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🙋 | "There are people you can rely on here too" 1 books for the children in the facility ... Crowdfunding, a teenager working on the corona disaster ...


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"There are people you can rely on here too." 1 books for the children at the facility ... Crowdfunding, a teenager working on the corona disaster ...

 
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First of all, I would like you to search online for "children's homes".
 

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Orphanage

OrphanageWhat is (Facilities)?Child Welfare ActStipulated inChild welfare facilityone of.

Article 41 of the Child Welfare Act states that "Children's homes are children without parents.[Annotation 1], A facility that aims to admit children in need of environmental care, such as abused children, to care for them, and to provide consultation and other assistance for independence to those who have left the facility. " To do.child consultation centerBased on the judgment of the chiefPrefectural governorIs a child welfare facility that decides admission measures.For shortNursing homeAlso called (Yogoshisetsu).

The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare has set numerical targets such as suspension of admission to facilities before school and a foster parent entrustment rate of 2016% or more within 7 years in the "New Social Care Vision" that embodies the revised Child Welfare Act of 75. On the other hand, the period of stay is within one year, and functional conversion is also required.[1]..This amendment to the Child Welfare Act clarifies that if it is difficult for parents to raise children, they will promote a permanent solution by special adoption (permanency guarantee) and foster parents, which is unanimously held by the Diet. Passed[2]..Some orphanage directors are working to promote the foster parent system to promote home care[3]..By the way, by the promulgation in June 2019, by the 6th year of Reiwa, "In protecting and supporting children, secure opportunities to listen to children's opinions and children to express their own opinions, and support children at such opportunities. It is necessary to consider how to build a system, build a system to protect children's rights, and other measures to respect the opinions of children and give priority to their best interests, and based on the results. It is said that measures will be taken. "MieThen of the childAdvocate(Speaker) System is being introduced on a trial basis[4].. In March 2020, an NPO corporation was established in Sakai City to support the "expression of opinions" of children admitted to the facility.[5]..In the UK, institutional care has been the main focus for many years, but research by John Bowlby and others has announced how institutionalization affects infants in a negative direction, and has taken the lead in deinstitutionalization.In addition, since the 1960s, the spread of contraceptive methods and prejudice against illegitimate children have decreased, and as a result of single mothers raising their own children without leaving them in the facility, the number of infants in the infant hospital has decreased, and staff and pediatrics The infant clinic was finally closed despite the opposition from the doctors.Former CEO of a major infant institution, Sir Roger Singleton, is calling for immediate suspension of admission to the facility and for all children, including children with disabilities, to support foster parents and adoptions rather than small homes.[6]..In the UK, family group homes are by no means a family placement, and it is judged that half-finished resource forms are not sufficient to satisfy children's needs.[7].

Overview

Applicants must be between 1 and 18 years oldAn infant(Persons from 1 year old to the beginning of elementary school) andjuvenile(Persons from the beginning of elementary school to the age of 18).In some cases, it can be extended to 20 years old.infant(People under 1 year old) onceInfant clinicWill be admitted to.

2005(17)Child Welfare ActWith the amendment, it will be possible to admit babies if it is particularly necessary for reasons such as ensuring a stable living environment, and in the same way, the infant institution will be able to admit infants over 1 year old. It was.

According to the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare's "Survey on Social Welfare Facilities, etc.", as of October 2014, 10, there were 1 orphanages, 590 children, and 33,008 children (residents) (27,468%). is there.At the facilityChild instructor,Childminder, Etc. are working, and the number of staff is 16,672[8].

According to the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare's Survey of Children Admitted to Orphanages, as of February 2013, 2, the average age of admitted children is 1 years and the average admission period is 11.2 years.[9].. The total number of facilities in FY2016 was 615, of which 37 were public and 578 were private.[10].

In addition,

  • "Short stay" when a guardian of a single-parent family is unable to raise a child due to unavoidable reasons (illness, injury, etc.)
  • "Twilight care" where parents of single-parent families regularly return home at night due to overtime, etc., send children to the office after school, and provide lifestyle guidance and dinner.

The number of facilities that carry out such activities is also increasing.

Previously"OrphanageWas called, but now it is ratherOrphanThere are few children, and although they have parents, they are overwhelmingly left behind because they cannot be raised.Above allAbuseThe percentage of children who have been forced to live away from their parents is increasing year by year (2013% in the February 2 survey).[9]).

In Japan, 90% of children in social care are institutionalized and 10% are foster parents, but this is a slightly distorted form of the Convention on the Rights of the Child in developed countries worldwide. Is also out of the question, and the rights committee has pointed out [11]Is.According to UNICEF, major risk factors for children to live in institutions include family collapse, health problems, disabilities, poverty and inadequate provision of social services.[12]..The number of children in orphanages in Romania has plummeted from more than 10 to about 7,000, and the global trend is to shift from institutional care to home care.[13].

Foster parents and adoptions have progressed from parents' intentions such as "I can't pick it up now, but I want you to keep it at the facility so that you can go to see me anytime." "I can't raise it myself, but I don't want to let it go." May not be[14]..The foster parent system isSpecial adoptionUnlike foster parents, foster parents aim to provide temporary support and do not build new family register relationships between foster parents and their children.Foster parent supporters describe the “mother supporters” and their systems, which temporarily take care of children with their mothers.[15].

It is appropriate to continue to provide support for independence among those who have been entrusted to foster parents or have been admitted to orphanages and have been canceled by reaching the age of 18 (20 in the case of extension of measures). In that case, in principle, it will be possible to continue to receive the necessary support depending on the individual situation until the end of the 22nd year.[16].

In the new vision that embodies the revised Child Welfare Act of 2016, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare has set numerical targets such as suspension of admission to facilities before school and a foster parent placement rate of 7% or more within 75 years. The period is set to one year or less, and functional conversion is also required.As a result, the National Council of Orphanages has expressed opposition to setting numerical targets, and has expressed concern that the number of orphanages will be reduced to half by the new policy.[17]..The expert committee of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, which has been studying the guidelines to be shown to prefectures, did not require prefectures to achieve the numerical targets.[18]..Behind these backgrounds, the social welfare corporation rebelled against the sudden change in the direction of the facility due to the problem of the usefulness of the facility, and as the number of facility residents decreased, a provisional capacity was set for each facility. It may be related to the fact that the subsidy for the facility will be reduced, which will lead to the subsequent reduction in the number of staff and lead to the employment problem of facility staff.As for the provisional capacity problem, the number of residents in the same orphanage is decreasing year by year.Mother and child life support facilityDetailed in the report[19]..However, the right to decide to enter the facility ischild consultation centerThe foster parent placement rate is also announced by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare by prefecture, so the progress is visualized.

At the National Council of Orphanages, not only the repulsion, but also the prevention of child abuse in the 29 business plan, with a view to downsizing and regional dispersion, and cooperation and support with local families and foster parents. It is clearly stated that it is extremely important from the viewpoint of meeting the expectations of society.[20].

Overseas, the majority of European countries have transitioned from institutional care to foster care, according to FICE International, an international association for child care and foster care, but children's homes are reported by Eurochild and UNICEF. The number of children being treated for foster care is increasing, and the number is higher than before the de-fostering process began. FICE sees institutional care and foster care as complementary rather than conflicting models.[21]..Older children with complex or behavioral problems may not be ready to form intimate relationships at home with foster parents, and group homes can maintain quality of care. In some cases, therapeutic in-hospital care is suitable[22].

The university / vocational school enrollment rate for children entering orphanages is about 11%, while the university enrollment rate for foster parents is about 20% every year, which is about 10% higher.[23]There is a possibility that foster parents are getting more appropriate support for going on to higher education.

What is a child who "needs environmental care" (target child)

As mentioned above, "GuardianChildren who cannot receive custody due to health or financial reasons, or situations where it is inappropriate to live with a guardian (due to poor family environment, it is impossible to live with a guardian) A child who was judged by the child guidance center to be in.

History

Sort

Orphanages can be broadly divided into large-sized, medium-sized, small-sized, and group homes.The breakdown of each orphanage type is that the large building system accounts for 370 facilities (75.8%), followed by the small building system at 114 facilities (23.4%) and the medium building system at 95 facilities (19.5%). (FY19 Fact-finding Survey on Social Nursing Facilities (Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare) Of the total 603 locations, 36 have more than 100 employees. As of October 151, 2) [24]

Large building system
The large building system is the most common type of facility, and more than 1 children live in each building.As a feature, the necessary equipment is arranged in one large building, and generally there are several rooms for 20 to 5 people per room, by gender and age, and meals are served. Eat together in a large dining room.Since it is operated under common facilities, living spaces, and programs, it is easy to manage, but it has problems such as difficulty in protecting privacy and difficulty in creating a homely atmosphere.
Middle building system
In the middle building system, 1 to 13 children live in each building.As a feature, while dividing the inside of a large building, a place for a small living group is created, and the necessary equipment is provided for each living.
Hut system
In the hut system, up to 1 children live in each house.As a feature, there are cases where there are several independent houses on the premises of one facility, and there are cases where the living unit is divided into small parts in a large building, and the necessary equipment is provided for each.Compared to the large building system, there are some difficulties such as staffing, but since the unit of life is a small group, it is possible to have a life experience in a more homely atmosphere.
Unit care (small group care)
It was institutionalized in 2004 and has a capacity of 6 people in principle.Included in the hut system.We will provide detailed care that emphasizes individual relationships with staff in a homely environment as much as possible. In fiscal 2009, 403 locations nationwide (including multiple installations at one facility)
Group home (local small-scale orphanage)
It was institutionalized in 2000 and has a capacity of 6 people in principle.It will be carried out by utilizing existing housing, etc. in a place different from the main body's orphanage.You can acquire living skills that cannot be obtained at a large-scale facility, and you can also have a rich life experience such as living experience in a homely atmosphere and close relationship with the local community. In fiscal 2009, there were 190 locations nationwide (including multiple installations at one facility).

Types of other facilities for social care

Orphanages are a central type of social care facility.Based on the Child Welfare Act, social care is a system for publicly raising children who cannot be cared for by their parents under the responsibility of society. In addition to child care facilities,Infant clinic,Short-term treatment facility for children with emotional disorders,Child independence support facility,Mother and child life support facility,Independence support home(Children's Independent Living Support Project),Foster parents, (Small-scale residential child-rearing business).

As of 2015, the cost comparison of social care by facility is as follows in Tokyo.[Annotation 2][25].

Budget by type of child-rearing in Tokyo (27)
Type of child supportBudget amountBudget scaleBudget per child
Private (= company welfare) orphanage (facility for raising children in need of social care)111 million yen2,803396 yen (including some expenses for private group homes. Budget scale includes private group homes.)
Private (= company fortune) group home (small facility that raises about 6 children in a homely atmosphere in the area)22 yen852263 yen (excluding those included in private orphanages)
Infant care center (facility for raising infants in need of social care)34 yen507681 yen
Family home (a business that raises 5 to 6 children at the caregiver's home)3 yen123285 yen
Child-rearing families, etc. (so-called foster parents / children-rearing families)7 million yen419182 yen

Problems and challenges

In-facility abuse by staff

  • Grace Garden CaseWas reported as the most vicious abuse case in an orphanage.By facility staffSaitama Child Sexual Abuse CaseIs also happening.According to the materials of the 19st Social Security Council Special Subcommittee on Countermeasures against the Declining Birthrate of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare in 1, regarding the status of advocacy for admitted children, "Efforts such as third-party evaluation have not progressed, and institutional abuse is occurring one after another." Is written as[26]..According to the notification of the General Affairs Division, Equal Employment and Children and Family Affairs Bureau, Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare dated October 18, 10, the staff of orphanages took sexual abuse of children in the hospital, taking Saitama, Oita and Kagoshima prefectures as examples. Since it became clear that the facility was being supervised, the prefecture is being alerted about facility supervision.[27].
  • From a series of abuse cases, we strengthened on-site inspections to confirm the safety of children, strengthened restrictions on visits or communications with children who took measures such as admission to facilities for parents, and abused children. The "Act on Prevention of Child Abuse and the Act on Partial Revision of the Child Welfare Act" was submitted to the Diet in 20 to establish provisions for clarifying measures when parents do not follow the guidance. It was unanimously established on May 5, 25.[28]It is an opportunity to improve the protection of children's rights.
  • In July 2014, the Kobe District Court ruled a former instructor (7) who was charged with four cases of forced obscenity for repeatedly sexually abusing a boy at his orphanage. Three of the four cases were found guilty and sentenced to five years in prison (4 years in prison).[29].
  • In September 2014, a second-year high school girl (9) who was enrolled in the social welfare corporation "Tokyo Metropolitan Shakujii Gakuen" (3-chome, Ishigamidai, Nerima-ku), a child care facility outsourced by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government, A former male employee of the facility (2 = Kamiokutomi, Sayama City, Saitama Prefecture) has been arrested on suspicion of violating the Child Welfare Act for committing obscene acts.[30].
  • In January 2016, the Saga Prefectural Police arrested a 1-year-old suspect in Saga City on suspicion of forced obscenity on the 6th, alleging that he had acted lewdly on admitted children at his orphanage.The alleged arrest was around the end of June 30, at an orphanage in the prefecture where children aged 2014 to 6 were admitted, and was suspected of committing obscene acts such as touching the lower body of a child under the age of 3 multiple times.That he is denying the charges[31].
  • Embezzlement of cash and bank account deposits held by the facility's (teacher) from residents,gamblingThere are cases where it was used for debt repayment and entertainment expenses.
  • In March 2016, Kyoto Prefecture reiterated a man (3), a former director of an orphanage, who was on trial for violating the Child Welfare Act, on suspicion of embezzlement for business purposes, alleging that he had taken a child allowance for residents. Arrested[32].
  • From August 2013 to March 8, a male staff member (at that time) repeatedly obscenely acted on the girls who were admitted to the Hokkaido Expressway from August 14 to March 3.The girl side has filed a lawsuit for damages, and the social welfare corporation that operates the facility has settled by paying 200 million yen each.[33]..According to reports of abuse at the facility, cases of abuse in places that are difficult for third parties to see, such as children's rooms and washrooms, are prominent.[34].
  • As of March 2019, the orphanage "Tokyo Salesio Gakuen" has been accused of being sexually abused by a priest from a former child.[35].
  • In December 22, a former resident man (2020) notified the prefecture to investigate and improve the abuse, saying that he was abused by an executive at an orphanage in the northern part of Saitama prefecture. It is reported that[36].

Concealment constitution

  • In 2012, at a child care facility operated by a social welfare corporation in Nogi Town, there was an incident in which a former male employee allegedly committed a lewd act while working to a girl in the hospital, after which the facility notified the child guidance center of abuse. It has come to light that he had suggested concealment to former employees without doing so.[37].. As of March 2013, there are still reports of four cases of inappropriate involvement at orphanage A school, and the "Relapse Prevention Review Committee" has been held.[38].
  • In February 2014, there was sexual abuse at an orphanage in Okayama, and the prefecture issued an improvement recommendation to the operating corporation.[39].

Human rights violations of children

  • When a child was infringed on human rights in the facility, the deliberation on the ease of appeal from the child's point of view said, "Now, there is a postcard on the rights note, but that is the department under the jurisdiction of the prefecture. I go to the human rights examination committee like Kanagawa prefecture, but how relieved my child is there. In one example, when I put out a postcard, the search for the criminal started. "[40]There is a problem with.
  • At the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare Children's Department Corporate Association Special Committee for Nursing Care, Sakakibara (Yomiuri Shimbun reporter) commented on the difficulty of interviewing children's homes. When trying to protect something, there is something that makes me feel like I am interviewing, and the reality that must be known more, the interests of various people who are being damaged, are properly informed. I certainly don't think so, "he said about the closedness of its existence.[41].
  • Former Vice Chairman of the National Orphanage Council, Director of Tottori Children's Academy, Koichi Fujino (As of January 2014, Chairman of the National Orphanage Council Chairman of the National Orphanage Council[42]) Said in the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare Children's Department Corporate Nursing Special Committee, "I think there are times when children can't say anything about institutional abuse. That's also the case with the structure of bullying. For example, the ears of abused children. It's been four years since I came to a safe place to be able to talk about it, even if I've been subjected to terrible physical abuse that transforms me. "" I need a spokesperson. When it comes to who does it, there is no PTA, especially for abused children and children coming to the facility, and in that sense the facility staff still need to be serious and speak for the child. I don't know how much you think the facility is, but I think it's really close to fierce. "[43]He says.
  • Regarding institutional abuse, "When I think about this kind of problem, I often say that I cover something that smells. I feel sorry for the children inside being told in the community or at school that there is such an incident. Isn't it the theory that there is a prejudice that it is treated that way, but that doesn't mean that we can continue to put up with such infringement, "he said, again a few years later. Regarding the facility that caused the problem, "It happened in the same facility because it is structural. It is still a structural problem that it happens even if the facility staff who caused the violence is excluded. "The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare has issued many notifications about in-facility abuse, and it seems that this has happened again. However, the fact that it is not protected at all is a structural problem in this area. I think we should recognize once again that there is. "[44]Is said.
  • According to a 30 survey by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, 65.6% of children admitted to facilities have been abused, 8.5% have ADHD, 8.8% have pervasive developmental disorder, and 36.7% have some problems.[45]..Taking psychotropic drugs can suppress problem behaviors in the facility and stabilize the person's psyche, but it is easily used as a means to suppress problem behaviors of children, such as when the drug is taken against the intention of the person. There are also criticism reports about being done[46].

Operational system problems

Sayuri Hirose, the representative of the self-help organization "Hyuga Bokko" (at that time), said at the 2007st "Children's Department Company Association Special Committee for Nursing Care" on September 9, 7, "Many of the facilities where internal abuse cases occurred are facilities. When deciding personnel rights and care policies for the chief and some of the staff under his control, the authority and power are too concentrated, and there is concern about the constitution that makes it easy for one-man and dictatorship operations to be managed. Isn't the issue such as the relationship between the management of a private social welfare corporation with many management and the occurrence of an incident viewed as a sanctuary that should not be touched? "[47]Is saying.Atsushi Yamanda, who worked as a child welfare officer for many years at a child guidance center, moved from the first generation to the second generation facility manager who opened and operated the facility with high aspirations. In his book, he mentions that he will ask the child guidance center to take measures for admitted children in order to pay for the measures.[48]..It is thought that 5 to 7% of Japanese orphanages are family-owned, and it is pointed out that the wife of the facility director works devotedly without pay, which is cheaper and more efficient than public facilities, but other than family members. However, there is a problem that it is difficult to become a senior manager and it is difficult to disagree with the management.It is also said that employees find it difficult to form a labor union and feel that they receive insufficient salary for direct working hours.[49].

Based on the abuse case, at the "60th Anniversary Tournament National Orphanage Director Research Council (Osaka Tournament)", the orphanages were individually and therapeutically faced with serious mental problems in addition to being full. He admits that the number of children in need of care is increasing, causing confusion and confusion in their care. "Children's orphanages must protect the rights of the most vulnerable children in society at all times and continue to be a center of security and safety for children." Declaration for tomorrow ”was adopted[50]In addition, the National Association of Orphanages has requested all orphanages to "this guideline and checklist for self-inspection of human rights protection".[51]Came to be done.A national orphanage high school student exchange meeting was held for a while to discuss the issues of the facility and the children themselves, but now it has stopped.[52]..The background of the interruption was that the residents who participated in the tournament complained of abuse in the facility, but it was not taken up and leaked to the local news media and exposed, so the debate was canceled from the following year and the exchange meeting itself disappeared soon. There was a history of abuse.In addition, Tetsuo Tsuzaki, a researcher of social upbringing after deinstitutionalization in the United Kingdom, says that there is an urgent need to improve the quality of fostering and social worker training.[53].

Violence and sexual violence between children

With the revision of the Child Welfare Act in 20, a system for reporting child abuse to be treated was established, and those who discover abuse and children who have been abused can now report or report to child guidance centers. (Article 33-12 of the Child Welfare Act).In reality, children who are perpetrators or victims of sexual violence, violence, come to nursing homes from infant care centers and have no prospect of being picked up, rather than due to the abused family environment. CAPNA, a non-profit organization, tells the House of Representatives Welfare and Labor Committee that a child who is still alive and a former victim will become a perpetrator.[54].

  • Forced to drink urine even among children[55]Bullying and violence such as beating[56],Sexual abuse[57][58](Sexual violence between children) may occur.
  • In 1982, a 6-year-old child died in an assault between children in the facility.[59].
  • In 1992, a 9-year-old boy was assaulted by four children in the facility, suffered injuries such as right paresis and traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage, and was hospitalized, but had higher brain dysfunction. There is an incident with residual aftereffects such as[60]..Regarding violence and sexual bullying among children treated at orphanages in Hiroshima prefecture, the plaintiff won the case against the prefecture that manages and supervises the facility.[61]Is also happening.
  • A boy who has been sexually injured eventually becomes a sexual perpetrator[62]The damage chain has been confirmed. A trial of a young man from a facility that killed a female college student for rape in 1983 revealed the existence of physical violence and coercion of sexual activity as a means of control at the facility where he was enrolled.In addition, a research survey was published in 2009 that there are almost no facilities where sexual violence between children has occurred, especially in large-scale facilities.[63]..In some cases, upper elementary school girls were about to be attacked by junior high school boys multiple times, and even though they appealed to the facility, recurrence prevention was not taken.[64], The Tokyo Council of Social Welfare Children's Subcommittee conducted a survey of former residents and a survey of facilities in Tokyo conducted in 2007 revealed the situation of violence.
  • In Mie Prefecture, in a trial of sexual violence among admitted children, the prefecture revealed that 2008 cases in the five years from 12 to 5, a total of 51 children were involved in the damage and perpetration of sexual violence. ..In addition, it is reported that there are no national statistics and measures.[65]..The number of sexual accidents between children reported by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government was 2015 in FY63, 16 in FY74, and 17 in FY4 from April to December.[66].
  • According to the survey results released by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, there were 29 cases of sexual problems between children identified in 732 at orphanages and temporary shelters nationwide.The number of children involved is 1371.[67].
  • According to a fact-finding survey of sexual violence in orphanages conducted by the Kobe Child Sexual Violence Study Group, which is made up of staff and researchers at child welfare facilities and child guidance centers, sexual violence between children in the facility is Same-sex accounts for 7%, especially cases between boys, which tend to be significant, not only due to sexual impulses, but also due to other factors such as power control and intellectual disability.[68][69].
  • In connection with the child abuse report, "I have some doubts about what level this is, but when did it occur? That is, it is still. The orphanage is a night shift, and although the staff are not actually sleeping, they can only sleep for an hour or two, but they are night shifts. Including child-to-child violence during the night shift, there are quite a few incidents. Isn't it happening? "[70]Regarding child violence, "the most serious thing is" sexual assault damage between children, "which may be in almost any facility.This is a chain.This should happen mainly at night.Some data is available for each region.For example, Saitama Prefecture is conducting a survey, and it has become clear that sexual assault damage between children is occurring at night.The reason for the night is that it's not the topic I mentioned earlier, but it's too thin.In the first place, the security of children cannot be protected unless the night shift system is adopted without considering the night shift system.Until now, we have kept a secret only within the industry that the phenomenon of children being hurt by entering the facility is actually occurring, but we want the citizens to know more.Of course, we have to think about the stigma of children in nursing homes.There is such a problem, but I think we have to be a little more open about what is actually happening and start a discussion about what to do with it. "[71]Is being deliberated by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare Children's Department Company Association Special Committee for Nursing.
  • "I was told that it was a night gathering and I got up in the middle of the night and smoked on the balcony." "Sometimes I was sent to the teacher's room to steal a snack," said an experienced resident.[72].
  • It is reported that the criminal of the Maebashi murder case deepened his loneliness when his parents divorced at the age of two and suffered malicious bullying at both the orphanage and the school where he was entrusted at the age of four.[73].
  • At some facilities, the "Safety Commission" does not consider child violence as an individual problem, but works to improve the ventilation of the group and kill the buds of violence.[74]..Or, three times a night, they patrol the park irregularly without deciding the exact time to prevent sexual abuse.[75]..In addition, ▽ look outside ▽ listen regularly from children ▽ clarify the rules and scold the violating child with affection.[76]Has been introduced to prevent child-to-child violence.

Abuse notification system for children under treatment, etc.

Regarding the implementation status of the child abuse notification system in 23, the number of notifications and notifications regarding abuse of children treated at child welfare facilities, etc. received in 69 prefectures and cities nationwide was 193. The total number of notifications / notifications was 203[77]..Mr. Takeshi Tokuda, a member of the House of Representatives, inquired about the prefecture that had not reported any cases to the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. There may be a problem with the response or confirmation of the facts. It is unlikely that there is really no case in a municipality where abuse has not been confirmed. "[78]It is said.The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare's 10th Children's Department Company Association Special Committee for Nursing also said, "I can't trust the implementation status of the abuse notification system for children to be treated, and the abuse I know in 21 Why is it zero in the prefecture where it occurred? "" I don't say where the XX road is, but I think that. "[79]And its credibility are being deliberated.Regarding this matter, the Mainichi Shimbun reported that there were a total of 2014 cases of abuse of children protected by child welfare facilities and foster parents due to domestic abuse in both 15 and 144, according to the Child Guidance Center. It was found by interviewing the 69 local governments that have been set up.Despite the obligation to disclose institutional abuse, 16 prefectures and cities never disclosed the number of cases.In addition, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare had announced the number of cases reported by the local government, but it is reported that it did not announce the amount for 13 at the end.[80].

  • According to the 2012 "Questionnaire Survey Report on Violence in Orphanages-Staff Survey" by NPO Children's Support Net Aichi, 77% of facility staff were violent by children and 31% were violent against children. It has become.In addition, according to a questionnaire survey report of high school students and staff at orphanages of the same group, a quarter of high school students had the experience of being "terribly disgusted" by other children, such as verbal violence and being beaten. Was there.These high school students described that "from high school students to elementary school bullying, there were hits, kicks, and eaves," and the eaves beat the boys at the command of the senior students, and the girls were beaten by the senior students. He replied that he was small and suffered daily damage, and that he was also robbed of snacks and pocket money and was not noticed by anyone and was not bullied.[81]

Indifference / understanding of the world

  • The awareness of the public (victim) is low.It is extremely rare for infants and children who are being abused in the general public to know the existence of orphanages.Therefore, in most cases, the victim can only "endure the abuse". (The destination for reporting child abusechild consultation centerIt is,Nationwide 0570-064-000The phone number will connect you to the child guidance center in your area.Alternatively, dial the child guidance center abuse response free dial "189" to connect to a child guidance center near you.[82]. )
  • According to Yoshio Kusama, a former mayor of Takahagi who grew up in an orphanage, the NTV drama "Tomorrow, there is no mom", which was controversial over how the orphanage was drawn, was taken as an example and "misunderstood as name recognition." There is a correlation. (Children's homes) are misunderstood because they are not known, and prejudice is also promoted ... " It also serves as an opportunity to deepen, and he thinks that it should be regarded as a tailwind.[83].
  • Send school bags and school supplies to orphanagesTiger mask exerciseHowever, a person who seems to be a facility employee has announced that he wants to buy a new school bag that his child likes and does not need school supplies.Cash is said to be good for donations.[84]In addition, even if foods are donated anonymously, they will be disposed of due to safety issues, so it is necessary to grasp the true needs of the facility and donate.Some say that the facility wants daily necessities and consumables that must be spent.[85].
  • In Chiba City, we made an effort to give Christmas gifts to children in orphanages, etc. by utilizing the amazon wish list for Christmas 2019.[86].

Staff qualifications and retention rate

  • Poor retention of facility staff.At the council of Tokyo, there are many university students who want to get a job, but the reality of quitting after about three years is discussed, and the reason is not the working conditions or the relationship with children, but the trouble between staff members, which is like harassment. There was a statement that there were many[87].
  • The council of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare has pointed out that in the infant institution, it is inevitable that the staff themselves are injured and burned out in the relationship with their parents.[88].
  • In the TV drama "Tomorrow, there is no mom", Nippon Television Network Co., Ltd. told "Children are treated in the same line as pets in pet stores, and expressions such as dominating and subordinating with violence and fear hurt children It can also discourage staff from working. "[89]Koichi Fujino, chairman of the National Orphanage Council, said in a council of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, "In a survey by Yamaguchi Prefecture, 4% of care workers are part-time. Moreover, all young employees who have been working for less than 5 years do it. Under such circumstances, 62% of the abused children are being treated, and there is no reason why confusion does not occur among them. What is called institutional abuse is what is happening in that situation. "[90]It is said that the staff of the nursing home itself is dealing with unstable employment and lack of experience, which is a problem.Regarding the drama, a person who has been involved in social care for 30 years as a child welfare officer at a child guidance center says in his book that in reality there are environments where children are suffering more than the drama.[48].

Staffing criteria problem

  • Regarding the basic staffing of orphanages, in the "Social Care Issues and Future Vision" compiled in 23, "The current 6: 1 for elementary school students and above has been raised to 4: 1 for small group care. A total of more than 1: 3 equivalent, including one additional person, can be considered as the target level for raising. "[91]However, securing high-quality staff as the number of staff increases becomes an issue.
  • Yoshio Kusama, a politician from an orphanage, pointed out that "the reason why the number of staff in orphanages and various budgetary treatment improvements are less than the improvement in elderly care relations is because it does not lead to election votes."[56]are doing.

Narrow living area

  • About prevention of poverty chain in orphanages, Ibaraki PrefectureTakahagiFormer mayorYoshio KusamaAway from my mother who was on welfareOrphanageAbout the former mayor of Takahagi, who lived in Japan as a facility manager, instructor, and foster parent every season, "I was blessed with the relationship of others."[92][56]Because of that, there are times when fellowship with the world other than one's living environment becomes effective.
  • Institutional children often graduate and become institutional staff.Regarding that, "If you think about it, it's a very narrow world. Children in facilities may have less contact with the world than ordinary children." "Facilities are facilities for adults around them. I'm not an employee. There is a relationship that it is difficult to find variations in occupation selection. I am weak in wanting to be like a father or a mother. That makes me attractive to the work that the staff is doing. Nursery teacher There are many people who want to be a teacher at a facility. "[93]There is also a voice of facility staff who points out the narrow world view of facility children.

Family reunification problem

  • In January 2014, a 1-year-old child died in Katsushika Ward due to assault and his father was arrested.Parents are on welfare, and children with another man are left in orphanages or relatives' homes.The child was also subject to watching over the child guidance center.[94][95].
  • An unemployed mother (2012), who was arrested on suspicion of lethal injury for assaulting and killing her eldest daughter (10) at her home in Fuchu-cho, Hiroshima Prefecture in October 11, is suspected of being abused with her mother. was there.In 28, the prefecture admitted the eldest daughter to an infant care center because of divorce of her parents and difficulty in raising her child.After that, because my mother wanted to pick it up, I was allowed to leave the orphanage on condition that my grandmother was raised, resulting in abusive death.[96]..It is protected and safe while institutionalized away from abusive parents, but mistaking the timing of family reunification can lead to child deaths.
  • In June 2016, a 6-year-old girl who had been entrusted to a nursing home due to her mother's mental illness was killed by her mother when she returned home temporarily.The father had been reported to have domestic violence by his mother and therefore thought the facility was a person who should not be contacted as his mother claimed.However, it is also reported that DV seems to have been a mother's kyogen that avoided giving custody to her father.[97]AndJoint custodyIt is an incident that could have been prevented if was implemented.The father filed a complaint with the Akita District Court for damages from the Akita Prefectural Central Children's Counseling Center (Akita City), which was in charge of the mother and child, and the orphanage (the same) where the girl was admitted. Has been reported[98]..However, at the same time, taking advantage of the reflection of Australia's Parent-Child Discontinuity Prevention Law, parents who have to limit or prohibit visitation exchanges with their children, parents who threaten the life, body and healthy development of their children are with their children. It is necessary to limit interaction.It has also been pointed out that there is a risk that child support can be reduced by visiting and interacting with joint custody.[99].

Difficulty in planning life after leaving

9.3% of children in orphanages leave the facility after graduating from junior high school, and about half of them have changed jobs during the year following graduation (2005).High school dropout is 7.6%[100].

For reasons such as abuse or abandonment from parentsOrphanageChildren who are protected by the facility are also prone to living in poverty after leaving the facility.Women's shelterAccording to the chief, the child who grew up there had to leave the facility even if he was a junior high school graduate, and a teenage woman became pregnant after living together close to the end, the other man disappeared and became a women's shelter. There are many examples of entering the facility, and even if they do not, they may be engaged in the sex industry and become an unmarried mother after leaving the facility.The tendency is that many teenage users of women's shelters are single-parent families and welfare recipients.These teenage mothers have little living experience and are at risk of childcare due to lack of education and work experience.[101]..In addition, it is pointed out that girls with attachment disorders in childhood acquire ill-advised sociability and seek men to protect them, which sometimes leads to a romantic relationship with male staff at the facility. There is also[48].. * The situation after the cancellation of measures for children who have been in an alternative child-rearing environment for a long time is that the livelihood protection rate is 18 to 19 times that of the population of the same age group, and after leaving the facility, they are born without a reliable parent or family. However, cases of protecting children frequently occur at child guidance centers and municipal sites.[102]

  • Forty percent of those who went on to university after leaving the kindergarten in the eight prefectures of Kyushu and Okinawa have dropped out.Survey (questionnaire survey on the number of children going on to school for 89 years from 2000, targeting 5 facilities in 8 prefectures, "People from orphanages in 166 prefectures in Kyushu" issued by the Kyushu Social Welfare Council Federation In the "Fact-finding Research Report after Entering Universities and Vocational Schools"), it was pointed out that the current independence support system for regular employment only, such as the payment conditions for the "school preparation system", was inadequate.During the same period, 34 students went on to higher education, of which 29 graduated and 11 had already dropped out, excluding those who were still in school.The causes of dropout were 37.9 (8%) for "insufficient academic ability", 27.5 (4%) for "insufficient living expenses / tuition", and 13 (2005%) for "change of course" ("Ryukyu Shimpo" 7). July 27, XNUMX)[103]..As a response to these, in Setagaya Ward, for children who have been treated by orphanages and foster parents in the ward since 28, those who will be canceled at the end of the year when they reach the age of 18 or who have become As a general rule, for those who go on to university, etc. until graduation, for those who find employment, for two years, we will provide the former living cooperator's living room in the ward-operated housing with the consent of the owner.[104]..From those who have been admitted to orphanages, financial support for going on to university has already passed the expansion stage, and it is necessary to obtain information on career choices through the experiences of familiar seniors and utilize it. There is a voice that it has become[105].
  • Children from orphanagesOrphanage"Negative chain" of depositing in[106]"Intergenerational reproduction of poverty"[107]Is also happening.
  • Due to the problem of the guarantor, there are cases where you cannot go on to school or get a job and fall into a homeless state.
  • In the United States, foster parents and high school students living in institutions participate in independence support programs provided by the state for one or six months before becoming independent, and provide employment and life training.Even in Japan, some NPOs are conducting training on social skills, etc.[108].
  • In Saitama Prefecture, we started subsidizing 28 yen as an expense for those who need a license to get a job after leaving the nursing home (for those who are expected to graduate in March 3).If the support of the prefecture-designated driving school association is added to the assistance of the national and prefectural governments, a business that allows you to obtain a driver's license at your own expense will start.[109].
  • According to an international survey, people from institutional care are engaged in the normal sex industry, and their criminal history is 10 times higher.In addition, the appearance rate of suicides is 40 times higher.[110].
  • According to a survey by Kyoto City, the high school enrollment rate is 92.3% and the high school dropout rate is 25.3%, which is high.In addition, the income was low, the pension participation rate was 52.7%, and the medical insurance participation rate was 69.2% despite the universal insurance system.Answer The average age is 22 years old, but 14.3% of them are child-rearing households, which suggests early family formation.[111].

The ideal social care system centered on the large building system

The report of Human Rights Watch, an international NGO (non-governmental organization), raises questions about the social care system itself centered on the large-scale system and makes several recommendations.One of these is to make a solid plan to move babies from institutional care to home care, and as part of that, close all infant care centers.Also, from a cost perspective, some argue that the transition from institutional care centricity is persuasive, for example, if you grow up in a metropolis from 0 to 18 years old in a metropolis or orphanage, 1 per person. It costs 8,373 million yen, and it is estimated that if you live in a foster parent's house, it will cost 2,000 to 3,200 million yen.[112].

Life and problems after leaving

  • Since 1973, a special upbringing fee payment system has been implemented for children admitted.UniversityAccording to a 2008 survey by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, 98.5% of facility residents after graduating from junior high school, etc. (specialized training colleges, etc.)Vocational training facility(Including).In addition, one in four high school graduates goes on to university (including junior colleges, vocational schools, and vocational training facilities), and 4% find employment in civil servants or private companies.
  • I have to leave the orphanage at the age of 18 after graduating from high school, but the displaced people have no place to live and no address if they lose their jobs because they have no family to rely on.Basic Resident RegisterEven if you can't register for, you can't have a part-time job interview, or you run out of deposits and savingsWelfareYou can't apply for a registered seal, and you can't register a registered seal, so you can use the registered seal required for a rental housing contract.Seal certificateI can't prepare, I can't receive the administrative services of the local government, even if I get injured or get sickHealth insurance cardI can't use a medical institution because I don't have one, and I can't find a job.GuarantorGoing to school or getting a job due to problemsRental housingContract,Deposit,key money, It affects the previous rent, brokerage fee, rental guarantee fee, etc.ホ ー ム レ ス,Internet cafe refugeesMany children fall into.Men commit some crimeJuvenile training,刑 務 所Sent to or womenCustomsI don't want to run妊娠,birth,Child-rearingThe child was admitted to an orphanage without being able toVicious circleThere is[113][114][115]..Often they don't have the basic knowledge of society, such as paying utility bills or connecting trains, and they may not even know where to ask for help.[116].
  • According to the director of Yuzuriha, an aftercare counseling center for those who have left the orphanage, women who have been abused in their childhood and are protected by orphanages and who choose to work in the sex industry after leaving the facility The reason is that there are many, and housing is provided without a guarantor, and approval of the significance of existence is required.According to a group of women who have retired from the night industry, in sex customs, there are cases where work decreases sharply with age after the age of 40, causing mental illness and receiving welfare benefits.[117].
  • Since the children who graduated from high school and left the orphanage at the age of 18 are minors,Legal representativeWithout the consent of, there will be problems such as labor contracts, new contracts for rental housing, registration of registered seals, opening of bank accounts, creation of credit cards, acquisition of driver's licenses, new applications for mobile phones and fixed telephone lines, etc.[118].

An incident in which people were unable to live after leaving the dormitory, causing a grudge against the people involved in the facility and killing the facility director.[119]Is happening in February 2019, so instead of supporting living support after leaving the dormitory only with facilitiesLife poor independence support lawIt is necessary to provide support at various organizations such as relief counters based on.

Works on orphanages

Writing and manga works

Novel
Non-Fiction
  • "Really there was a child facility love" Shogo Nakajima Nakani Publishing Co., Ltd.ISBN-4 88519-243-9 Revised and expanded version,ISBN 978-4-88519-411-5
  • "Sailor singer Torii-The story of a homeless girl who learned the characters in the newspaper she picked up" by Chikage Iwaoka[120](Non-fiction / Tanka)
  • "Giraffe's Child Torii Songbook" by Torii, a poet in a sailor suit[120](Non-fiction / Tanka)
  • "Kazuko, 6 years old, nursing home and human rights of children who died from bullying" by Sayo Kuraoka, Hitoshi Shobo 1992 (Nonfiction)
Comic

TV drama / video work

Works related to facilities
Works related to people from the facility

Celebrities and cultural figures who have announced their origins in orphanages

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ For babies (those under 1 year old)Infant clinicI will not enter because there is.However, if there is a particular need to ensure a stable living environment or for other reasons, an infant may be admitted.
  2. ^ It is difficult to calculate the annual budget per child for each type of facility, etc., because the expenses for group homes and the expenses for allocating staff to support nursing homes are included in the budget for orphanages.Temporarily, the budget amount per child was calculated by simply dividing the 27 budget amount such as the child admission facility measures cost under the Child Welfare Act by the budget scale (Tokyo Metropolitan Health and Welfare Bureau).Excerpt from the Tokyo Metropolitan Assembly 27 Second Regular Meeting Document Questionnaire.

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