Interview notes Industry-academia collaboration is also online
If you write the contents roughly
I bought a home video game console "Nintendo Switch", but I haven't decided which game to play, and I still can't run it.
■ Last year, we interviewed nine students and a company that carried out a project to build an in-house facility.Students are in Tokyo, Hiroshima, ... → Continue reading
Chubu Keizai Shimbun
★ Disseminate information on the Chubu region of the "Manufacturing Kingdom" to all over the world
The Chubu Keizai Shimbun was first published in 1946 (Showa 21) and has a track record of over 70 years, and has earned the trust of many years.
Toyota Motor in the Chubu region is the only "regional economic newspaper" among the newspaper publishers that are members of the "Japan Newspaper Association"
We are conducting detailed coverage activities from large companies to small and medium-sized companies.
Wikipedia related words
If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.
game machineWhat is (game)?video game(Computer games) To workapparatus OfGeneric term..For gameshardware全 般..It's just a generic term, so Home game consoleAlso,arcade gameMachine, (more naive) NintendoGame & WatchAnd (early)TamagotchiIs also a game console, And for that matter, in the state of being used to play video gamesPC (personal computer)Although it is not a dedicated game console, it is a type of game console...However, due to the influence of the ratio of the number of game consoles that are widespread in the world, when children and others vaguely refer to "game consoles", they often refer to "home video game consoles"..
Collectively called game machines include arcade game machines, home-use game machines, electronic games, and personal computers.Each is further subdivided. →#Type / Classification
- arcade game
- The first successful arcade game productAtariIntroduced by the company in 1972, "Pong].After that, arcade game machines appeared one after another.Especially in 1978Taito Space invadersWas developed and gained popularity, game centers were created all over the world, and Taito's arcade game machines were installed, establishing the game as an industry.After witnessing the hit of the Invaders game, many companies have appeared that also manufacture arcade machines that imitate the game machines.If you want to offer a new game to the player with this Invaders game console and the way Taito has done since then, the outermostCaseAs it is, by exchanging the internal memory (memory board), and by exchanging the graphic board as needed, a method of making a new game into a running game machine has become widespread.
- Home game console
- On the other hand, the earliest home-use game machines appeared to easily enjoy arcade games at home, but the early home-use game machines were the same as the early arcade games.Wired logicWas composed of[Note 1]Therefore, "1 hard 1 game", that is, a method in which only one game can be played on one game machine, or at most, multiple games can be switched with a switch.Introduced in 1977 to eliminate that shortcomingAtari 2600Then.cartridgeIntroduced a method of exchanging programs at, and became a hit machine.
- From the 1980s to the early 1990s, many manufacturers developed and released game consoles.It was during this period that major game consoles were soldNintendo,Sega,NEC Home ElectronicsWas released by Nintendo in 1983.NESAdopts a cartridge method (cassette method),Third partyTolicenseIn addition to manufacturing software by the method and setting the price at a low price, many software development companies released high-quality game software one after another.As a result, cumulative sales reached about 1991 million units by the end of March 3.
- In 1994, Sony Computer Entertainment (SCE) (currentlySony Interactive Entertainment)ofPlayStationAfter entering the market, it became an oligopoly by Nintendo, Sega, and SCE.
- In the 2000s, Sega withdrew from game console development, and in 2001Microsoft XboxSince entering the market with, Nintendo, SCE, and Microsoft have been in the top three states.
- Personal computer
- In personal computer (home computer) machines, computers with 1970-bit CPUs from the 1980s to the early 8sApple II, Commodore PET2001, Tandy TRS-80And so on, and users of each machine used them as game consoles.Especially released in 1982Commodore 64(Abbreviation C64) has spread to American households due to its low price, and has sold a total of 1994 million units by April 4.[Note 2]..This C64 was used as a game machine in each home, and since it was widely used, many companies developed game software.Over 1300 types of game softwareWas produced and sold for C64.
- Among personal computers, "Hobby computerThose classified as "" were for "hobby" or hobby use, and were used as computers for games.Sold by a common standard from Japanese companiesMSXWas also used as a game console[Note 3].
After that, it was released in 2004PSPIs pointed out that "the line of game consoles is ambiguous (" game consoles "disappear)" due to the versatility that goes beyond games., From the late 2000sSmartphoneHas become widespread, and by downloading and installing game apps on smartphones, it has become widespread to use it as a kind of portable high-performance game machine..
As explained at the beginning of this article, there are the following types of game consoles:.
- Home video game console (Home game console. Detailed in the first half of this article.)
- Electronic games(mainlyLSIA device operated by a chip.NintendoGame & WatchSeries and (early)TamagotchiSuch)
- Arcade game machine (so-called ""ArcadeA game machine installed in such places.It is also called a "business machine" because it is a game machine used by management such as arcades for business (business). )
- A (general purpose) personal computer ready to be used to play games
There are various classification methods, but for example, there are the following classification methods.
- Subclassification of home video game consoles
As a subclass of home video game consoles, the following major classifications may be made.
- Stationary game console / Portable game console
- "Stationary type" is a device / device designed on the assumption that it will be installed and used in a specific position., "Stationary game machine" is a game machine developed on the assumption that it will be installed and used in a specific position.Generally, it is designed on the assumption that it will be used by connecting to a TV receiver installed in the home.On the other hand"Portable game console"" Is a game machine developed on the assumption that it will be carried and played in various places, and it is a game machine designed to be portable in size and weight, and is generally small. It has a screen of.However, in the past, the line between "stationary game consoles / portable game consoles" was fairly clear, but in recent years, we have dared to aim at those boundary areas and carry them with a small screen on their own. Models that can be played on a large screen by connecting to a large home-use TV while being able to play, or those that realize it by connecting to something like a docking station have also been developed, and those models are also considerable. Since it is the number of units sold, the classification of "stationary game consoles / portable game consoles" is a little more ambiguous than before.
Home video game consoles are becoming more and more popular with the timesア ー キ テ ク チ ャAnd the level of performance is changing, and despite being developed and manufactured by multiple manufacturers, roughly speaking, it can be summarized with some kind of similarity for each era, so the first generation, the second Generations ... etc.Classified by generationIt is widely practiced to do.Although it is remarkable in the stationary type, the same classification may be applied to portable game machines.
- Subclass of arcade game machines
Arcade game machines may be broadly classified as follows as subclasses.
- Arcade game machine for video games / Elemeca
Arcade machines for video games may be broadly classified as follows according to the type of housing.
- Upright housing (type) / Table housing (type) / Projector housing (type)
- The upright type (housing) is an arcade machine where the player plays while standing, and the table type (housing) is a game machine.テ ー ルThe player sits on a chair, looks into the screen on the top of the table-shaped machine, and operates the levers and buttons on the side of the machine.In addition to the above three categories, there are also intermediate ones such as semi-upright.There is also a way to classify commercial game consoles, which are made of particularly large housings.
It may also be classified as a general-purpose housing / dedicated housing.A general-purpose housing (general-purpose type) is a commercial game machine that can run various games by exchanging software and boards.On the other hand, a dedicated housing (dedicated type) is a game machine that can be used only for a specific game. For example, specializing in a specific car / racing game, the handle, seat, screen, and decoration around the screen. It is a game machine that cannot be diverted to other games, and a game machine that has to be disassembled and disposed of when the demand for the game disappears.
- Subclassification of PCs used in games
Personal computers in a state of being used as a game machine can also be classified as follows.
- General-purpose PC / gaming PC
The former is a general-purpose PC, that is, a general-purpose PC (personal computer) designed for various purposes.Game softwareIs installed and playing. Games called "2D games" that are flat and do not have stereoscopic vision can be fully enjoyed on a general-purpose PC.On the other hand, a "gaming PC" is a PC equipped with high-performance parts that can realize (high-speed, beautiful) 3D graphics in order to play so-called "3D games" (comfortably)., In general, countless fast to achieve smooth and beautiful 3D imagespolygonCan be drawnGPU (image processing unit)And especially fastCPUIt refers to a PC equipped with a large main memory.
Here, we briefly describe in chronological order how the so-called game consoles were established.
Around 1970 when the game console was born, speaking of computersmain frameOr at mostMinicomputerAnd there were only expensive systems used by large corporations, universities, or those or military laboratories. One of the most famous early computer games was the space battle game written on a minicomputer and played by an unspecified number of college students.Space War!].. After that, the game evolved through four paths.
- Install it at a store and play for a feearcade game'
- Consumers enjoy at homeVideo games'
- Operates as a type of application on a PCPc games'
- Made by applying the technology of the calculatorElectronic games'
1972The first video game console ever appeared, but it was not commercially successful, and the first commercial game to succeedAtariArcade game ofPong"was.. Video games until thenArcadeWas popular inPinballWas expelled in a blink of an eye.Arcade video games are becoming more and more complex, and as wired logic circuits become more difficult to achieve.MicroprocessorCame to be adopted. The earliest video game consoles (1970st generation) that appeared in the mid-1s were for enjoying those arcade games easily at home. Initial video game consoles consisted of wired logic, similar to the early arcade games, so one hardware, one game, or a method to switch multiple games with a switch. In the second generation (late 1s-early 1s), hardware was used to meet the user's desire to play various games on one hardware.Game softwareA system that can play computer games was adopted by combining. Software supply mediacassette tapeAlthough there were machines that adopted the Atari 2600,cartridgeIt adopted a system with a replaceable cartridge to supply the program, which became the standard.1979First in historyThird partyWas born, and here, apart from the industry that sells game consoles, the game industry that produces profits by selling the game program itself was born. Although the image of the video game was almost established by this Atari 2600,1982So-calledAtari shockHappened.
(In 1975, the Altair 8800, known as the "first commercial personal computer in history," appeared, but it wasn't a computer that had a screen, such as when connected to a home TV, so it was mostly used for games. The reason why game software that runs on personal computers has come to be produced1977ToSteve Jobs,Steve WozniakByApple IIWas developed and released, and it was successfully sold. The Apple II is a type that uses a home TV receiver as a monitor, and the Apple II is a breakout created by hardware developer Steve Wozniak himself.BreakoutThe game was attached, and the purchasers decided to make game software one after another. Apple II CPUMOS 6502And at this time,8 bitsMicroprocessorAs a result of fierce competition for market share between so-called "80 series" processors such as Intel and Zilog and so-called "68 series" processors such as Motorola.PriceThanks to that, it became possible to make a computer at a low price and at a price that can be purchased at home, and it became possible to develop and sell the Apple II, but after that, each company said, " It can be classified as a "personal computer" (also called a "home computer" or "hobby computer" at that time).8-bit personal computerWill be released.By this time, there were already video games and arcade games, so PC users tried to enjoy these arcade games at home for free on their own.programmingWe made games that resembled arcade games, and exchanged the finished works with each other.Pc gamesIt is, thenAdventure games,Role playing games,Simulation games, Will be developed in a different field from the arcade games and consumer games of the same era.
Late 1970'sMicroprocessorWas not fast enough to process the graphics on its own (for example, NTSC graphics display required a dot clock of 12 to 15 MHz, and the microprocessor at that time was not powerful enough.[Note 4]), All of the game consoles, personal computers, and arcade games at that time were originally created for video display.circuitIt was designed and was the individuality of each model.Typical functions for games, including image processing functionsSprite(Object) functionscrollIt may be hardware support such as functions. In each case, the function and performance around this is determined by the balance of cost with the intended user group and the like, so the rotation function of the arcade game machine designed specifically for the target game was a flower shape. The tendency that game consoles, personal computers, and arcade games each have their own unique architecture continued.
Portable game consoles also became popular in the late 1970s. In 1979, a cartridge exchange type portable game machine had already appeared, but at that time, due to technical restrictions, it was not possible to make sufficient products compared to other forms. Instead, what was the mainstreamElectronic gamesWas called. Electronic games are the application of calculator technology, and were born in a completely different system from arcade games and PC games. Display a specific shape as a display deviceliquid crystal,Light emitting diodeWas used. It did not have a general-purpose graphic display function, and it was inevitably one game per hardware.
In the third generation (early 3s-mid-1980s), Zilog'sZ80とMOS 6502Microprocessors and other processors that have become cheaper due to intensifying competitionIntegrated circuitThe technology has added a sprite function and a hardware scroll function that have been simplified and reduced in price to video game machines.NintendoReleased in 1983NESIn addition to being equipped with the cheaper 6502Third partySoftware production bylicense(The game machine maker licenses the development and sale of game software to a third party) and expects the license revenue from the game software makerhardwareIt was possible to sell itself at a low price, and as a result, the number of game machine owners increased, and game software makers could also benefit.
In the latter half of the 1980s, the speed of performance improvement of personal computers accelerated and the latest models were replaced, so the platform characteristics of PCs for games were lost, while the game consoles with relatively few model changes have that platform characteristics. Has increased. If a single model such as a PC or game console continues to be sold without changing its basic performance over a long period of time (long product life), that model will be recognized as one platform, and that model will be used for games for other models. A lot of software was created to playtransplant). "Platform hardware and lots of software" is a technique that advances hardware and introduces new programming techniques (most of the software for these game consolesAssembly languageAlthough it was described in,C languageIt was hampering the transition, etc.), but it also contributed to the rapid development of the game software industry by promoting competition and technological development in specific cutting-edge fields of game software. In the 4th generation (late 1980s-early 1990s), the technical capabilities and expressiveness of game software will be further improved, and higher performance hardware will be required, so that processors for game consoles will be designed. Became. Until then, many game machines were diverted from PC chips and general-purpose products, but in this era, it was established that game machines have far superior performance to PCs for game purposes. Also, a cartridge exchange type "portable game console" equipped with a CPU and a graphic display device, which had a performance comparable to other hardware forms, was released around this time and became popular.
It should be noted that the distinction between stationary machines (video game machines), portable machines, arcade games, and PC games becomes ambiguous again in game machines from the 2000s onwards, but this will be described in detail below.
Game hardFor generations of "Video game console" in English Wikipedia (en: Video game console (See )), that is,Consumer gamesMachine" "Home game machine" "Game machine"[Note 5]It mainly deals with the topic of what is called etc.
There are a wide variety of forms, including minor ones.[Note 6]However, in this section, for the moment, each model is a stationary machine (so-calledVideo gamesMachine),Handheld gamesThere are two types of machines.
Regarding generations, English Wikipedia classifies them from "First generation" to "Eighth generation", so it is in line with that.Probably an original research, The generations seen here are from JapanGame researchEtc. are not often seen, and differences are also seen in materials in English.
Home game console
Here, we will explain about home game consoles, that is, game consoles used at home.This is commonly referred to as a "home video game console." Gaming PC is out of scope.
First half of the 1970s-The middle of this article is "third generation".
In 1972, the first home-use game console everOdyssey] Has been released. Odyssey realized the electronic game function by the analog circuit instead of the CPU. A video game produced with reference to OdysseyPongWas a big hit in the arcadeAtariHowever, you can enjoy pomp at home just by connecting it to the TV.Home ponWas released in 1975 and became a big hit. Due to this, the existence of a home-use game machine is widely known, and a Pong copy game called "Pong Clone"/Aryu game was released by a large number of toy makers from large to small. Launched Odyssey in JapanMagna BoxThe game console was released by Nintendo and Epoch, which is affiliated with, and these are also called ponclones. Atari released in 1976Break out』(Block breaking) and many clone machines have been around. These game machines appeared in the earliest period, namely the game first generation. In this era, the software was built into the hardware, so I could not buy more software later, but I can switch multiple games with a switch, I can play optional games by purchasing additional switching cards Some things could be done.
- TV JACK(Bandai, 1977-1978)
- TV FUN(Tommy Industry, 1977-1978)
- System 10(Epoch,1978）
- Color video game Racing 112(Nintendo, 1978)
- Video baseball games(Epoch, 1979)
- Tv vader(Epoch,1980）
- Computer tv games(Nintendo, 1980)
Late 1970s-Early 1980s is referred to as "2th generation" in this article.
In 1976, Fairchild launched Channel F. Channel F was the first home-use game console to enjoy various types of games by inserting a ROM cartridge.. In 1978, Magna Box also released the Odyssey² game console, which adopted a similar system. Atari also released the Atari 1977 (VCS) in 2600. 『Space invadersSuch asarcade gameWith the consumer porting as a killer title, it gained explosive popularity in the United States around 1980. Furthermore, from Atari in 1979ActivisionIs the first game in historyThird partySince then, we actively accept third-party software that is born one after another.business modelEstablished. In Television and Colecovision were also popular in North America, and in Europe, the VC 4000 by Interton in Germany was also popular. However, in the Christmas sales in 1982, a decisive market collapse (so-calledAtari shock) Caused.. Not only the Atari 2600 but also the American game console market (Pc gamesThe market itself is not included). Full-scale popularization of game consoles in areas such as Japan and South America will begin after the next NES era.
- Channel F(Fairchild Semiconductor,1976）
- Atari 2600(Atari,1977）
- Video cassette rock(Takatoku,1977）
- Odyssey 2(Magna box,1978）
- VC 4000(Interton, 1978)
- In Television(Mattel,1980）
- Cassette vision(Epoch,1981）
- Atari 5200(Atari,1982）
- Coreco Vision(This, 1982)
- Vectrex(GCE, 1982)
- TV boy(Gakken, 1983)
First half of the 1980s-The middle of this article is "third generation".
Atari shockLater, in North America and Europe, game PCs with programming functions in addition to game functions gained power, and many game makers moved game releases from home consoles to PCs. In North America as a game PCCommodore 64But in EuropeZWas successful.Similar models (Pyuta, M5, SC-3000, MSX, etc.) appeared in Japan, but in the end, a model that specialized in game functions and achieved better game performance than the 1st and 2nd generations succeeded. Was stored.Especially released in 1983Nintendo OfNES(Famicom) is responsible for the full-scale spread of home video game consoles in Japan, and in 1985 it was an overseas version of Famicom in the United States.Nintendo Entertainment System(NES) was released and was successful. RPG andCompetitive fighting gameThe prototypes of today's game systems such as 2D action games were also completed at this time. So far derived from Atari 2600ATARI specificationsA joystick type controller called was commonly used, but a NES pad type controller (Game pad) Is compact but versatile, and is used in almost all subsequent game consoles.Input deviceBecame the basis of.
- NES,Family computer disk system(Nintendo,1983,1993,1986）
- SG-1000,SG-1000II(Sega, 1983,1984）
- PV-1000(Casio, 1983)
- Atari 7800(Atari,1984）
- Super cassette vision(Epoch,1984）
- Sega Mark III,Sega master system(SEGA, 1985,1987）
- Twin NES(sharp,1986）
- Max machine(Commodore, 1982)
- Commodore 64(Commodore, 1982)
- Z(Sinclair, 1982)
- Pyuta(ト ミ ー, 1982)
- M5(Sword, 1982)
- SC-3000(SEGA, 1983)
- RX-78(Bandai, 1983)
- PV-2000 fun(Casio, 1983)
- MSX(Companies that entered MSX, 1983)
Late 1980s-Early 1990s is referred to as "4th generation" in this article.
Equipped with a more advanced sprite function than the conventional model, the expressive power of 2D graphics has improved.Stereo sound has become the standard, games have become more complex and sophisticated, and the corresponding controllers have become more multi-button.On the other hand, the limit of packing complex and expressive games into ROM cartridges has begun to appear due to lack of capacity.Due to the increase in the capacity of game software, the manufacturing cost of ROM has also risen, and software of 9,800 yen or more has appeared one after another.Under these circumstances, the world's first CD-ROM was used as the game medium instead of the conventional ROM cartridge.CD-ROM2Appeared, and the supported titles made full use of the large capacity, which became the basis of the software supply by the optical disk later.
The main hardware isPC engine-Mega drive-Super NintendoThere are three models. Although the release of Super Nintendo was significantly delayed compared to the other two types, in Japan it succeeded in transitioning by inheriting the overwhelming share from the family computer. On the other hand, in the North American market, Nintendo's SNES (Non-Japanese Super Famicom) and SEGA's GENESIS (Mega Drive) developed market competition, and GENESIS achieved a certain success with a 3% share of 2 million units sold..
SNK, which had gained immense popularity in battle-type fighting games in the arcade market, entered the game machine market with NEOGEO, which has diverted the arcade system to home-use machines. Due to the high performance of home game consolesarcade game,Pc gamesThe performance difference with In overseas markets, the hobby PCs Atari ST and Amiga were released, gaining popularity as a competing game PC. Japan alsoX68000,FM TOWNSHobby PCs were released, but in Japan where stationary machines and software are blessed, PC games cannot be handled by home-use game machines.Adult gameExcept for. 4th generation game consoleDot pictureIt corresponds to the maturity and completion period of the 2D game by Sprite.
- PC engine (Core graphics),CD-ROM2,SUPER CD-ROM2(NEC Home Electronics,1987,1989,1988,1991）
- Mega drive,Mega cd(SEGA, 1988, 1991)
- Pc engine super graphics(NEC Home Electronics, 1989)
- Super Nintendo(Nintendo,1990）
- Neo Geo(SNK, 1990)
- PC engine Duo(NEC Home Electronics, 1991)
- Wonder Mega (SEGA, Victor Company of Japan, 1992)
Mid-1990s-The second half is referred to as the "fifth generation" in this article.
In this generation, replacing the traditional ROM cassetteoptical diskBecame the mainstay of content sales packages.Although optical discs have the drawback of taking a long time to read, they have a larger data capacity than ROMs, are easy to repress, and can mass-produce game media at low cost.Along with this, the sound quality has been improved and the production by playing movies has expanded.With the advent of game consoles equipped with full-scale 3D graphics functions, the range of video expression in the game has expanded.A controller with a vibration function and an analog stick has also appeared.Dot pictureWith polygons, the manufacturing know-how is different, and new small and medium-sized software houses have emerged.
From this generation to the 6th generation,Console warThe competition for performance between hardwares called (game machine war) reached its climax, and each company proclaimed the high performance of its own game machines. The main models are PlayStation, Sega Saturn, and NINTENDO 64. Sony Computer Entertainment (SCE, currentlySony Interactive Entertainment<SIE>)PlayStationIs an inexpensive and easy to develop system,Third partyWith a high level of support, the company was ranked first in the background of a fulfilling software group. SEGA'sSega SaturnShowed good performance immediately after the release, such as selling 100 million units faster than the PlayStation, but due to the hardware configuration that is hard to cut costs, it was in a difficult situation with the price reduction competition with the PlayStation. In North America, US SEGASuper 32XIt was seen that there was a discrepancy with the Japanese SEGA side in the sales strategy, such as the introduction of the first, and as a result it caused confusion on the part of the user and collapsed together. Released by NintendoNINTENDO64Aims to be a symbolic presence that appeals to 64-bit high performance by its name, but the release of the software is far behind that of other companies, there are few third parties, and the traditional ROM cassette is adopted, so the software price is Higher and less price competitive, it succeeded in North America but never became mainstream. In Japan, it was a big delay for PlayStation.
The largest consumer game company in North AmericaElectronic ArtsFounder established 3DO and entered the game console market. Atari, who has long supported the game industry as a maker of game consoles and game PCs since the dawn, entered this period with a long dormancy period that lasted for a quarter century in the hardware business.CommodoreWent bankrupt. As a result, as a computer used for games,PC/AT compatibleBecame almost.Windows 95Although MS-DOS was the mainstream for game use for a while after the appearance of,DirectXSince then, Windows has gradually become the main environment for games. Microsoft became a major game maker with many PC game development studios, and finally entered the consumer console in the sixth generation.
- Atari Jaguar,Atari Jaguar CD(Atari,1993）
- Amiga CD32(Commodor, 1993)
- FM TOWNS Marty(Fujitsu, 1993)
- Laser active(pioneer, 1993)
- Neo Geo CD(SNK, 1994)
- Playdia(Bandai Digital Entertainment, 1994)
- Sega Saturn(SEGA, 1994)
- Super 32X(SEGA, 1994)
- PlayStation(SCE, 1994)
- PC-FX(NEC Home Electronics, 1994)
- Virtual boy(Nintendo,1995）
- Loopy(Casio, 1995)
- Pippin at mark(Bandai Digital Entertainment,1996）
- NINTENDO64,64DD(Nintendo, 1996- 1999）
The late 1990s-early 2000s are referred to as "sixth generation" in this article.
- PSone- Console-set.png
The expressive power of 3D graphics has improved, and it has begun to support communication with the Internet and 5.1ch sound in a limited way.The mainstream media is DVD or original standard discs that apply DVD technology.At the end of this generation, Sega withdrew from hardware sales and replaced Microsoft'sXboxHas entered. Xbox succeeds in foreign marketsPS2However, in Japan, it was released in February, after the end of the year when game consoles were generally sold, and was criticized for initial defects and countermeasures related to them.NINTENDO64Of the successorNintendo GameCubeGained some support in Japan, but outside JapanFront hardI didn't shake as much.
In the period of widespread use of personal computers for personal computers, we started to use home-use game consoles with insufficient internet support,online gameWas fulfilled. Although home-grown games are beginning to be seen in emerging countries in Asia such as China and South Korea, stationary games have large development costs.Barrier to entryWas big, and in Asian countriesPirated versionBecause it was difficult to make a profit in content sales due to the popularity of the game, the online PC games for which billing was applied became the mainstream of development, and it was often seen that the works of these countries were exported to the world. ..
- Dream cast(Sega,1998)
- PlayStation 2(SCE,2000）
- Nintendo GameCube(Nintendo,2001）
- Xbox(Microsoft, 2001)
Mid-2000s-The end is referred to as "seventh generation" in this article.
NintendoWiiIt is,Wii remoteOf the experience typecontrollerEquipped withHigh definition (HD) compatiblePS3とXbox 360AlsoPlayStation Move,KinectWas released. All models are official software released on former hardwareemulatorOf contentDownload saleAlso began to take place.Video on demandOverseas, Xbox 360Smart tv Ofde factoWas said.
For software makers, the future of market share remains uncertain, and more than the previous generationMulti-platformincreased. Sales of the Xbox 360 and PS3 have been sluggish, and many sequels, remakes, and HD-compatible versions of popular games have been released. Wii has changed the conventional wisdom of game consoles and released it as a hands-on experience type, so it is new and easy to understand, and it has increased its share at a very fast pace compared to the hardware of the same generation and became the top in the hard share for the first time in two generations. However, unlike other hardware, the input device was special, and the image quality was the only hardware of the same generation that did not support HD image quality, so it was often excluded from the target of multi-platform release.Especially in terms of image quality, the fact that the penetration rate of high-definition televisions (mainly HD televisions) has increased significantly ahead of the complete transition of terrestrial digital broadcasting in 2 has become a major mistake for the long-term development of Wii.In later years, the number of Wii-only titles also decreased significantly.As a result, while the lineup of Xbox 2011 and PS360 was enriched, on the contrary, Wii became short of new software..
On the 7th generation machines, network services were used to deliver the games of the time and "new works using dot paintings in the same hardware environment at that time."
- Xbox 360(Microsoft,2005）
- PlayStation 3(SCE,2006）
- Wii,Wii Family Edition,Wii Mini(Nintendo, 2006,2011,2012）
In emerging countries such as South America and Asia, cheap and low-performance game consoles are being actively released while incorporating network compatibility and experience type, etc., and have been active as an agent of SEGA for a long time in Brazil.TectoyThe successor to the Dreamcast released by the company in 2009ZeeboAnd Sega's distributor in China, At GamesZONEAnd its variation, SEGA Reactor, is a typical product. Sega, which has withdrawn from hardware in developed countries, has continued its hardware business in emerging countries through Tectoy and AtGames, and from Tectoy it is a model change version of the mega drive.Mega drive 4Was also released in 2009.
- Tectoy Mega Drive 4(Tectoy, August 2009)
- ZONE, SEGA Reactor (AtGames & SEGA,2010）
First half of the 2010s-The middle of this article is "third generation".
With the spread of smartphones and tablets in 2012CommoditizationAdvanced mobile hardware and software technology started to be diverted to game consoles,Cloud FundingAgainst the backdrop ofOUYA,GameStickBy the start-up companiesAndroidPlanning and development of game machines are one after another.. Game development Free "open platform" and no media inventory "Digital distributionAre common. Also in 2013Valve Corporation SteamOS/Steam Machine/Steam Controller announced. The Steam Machine was the Steam Box, a concept that has long been communicated, that is, the company's PC game platformSteamHome video game consoles/dedicated to the development of the consumer marketGaming pcIs the standard (Piston of Xi3 has been unofficial).
Gaikai/OnLive/PlayStation Now,Microsoft Azure,Amazon Web ServicesLike eachク ラ ウ ドService platform has emergedNVIDIA GeForce GRID,G cluster/ UbitusIsETC.It was also used for (Shinla Technology, which was aimed at supercomputer gaming, dissolved, but the main member launched Genvid Technologies).
- Wii U(Nintendo, 2012)
- PlayStation 4,PlayStation 4 Pro,PlayStation VR(SIE <former name SCE>,2013,2016）
- Xbox One,Xbox One X(Microsoft, 2013,2017）
- PlayStation Vita TV(SIE <former name SCE>, 2013)
- OUYA(OUYA, inc., 2013)
- GameStick(PlayJam Inc., 2013)
- GamePop(BlueStacks, 2013)
- MOJO(Mad Catz, 2013)
- UNU / Vyper (Snake Byte,2014）
- HUAWEI Tron mini game console (Huawei technology, 2014)
Late 2010s-Early 2020s is referred to as "9th generation" in this article.
Nintendo's previous generation Wii U was short-lived due to sluggish sales, leading other companies2017In March, as a hybrid game machine that can be played as both a stationary machine and a portable machineNintendo SwitchReleased..The platforms for stationary and portable devices, which had been separated since the release of Game Boy, have been integrated.Also2019Positioned as a portable Nintendo Switch and a low-priced version in SeptemberNintendo Switch LiteWas also released.Oculus VRIs the first stand-alone VR game console in May 2019Oculus QuestReleased. Atari returned to the home video game industry for the first time in about a quarter of a century since Atari Jaguar,Atari VCSannounced. Mattel also announced that it has repurchased intellivision rights. In addition, SIEPlayStation 5, MicrosoftXbox Series X / SThe2020It will be released in November.
From this time on, the performance of game hardware will be further improved.Video distribution siteDue to the spread ofGame commentaryIncreasing popularity, andResale for commercial purposesDue to the rampant of games, especially game hardware immediately after its release often suffers from supply shortages. Nintendo Switch has not been in short supply even three months after its release, and Nintendo has officially announced an apology... Also in 2020Global epidemic of the new coronavirusDemand for nesting has further increased, and the shortage of hardware supply for PlayStation 5 and other games has caused a serious slump in sales of game software., In Japan, even two months after the release, there is a rush of people to over-the-counter sales and the police are dispatched..
Consumer game console
- Nintendo Switch,Nintendo Switch (organic EL model)(Nintendo,2017, 2021)
- Oculus Quest,Eye Quest 2(Oculus VR,2019,2020）
- Xbox Series X,Xbox series s(Microsoft, 2020)
- PlayStation 5(SIE, 2020)
- Atari VCS(Atari, 2021)
- (Undecided, SNK, 2021）
Cloud gaming machines / services
- Google Stadia(Google, 2019)
- OOParts(Black Inc., 2020）
- (NVIDIA, 2020)
- Amazon Moon(Amazon, 2020）
- (Facebook, 2020）
- (Plex, 2021）
First generation (portable device)
The late 1970s-hit the early 1980s.
In 2, when stationary game machines became the second generation and became a boom, America's leading toy maker Milton Bradley Company released Microvision, the first ever cartridge exchangeable portable game machine. Microvision was quite different from later game consoles, such as the CPU on the cartridge side.LCDDue to technical restrictions such as screen fragility, it ended with little commercial success. Instead of inserting the ROM cartridge into the hardware, one game per hardwareElectronic gamesHas appeared. Electronic games at the time could not even be equipped with a monochrome LCD,LEDMainly due to display, Mattel became the world's first portable electronic game machine in 1976Mattel Auto RaceSince the release of, the LED games have been released one after another by each company, and it has become a big boom.
- Mattel Auto Race(Mattel, 1976)
- Mattel Football (1977, Mattel)
First generation (portable device)
Early 1980s-hit the middle.
In the 1980s, LCDs became cheaper, and electronic games equipped with LCDs became a boom.A typical product is the Game & Watch series released by Nintendo in 1980, which was mostly monochrome and simple games, but it became very popular.In some Game & Watch models, the cross key, which later evolved into the main interface of stationary machines, was also adopted in advance.In addition to major toy makers such as Nintendo, Bandai, Tommy, and Tiger Electronics, many other makers released various electronic games, and arcade porting was also active. In 1982, on the main bodySolar cellBandai has released the LCD SOLAR POWER series, which is the first game console that adopts the. In 1983, Tommy released the Tomytronic 2D (Tommy 3D stereoscopic graphic game) series, the first portable game console with two displays to enable 3D display. In 3, Epoch released the Japan's first portable game machine with a replaceable ROM cartridge, the Game Pocket Computer, but it was a commercial failure again.
First generation (portable device)
The late 1980s-hit the early 1990s.
This is the first generation when a portable game machine with a replaceable ROM cartridge has achieved practical specifications and can enjoy a variety of games. The specifications of Atari Lynx and game gear were almost the same as those of the 3rd generation stationary hardware, and the PC engine GT was compatible with the 4th generation stationary engine PC engine. The Game Boy, which used a monochrome LCD, was inferior to other models with outstanding performance and image quality at the time, but the LCD technology at that time was immature and large in power consumption, and the color LCD model was even more expensive and battery (AA).Dry cell) While the consumption was intense, the Game Boy, which is compact and can be driven for a long time, became the most popular portable game machine. Game Gear struggled commercially in Japan, but in North America it did well against Game Boy. With the advent of practical handheld game consoles, the boom in electronic games ended in this generation, but electronic games continue to sell and maintain a certain market, and at timesTamagotchiThere were also big hits like (Bandai 1997).
- Game boy(Nintendo,1989）
- Atari Lynx,Atari Lynx II(Atari, 1989,1991）
- Game gear(Sega,1990）
- PC engine GT(NEC Home Electronics,1990）
First generation (portable device)
Mid-1990s-hit the second half.
The specifications are about the same as or slightly higher than those of the 3rd generation of stationary hardware, which is not much improved from the 3rd generation of portable hardware, but it realized a thin and small body with excellent portability. Due to the development of liquid crystal technology, even models that use color liquid crystals can withstand long-term operation. Games that incorporate infrared communication functions and utilize communication functions have become popular.Visual memoryとPocket stationThe external storage medium of the stationary machine (memory card) was to add a game function, but did not reach widespread, it was not adopted in later generation machines. Although there were ambitious models such as Sega Nomad compatible with Mega Drive and Wonder Swan that dared to challenge in monochrome in this era, Nintendo's Game Boy series that was colorized in this generation was a one-person winner. It was
- No Mad(Sega,1995）
- Gameboy pocket,Gameboy lights(Nintendo,1996,1998）
- game.com(Tiger Electronics,1997）
- Neo geo pocket(SNK, 1998)
- Gameboy color(Nintendo, 1998)
- Wonder Swan(Bandai,1999）
- Neo geo pocket color,NEW Neo Geo Pocket Color(SNK, 1999)
- Wonders One Color,Swan crystal(Bandai,2000,2002）
- Pokemon mini(Pokémon, 2001)
External storage medium of stationary machine
First generation (portable device)
The late 1990s-hit the early 2000s.
ReflectiveTFTLCD and reflective FSTN LCDColor LCD game machines that have adopted In terms of specifications, it is equipped with functions that surpass the 4th generation of stationary hardware, and the range of expression in portable game consoles has expanded dramatically. As with the previous generation, non-Nintendo models were unshakable, establishing Nintendo's monopoly status on portable game consoles. From this timeMobile phoneI used it because the penetration rate ofMobile phone gamesHas begun to appear.N-GageLike a PDA orMobile phoneGame consoles equipped with functions have begun to appear. N-GageS60It was installed and became an application platform in 2008.
- Gameboy Advance,Game Boy Advance SP,Gameboy micro(Nintendo,2001,2003,2005）
- GP32(GamePark, 2001)
- N-Gage, N-Gage QD (Nokia, 2003, 2004)
- Zodiac(Tapwave, 2003)
First generation (portable device)
Mid-2000s-hit the end.
DSとPSPDivided by. Up to the previous generationDry cellHigh energy density instead ofLithium ion batteryAdopted and brightBacklightIt became a liquid crystal with. As with stationary machines, 3D graphics have advanced, and it has become possible to download data and play online via a network. DS isBlue ocean strategyThe light layer was also set as the target, and the PSP set the core layer as the main target. DS lowered the hurdle to the netNintendo Wi-Fi connectionIn addition, the adoption of a touch panel is the first ever for a portable game machine, and it has two distinctive screens.Touch! GenerationsWith the hit, the user base has expanded and DS has been incorporated into education. The PSP has a large LCD screen, an optical drive, and a high-performance microprocessor. In the Japanese market, PSPMonster hunter portable] Partly due to the blessing of the series, Nintendo had a good fight unlike the previous generation, where the hardware of Nintendo had won by itself.
- Nintendo DS,Nintendo DS Lite,Nintendo DSi,Nintendo DSi LL(Nintendo, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2009)
- PlayStation Portable,PlayStation Portable go(SCE, 2004, 2009)
- GP2X,GP2X Caanoo(GamePark, 2005, 2010)
- Dingoo A320(Dingoo, 2009)
- Pandora(OpenPandora, 2010)
First generation (portable device)
Early 2010-hit the second half.
3DS,PS VitaDepends on the cameraAR,communication-socialMany functions that are conscious of are included. In 2013But by the full GPU acceleration techKnown as the manufacturerNVIDIA Tegra/AndroidEquippedNVIDIA SHIELD PortableWas released. The newcomer Android game machine can be said to be the trend of the year, but the machine is also a game streaming client that uses a PC as a server, and it was announced with new streaming server technology and attracted attention.Smartphone/Tablet such asSmart deviceuseOSIncorporating game-conscious features into. In 2008Apple OfiPhone OSSince the SDK (currently iOS) has been released,iPod touch/iPhone/iPadSuch as for iOSApp Store,Google OfGoogle PlayWas provided. The series that has been developed so far for home-use game consoles was provided and collaborated.
- Nintendo 3DS,Nintendo 3DS LL,Nintendo 2DS,New Nintendo 3DS,New Nintendo 3DS LL ,New Nintendo 2DS LL(Nintendo, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2017)
- PlayStation Vita(SIE <former name SCE>, 2011)
- NEOGEO X(SNK, 2012)
- Xperia PLAY(Sony, 2011)
- Archos GamePad(Archos, 2012)
- Wikipad(Wikipad, 2013)
- NVIDIA SHIELD Portable(NVIDIA, 2013)
- Tek 807D/SUPER GAMER I (Tekniser/Spec Computer, 2013)
First generation (portable device)
The latter half of the 2010s is referred to as "8th generation" in this article. While SIE withdrew from the portable game console and Nintendo also released a Nintendo Switch compatible with both stationary and portable, a new portable game console was not released in the strict sense.Playdateannounced.
XNUMXD video game console
1980 eraToト ミ ーからStereoscopic visionAn electronic game that can be released has been released (7 of "Space Battle Battle", "Jaws", "Space Laser War", "Jungle Fighter", "Cosmo Le Mans", "Dog Fight", "Sherman Attack" The work has been confirmed).
NintendoFrom1987ToNES 3D systemIs released,SegaFrom the American marketSega master systemでSegaScope 3-D GlassesAnd multiple compatible software has been released.1994ToAtariFromMissile command 3D"When"Wolfenstein 3D』Was just two titles,Jaguar VR headsetWas released.
1995Stand type from Nintendo in JulyVirtual boyWas released, but the sales volume did not fluctuate. As mentioned above, all were released sporadically until the early 200x.2006Released in NovemberPlayStation 3 The2010With the system update released in April3D displayVideo output to,Also2011In February, a portable game machine from Nintendo that supports naked-eye stereoscopic imagesNintendo 3DSWas released.
For general-purpose type PCsPersonal computerSee article.
For PCs equipped with high-performance GPUs, CPUs, large-capacity memory, etc. for 3D gamesGaming pcchecking ...
- For game software that runs on those hardwarePc gameschecking ...
Reprint game machine
In recent years, the number of people who miss game consoles from the late 1970s and 1980s (young people at that time, elderly people today) is increasing, and those 2D games and the atmosphere of decades ago are interesting from a modern perspective. The number of modern young people who enjoy playing games is increasing, and it is becoming more active to reprint game consoles from decades ago in order to meet those demands.The same group of games as before moves, the appearance is miniaturized to resemble that time, and the connection with the TV receiver isHDMIThe ones that have evolved so that they can be done with terminals are popular.In addition, there are some that have HDMI or USB terminals, similar to the ones at that time, even in the case size and key touch.
- Nintendo Classic Mini Family Computer (Nintendo, 2016)
- Nintendo Classic Mini Super Nintendo (Nintendo, 2017)
- Neo Geo Mini (SNK, 2018)
- PlayStation Classic (SIE, 2018)
- Mega drive mini (Sega, 2019)
- PC engine mini (Konami, 2020)
- Astro City Mini (SEGA TOYS, 2020)
- Atari VCS (Atari, 2021)
- (Capcom, 2021)
- (Commodore64(Equipped with HDMI and USB terminals, reproducing up to the size and key touch of
- Game Gear Micro (Sega, 2020)
Best-selling game console
- ^ There was no microprocessor and it was not a software-powered method
- ^ The world's number one sales record for a single model of personal computer.No model has ever broken this record.
- ^ It was also used for education.
- ^ It's not the architectural reason that it's 4 or 8 bits.
- ^ Due to the spread of the Internet since the latter half of the 1990s, information distribution with English-speaking countries has become denser, so the expression "game console" is often seen in Japanese-speaking countries.
- ^ For example, in a form similar to a laptop computer in a personal computerPC engine LTetc.
- ^ a b c d e f "What is a game console?". 2014/4/8Browse.
- ^ Katsuyuki Okawara (April 2008, 7). “A CESA report supporting Katsuyuki Okawara's "PC industry, Tohoku Nishirun" and "Day when game consoles disappear", a white paper on games, and "Increased use of games in their 50s"". PC Watch. Impress. 2021/7/4Browse.
- ^ Katsuyuki Okawara (April 2009, 6). “Katsuyuki Okawara's "PC Industry, Touensai Run" Game White Paper 2009, a major turning point in the game console market-Downloading game content that is rapidly increasing". PC WatchImpress. 2021/7/4Browse.
- ^ 
- ^ What is Dospara and Gaming PC?
- ^ JM Graetz (1981), “The Origin of Spacewar”, Creative Computing (August, 1981)
- ^ Atsushi Miyazawa; Hirohisa KomanomeArcade game technology (1) "<Small Feature> Play / Entertainment and Media", IPSJ Research Report. IM, [Information Media], Vol. 96, No. 29, pp. 9-16, 1999 .
- ^ a b Eiichiro Kabashima "The North American Video and Game Industry from 4 to 24 from the Viewpoint of the Staged Development Theory of the Content Industry: How to Interpret the So-called" Atari Shock "" "Content Cultural History Study" No. 42 Content Cultural History Society , Pages 2010-XNUMX, XNUMX.
- ^ For Apple II etc., it was possible to purchase software called visuals that can also be used for accounting processing, so only those who work in accounting could use it for that purpose for the time being, but at that time, the performance of the printer was extremely high. It was a substitute for printing low letters with very few dots, and it was an era when the Internet did not exist yet, so people who bought what was called a "home computer" or "hobby computer" would do it. I bought a computer in the late 1970s and 1980s because I couldn't print beautiful documents or search for information (most people who aren't accountants). After a while, it was actually quite common that, after all, the main uses were to play games, write game software, and use it to hone your programming skills. ..
- ^ Michael Miller (April 2005, 4). “A History of Home Video Game Consoles”. Inform IT. 2009/3/3Browse.
- ^ ""Innovation and competition in standard-based industries: a historical analysis of the US home video game market" IEEE Trans. Eng. Manag. 49 (2002)". 2014/4/8Browse.
- ^ "Kentucky Fried Chicken officially announces "KFConsole", a full-scale gaming PC equipped with a chicken heat retention function!Its true identity was a high-end gaming PC that also supports 4K and 240fps.". jp.ign.com.jp.ign.com. 2021/1/11Browse.
- ^ Motoi Yagi; Hiroo Takemura5-5 Consumer equipment (5. Image application) "<Special Feature> Annual Television Report", Journal of the Television Society, Vol. 32, No. 7, Video Information Media Society, pp. 597-601, 1978 .
- ^ ""PC Engine Archives" in the PlayStation Store "Game Archives" category is available today”. Sony Computer Entertainment Japan News Release (September 2007, 9). 2012/9/21Browse.
- ^ From "Business makers dispute who is market leader." in the January 1995 issue of Video Business magazine.
- ^ "The essence of smart TV is questioned". Diamond Company. p. 3. 2013/12/3Browse.
- ^ "Will Wii U Repeat Wii Failure Part 2". All About. All About (September 2013, 4). 2013/5/1Browse.
- ^ "Wii U" slump ・PS4 will be released next year... "Cold" game year-end sales(Sankei Shimbun October 2013, 10)
- ^ Will Xbox One not be released in 2013? What will happen to the game business of Microsoft Japan? I asked three key people of Microsoft Japan in a straight ball(4Gamer.net July 2013, 7)
- ^ Xbox, the reason to put more effort into promotion in Japan Now Microsoft executives talk about "Japan-focused strategy"
- ^ "Home game machine 24 million units sold in 100 hours even in downwind! The key to the good start of Sony PS4 is the development of indies: Interview with Shuhei Yoshida, SCE Worldwide Studio President". Diamond Company. 2013/12/3Browse.
- ^ "From stick-type to palm-sized PCs for Steam-Understanding a series of "game console" announcements [CES 2013]". Famitsu. Enterbrain (September 2013, 1). 2013/12/3Browse.
- ^ "Amazon AppStream". Amazon.com. 2013/12/3Browse.
- ^ "Cloud game service "G Cloud" The new "Game Now" service started today. Enjoy a total of 26 works on your Android device, including "Ys I Complete Edition"". 4Gamer.net. Aetas (November 2013, 4). 2013/5/1Browse.
- ^ "Enjoy high-load online games on your smartphone or tablet... Cloud gaming at data hotels”. Eid (October 2013, 6). 2013/6/24Browse.
- ^ "DNA of Shinra who was alive! Realize more flexible and flexible game watching than the world of Genvid's "Gameplay Distribution 2.0". Allows player-viewer interaction". 2017/7/12Browse.
- ^ Mono ・ magazine February 2020, 2 issue P16 Chronicle of home game
- ^ "Apology and notice of shortage of "Nintendo Switch body"”. Nintendo (September 2017, 6). 2017/6/24Browse.
- ^ ""Reseller" threatening Sony PSXNUMX sales, spurring supply shortage due to hoarding”. Bloomberg (December 2020, 12). 2021/2/4Browse.
- ^ "Yodobashi Camera, PS5 over-the-counter sales to police dispatch”. GameWatch (January 2021, 1). 2021/2/4Browse.
- ^ "Double the performance, increase the number of pixels by 2%, and reduce the size and weight of the "Oculus Quest 50" actual machine review". pc.watch.impress.co.jp. pc watch (September 2020, 9). 2020/9/19Browse.
- ^ "In 2021, a new game console will be released from SNK!". twitter.com. twitter (March 2020, 12). 2020/12/15Browse.
- ^ "Cloud gaming environment "OO Parts" officially released, all-you-can-play over 100 beautiful girl games of yesteryear on smartphones". 2020/4/24Browse.
- ^ "Amazon Moon". www.amazon.com. www.amazon.com. 2020/9/25Browse.
- ^ Amazon enters cloud gaming with "Luna" Hosted on AWS, PC, Mac, iOS, Fire TV support --ITmedia NEWS (September 2020, 9), viewed September 25, 2020.
- ^ "Facebook is finally here!Cloud game service "Facebook Gaming" announced for overseas". game.watch.impress.co.jp. game.watch.impress.co.jp. 2020/11/22Browse.
- ^ "Subscription type game service "Plex Arcade" of 520 yen per month started". gigazine.net. GIGAZINE. 2021/1/27Browse.
- ^ Easy, safe and free! Nintendo Wi-Fi connection Zipara.com:
- ^ "Game industry outlook: What is the key to PS4, which is becoming a smartphone game machine? Managing Director Koichi Hamamura on KADOKAWA". 2014/1/14Browse.
- ^ "What makes iPod touch "as a game console" attractive?”. Mycomi Journal (February 2011, 2). 2011/5/15Browse.
- ^ 3D stereoscopic game
- ^ Tommy 3D solid graphics game Sherman Attack
- ^ 3D XNUMXD graphic game, Space Battle Tank Battle
- ^ Weekly Electronic Game Review Space Laser War
- ^ Weekly electronic game review Space fierce tank battle
- ^ Jaguar VR
- ^ ATARI JAGUAR VR HEADSET
- ^ AGH Jaguar Review: MISSILE COMMAND 3-D
- ^ [Senka Nishida's Random Tracking] 3D compatible PS3 Ver.3.30 target and future-AV Watch
- Game console list/Category: Game console image
- Entertainment home appliances/Multimedia machine
- VG Chartz
- Console Wars -A book by Blake Harris about the competition with Nintendo centered on Tom Karisundski, who was CEO of Sega of America in the 1990s.Scott Rudin,Seth Rogen,Evan Goldberg,Sony picturesIt was also announced by the movie.