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Mail order(Tsushin Hanbai) isretailBusiness formatOut ofNo store salesOne of the stores, not the storeMediaUsingProductsOrServiceWas displayed (there may be only text explanations and images may not be posted), and the media was accessed.consumerからcommunicationA method of receiving an order by means of selling goods or providing services.mail orderIs abbreviated.
Definition and type of mail order
Regulate mail-order business,Act on Specified Commercial TransactionsThe definition of mail order under the Specified Commercial Transactions Law and the Old Door-to-door Sales Law is
- The seller or the service providerPostEtc. (mail,Tel,Huaximiri, Telegram, postal transfer, bank transfer, etc.)
Merchandise or designated right to be applied for by applying for sales contract or service provision contractAre sold or provided with services.
The following media are used by both business operators and consumers in the general sense of mail order.
- tv set-radioExisting stations, orCS,Cable TVSpecialized channels installed in etc. (Example:QVC Japan,Japan net,Happiness Club）
- Catalogs(Example:Mail order life,Dinos,Nissen）
- Some are distributed on the street, and some are delivered by direct mail.
- News (Chinese) OfAds・FoldFlyer, Advertisements and articles of various magazines
- Internet websites (eg:Amazon,Rakuten,ZOZOTOWN）
The timing of payment of the price includes advance payment and post payment.Advance payment(Advance payment) is the order in which the consumer pays for the order and the seller confirms the payment before shipping the product.Deferred paymentIs the order in which the seller ships the product according to the order and the consumer pays the price after confirming the arrival of the product.
In case of advance payment (prepayment),cashWhen orderingFinancial institution,convenience storeHow to send money to the seller's account throughRegistered mail, There is a way to send money by postal money order. Also,Credit cardWhen making a payment with, you can either enter the card information on the EC site at the time of ordering, transmit it by phone, or fill out the order form, using either method,Automatic account transferIs done.
In the case of postpaid payment, depending on the carrier at the time of delivery, you can use the paper etc. enclosed with the product to transfer money to the account of the seller through a financial institution or convenience store, or by registered mail or postal money order.Cash on deliveryThere is a way to use the service. Besides this, consumersCorporationIn Case ofInvoiceThere is also a method of payment.
There are various types of mail-order dealers in recent years, not limited to non-store dealers represented by catalog sales specialists.Department storeOr a store like a specialty storeretailBesides the vendor,WholesaleContractorManufacturing industryPerson,Fishing industryPerson orcropsMail-order sales are carried out through various distribution channels, including direct sales by producers.Broadcaster-News (Chinese)CompanyInfomation-ProviderThere are many cases where related companies such as do business in mail order.
1498,ヴ ェ ネ ツ ィ アPublisher ofArdus manutiusPrinted a catalog of books he had printed.1667,EnglandGardener William Lucas printed and mailed a seed catalog to inform customers of prices. The catalog was transmitted even in the colonial America,Benjamin FranklinIt is,1744From the creation of the scientific and academic book catalogs sold toBritish AmericaIs believed to have created the first catalog in.
First mail order
WalesEntrepreneurLaunched its first modern mail order in 1861.. He is from walesNew townIn the citydraperBecame a disciple and took over the business in 1856, and was renamed Royal Wales Warehouse.flannelWas sold.
In 1840,Uniform penny postWere established and the rail network to Newtown was expanded, helping them transform small rural companies into companies with global fame as a result. In 1861 he started his own selling method. He distributed a catalog of products nationwide, allowing people to order the desired items at the post. And the order that was sent was shipped using the railroad. This was the first mail order business in the world, and it was an idea that changed the essence of the retail business that followed..
One of the best-selling products is the modernsleeping bagEuklisia Rug, the pioneer of the company, sold 6 copies to the Russian army and sold them all over the world... It had over 1880 customers in 10 and was awarded the title in 1887..
In the late 19th centuryThe United States of AmericaAnd targeted rural farmersCatalog salesIs said to have been started. Around this time, the railway network and postal network were expanded, and by the end of the 19th centurySearsA major catalog sales retailer was established, and the basis for today's catalog sales was created.
in Japan1876(Meiji 9) from AmericacornIt is said that mail order of this species is the first (Tsuda SenIn the "agricultural magazine" which was first published by). In the Taisho eraSeiji NomaTo manageKodanshaThe agency's agency conducted mail-order sales through the advertisement of the magazine published by the company. Not only magazines, but also household goods, sundries, furniture, and soft drinksDorikoA wide variety of foods, cosmetics and medicines.. Delivery is mainly done by employees who are apprentices belonging to the company's boys department (a department recruited from all over Japan and employed as a training education for boys with elementary school graduates recruited through a high competitive rate of about 30 times) by bicycle or motorcycle. went.
However, it was established as an industry in Japan after the war,Radio receiverMail-order sales of electronic parts for production via magazine advertisement, entry into mail order sales of major department stores,1960 eraEstablished a major distributor of catalogs in1970 eraFrom around that time, it started to be done in the form of TV shopping and radio shopping.
1980 eraAfter the latter half, the expansion of women's social advancement,home deliveryExpansion of services,1990 eraSince then, it has developed significantly due to the expansion of the Internet, and now there are also sales items.seafoodFrom fresh food such as, local specialty products,computerIt is sold up to large electric products such as.
Advantages and disadvantages of mail order
- Postcard-sealed letter-telegram-Tel-facsimile-Smartphone-Tablet-PCFor example, there are abundant communication methods to convey the intention of purchasing.
- You don't have to find a store or go to a store, saving you time, labor, and transportation costs.
- You can shop at any time, in any place, at any time, after comparing and examining the objects you are interested in.
- By submitting a minimum amount of personal information, you can shop without facing or interacting with the business side.
- You don't have to bring back bulky or heavy items as they will be delivered to the designated place.
- In many cases, you can get benefits such as products that can only be purchased by mail order and discounts and prizes unique to the medium.
- As for forecasting orders and advertising efficiency, you can test and analyze the data before you put it into production.
- It is possible to place orders for goods, manage inventory, and manage personnel based on test data that takes into consideration the types and scales of media, types of media, time, time, and area, thus increasing the accuracy of appropriate inventory and personnel.
- Since you can manage customers with detailed and precise attributes,OutboundIs possible.
- Economical because it does not require real shops or sales staff.
For the media
- Since mail-order companies publish business advertisements, not image advertisements, in the case of primary media, if the media costs are accommodated, the amount of advertisements will often be increased.
- In the case of the primary medium, the mail-order business is often longer than the general advertiser in terms of the scale of the advertisement and the space, and the sales efficiency is good.
- Mail-order companies hold manuscripts of various sizes, so in the case of primary media, sudden Anna is often filled.
- In the case of primary media, the more the number of advertisers decreases due to the recession and the media costs decrease, the more the mail-order business that regards advertisements as business becomes more reliable as advertisers.
- On the Internet, after the system is built, the efficiency of sales often increases significantly depending on the convenience.
- Among the secondary media, printing companies and distributors (mail, courier service, etc.) will receive good sales efficiency if they receive orders for catalogs, etc. of a size that exceeds magazines.
- Since there is no opportunity to pick up the actual item at the store, the user has no choice but to make a judgment based on the photos and videos on the advertisements such as articles and websites, and the description of the specifications. Can not). Therefore, there are cases where you regret the actual item after it arrives.
- The color, pattern, and size may differ slightly from the advertising image, so even if you can exchange or return the product, you may be left stressed.
- It is not always possible to obtain urgently or receive it at the date and time you desire.
- Some products and businesses do not come with the necessary assembly and installation services.
- Especially in radio media such as TV and radio, only the main price of the product is emphasized and it is not announced that additional shipping fee or cash-on-delivery fee will be charged (On TV, small size characters are displayed for a short time, on radio, "additional shipping fee You will not be able to know the specific amount just by announcing ")."
- SellerbankruptcyOr, if you lose contact due to closing the store, etc., there is a great risk of loss. SellerBankruptcy lawbyDecision to start bankruptcy proceedingsIf you receive theBankruptcy trusteeI will wait for the contact from.If the bankruptcy proceedings start and it becomes impossible to ship the prepaid goods, the user becomes the creditor of the seller.If the payment is made in advance before the bankruptcy proceedings, it will be treated as a general claim and the refund amount will be based on the final dividend rate (full refund cannot be guaranteed).If you pay in advance the day after the decision to start bankruptcy proceedings,Foundation bondMay be treated as.In either case, refunds may not be available due to the abolition of bankruptcy proceedings.This is a problem not only for mail order but for the retail industry in general, so please be careful.
- In particularインターネットAtPet mail orderAt an expensivedogAre frequently debilitated immediately after purchase.
- Since the length (air time) and space (space for displaying advertisements) are limited, it may not be possible to fully appeal the features of products and services.
- Due to the high degree of freedom in advertising, it may be judged as false advertisement or hype advertisement due to rough cuts, excessive production, lack of grounds or explanation by speculation, and legal trouble may occur.
- Appropriate performance and value can be obtained by using processing and auxiliary tools when showing products in extreme situations that cannot be usually imagined, and by asserting superiority and advantage without accurate support. Deviate from judgment.
- In the viewer-participation type TV mail order, when the salesperson announces the price with motte and introduces the set sale item and the prize, the reaction that the participant reacts exaggerated is typical. It must be said that this is done for the purpose of hindering appropriate value judgment.
- Only by investigating the frequency, growth, and total volume of advertisements, the success or failure of products/services, manuscripts/contents will be known to competitors.
- The time lag between testing and production may be affected by weather, competition, social conditions, etc., resulting in miscalculation.
- Miscalculations can occur both upwards and downwards, which can lead to large supply shortages or large excess inventory.
- In the business development, the audience (subscription audience) tends to change depending on the medium (TV, radio, newspaper, magazine, flyer, internet, etc. and individual programs, magazines, sites, etc.), year, month, day, time, etc. Operating efficiency may change significantly.
- 2017 A drastic increase in the number of packages handled, such as courier services and mail, mainly due to the rise of mail order and intensifying competition, has caused a sudden change in the working environment of the so-called courier service and deterioration of working conditions... Since then, an increase in delivery burden and instability in delivery may continue to be a concern.
For the media
- Mail-order advertisements are business advertisements, so mail-order companies are alwaysCost-effectivenessBecause we have confirmed, media charges tend to be lower than general advertisers.Especially in the case of TV commercials, mail-order companies are troublesome because if they lose profitability, it will be troublesome to negotiate prices during the reorganization in spring and autumn, and if the prices do not agree, they will want to close.
- When you cancel a long-term contract with a mail-order advertiser, it may be difficult to replenish due to the large space and length of the advertisement.
- Even if you rely on timely measures and space replenishment with mail-order contents, only appropriate viewing subscribers can be obtained, and if the organization of mail-order is too much, supporters of the main unit may be separated..
Laws and regulations
For mail order,Unfair gifts and unfair display prevention lawIn addition to general laws regarding commercial transactions, such asAct on Specified Commercial TransactionsUnder the Specified Commercial Transactions Law, the obligation to display various types of information, such as businesses, is not limited to products and sales conditions. However,Door-to-door sales,Telephone solicitation salesEtc.cooling offDoes not apply (some vendors may not accept returns after the goods arrive). In 2009, a system based on cooling-off was introduced only when the obligation to display the special terms for returned goods was neglected and the regulations regarding returned goods were not specified in the advertisement. Therefore, it is recommended that users familiarize themselves with the terms of return before purchasing.
- If you purchase a product or designated product by mail order, and the special agreement regarding returned goods is not explicitly stated in the advertisement, within 1 days from the date of delivery of the product etc. (the first day of receipt) Contracts can be withdrawn (cooling-off similar system).
- In the case of two or more installments in cash or other than one payment in the next month with a credit card (that is, two or more installments and bonus lump sum payment),Installment sales methodSubject to.
- Unless the user's request or consent is received, advertisement by e-mail (or facsimile) cannot be performed except in the following cases.
- When advertising along with the contract content or order confirmation email (or facsimile)
- When advertising with a mail magazine (or facsimile communication)
- When advertising using free mail (or requested fax)
Required display items in mail order
- Sales price (consideration of service)
- Notation and amount related to installment payment, contract period, other sales conditions (only if there is installment payment)
- Contents and amount of other money to be paid (only if there is money to be paid/example, eg, "Cash on Delivery Fee")
- Timing of payment of price
- Delivery of products (transfer of rights, provision of services)
- Payment method
- Matters related to special contract for returned goods (special contract for return of rights) (when there is no special contract, it is necessary to display that there is no special contract)
- In the case of online shopping, in addition to the obligation to display on the advertisement screen, it is also mandatory to display on the final application screen.
- Name of company (in case of corporation) or name (in case of individual company)
- Business address
- Business phone number
- Business email address (only for email ads)
- When advertising through online shopping, in the case of a corporation, the name of the representative of the business operator or the name of the person in charge of mail-order business
- Expiration date of the application (only if the application has an expiration date)
- defectResponsibility provisions (only if there is a defect liability provision)
- Clearly state the responsibility of the seller.
- Special sales conditions (only if there are special sales conditions such as sales volume restrictions)
- However, some of the above items may be omitted if there is a display to the effect that "a document stating the above items will be exchanged upon request or an electromagnetic record will be provided." In this case, when the claimant is required to pay the money, he is obliged to display the amount.
In addition, in the online advertisement of the mail-order dealer,Mail order lawAlthough there are a lot of things that say "display based on", there is no law called "Mail Order Law". The "Specified Commercial Transaction Law" (further abbreviated as "Special Commercial Law") can be considered as a law that can be equivalent to the "Mail Order Law".Act on Specified Commercial TransactionsIt is.
- ^ For designated rights,Appendix XNUMX of the Law Enforcement Ordinance on Specified Commercial TransactionsSee.
- ^ Start Your Own Mail Order Business: Your Step-By-Step Guide to Success 4p
- ^ Pryce Pryce-Jones, Newtown businessman who introduced mail order shopping to the world BBC.co.uk
- ^ "A Brief History of Newtown”. Newtown Town Council. 2017/2/10Browse.
- ^ Pryce Jones and the Royal Welsh Warehouse Powys-A day in the life
- ^ The Companion Guide to Wales p.52 ISBN 1900639432
- ^ "A History of the World --Object: Euklisia Rug”. BBC (October 1970, 1). 2013/8/24Browse.
- ^ "Pryce-Jones: Pioneer of the Mail Order Industry”. BBC. 2017/2/10Browse.
- ^ Doriko detective agency 11th-modern premier blog
- ^ Doriko detective agency 12th-modern premier blog
- ^ 30 puppies, debilitating death on arrival... Pet mail order complaint Yomiuri Shimbun May 2012, 4
- ^ Is that "convenient" necessary? Gaia Dawn TV Tokyo Broadcast on February 2017, 02
- ^ Due to this merit and demerit, most broadcast in the late-night zone when the viewing/listening rate tends to be low (Local stationAt midnightTv shoppingFrom the effect of being broadcast intensively,Midnight animeIs rarely broadcast).