge" of.

Nonaka read the meaning of the word tacit knowledge as "tacit knowledge" and defined it as "knowledge based on experience and intuition, which is difficult to express in words".Explicit knowledgeThe theory of knowledge management was constructed in opposition to.Nonaka classifies "tacit knowledge" into two dimensions, including the cognitive dimension, apart from the technical dimension.This tacit knowledge theory of Nonaka is fundamentally different from Polanyi's theory, and it is better to see it as Nonaka's original "ingenuity".However, it can be said that the partial view that the concept itself is Nonaka's original idea is overestimated because there are other examples of developing "tacit knowledge" recognition as well as Nonaka while quoting Bolannie.

For traditional Japanese companies, the tips and tricks of the staff,Know-howIt had a corporate culture and culture in which "tacit knowledge" such as "tacit knowledge" was passed down from generation to generation within the organization.Sharing and inheriting such tacit knowledge was also the "strength" of Japanese companies.Howevermerger・ Business integration ・Business transfer・ The business environment is changing drastically due to personnel reductions.In addition, manpowerDispatched laborDue to changes in employment practices such as the normalization of working hours, the increase in part-time workers, and the need for early workforce, the premise that "employees with almost equal abilities who grew up in the same corporate culture will inherit" is broken. , It is changing to such a stemmer.For this reason, it is necessary not only to wait for natural succession but also to make explicit knowledge by leaving it to the field.As a methodarticle-図-表-manualand so on.

Such explicit knowledge is one of the purposes of knowledge management.In other words, since it is difficult to share non-verbal information possessed by individuals as it is, the theory is to promote the sharing of knowledge by clarifying and theorizing it.Information systemIs believed to be able to contribute to such explicit knowledge and sharing.

However, when trying to make explicit knowledge, it becomes a vague expression and a huge amount of data.Search ProductsIt has been pointed out that it is difficult and difficult to share.However, in recent years, while formal and analytical management methods have swept companies, it is said that they have had the effect of making managers aware of the importance of the implicit dimension.

application

Yale University psychologist Stanberg and colleagues have put together the knowledge gained from the experience of successful managers, giving them three types of tacit knowledge.[10].Project Management, And about othersTeamworkAnd building relationships and self-managementMotivationBecome[10]..These three types of tacit knowledge are also used in sales and research positions.[10].

The mechanization and manualization of tacit knowledge of experts have also progressed.[10]..However, it is not possible to acquire it immediately by reading the manual without passing through experience and practice, so it is an important issue how to interweave experience and inherit tacit knowledge.[10].

野 中 郁 次郎SECI model proposed by[11]Is a model that explains how tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge are shared within an organization and leads to the creation of new knowledge. It consists of four parts: communalization, expression, connection, and internalization. ..Inheriting tacit knowledge empirically through the apprenticeship system and on-the-job training is called "community".[11]..Tacit knowledge is a word that can be understood by a third party by "expressing" (Explicit knowledge) Will be easier to share with your organization[11]..Explicit knowledge shared by the group is systematized by "connection" and contributes to the creation of new knowledge and innovation by connecting.[11]..The new explicit knowledge created by the connection is once again "internalized" as tacit knowledge by each individual.[11]..Since tacit knowledge is knowledge that is difficult to share, "expression" that explicit knowledge of tacit knowledge is particularly important in the SECI model.[11].

注 釈

  1. ^ For example, in order to turn a bicycle to the right at a certain speed or higher, it is actually necessary to turn the steering wheel to the left.Also, in order to return from turning right to straight ahead, it is necessary to turn the steering wheel to the right as well as to the left.These driving skills are required to balance the bike, but are usually unnoticed.

Source

  1. ^ a b Masaru Osaki, "Understand tacit knowledgeHumanities and Natural Sciences, 2009, Vol. 127, p.21-39, hdl:11150/500,NOT 110007097652.
  2. ^ a b c d e Tsutomu Fujinami, Graduate School of Knowledge Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology "Experience knowledge tacit knowledge"Knowledge Science-64 Keywords for Reorganizing Knowledge" Kinokuniya, 2002.ISBN 4-314-10153-9.
  3. ^ a b Hiroshi Yamagata "Japan's competitiveness and tacit knowledge in manufacturing"Materia," Vol. 38, No. 7, 1999, pp. 581-585, two:10.2320 / materia.38.581, NOT 130004352123.
  4. ^ Yuki Hori "The significance of retelling tacit knowledge --using the scene of handing down physical techniques as a clue--Bulletin of Graduate School of Education, Kyoto University, No. 64, Graduate School of Education, Kyoto University, 2018, pp. 359-371, ISSN 1345-2142 , NOT 120006473799.
  5. ^ "The Tacit Dimension, 1967,ISBN 9780226672984
  6. ^ Polanyi, Michael Translated by Isao Takahashi (2003 (15) -12-10) [1967] (Japanese). The Tacit Dimension. Chikuma art library. Chikuma Shobo. pp. 24. ISBN 4480088164. "Tacit knowledge (British: tacit knowing, Tasit Knowing), pay attention to something (British: attend to) Therefore, pay attention to something else (British: attend from) (...) When we say we have knowledge that we cannot speak, it means knowledge about proximity items. " 
  7. ^ Seigo Matsuoka's Thousand Nights Thousand Books Michael Polanyi "Dimension of Implicit Knowledge" The 1042nd Night [2005] May 5, 30
  8. ^ Giulio Angioni, Doing, Thinkink, Saying, in Sanga & Ortalli (eds.), Nature Knowledge, Berghahm Books, New York-Oxford, 2004, 249-261
  9. ^ Michael Polanyi (1958). Personal Knowlege: Towards a Post-Critical Philosophy. University of Chicago Press 
  10. ^ a b c d e Takashi Kusumi "Tacit knowledge and its inheritance in white-collar workers"Global Edge," No. 13, 2008, pp. 12-13.
  11. ^ a b c d e f Nonaka, Ikujirō, 1935-; Ikujiro Nonaka, 1935-. Chishiki sōzō kigyō: the knowledge-creating companyHirotaka Takeuchi, Katsuhiro Umemoto ,. Tokyo: Toyo Keizai Inc. ISBN 978-4-492-91714-5. OCLC 905013442. https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/905013442 

References

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外部 リンク

Online

Online(British: online) Is

  • Computer networkso,nodeIndicates a state in which is connected to the network and can enjoy the service.The antonym isoff-line(Offline).
  • Conversations, meetings, exchanges, etc. between people using communication equipment.

National Institute for Japanese Language The"Foreign language" paraphrase proposalAlthough it was called "line connection", it is currently withdrawn.[Source required]

Overview

A node is online when it is connected to another node and can be serviced. With the terminalhost,clientとserverThere are various types of connection such as client and client.

bank OfAccount system,JR OfMars systemIllustrated inTrainな どTransportationSeat reservation system, connected to the serveronline gameAs their ownprotocolTo connect to a network hostComputer systemIndicates a serviceable state.

Peripheral devices, recording media, etc. may be connected to the computer and can be used normally, but this is strictly a misuse. (""SD cardIs online "etc.)

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