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🌐 | Deputy Representative Yuko Mori's "If you provide a vaccine to North Korea" is flooded with criticisms


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Deputy Representative Yuko Mori's "If you provide a vaccine to North Korea" is flooded with criticism

 
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However, Japan-North Korea relations have been stuck for a long time.
 

Yuko Mori, a XNUMX-year-old deputy representative of the Constitutional Democratic Party, said at the House of Councilors Abduction Issue Special Committee on the XNUMXth, "Why don't you provide a vaccine to North Korea? → Continue reading

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History of Japan-North Korea relations

Japan's international relations > History of Japan-North Korea relations

History of Japan-North Korea relations(Nichicho Kankei)JapanKorean PeninsulaExisted in both areasCountryOutline the history of the relationship between.

Ancient times

Paleolithic to Yayoi period

Early exchange

PaleolithicからJomon PeriodUp toobsidianWas carried by the Maruki boat and became an item for long-distance trade. PresentSagaObsidian produced from the areaBusanHas been excavated because it is in[1].新石器時代The pottery of the Korean Peninsula isTsushima,IkiHave been discovered from. In the early Jomon period, 7000 years ago, fishing people were moving across the straits in northern Kyushu and southern Korea. In the southern part of the Korean PeninsulaJomon potteryHave been discovered in the Japanese archipelago from Tsushima, Iki, northern Kyushu and the Korean Peninsula.Comb eyesThere were fishhooks and Chinese earrings. Such exchanges were carried out while temporarily stopping by the coast during fishing. After the Stone Age, people will cross the sea in search of metal tools on the Korean Peninsula.[2].

Arrival of agricultural products

Rice paddy cultivation started in the Yangtze River basin of China 7000 years ago, and the route that came to Japan is largely divided into the route of the Korean Peninsula, the direct route from the continent, and the route of the Nansei Islands.[3].. As a study of the route of rice cultivation,RiceResearch on genes, research on agricultural tools and rituals from excavated items from various archeological sites, and research on hydroponics remains. Japan and the Korean Peninsula,Liaodong PeninsulaThe rice that exists in Far East Asia, such as Japan, is roughly divided into two types: temperate japonica and tropical japonica.[4].. In AomoriTakahashi III RuinsAnd Shiga prefectureShimonogo RuinsIncludingYayoi PeriodBoth temperate and tropical were found in the ruins of.DNA of native rice varietiesNuclear SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat) MethodAccording to the results analyzed in, the arrival from the continent was recognized in both the Korean Peninsula and the Japanese archipelago.[5]. in JapanRice cultivationWhen was started10th century BCIn the latter half, the place is from the Genkai Sea coast of Kitakyushu,Nabata SiteAnd in FukuokaItatsuki RuinsIs said to be the oldest. There are three large-scale migrations, which are dated to the 3th-7th century BC, the 8th-4th century BC, and the 5nd-2rd century BC. It is known that there were some species from the Korean Peninsula via Iki and some from the continent directly to northern Kyushu.[3][6].

Establishment of a country

From the latter half of the Yayoi period, exchanges with the Korean Peninsula became active. In northern Kyushu and southern KoreaSea peopleIs active on the coast and on the islands, and powers obtained bronze and ironware from the seamen. In the Yayoi period, it was possible to navigate by a fleet of semi-structured ships in place of the Maruki boat, and the amount of materials to carry increased.[1].. The network of sea villages made the sea routes tighter, and countries were established. With advance from continent,Emperor Wu TheMamoru KoreaDestroyRakunami-gunWas built and became a region based on the Han system. Earthenware, bronzeware, and ironware were produced in Rakunami-gun, and products from all over China were gathered. Until it was conquered by Goguryeo, Chinese crafts were distributed from Rakunami-gun to the Korean Peninsula and Waikoku, and the technology was handed down. The route connecting Japan and the Korean Peninsula is the Nakdong RiverNaughty countryAnd in northern KyushuHis country,ItoguniTied together. The route from northern country to northern Kyushu via Iki and Tsushima is "Wei Zhajin]. In the time of Yamatai,Great rateHad been dispatched to Itokuni[7][8].

Wakoku and the Three Kingdoms of Korea

The Japanese archipelagoKofun periodThe Korean Peninsula around that timeGoguryeoTo the eastSillaIn the westBaekje3 countries line up,Mikuni periodAlso called[† 1].. Besides the three countries, it is a coalition of small countries in the south.伽耶, In the southwestSakaeyama RiverThere was a basin culture. The Japanese archipelagoYamato kingshipWith a unified governmentGreat treasure lawUntil the completion ofJapanOr, he was self-proclaimed as a Daiwakoku. Until each of the Japanese archipelago and the Korean Peninsula was unified, each country proceeded with its own diplomacy, and the situation changed complicatedly under the influence of China. At first, foreign policy toward the Korean nations was mainly exchanged with Baekje, Gaya and Sakaeyama River culture, but also exchanged with Silla and Koguryo.[9][10]..In diplomacy at that timequalityIt uses a system called (instead), and sends people who stay in diplomatic partners to negotiate, and there were frequent quality exchanges between the nations of the Korean Peninsula.In addition to the quality coming from Baekje, a prince from Silla is also dispatched to Wakoku.[11].. Prior to the formation of a unified government, the Wae countries cooperated with the diplomacy of the Yamato kingship, which is the largest power, or conducted diplomacy by using groups such as travelers on their own. Northern Kyushu and the Seto Inland Sea used two methods, and Harima and Kibi had their own diplomacy.[12].

In Chinese history books, in addition to “Wei Zhajinjin” and “Kansho”Suisho], [Song Book], [Tribute map], [History of Three Kingdoms] Also describes the relationship between the Japanese Islands and the Korean Peninsula at the time[† 2][† 3][† 4][† 5][† 6].. (Koreans related to Japanese people), (Chinese literature related to 倭 ・ 倭 人)

First half of the Three Kingdoms period

In the first half of the Three Kingdoms period, KoguryoManchuriaIt became the largest nation by expanding its territory to. Baekje deepened conflict with Goguryeo, and Silla subordinated to Goguryeo. Baekje, who had been obliged to Goguryeo in the latter half of the 4th century, negotiates with Yao to fight against Goguryeo. In the communication between Wakoku and Baekje, he belonged to Kim Gaya and acted as an intermediary.[13].. Baekje is laterChinese KingSent a prince as a quality to Wakoku and made a good deal, and Wakoku sent troops to the Korean Peninsula.Wak Koguryo WarBecame. Wakoku attacks Silla, but in KoguryoKotaWas blocked by the rescue of Silla. JapanObikata-gunAlso invaded, but was repelled by Kotaou[14].

The basin of the Sakaeyama River has a different culture from Baekje, and it had a unique exchange with Wakenoku. There were some people who lived in the peninsula while using materials and advanced technology from the Korean peninsula. A Japanese-style burial mound called is also built along the coast of the Eisan River basin. The Japanese ancient burial mound is built independently in a place overlooking the sea, the sarcophagus resembles northern Kyushu, and many burial items include Japanese weapons, armor, and Baekje ornaments. Therefore, it is possible that Japanese people from the northern part of Kyushu have been buried. In the Sakae River basin, it was once regarded as a grave unique to Waikoku.Front and rear circleWas built between the late 5th century and the early 6th century. Not only is it similar to the burial mounds of Wakoku, but there are also common points such as stone chambers and haniwa-shaped burial items, and there is ongoing debate about the origin of burialees.[15].. Since the tumulus also shows the social hierarchy and diplomatic relations based on the status and origin, there is also a theory that the politics of China and the Korean Peninsula are involved in the emergence and enlargement of the front and rear tumuli.[16].. It was a port of call in the morning and the morningOkinoshimaBecame a place of worship for the Yamato kingship during the Three Kingdoms period, and a prayer for maritime traffic was made.[17].

Second half of the Three Kingdoms period

6st centuryAs Silla became stronger and the territory of Goguryeo was shaved, Goguryeo formed a friendly relationship with Baekje and Wagokoku.Emperor Keitai TheOtomo KanemurabyNinaProviding support to Baekje, including the sale of four prefectures,Omi KenoIn order to defend Gaya, he ordered a troop dispatch to the Korean Peninsula, but in KyushuChikushi KokuzoIsChikushi IwaiBy the rebellion ofIwai no RanI awoke and gave up. At that time, the Wakoku state had a conflict between the Yamato royal power and the Australian clan over the interests of diplomatic rights and trade with the Korean Peninsula.Kibi's RebellionAnd Iwai's rebellion is also included in this[18][19].. The Iwai RebellionMonobe KurakaAlthough suppressed by, the troops were canceled and Silla annexed the entire area of ​​Gaya.[20].. The Imperial Court, which suppressed the Iwai rebellion, promoted the unification of diplomacy,NatsuBuild a diplomatic facility in. This later became the prototype of Konokan.[21].

The Yamato kingship defeats Goguryeo and has a certain power on the Korean Peninsula. Silla also devoted himself to Gaya's tone, and diplomacy was carried out to establish a Waikoku. The three nations of Korea have adopted a foreign policy to strengthen their ties with Japan by communicating Buddhism and continental culture. But,Old morningAt that time, Silla attacked Nina, so Wakoku dispatched Nina relief forces and broke through Silla's five castles.Kurume PrinceWas established as a general, but in Kyushu Prince Kurume was ill and the dispatch was cancelled.[22].. Relations with Silla deteriorated, and instead, relations with Baekje and Goguryeo were emphasized.[23].Imperial dynastyAt that time there was a rebellion in Koguryo,SirōAgainst the prime ministerFubun SobunErected the son of the princeTreasure kingWas reported to have been crowned, and the Yamato kingship became more vigilant[24].

The fall of Baekje and Koguryo and the unification of Silla

The Korean PeninsulaChinese Tang and Silla AllianceWill be unified by the establishment of.Liu Jin gaugeSilla army with the Tang army attacked BaekjeRemainderFall,Philanthropic kingAnd PrinceTakashi BuyeoIs TangLuoyangSent to and destroyed Baekje. Wakoku is in the name of Baekje Revival,Azumi Hirafu,Park City Hata Kuritsu,Abe HirafuSent their army to Korea. In addition, the remains of BaekjeOnomuro FukunobuThe prince of Baekje that was sent as a quality to Wakoku at the request of theYotoyoEscortedEmperor SaimeiSaid that Yotoyo made him the crown of Baekje just before returning to the former Baekje land.Japanese calligraphyIt is recorded in. Wakoku, along with Baekje's army, fought against the Tang and Silla army in Shiramurae (currently Jinjiang, South Korea).Battle of Shiramura RiverThe Wakoku and Baekje forces were defeated. Baekje did not revive, and Wakong completely withdrew from the Korean Peninsula. Goguryeo was militaryly isolated due to the fall of Baekje,Tang Koguryo troopsTreasure kingThey surrendered to Tang and were destroyed.

Tang is SillaWen Wu KingTheChilin State Government OfficeAppointed the Great Metropolitan Government ofSojuFor trying to rule asTang-Silla WarHappened. When Silla pulled out Tang and unified the Korean Peninsula,EnvoySent to Japan, Silla went to JapanShillaWas dispatched. After that, Silla and Silla will continue for about 150 years with interruptions. The relationship with Silla was important for the envoy, since the expedition of the envoy from Wakoku is along the coast of Silla. As the relation between Wakoku and Silla deteriorated, Wakoku interrupted the sending of Tang Tang after the 7th dispatch, and the 8thGoto IslandsSelect the southern route in the direction and restarted[25].

Unification of the Korean Peninsula and Japan's Response

The unification of the Korean Peninsula had a great impact on Wakenoku. Many exiles from the destroyed Baekje and Goguryeo traveled to the Japanese archipelago, and Buddhist monks fled from Silla.refugeesAccepted. Exiles from KoguryoKoma-gunThe survivors living in Suruga, Kai, Sagami, Kazusa, Shimosa and Shimono.Musashi countryImmigrated to. Similarly for the Silla peopleShilla-gun(Later Niiza-gun) is given. Emigration also took place in Ueno and Shimono. Became the territory of Koma-gunKoma WakamitsuIs given the surname of a king (Kokishi), and the exile of Baekje isBaekje(Kuradako Nikishi) surname is given,Baekje ShunsetsuProduced a person such as[26][27].Emperor HanmuIs the birth mother ofTakano ShinkasaIs the family lineage of Baekje travelers,2001 OfEmperor AkihitoIs related to "Yukari Sakai" byLater).

Due to the defeat of the battle of Shiramurae and the destruction of the alliance Baekje, Tang and Silla were expected to attack the Japanese archipelago.Emperor TenchiAs a soldier in the front line Tsushima, Iki, Kitakyushu for defenseGuardFor contactingSmokePrepared. And to western JapanYamashiroBaekje asylum seekers also cooperated with this project, starting the construction of. Dazaifu’s defense isWater city,Ono CastleIs in charge of, with Ono CastleTongchengAs a Baekje expertMourning FukudomeInstructed the work. Emperor TenchiOmi OtsunomiyaThe reason for moving to the capital is also said to have chosen a location with good transportation for defense. Japan and Silla remained in wartime regime until Tang was attacked by the western vagina and stopped eastward.[28].

The Yamato royal authority, as well as providing defense, is a diplomatic and trade facility.Chikushikan(Tsukushi no Murotsumi) was installed.DazaifuWhile it had an administrative function, Chikushikan became a facility for envoys to stay, inspect and trade, and was used for exchanges with Tang, Silla and Bohai.[21].

Bohai/Tora

After Koguryo was destroyed by Tang,BohaiWas founded. Japan formed an alliance with Bohai because Bohai was in conflict with Tang and Silla.Bohai ambassador-Sea ambassadorReplaced. The 34th Ambassador Bohai made a tribute to Japan,Akita Castle, EchizenMatsubara Guest House, Noto countryNoto HospitalAmbassador Bokai also visited. At the beginning, Bohai emphasized political ties with Japan, but trade was emphasized when the relationship between Bohai and Tang improved.[29][30][31].

Japan is,JejuWas established inTaraBetween7st centuryFrom the middleEnvoy・Exchanged Tara Envoys. Later, TataraWandoTogether with become a base for maritime trade[32].

Ritsuryoku and Silla/Koryo

Establishing a Ritsuryu state

The Taiho Ritsuryoku was enacted in the Japanese archipelago, and the Yamato kingship, which used to call itself "wakuni," came to use "Japan." Foreign regulations areChinese thoughtThe area under the rule of the Emperor is Kanai, and the outside is Kakai, and Kakai is the neighboring country (Tang), Bankuk (Silla, Bohai), and Yugu (Hair person,Hayato) Was classified. by this,Nara periodSince then, Japan has pursued a foreign policy that calls for Korean tribute to the Korean Peninsula. Silla, which unified the Korean Peninsula, confronted Japan in hopes of an equal relationship, and Bohai regarded Japan as a trading partner rather than a suzerain country in a booklet after the relationship with Tang improved.[33].

Due to the tension between Silla and Japan, the envoy was unable to pass through the Korean coast, but the Shilla princes paid tribute to the Emperor.[34].. It was reported to the court that 300 Japanese warships, which did not take the life of the court, suddenly attacked Silla and were defeated. The Imperial Court defends the coast of the Sea of ​​JapanTokaido,HigashisendoToModeratorAnd prepared for war[† 7].. Then in KyushusmallpoxBecause of the spread ofEastern countryfromGuardAbolishing the conscription of Iki and TsushimaChikushi countryDecided to be with[36].. Tang, who has been defeated by Silla, plans a Silla attack and seeks assistance from Japan. However, Japan was right after Emperor Tenchi collapsed at that time, and he was exempted from sending troops to the messenger of Tang by offering armor and other equipment. Tang Silla attacks in TibetTibetWas canceled due to an attack on the western territory. Due to the retreat of the Tang threat, Japan and Silla moved from a war system to peacetime and proceeded with centralization.[37].

Imperial Court and Silla/Koryo

Japan and Silla, which have been organized as a unified nation, confront each other over their respective positions. The envoy, Tang, fought with Silla over diplomacy.Kiyokawa FujiwaraAt the time of the Tang Dynasty ambassadorXuanzongThe first eastern side of TibetTibet, The second is Japan, the western one is Silla, the second isIslamic EmpirePoint toBig eaterMet. DeputyOtomo KomaroHowever, Silla protested that Japan was a tribute country to Japan but was inferior to Japan, and the Tang general changed Japan to the first seat because there was no sign that Komaro was pulling in at all. The following year,Mamoru OnodaWas dispatched as an envoy to Silla, but returned to Japan without fulfilling his mission because of Silla's response.[25].

In TangAnshi no RanWhen the information that theMaru Fujiwara TheDazaifuOrder the strengthening of defense in each country. Silla Ambassador was dispatched to Dazaifu when he visited JapanFujiwara morning huntWhen he cross-examined Sadamaki, SadamakiNational bookIt turned out that he was a junior official on the 17th and 11th floors without bringing it.Japan turned away Sadamaki as unworthy of hospitality, and the momentum for the Silla expedition increased, disrespecting Silla's diplomacy.The imperial courtMusashi country-Mino countryAcquire the Silla language to 20 boys from both countries and the Tokaido,Nankaido,SaikaidoSet up a moderator[38]. AndShilla conquest planIs set up, but laterEmperor KokenAnd the leader of the expedition, Nakamaru, was not executed due to a discord[39]. AndKisitsuAt the end of the period, Japan stopped sending Silla and Japan cut off diplomatic relations with Silla. The diplomatic entrustment also stopped the management trade due to the loss of diplomatic relations, which increased private trade between Japan and Silla.[25][40].

9st centuryIn the middle of the year, Silla's internal turmoil caused political instability. With loose control, the Silla people pirated and attacked the coast in Kyushu and Tsushima,Shilla's IntroAs a result, Japan was forced to take measures. The Imperial Court, which allowed Silla merchants to enter and trade after the break, also learned of the existence of Silla people, who used trade as an excuse to observe the political situation in Japan.Fujiwara MamoruBanned non-merchant Silla people from entering the country[41].. At this time in JapanOtenmon strangeIs happening, and the tendency to reject Silla was created because of external tensions such as illness at the same time as the administration's domestic conflict. Three countries stand side by side on the Korean Peninsula due to the weakening of SillaAfter the Three Kingdoms periodAnd the confusion continued[42].

After Silla disappeared from the latter three nations,GoryeoUnifies the peninsula, but is a northern raceKhitan,FriThe invasion of and the civil war of Australians in various places continued. Minamiharafu of Koryo drifted ashore in Tsushima, and then Gimkaifu arrived in Dazaifu. The Koma ambassador arrived in Japan and asked for diplomatic relations, but the court ruled that it would not accept anything but tribute. Because of this,JurchenAttacked the coast of Japan,Chotoku no Shiki,Sword's entranceHappened[43].. KoryoBoth groupsA literary person who has been favored by the system and a disdained samurai conflict, and the samurai takes the lead in politics on behalf of the kingTakeshin administrationIs established. The state in which the Goryeo royal family lost power due to the Samurai administration continued until the attack on the Empire of Mongolia (Later[44].. Amid political instability, Koryo incorporated Buddhism into its national system, exempting Buddhist monks and temples from taxes and military service.[45].

Economic side

Obtaining bronze and iron

The main purpose of the Yayoi people visiting the Korean Peninsula was bronze and iron. Yayoi-style pottery is also found in 45% of the Korean peninsula's archaeological sites. As iron ore was produced, there was a trade in iron. Of Wei ZhijinjinOne countryTo be the capital ofHara Tsuji RuinsHas an artificial port and was built as a trading base with the continent and the southern peninsula[46].. The pottery, bronze ware, and iron ware are produced in Raku-gun, which was built by Han, and Japanese (Japanese people) as well as Koreans visited and carried them to Iki, Tsushima, and northern Kyushu. "Wei Zhi" Bentanden contains visitors from Japan who asked for iron in Benhan.Kanji』'S geography is "There is a sea wave Japanese people"[47][48].Copper mirrorTo obtain continental products such as, iron products, glass beads, the Japanese side produces salt and rice andRaw mouth(Slave) sent. Gaya has a description in Wei Zhi that a Japanese man was visiting to obtain iron.[49].. Before the unification by the Yamato kingship, the Yamadai country, the northern Kyushu country and the Ito country, and the Seto Inland SeaKibiTraded with the Korean Peninsula. Wakoku exported silk products such as Wakishi and cotton and grain from northern Kyushu. "Weishi" has a description that Ikijima and Tsushima carried out Ichiho (grain trade) in the north and south.[50].

The Three Kingdoms Period, Silla

It is said that Wakoku was given by Baekje among the three countriesSeven swords TheIshigami ShrineExtant. Crafts and technicians were given from the Korean Peninsula, and soldiers, weapons, grains, and textiles were given from Wakoku. I came to the Japanese archipelago from the Korean PeninsulaMigrantThere was also a craftsman in the 4th century, obi belt type armor was made, and in the latter half of the 4th century, harnesses were made, and farm tools and tools were imported.[50].

Due to the unification of Japan by the Yamato kingship and the unification of Silla with Korea, Japan and Silla managed and traded with Silla and Silla. This was due to diplomatic tensions, and as the mission was delayed, the Silla sea commerce was active. When the political situation in Tang became unstable due to the turmoil in Anshi, trade on the sea increased over land, and Japan, Silla, Tang, and Islamic merchants on the coast of China sailed. The contribution of Silla to the security of the seaZhang Baowas. Zhang Ho Sao cracked down on the pirate slave trade,WandoTrade in Japan, Silla and Tang. Entering China through the Silla MerchantPersian,TianzhuProducts such as were brought to Japan. According to the Ritsuryo Act, the right to purchase is decided in the order of the court, the boss, and the aristocrats, and in order for the aristocrats to purchase Silla's imported goods, it is necessary to apply for it in the form of (Baishiragi Monogage).Shosoin documentRemains as. Japanese exports include cotton and silk, and Silla exportsGinseng, Tableware made of alloy called Sawari, pigments, gold, spices, etc.[51].. Of a monk who was studying abroad as a member of the last envoyYen RenReturned from Tang with the help of Zhang Ho Sao and Silla merchants. Enjin's TravelsEntry to the pilgrimage], the security deterioratesChang'anLife in China, interaction with Tang and Silla people, and voyage of Silla merchants[52].

mining

in JapanUnwritten silver coins,Tomimoto SenThe casting of coins such asWado KaiIt is said that Issuing Wado KaikanFormer EmperorIn the age ofMusashi countryThis was triggered by the discovery and donation of a high-purity natural copper called Nichia Kagane in Chichibu-gun. To commemorate thisWadoWas issued and Wado Kaikan was issued.[53]..One of the three people who contributed to the discovery of this natural copper was a migrant.Gold was placed in fifth place in 702, but is believed to be due to the discovery of Wado.[54].

Bohai/Tora

In the Bohai Sea, Japanese silk fabrics were exported, while from the Bohai Sea, tigers and worms, which were prized among nobles, were imported. In Japan, the reimbursement for Bohai became a financial burden, and the period of tribute was changed to once every 12 years. Tatara in Jeju Island also paid a tribute to Wakoku[32].

Cultural aspect

漢字

Wooden stripAnalysis of Japan漢字It is recognized that the visitor was involved in the start of use. Kanji as a linguistic expression in the Japanese archipelagoGold stoneThere,Iron sword from the Inariyama TumulusThe kanji of "" have the same usage as the wooden tablets of the Korean Peninsula. In the Asuka era, there is a Kanji notation in the Korean peninsula, which is used as a method of reading aloud in addition to Kure and Han. The Old Korean is a reading of the ancient Korean peninsula system,Old soundDerived from. In this way, trial and error was performed to express Japanese, which has a different structure from Chinese, in Kanji. Until the 7th century, the kanji was transmitted to the Japanese archipelago through the Korean Peninsula, and it wasn't until the 8th century when the envoy of Tang Dynasty began to directly adopt the Chinese kanji usage that the Tang sound was introduced as a new reading method.[55][56].

Calendar/Science

The oldest record of the calendar being transmitted to the Japanese archipelago isEmperor KinmeiIn Baekje in 14 (553)Calendar doctorIt is a description of "Nihon Shoki" and "Kinmei" that Dr. Jun Rekimoto came to Japan in 554 to request the replacement of[57]..Baekje monkSpectacleIs a calendar book, astronomical geography book,Skeleton bookBringsYang Hu Yu ChenBecame a master of[58].

Confucianism/Buddhism

Buddhism was introduced mainly from Baekje. BaekjeStupaBesides the monks,Temple teacher,,,PainterAnd brought engineers. BaekjeHoly Ming KingSent Buddha statues, Buddhist paintings, sutras, etc. to Emperor Kinmei, and Koguryo sent monks. From Baekje to Wakokulawyer,Buddhist craftsmanShilla also donated a chord and a Buddha image to Wakoku. In this way, the culture of Mikuni is JapaneseAsuka cultureInfluenced[59].. For the monks who entered the morning, from BaekjeSpectacleFrom KoguryoCloudinessAndPrince YasadoBecame a teacherLoveWore[23].. Some monks traveled from Japan to the Korean Peninsula and became the first nun in Japan after being warned at Baekje.Good faithThere are also Keiji who trained in Goguryeo. Goryeo had a national business of collecting and printing Buddhist texts, and Goryeo's delicate Buddhist texts became famous.[45].

Emperor OshinOf the doctor who was invited from Baekje at the timeWang JinBut one of the four books in Confucianism "ArgumentThere is a tradition that it brought ". As a visitor from BaekjeKing TongjiAlso contributed to the spread of Confucianism. Those who have a “king” as their surname, such as Wang Tongji and Wang Jin, may be Baekjes who have Chinese origin.[60].

Technology/Crafts

In the southeast of the Korean PeninsulaYayoi earthenwareHas been discovered, and it is said that there was a base for Yayoi people connecting Rakunami-gun and northern Kyushu.[61].. PotterySue ware, Metalworking techniques such as metalworking and ironmaking, and techniques such as kamad were introduced to the Japanese archipelago in the 5th century and spread rapidly. In the Sakae River of Korea, there are tumuli such as the front and rear burial mounds, and in Japan there are burial mounds of the Korean Peninsula.[62].. It is the first Buddhist temple in JapanAsuka TempleIn the construction of, Baekje and Koguryo supported. In construction,SogaOf the technicians underDong Han,,,, etc. participated, and Koguryo sent gold to the main Buddhist statue.[63].. The discovery of Japanese bronze ware was discovered in the 3rd-4th century BC, and the forged ironware was found in the 3rd century BC, and the materials originally obtained from the Korean Peninsula were reprocessed. Ironmaking from iron ore begins6st centuryIn the latter half, the start of copper production from copper ore7st centuryConsists of[64].. Crafts that show interchange have been found in the burial mounds of the Japan and the morning and the remains of the trading area.Earthenware,,and so on[65].

Literature/Entertainment

Wong Jin, along with "Lonji", is a long poem in Chinese literature.Thousand CharactersThere is also a legend that it brought ". Since the establishment of "Senjibun" was established in the 6th century, it is said that a visitor from Baekje added to the story of Wang Jin.[60].. In the poet of the visitor,ManyoshuThe song was recorded inTanabe Fukumaro,Yukibun SennaThere are It was an important element of exchange in diplomacy with ChinaChinese poetryIt was also used in diplomatic relations between Japan and North Korea, and was used to sing Chinese poetry when hosting missions such as Silla and Bohai. Hakai, who had many messengers, chose a messenger with a poetry andJihei Arahara,Michio Shinohara,KinohaseThere was also a scene where they participated in the chorus and competed[66].. From BaekjeMimayuki(Masashi)'s arrival in the morningComfortWas introduced, and it developed as a foreign entertainment[67].

中 世

Master

In the 13th century, KoryoMongolian Empire(Lateryuan)ofKubiraiAfter being appointed to Japan, he urged Japan to submit to the Mongolian Empire. JapaneseKamakura ShogunateRefused to do so, and Koryo proposed to invade Japan and attacked Japan with the former army, but it ended in failure.

Mongolian Empire Gory Attack, Sanbetsu to Request Japan

The Mongolian empire has six timesMongolian invasion of GoryeoSubmitted to Koryo. 『Koma HistoryAnd 'MetahistoryAccording to ", Korean government officials and laterLoyal kingBecomeWang ShiziJapan attack was decided because of the request of[† 8][† 9].. The King of Korea has a policy of actively cooperating in the expedition of Mongolia when the kingship is restored by the Mongolian army, and it is said that he advised the attack on Japan. When Koryo became a member of the Mongolian empire, it was a military organization founded during the period of the Samurai government.SanbetsuRaised up against Mongolia and the King of Korea and called for relief from Japan based in Tatara. The Kamakura Shogunate did not respond to the request from Sanbetsusho, and Sanbetsusho was defeated and the entire Korean Peninsula was put under the influence of Mongolia. Original ancestorKubiraiSoftens the policy of Goryeo, and the Goryeo army decides to attack Japan with the former army[69][70][71].

Original attack on Japan (Bunaga, Koan)

Originally submitted to Korea, he was in charge of diplomatic negotiations, such as sending the original national books to Japan. The Kamakura Shogunate, which received the national book from the messenger of Koryo, decides not to send a reply. 18 years oldHojo TokuneBecame the shogunate, but the shogunate proceeded with countermeasures against the original attack without returning a reply to the visit of a more rigorous messenger, and the former army attacked. In addition to the KoreansSouth Song peopleIt has a multi-ethnic composition that includesHakataFought against the Kamakura Shogunate army centered around the Kyushu family. The ex-military aggression was carried out twice, but both times, due to Japanese resistance, the landing in Kyushu was blocked, and it was destroyed by a seasonal storm. The former Korean army soldiers who became POWs of JapanJapan Song TradingThe South Song people who had exchanges with each other were given priority in life, but the Mongolians, the Koreans, and the Masamune were entrusted to each family member until their disposal was decided.[72].. Former prisoners of the Koryo army were enslaved, and those with abilities were military engineers andGeneral juvenileSome of them became millionaires by being adopted in the writing business of. Eleven years after the role of Hiroyasu, a Korean envoy came and sent a national book to thank the Korean prisoners for living in Japan.[73].

Pirates

JapaneseNorthern and Northern DynastiesからMuromachi Period, From Korea's Koryo to the Joseon DynastyPiratesThe maritime powers calledPirateAnd smuggled. The 14th- and 15th-century Japanese wisdom is also called the early Japanese wisdom. The reasons for the stigma include the deterioration of public security and trade policies in each country. After the fall of the Kamakura Shogunate in Japan,Onin's rebellionThe political situation was unstable, and in Korea, the country was exhausted due to the occupation of the former army. Therefore, the security of the sea area could not be maintained in both countries. Founded in China after the originalLight Maritime policyBy doing so, coastal merchants were tampering with smuggling and piracy. Japanese people, Koreans, and later Chinese and Portuguese were mixed in the 16th century.[74].

The word "wago" was originally from Koguryo.Kota monumentSeen in. The same example as the Japanese medieval Japanese ghost was from the original era,Fujiwara TeikeIsTomorrow"so,Matsuura PartyIs worried about buying a grudge for Koryo because he attacked Koryo. In "Koryo History",Chungding KingThere is a record that the raid of Yago began in the age ofTurbulenceIt was the time when was happening. The Gorai invades Goseong, Bamboo Forest, Geoje, Aiura, etc., and is intercepted by Koryo, which marks the beginning of the "Wakko's invasion". The bases of the first half of the year were the Tsushima, Iki,(I.e.,Jeju,Zhoushan IslandsIn some cases, people in the land where they attacked were abducted and forced to become subordinates.[74].. The 14th-century Wago is aiming for essential items such as rice grains, and gradually becomes large-scale capital of Goryeo.KaikyoI approached the neighborhood. It has also been pointed out that the activity of Japanese ghosts has become more active due to the attempted murder. In Koryo, the government's warehouse was moved inland to prevent the looting of Yago, and the coasts of Jeolla-do and Yangguro-do became unfit for living. When the coast was devastated and the population declined, Wakae invaded further inland by cavalry, and some water gauges and talents discriminated against in Goryeo also participated in Wakae.[75].

Japan and Koryo's measures

Muromachi ShogunateWill cooperate with Goryeo in anti-Japanese measures. Koma's missionGold dragon[Avoid ambiguity]Was dispatched and negotiations were held with the Muromachi Shogunate for measures against Yago.Kyushu questionWas dispatched asSadayo ImagawaIs KoryoChung Yume ZhouIn cooperation withMr. OuchiWith them, I defeated Yago. The repatriation of the Koreans who were taken as prisoners of Yago's war was also carried out, and the communication between Korai and Mr. Tsushima was started.[76].. In the later Joseon dynasty, Koryo and the Muromachi Shogunate's ambassadors and replies to national booksKorean communication ambassadorStarted as. Of Koryo, who made her name in the battle with YagoLee SeijiLater founded the Korean dynasty (Mr. Lee, Mr. Lee).

Korean Dynasty (Mr. Lee)

Goryeo broke out of its former decline and ruler Li SeijiRed Army, Emerged with great achievements in the battle against the former army and Yago. Koma was built in the place of the former Chinese dynastyLightConflict with Lee, but Lee Seung-kyuk turned back after being ordered to advance to MingJoseon Dynasty(Mr. Lee, Lee Dynasty) was founded. Since the founding of the country, Lee Dynasty has a close relationship with Ming, and the national name of “Korean” has been given to him by Ming. Lee DynastyConfucianism OfZhu ZixueAnd became a country that was faithful to Ming, the center of the Chinese regime, with a policy of strictly adhering to the Chinese regime.[77].. The Korean messenger from Lee Dynasty was sent to the shogun of the Muromachi Shogunate. The Emperor, while on top of the shogun, did not carry out national politics, and the Li Dynasty interpreted that the shogun had the actual power.

Japan and Lee Dynasty's measures against Japan

Lee Dynasty ordered the subjugation of Iki and Tsushima as a measure against Yago,1396 attackI went. Lee Dynasty asked the Muromachi Shogunate to ban Wajira, and Ming made the same request from China. At the request of the Muromachi Shogunate,Yoshimitsu AshikagaSuppresses Yago. Yoshimitsu dispatches an ambassador to Korea, which is used as a management trade. Yi Dynasty's softening measures against Yagoe were effective, changing from piracy to trade and increasing the number of people traveling to Korea, but at the same time, the financial burden of Yi Dynasty increased (Later[78].. A messenger who demands measures against Japanese ghosts also visited from Ming, and the third general of the Muromachi ShogunateYoshimitsu AshikagaHas a close relationship with Korea and a closed relationship with Ming.

Tsushima is the base of Yago, but Mr. Mune cooperated with Lee Dynasty to deal with Hakata. Lee Dynasty sent an envoy to Mr. Soh to seek crackdown on Japanese stowaways. Tsushima will send information about Yago to Li Dynasty for the benefit of trade and defense of his country. Tsushima utilizes Iki, Hakata,Akamaseki, Hizen became the source of information[79].

Japanese-style building

On the Korean Peninsula, Lee Dynasty attacks Tsushima, which was the base of Yago, with Oei's outer corps.Japanese-style buildingWas built. The Wakan was a guesthouse for Japanese people (Wajin), and also served as a residence for Japanese people visiting by trade and for the purpose of calming the activities of the Wakai into trade. It was called that Mr. Lee made a sloppy measure against Japan and increased the number of Japanese people who surrendered and settled. In this way, the number of Japanese people who interact with Lee Dynasty in various roles has increased. There were some Korean officials who were allowed to trade, and there were some Japanese messenger Yasushi who settled in the port and rode as a Japanese messenger. The merchantKo interestCalled the merchant shipKo interest boatWas called. As Ming refused to authorize trade with Japan under the sea ban policy, the number of Kohei people suddenly increased, and Lee Dynasty mandated travel permits for Tsushima, Iki and Kyushu daimyo. Lee DynastyTsushima countryI was planning to send an embassy for the return of a Japanese living person who has exceeded the period of stay in Japan, but postponed the dispatch of the embassy due to the sudden death of the island owner[80].. At the end of the 15th century, there were nearly 3000 Hijiang Yai people, and the riot of Hijiang Yai people involved Tsushima as well.Miura RebellionBecame. After the Miura Rebellion, the Japanese residence in Miura was banned and Lee Dynasty became a military institution.Tsukasa BibeBecame a catalyst to install. Due to the influence of Japan's ghost, diplomatic relations were often cut off,Ding unrestricted article,Dating rulesTrade resumes. The port of entry was limited to Busanpo and continued until Hideyoshi sent out Koreans.[81].

Tsushima

Tsushima has been trading since ancient times, taking advantage of its location between the Japanese archipelago and the Korean Peninsula. The lack of arable land also heightened the need for trade. Of the King of Korea世宗Attacked Tsushima, which was the base of Japan's ghost, and defended Tsushima.SosadamoriWas countered by a counterattack by. thisOei's outer corpseCall (Kiyo Tosei)[82].. The Muromachi Shogunate sent as a messenger to Sejong to confirm Lee’s policy, and Lee’s messengerSong NozomiThe 4th generalYoshikazu AshikagaI sent it to. Song Noriaki explained that the cause of the corpse is the Japanese corpse, and gained the understanding of Yoshimune. Later between Sosadamori and Lee DynastyKayoshi TreatyWith the signing of the (Kanpai agreement) and the commencement of communication, Mr. Mune was actively traded with the approval of 50 cases a year. In addition, Mr. Mu sends a messenger at a special timeCourierWas also recognized. Chinese porcelain is an important commodity in medieval trade, and Tsushima from the 14th century onwardsKoryo celadonA lot of pottery from the Korean peninsula including[83].. Later, in the days of Hideyoshi Toyotomi and Ieyasu Tokugawa, Tsushima became in charge of diplomacy with Lee Dynasty.[84][85].

Economic side

Japanese Bank

Japan's output of silver and gold will increase sharply from the latter half of the Middle Ages. The trigger was a technique from the Korean Peninsula. Hakata MerchantShinya KamiyaFrom the Korean PeninsulaIwami GinzanBring me toAshbuki methodThe technology was transmitted[86].. Iwami Ginzan, a vein from ancient times, was reopened, and ores were transported to Hakata and the Korean Peninsula via Tsushima and Iki. When the Ashbuki method was transmitted to various places, the amount of silver produced increased, and silver was distributed to Kinai, Kyushu, and trading ports.[87].. At that time, silver was an international currency, and Japanese silver was also called as an important export product of Japan-North Korea trade.[88].

Nichirei Trade/Japan-North Korea Trade

Although there was no diplomatic relations with Japan, the trade started in the 11th century, with the largest number of people in Tsushima, as well as Chikuzen and Satsuma. Japan exports pearls, swords, mercury, citrus, etc.Tribute shipIt was also called and traveled once a year. Trade is temporarily interrupted by the spirit[89].

At Lee Dynasty, the Japanese who were allowed to trade after managing foreign trade after OneiRecipientWas called. Japanese-American trade can be broadly divided into three categories: (1) advancement and reward of envoys, which are official exchanges, (2) public trade using official prices by bureaucrats, and (3) private trade using market prices between merchants. There are types. Most of the transaction amount was (3) and (2)[90].. For (1) and (2)Kyushu question-Guardian-ChineseSuch official diplomacy and public trade exchanges were allowed, and official envoys used ships. In (3), there were many merchants called Kohei Yajin, and the smaller ones exchanged seafood and salt from Tsushima for grains to obtain food. Large-scale Kohei people traded along the route connecting Korea, Tsushima, Chikuzen, and Hizen, like the Australians.[91].. Where Japan can enter the port太宗In the age ofToyamauraNojiuraso,世宗In the age ofShiouraJoin(I.e.Was also called. Due to the influence of Miura's turmoil and Wago, the port of call will eventually be Busanpo[92].

Since the production of Japanese money increased, Japanese exports were silver and Korean exports were cotton cloth. Cotton cloth has spread to Japan as sailcloth and clothing for sailboats.[88][93].. The most active trader was Tsunemune's sect, and in other areas, 1 years were accepted per year, while annual vessels were 2-50 times per year. Exports from Korea are distributed in Japan from Hakata, and there were many trades between Japan and North Korea between Tsushima and Hakata.[94].. Ouchi and KyushuShibukawa, HizenMr. Munakata, Of HigoKikuchiOf SatsumaShimazuAnd so on. The Japan-North Korea trade resumed in the middle of the 15th century after a temporary interruption, but this was for the purpose of controlling the smuggling by Lee Dynasty.[81].

Chinese medieval porcelain was distributed in large quantities in Middle East Asia, while Korean celadon was exported from the Korean Peninsula. In addition to Tsushima, which is close to the Korean Peninsula, Koryo CeladonMr. AndoWas governed byXNUMX MinatoBut have been discovered[95].

Impostor

A fake is a fake foreign envoy misrepresenting the name. Go to the Korean Peninsula in the Middle AgesImpostorTherefore, the Korean side called the impostor an interim fraudster or a middleman. After Onei's foreign account, it was necessary to be an official ambassador to trade with Lee Dynasty, and many people visited Lee Dynasty under the name of the ambassador. The patterns of misuse include (1) those who borrow the names of passers-by, (2) those who use the names of passers without permission, (3) those who misrepresent the names of real influential people, and (4) fictitious ones. It is divided into those who misrepresent the names of influential persons and (5) those who misrepresent the fictitious envoys of the state. Impostors misrepresented include the Muromachi Shogunate ambassador, Tsushima sect ambassador, daimyo ambassador, and Ryukyu Kingdom ambassador.[78].. The Ryukyu Kingdom's false use was centered on Tsushima and Hakata merchants, and it occurred when Ryukyu began entrusting Japanese merchants and monks to communicate with Lee Dynasty.[96].. 8th GeneralYoshimasa AshikagaTo the messenger ofIki Chishima KingHave been accompanied by a person called, but there is also a theory that the origin of the race is not certain, and that it is a fake[78][97].. Not an impostor, but an official diplomatic officer forged a diplomatic document, which later became an incident.[98].

Ryukyu Kingdom and Japan-North Korea trade

Ryukyu KingdomIn addition to the tribute to the morning, I am doing relay trade with Japan and Southeast Asia,Nakayama King OfInsightSent an envoy to communicate with the Korean Peninsula. Ryukyu also paid tribute to Koryo, referring to its relationship with Japan. Ryukyu on the Korean sideFour quartersAlthough it was regarded as one of the above, it became a formally equal relationship when it came to Lee Dynasty. Ryukyu joined forces with Tsushima and Hakata to join the trade route between Japan and North Korea. After the Ryukyu ship was attacked by Tsushima's Haeko, the voyage to Korea was stopped. And for security,VigilanceI was hired as and resumed communication. The shipowner at the time of resumption was also called Tsushima's bandit neck. Ryukyu also outsources communication to the Hakata merchants.DoanYara visited the Li Dynasty as a Ryukyu messenger. One of the purposes of Ryukyu's Korean communication is "Okura Sutra", which was obtained as a gift from the Li Dynasty. For more information on the Ryukyu and Li Dynasty exchanges, please readKorean dynasty memoirs(Li Cho Jinroku)” has many articles[99].

Cultural aspect

Zhu Zixue

The Li Dynasty became a country that emphasized Confucianism more than Ming, with emphasis on Zhuzi studies, and the idea of ​​the Hua Dynasty Order influenced the foreign policy of Li Dynasty. Li Dynasty defined his country as a feudal lord under the world view centered on Ming, and while belonging to Ming, the neighboring countries of Meshin, Japan, and Ryukyu were treated as equals, and they formed an equal relationship. Is[100].

Establishment of diplomatic documents

A diploma was also written in Japan and North Korea when the messenger started. On the Korean side,Shin Unshuof"Haitian countries, Etc. was written and became basic information for Japan and the Ryukyu Kingdom. On the Japanese side,Zuiho ZhouhoBut"Good neighbor national treasure], became Japan's first cohesive diplomatic document[101].

Literature and calligraphy

The habit of using Chinese poetry in diplomacy continued in the Middle Ages, and poetry was sometimes used in negotiations, and diplomats were required to have the ability to write poetry. Muneaki Souki's "Koshodou Nihon Gokuroku" also describes many Japanese poems of Chinese poetry. The opponent of Soki Akira is a monk, and he also gives poems to the general public. The Japanese envoy who went to Korea is "Korean dynasty memoirs], there is a record that Ryohei Mukai gave poems to Sejong[102].

After the Muromachi period, Chinese poems and ink paintings were integrated into the hanging scrolls, but they were used for the exchange between Japan and North Korea. The poetry axis is a composition with ink painting on the bottom and poetry on the top.Sesshu"Sansuizu" has praise with Korean officials[103].

AikokujiOf the monkWeekly sentenceIt was pointed out that Korean ink paintings may have influenced the style of his work, as he participated in a Japanese mission to Lee Dynasty and stayed in Korea for up to four months. There is no record of interest in Korean paintings, and the fact that there are few paintings produced at that time on the Korean side is a vague theory that lacks rigorous verification.[104].

Outflow of cultural properties

In Koryo, the Buddhist forces expanded their private land and fell into financial difficulties. Later in the Li Dynasty, Buddhism was rejected as Suzaku became popular. In Japan, Zen Buddhism was prosperous as it was protected by the shogunate, so Buddhist cultural assets such as sutras and Buddhist tools were released to Japan. Above allKoryo Hachiman Okura SutraWas required by various Japanese powers as a good book with few mistakes, and was also a major objective of Korean communication. Woodcut printing "Okura Sutra" and belfry were imported in large quantities to Japan because they were traded at high prices.

The early modern period

The rise of the woman

The Japan-North Korea trade, which has continued since the Middle Ages, had a great influence indirectly on Ming. The silver exported by Japan is located between Ming and Korea through Lee DynastyLiaodongIt is also distributed in theMisao(Onna) was participating. Onnajo prospered by exporting luxury products such as ginseng and fur.Null beeThe power was expanded by the rule of. Before Hideyoshi's dispatch to KoreaManchu tribeAnd eventually became a dynasty to rule China on behalf of Ming[105](Later).

The role of Bunroku and Keicho (Entering the Tatsunatsu War, Tang)

Unified JapanHideyoshi ToyotomiPlanned to conquer Ming in China and sought to be the pioneer of obedience and Ming siege through Korea through Ms. Tsushima. TsushimaMuneyoshi SatoshiChanged the order of Hideyoshi and requested that Korea send a Korean messenger to celebrate Hideyoshi's unification of the world. In this way, a communication minister was sent for the first time in about 150 years and had an audience with Hideyoshi. However, Hideyoshi did not know that Tsushima had changed his order, so he illusions that Lee Dynasty had come to surrender. Hideyoshi gives a book to the King of Korea to lead the conquest of Ming.

The rumor of Hideyoshi's invasion of Korea had been transmitted to Lee Dynasty before the dispatch of the correspondent. Therefore, the purpose of the correspondent was to confirm the truth of the rumor while celebrating Hideyoshi's unification of Japan. However, the official and deputy messengerSeiichi KimRespectivelyWest PartyEastern partyThey belonged to different parties and were in conflict. Huang Yong-kil of the West Party reported that there was an invasion, while Seiichi Kim of the East Party reported that there was no invasion. In the Li Dynasty at that time, the East People's Party had power and the opinion of Seiichi Kim was adopted. This misinformation is also one of the reasons why the Japanese army was able to advance at a stretch later[106].. After playing the role of Bunroku, he worked as a messenger, but he was not equal in terms of honor since Kanhaku was a vassal, but the Emperor observed that he was unrelated to politics.[107].

Hideyoshi made a request to pass through the Korean Peninsula in order to reach Ming, but attacked the Korean Peninsula because there was no good reply from Lee.The role of Bunroku and Keicho). Japanese army defeated Korean troops in various placesPyongyang,HamamichiHowever, the Ming Army, to which Lee Dynasty belonged, also participated in the war due to the resistance of the military forces to the extended front. I don't want to prolong the warMr. KonishiThere are lords such as, and prioritizing peace negotiations with Ming, the battlefield stalled while retreating the front line.With the death of Hideyoshi, the Japanese army withdrew and ended the war, and this war between Japan and the Chinese and Korean troops is said to be the largest battle in East Asia in the 16th century.[108].. Korea's land was exhausted due to war and security deterioration, food redistribution, the collapse of production and popular rebellion. Also, it was kept in the public office due to the uproar at this timeFamily registerAre also burned, and as a result, in the Korean PeninsulaWhite DingHowever, it is said that the number of people who call themselves both teams has increased.

The state of the Korean Peninsula that was devastated by the role of Bunroku and Keicho is "" by a monk who served in the Japanese army,Kofuku-ji TempleBy the monkTomonin Diary][109].

Recovery of diplomatic relations by the Tokugawa administration

In Japan after Hideyoshi's deathTokugawa IeyasuIs a samurai governmentEdo ShogunateWas established. Tokugawa Ieyasu was reluctant to Hideyoshi's "Tara-in" and did not send troops to the Korean Peninsula. In this way, negotiations to restore diplomatic relations proceeded between Ieyasu Tokugawa and Lee Dynasty.KoumiResponded to the deportation of prisoners and trade negotiations,My Rooster CovenantWere tied up and trade was resumed. Lee has official diplomatic relations with JapanCommunication countryBecame[110].. Mediated negotiations between Japan and North KoreaTsushima domainHad forged and tampered with the Tokugawa Shogunate's national book and Lee's reply to it in order to restore diplomatic relations at an early stage. Tampering discovered and officials punishedYanagawa HajimeHappened, and the Shogunate was in charge of the trade after one Yanagawa[98].

If the Japanese were rescued in a place without diplomatic relations, their return to Japan was not guaranteed, and there were cases where they could not return to Japan for a long time. In Japan, Ryukyu, Lee Dynasty, and Qing, the repatriation of drifters began to take place, and the Japanese who drifted to Korea were able to return to Japan in a relatively short period of time under the protection. Mutual repatriation of drifted people is carried out, and during the Kanei period of the Edo Shogunate, a system was set up to repatriate drifted people in both countries. More than 1618 Japanese were repatriated from Korea between 1872 and 1200. Those who got ashore in a foreign country were forbidden to travel to other countries after returning to Japan and were required to report to the Shogunate when they died, but those returning from Korea were eased and could live the same life as before being washed ashore.[111][112].Wakasa countryIn the west,Mr. HatakeyamaThere were also daimyo who tried to trade with Lee Dynasty and sent messengers to Lee Dynasty as well as the repatriation of drifting people.[95].

Korean communication ambassador

As a correspondent with formal diplomatic relations, the diplomatic mission of the Korean correspondent also resumed.[110].. Visited Muromachi Shogunate 4 timesKorean communication ambassadorHowever, in the Edo Shogunate, an official diplomatic relationship was maintained by visiting to celebrate the shogunate as an alternative to the shogun. The messenger is the second generalTokugawa HidetadaBeginning from the era, replies to the restoration of diplomatic relations 3 times and reprint messenger and 9 times the messenger visited a total of 200 times over about 12 years. In Lee Dynasty, he is wary of the influence of Bunroku and Keicho, and diplomatic negotiations on the Korean Peninsula are conducted with the ambassador of the Tsushima clan who stays in the Yaekan, and the general messenger directly contacts the King of Korea. Was not dispatched, and the Japanese delegation did not enter Hancheng or the inland areas. Lee Dynasty interprets the politics of the Edo Shogunate as the shogun, not the emperor, who administers national affairs like the Muromachi shogunate. Therefore, a messenger was dispatched to the shogun as in the Muromachi period.[113].. As for the practical record of negotiations, the record of the Tsushima domain remains asAmamori YoshisuBy "Kenneiki Awakening", "Kenneiji Tale Story", "Korean Tsukyou Taiki",Kusaba BokugawaThere is "Tsushima diary" and so on. Following the diplomatic document of the Muromachi era, "Zennai Kokuhoki",Second best neighbor treasureWas also written[101][114].. Yoshizu Amamori, the feudal lord of the Tsushima domain, wasShin WeiShe made a friendship withSea recordWas written[115][114].

Japan isTokugawa IesadaWhen became a shogun, the fire of the Nishinomaru of Edo Castle, a bad work,Matthew PerryIn Uraga, the bad news at the Li Dynasty made it difficult for the messenger to raise costs. Both Japan and North Korea agree on a ceremony in Tsushima, despite financial and external pressure difficulties. HoweverTokugawa IgemoBy the time he became a general,US-Japan Amity and Trade TreatySigningRussian warship Tsushima occupation caseDue to the succession of such events, the plan of the messenger was not realized, and the Yakan in Busan and TsushimaIzuharaKept up with[116].. The Korean messenger laterWorld memoryRegistered in (Later).

Huawei transformation and small Chinese thought

Lee Dynasty was attacked by Japan in the south at the end of the 16th century and by Qing in the north in the 17th century. Established in ChinaclearChanged the foreign policy of both Japan and Korea. When the true power of the Liaodong region expanded and became clear, and Ming perished, in JapanHanayou HentaiWas called. It means that the Ming Dynasty of Chinese changed to the Kiyoshi of Ikutan, and the concept that even Ikutan can become Chinese was born. Lee has a sectarian relationship with Qing and a neighbor relationship with Japan.[117].. Although Lee Dynasty became a feudal nation of Qing, criticism of Qing under the Suzaku theory also occurred. With the demise of the Ming Dynasty of the Han dynasty, the idea of ​​Zhonghua Poison and Zhongming cleansing that Chinese heirs were in their own countries came to be claimed.Small chinese thoughtAlso called[118].

The name became a problem in the foreign affairs of the Shogunate and Lee Dynasty. Shogunate generalsJapanese country princeIn Japan, the title "Taiji" means the head of various princes, meaning more than equal to the king, but in the Li Dynasty it was a title given to a subject and was subordinate to the king. The two countries had mutually convenient interpretations, and the contact point for negotiations was taken over by the Tsushima domain, so there was no serious conflict. This problem will surface when the shogunate collapses and becomes the Meiji government.[119](Later).

Correspondents and the theory of conquest

In the official text of the Shogunate, although the term tribute to the messenger was not used, the term tribute to the private sector was widespread.[120].. Regarding the messenger, Japanese people at the time also had rumors that "If Korea does not pay tribute to Japan, the general will invade the Korean Peninsula again, so the messenger will come to Japan with tribute"[† 10].. Even in Lee Dynasty, the existence of such Japanese people was known. In the return report of the Envoy Deputy Communications Minister, it was stated that the Shogunate had informed the princes as a tribute to Korea, and the envoys up to that point had also pretended not to know.[122].. Even in "Korean visitor" and "Korean visitor",Sanhan conquestIt seems that the Japanese considered the Korean messenger mission as a tribute to the Korean mission by taking out the Korean troops of Hideyoshi and Hideyoshi.[122]. Also,Yamagaof"Samurai],Noricho Motoiof"RemorseAlso considered the Korean communications ambassador as a tribute to Korea. The disruption of the telecommunications mission was due to financial difficulties in both countries, but when the telecommunications mission broke down, there was a tendency to interpret that the tribute was stopped. At the end of the Edo period,GuangzhouA Japanese contributed to a newspaperConquest theoryWill be postedHachinohe IncidentOccurs. This view of Korea isMeiji EraIt influenced subsequent Japanese diplomacy[123].

Economic side

Reopening of Wakan

WakanHideyoshi ToyotomiAfter being closed by the role of Bunroku and Keicho, it was reopened by the law of Ki Roi.BusanJapanese people live inJapanese-style buildingWas built, the site was 10 tsubo, and the population was about 400 to 500 people. From the Edo period to the early Meiji period, Wakan was the only officially recognized Japanese town. Lee DynastyIsolationAlthough he had a policy, he maintained formal diplomatic relations with Japan. However, due to the caution from the roles of Bunroku and Keicho, the Japanese are the capitalHanchengNot prepared forBusanI was able to come and go to Yagokan. Therefore, it was difficult to obtain information from Korea.[124].

The "Akita clan's elder"Umezu Masakage DiaryAccording toIn-house GinzanThere is also a record that there was a person related to Koryo[95].

Currency problem

The Tsushima domain was allowed by the Shogunate to trade with Korea, and became the window for Japan-North Korea trade. Also,Satsuma DomainWas incorporated into the Makuhan system by forceRyukyu KingdomIt seems that there was communication with him. Korean is from ChinaRaw silkAnd was useful as a medicinal productGinsengExports to JapanKeichocho silverI bought it at. In the Shogunate, the outflow of precious metals due to trade was a problem, and we switched to silver coins with a low silver content. Since the Lee Dynasty refused to accept silver coins with a low content rate, the shogunate decided to use it as a ginseng silver coin.Ginseng generation old silverIssued[124].. Japan also gave the silver to the Korean diplomatic mission, but the Korean side does not bring the silver into its own country.DongnaefuWas funded by[† 11][125].

As Japan's precious metals continued to flow out due to imports, Japan currently manufactures products with a large import value.Import substitutionThe corresponding policy was also implemented. 8th GeneralTokugawa YoshimuneDuring this period, sugar from China and ginseng from Korea were domestically produced. At the order of Yoshimune, Kushiro Yagokan proceeded with the investigation, and eventually in Japan, a domestic product under the name of Ginseng was put into practical use. For the Tsushima clan, which had gained a great deal from the ginseng trade, it was one of the causes of economic decline.[126].

Cultural aspect

The Korean messenger also served as a catalyst for Japan-North Korea cultural exchange. As a guesthouseFukuzenji TempleIn the precinctAntishioWas erected, and Japanese scholars andCalligrapherIt became a place for interaction with the people. A map of Japan is also included in "Kaito Kokukin", and a manuscript of the book was distributed in Japan during the Edo period[107] [127].

Daimyo processionIn contrast to the diplomat, the Korean messenger has been accompanied by beautifully dressed children, bands, cultural figures, doctors, interpreters, etc. 篫 (in modern times,SignSince it was a burden on the messenger for many people asking for ), it was forbidden to ask directly after Tenwa.[128].

Food culture and medicine

Red pepperCrops such as have been brought to Korea from Japan since the 17th century,sweet potato The(Korean versionWrote in “” that it is a crop that is useful for bad crops when he learned to cultivate it in Tsushima.[129].. The Tsushima clan provided information on Korean food culture to the shogunate and each clan, and developed correspondence dishes for communication. Eventually, in Japan, a book on Korean cuisine, Shinshin Tsutsumusou Memoirs, Korean Favorite Foods, was published.Kimchi) Was explained[130].

To KoreaForgivenessOriental medicine book "Eastern medicine treasure book, A Japanese doctor exchanged information with the messenger. The Shogunate requested that a good doctor be dispatched, and Lee Choi sent a good doctor from Tadashi. Questions and answers of the day and morning are summarized in "" and "".

Confucianism

Fujiwara,LinsanJapanese includingScholarInteracted with prisoners of Confucianism in Korea and messenger with Confucian education. I was taken prisoner in the role of KeichoGingerHad an influence on Fujiwara Seiji's research on Suzaku, and Guang Yi wrote the Japanese memoir "" after returning to Japan. In the role of Bunroku and Keicho, a large number of books were transported from the Korean Peninsula to Japan and later Ieyasu TokugawaSuruga libraryStored by Rinrayama et al.[131].. While Japan developed its own Confucianism, in the Li Dynasty, Suzaku, especiallyPhysicsWas the center, and the position of not accepting objections was strong.[132].. The mainstream of Korea isHitoshi Ito,Ogyu Riding,Dazai ShundaiCriticized their theory, but not the mainstreamPractical scienceEvaluated Japanese Confucianism[133].

Literary arts

MessengerChinese poetryThere is a background of Chinese culture, etc., and many records of recitations of poetry were made by interacting with Japanese literary artists and people.[134][135].PoetryThe form of was also used for the writing axis of. The next rhyme is a form of reciting using the same rhyme as the previous calligraphy, and you can see the intention written in the hope of continuing the Japan-North Korea exchange.[136].. PoetXulan XukenIs the writerCondolenceWas scrutinized for excellent Chinese poetry, but was not evaluated by Lee Dynasty. Kyuran Yukiken's work later became popular with Ming and was introduced to Japan by[137].

Calligraphy/crafts

When a communication visit comes to Japan, a line picture scroll is drawn,Rakuchu Rakugai] And “Edo Zububu” also appear[138].. For the painter who painted the messengerYasunobu Kano,Kano Masunobu,Eiichi Butterfly,Okumura Masanobu,Hanekawa Fujinaga,Utamaro,Katsushika HokusaiThere is[139].. Ukiyo-e prints, which carry information such as the name and title of the messenger, became popular as a guidebook[140].. The correspondent's painter got to know a Japanese painter andOld paintings] From Japan,Kano school OfFolding screenGave[141].. MessengerInkAlso remains, and enshrines Tokugawa IemitsuOyuin MausoleumWas given "".

In the role of Bunroku and Keicho, the daimyo brought many potters from Korea along with Confucianists, all over Japan.PotteryBecame popular. Above all, in HizenImari wareIt is,Nagasaki TradingDutch East India CompanyBecame an item to be exported to Europe[142].ShigaHigashiomi CityGokaso OfObata DollThere are also Tangjin dolls with accompanying children and band members as dolls.

Entertainment

The entertainment that is said to imitate a messengerChinese dance,and so on. MessengerNikko Toshogu ShrineBecause of the effect of visitingNagoya Toshogu,Sendai ToshoguAt the festival, there was a Korean-style Chinese parade.Kanda Myojin Festival,Sanno festivalHowever, in addition to the costumes of the correspondence messenger, it was banned by the shogunate due to the fashion of Korean style clothes.kabuki,JoruriWas also the subject of communication.Killing a tortoiseThe case is famous, and works such as "" continued to be made.[143].. Japanese dance was shown to the messenger,Sarugaku,GagakuPlaying,kabukiWas also shown. GagakuNori,MausoleumImpressed the messenger with missing music scores in Korea[144].

Modern

Opening of Japan and Korea

Japan against Western countries at the end of the Edo periodOpen portdid.Royal reconstructionWas established byMeiji governmentAims to modernizeGao ZongIs the father ofKosen UniversityThe isolation system was maintained under. In response to Western demands for opening ports, Lee Dynasty did not carry out its own diplomacy because Qing was a sovereign country and did not refuse to use force. Qing, the leader of Lee Dynasty, and the policy of going southRussian EmpireAs part of its policy against Japan, Japan will focus on the Korean Peninsula. The Meiji government first told the Li-dynasty to inform the Li-dynasty of the dynasty.DongnaefuHowever, Lee Dynasty refused to accept it from the perspective of the Chinese order. The text contained characters such as "Emperor" and "Tempo", which were only used by Tenno, the Emperor of Qing, and it was the reason that they could not be neighbors if they were used by the comparable Japan.Mr. Min administrationHowever, the negotiations did not progress, and JapanGanghwa Island IncidentAwakeJapan-Asia morning regulationTied. The Meiji government abolished the previous negotiations by the Tsushima domain as vague private relations, and the conflicts in the negotiations after the Meiji era became sharp. The Japanese side interpreted the Japan-North Korea rule as diplomacy between independent nations, but the Lee side interpreted that it was a revival of the neighborly relationship with Japan and that the sectarian relationship had Qing.[145].

Japan-Asia morning regulation

Japan-North Korea good rule is advantageous to the Japanese sideInequality treatywas. There are many inequality points compared to the treaties concluded with Western countries when Japan opened the port, such as travel and trade rights within 4 km from the opening port, use of Japanese currency at the opening port, freedom of rice export, tariff free It was set. This expanded Japan's trade with Korea[146].. Japan and North Korea will move to JapanKorean ambassadorWas dispatched and the civilization policy was implemented. Japan will take over the site of Wakan and build a Japanese settlement, while Korea willBusan Port,Motoyama Port,Incheon PortOpened the port[145].1880The Japanese Legation was established in Hanseong[147].

From the Sino-Japanese War to the annexation of Korea

Sino-Japanese war

Qing encourages Lee Dynasty to conclude a treaty with Europe and the United States in order to prevent Japan and Russia from entering Korea. KiyonoHuang ZunenWas visiting Japan as a ambassadorKin HiroshuHe handed over the book "" to give diplomatic advice. However, when Qing and Lee Dynasty strengthened their sectarian relationship, other countries seeking equal treatment resulted in strengthening the inequality treaty with Lee Dynasty.[148].. Due to delay in salary payment to soldiersMiho Military RebellionThe Qing army began to be stationed on the Korean Peninsula and the conflict over the liberalization policy intensified in the Lee Dynasty. Trying to protect the feudal lord of QingBig partyAnd aim for independence from QingIndependent partyAre in conflict,Seibutsu WarWhen the Qing army decreases due toGold ballThese independent parties plan a coup.Shinichiro TakezoeThe Japanese minister cooperates with the Independent Party, and the Japanese army of the legation also participates in the coup. However, when the Independent Party and the Japanese army attacked, the faction party counterattacked in cooperation with the Qing army, the Japanese army withdrew and the Independent Party was defeated (Koshin political change). Japan seeks Li Dynasty damages to the Embassy after failure of coupHanseong ConventionAnd tied togetherTianjin TreatyTied[149].

In the Korean Peninsula after the Koshin political change, there is growing opposition to the Lee Dynasty government, which is deprived of its finances, and Japan and Qing, which are making inroads under the Inequality Treaty. Instead of the movement within the government until then, there were frequent rebellion of the people who threatened their lives,Kono Peasant WarOccurs. The Japanese army and the Qing army dispatched to suppress the peasant army, but Japan and Qing confront each other over withdrawal after the suppression. The Japanese military defeated the Min administration by a coup, and subordinated the Lee Dynasty government,Sino-Japanese warBroke out. When the Japanese troops defeated the Qing army, the peasant army re-raised but was suppressed. Japan and QingShimonoseki TreatyAfter tying up, Lee Dynasty left the bookbinding system with Qing. The Kanahiro government, which was established during the Sino-Japanese War,Kono reformHowever, because it is a government that was realized by Japan's interference, it became a content that became subordinate to Japan.Jun InoueAfter the appointment of the minister, Japan's internal politics became more intrusive, banning the involvement of Oin and the Queen in national affairs, hiring a large number of Japanese advisers, and making yen loans.[150].

Establishment of the Korean Empire and the Russo-Japanese War

Three countries interferenceIn the later Li Dynasty, a faction approached the Russian Empire in order to curb Japan's influence, and Mr. Minoru played a central role. Japan is the princess of Takamune who supports the Kanahiro Shu government.MinoruIn conflict withMiura GoroAccording to the plans of the ministersOtsumi IncidentMinoru is assassinated. Minister Miura and the Kanahiro Shu government tried to cover up the Minami princess case, but when they were spotted by Americans and Russians, they were exposed and became an international problem, resulting in increased public opposition to Japan and the Kanahiro Shu government. In each placeProsthetic soldierAnd a battle with government forces and the Japanese army occurred, and Kanehiro Shu was killed.Lee complete useIn cooperation with Russia, they start a coup and move Takamune to the Russian legation. Takamune has been in the Russian Legation for over a year,Opening of the stallWas called. Russia entered the nation by acquiring rights to mines and forests, training the government troops, and establishing the Russian-Korean Bank. Western countries also followed Russia. In the Li Dynasty, Gojong strengthened power to maintain independence,KoreaOnce again, Takamune became the emperor. Proximity to Russia and weakening of government powers have led to concern for reformers,Gradual loading,Lee complete useReformists centered around the US to secure modernization and independenceIndependent AssociationTo establish. The Independence Society held a public debate, the People's Union, insisting on legalism, industrial development, restrictions on emperor power, strengthening government authority, and patriotism. The Independence Society aimed to reform the national government under a constitutional monarchy, but misinformation that the purpose of establishing a republic system was disseminated by the guardian sect, and the Independence Association was forcibly dissolved by the Imperial Royal Decree. Later became president of the Republic of KoreaLee Seung-jaeAlso participated in an independent association and was arrested for repression. Some of the activities of the Independent Association areRecitalWas taken over by[151].

Russian Empire happened in QingGiwadan RebellionAfter that, he continued to occupy Manchuria, strengthened his influence on the Korean Peninsula, and confronted Japan.[152].Russo-Japanese WarStarted, Japanese troops took control of HanseongJapan-Korea ProtocolTo strengthen military action and internal politics on the Korean Peninsula. As a result of Japan's victory in the Russo-Japanese War,Portsmouth TreatyIn Russia approved the superiority of Japan to the Korean Empire. Thus Japan started a colonial policy on the Korean Peninsula,Toyo TakushokuTo establish a national policy company. Toyo Takushoku managed immigrants from the Japanese archipelago and agricultural management of large land ownership.

Russian EmpireDuring the Russo-Japanese War, in order to approve Japanese rule over the Korean Empire.The United States of AmericaKatsura and Taft Agreement,The United KingdomSecond Japan-British AllianceTie In exchange, JapanUS PhilippinesBritish Indian EmpireApproved[153].

Japan-Korea consolidation treaty

Resistance continued on the Korean Peninsula.Active poorAttacked both groups, millionaires, Japanese miners and railway operators, demanding policies for peasants and improving the lives of the poor. The request included a ban on grain exports, a ban on foreign traders from places other than open ports, and a ban on railroad construction rights. After the Russo-Japanese War, the pro-military movement also took place, and the Japanese army was also dispatched to maintain security. As a route different from the armed struggle, a patriotic enlightenment movement took place with the aim of restoring the national rights by inheriting the Independent Association. The Patriotic Enlightenment Movement participated in speech activities by education and publication with the participation of city residents and both groups in order to raise their patriotism by knowing the history of their country. The protesters and patriotic enlightenment movementsKorean independence movementBecame the basis of[154][155].. The number of Koreans migrating from Korea to Russia and conducting anti-Japanese movements has increased,VladivostokA Korean town called "Nai" was created and was used for the anti-Japanese movement.[156].

Japan isFirst Japan-Korea AgreementHas appointed a Japanese recommender to advise Korean finance and diplomacy.Second Japan-Korea AgreementAs a result, South Korea transferred diplomatic rights to Japan and became a protected country of Japan. Takamune isThe Hague Peace ConferenceHe dispatched an emissary to eliminate Japan's interference and request South Korea's diplomatic protection, but was not recognized by the powers who had already acknowledged Japan's interests. thisThe Hague Emissary CaseByLee complete useThese forces moved to the Emperor's abdication, and the Korean Imperial Diet deposed Gojong.Third Japan-Korea AgreementInstalled by JapanKorean Government OfficeAs a result, domestic affairs came under the control of Japan and the Korean army was dismantled. Became superintendentIto HirobumiIn economic terms, he opposed the annexation of Japan and South Korea and insisted that the protection policy be continued. Ito is also an opponent of the annexationSora AsukeWill be the next lord-lieutenant, but due to the assassination of Ito and the medical treatment of Sone TatsuzoYamagata YuhoThese army cliques lead the Korean policy. Thus JapanJapan-Korea consolidation treatyBySouth Korea annexationWent[157].

Japanese rule

Japan isGovernor-General of KoreaRuled the entire Korean Peninsula through, initially pushing the military power forwardArmed politicsI went.World War IHas affected Japan and the morning due to changes in the industrial structure and a sharp rise in demand for workers. The end of World War IWoodrow WilsonThe presidentFourteen Articles of PeaceWas announced and included in this principleEthnic self-determinationAttracts the attention of Japanese Korean students. International students carry out independent activities on the Korean Peninsula based on ethnic self-determination, and while the assembly is blocked by the police, they issue. This declaration was made on the Korean PeninsulaSan-ichi independent movementIt also has an effect onYoshino SakuzoRayaTokyo Imperial UniversityStudents expressed solidarity[158].. The San'i Independence Movement spread from Seoul to the whole country, but is suppressed by the Governor-General of Korea.Inland JapanInTaisho democracyPartly due to the influence of theCultural politicsConverted to. ModerateSaito MinoruWas sent as the president of Korea, and Saito carried out a straightforward and generous administration, but he faced the anti-Japanese movement with a severe attitude. Therefore, the anti-Japanese movement under the rule of the Korean Peninsula subsided.[159].. As a result of the annexation, control of Koreans in Manchuria and border problems between Korea and Manchuria occurred on Majima.[160].

in JapanCommon election lawPublic Security ActWhen was enacted, the general election law was not enforced in Korea. Due to the territorial principle of the common election law, neither the Japanese nor the Koreans were applied to those who live on the Korean Peninsula.InlandThe Koreans living in Japan, who are called, have the right to vote and the right to be elected, and some Koreans were elected to the parliament.

Infrastructure and colonial policy

During this period Japan was on the Korean PeninsulaInfrastructurePromoted maintenance and industrial development[161].. It also opened the door to high-ranking officers and high-ranking bureaucrats to Koreans, and fostered human resources who will be the foundation of future Korean development. KoreansJapanese army OfArmy AcademyI was able to enroll in. Many Korean officers laterKorean armyAfter the independence of Korea after World War II,Park ParkThere were some who entered the political world with the president at the top. Becomes the fourth president after independenceYun ZenWas a wealthy man who made a fortune under the emperor during the Gojong era and thrived under Japanese rule.[162].

Along with the infrastructure development of the Governor-General of Korea, a colonial policy on the Korean Peninsula was promoted. The number of migrants from Japan reached 33 after the annexation of Japan and South Korea. Land Policy of the Governor-General of Korea (Later) To the land secured by ), eventually reaching 27 in the north and 50 in the south.[163].

Land Policy

It was alleged that farmers repeatedly cooperated with each other after seeing their land surveyed and going up to the cadastrals after repeated education and enlightenment to prevent land fraud. On the other hand,Land survey business,Rice production planWill increase the number of Japanese who acquire land and the Koreans who lose land,Majima,Eastern roadIt is said that about 80 Koreans, mainly in South Korea, flowed into Manchuria.Hita people,CivilianThe number of people who settled in or migrated to Japan increased rapidly. Many of the people who were forced out of the land also participated in the anti-Japanese movement, but the Korean governor-general's government abandoned the inflow and made an excuse to extend the police power to the leased land in the name of crackdown on the anti-Japanese movement. As a result of the Governor-General's government neglecting to deal with Koreans, the conflict between Koreans and Chinese intensified,Manbozan IncidentThere was a collision like. These cases raised the hard line theoryManchurian IncidentWas also used as one of the triggers to cause[164].. Some Koreans have anti-Japan activities based in the Soviet Union,Enlightenment problemTo stabilize the Korean government andCommunismMeasures are now included[165].

Ethnic policy

Being a member of the Korean Empire after annexationLee KingAs for, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs has proposed to use the title of "Duke" for the emperor. This means a position above the royal family under the Crown Prince of Japan. The alphabetical notation is Grand Duke, which refers to the status system of Western Europe. Since it was expected that the emperor would be the subject of the emperor, he also served as a countermeasure. The Korean empire requested that the country name of “Korea” and the “king” of the era, which had a relationship with Qing in Qing, be followed. By negotiation, the Korean Imperial FamilyRoyal princeBecame[166].

In Japanese coloniesImperialization policyIs promoted, the Korean Governor's Office treats the Korean Peninsula and the inner land equally.OnenessWas proposed. It is the national peace of ManchuriaGozakyokyoAlso includes Koreans,-Korea-Mitsuru-Meng-It was. However, in reality, they are not equal, and in Manchuria they were unofficially ranked as 1st for Japanese, 2nd for Koreans and 3rd for Chinese and Manchurians, and there were differences in food and wages. Virtually ruled ManchuriaKanto ArmyDistributed a booklet on how to alienate and rule Koreans and Chineses in teaching Japanese bureaucrats[167].

Labor/Military service

Koreans were exempt from military service until 1945 regardless of their addresses, but volunteers were recruited from Koreans as well, and there were some who went to the battlefield as military personnel or members of the military. At that time, there was a widespread opinion, centered on the Army, that it was inevitable to utilize the human resources of foreigners in order to avoid human consumption of the Japanese people during the Asia-Pacific War.Conscription systemWas the consequence[168].. Before the end of the war, conscription was enforced and Koreans entered and were trained, but they were not put into battle due to the end of the war.

National Total Mobilization ActHowever, the labor shortage was not resolved, and companies in the coal, civil engineering and metal mining industries recruited workers from the Korean Peninsula. However, when information on poor working environment and conditions becomes widespread, the number of people who accept recruitment decreases,Planning InstituteForces workers to be taken from the Korean PeninsulaLabor mobilization planTo the Koreans in JapanNational Conscription Order, The Korean Peninsula applied the General Conscription Act. theseRecruiting Koreans during the Japanese ruleInvites Korean opposition,Security bureauAccording to the document, the number of disputes soared from 1944 and about one dispute occurred every day. Also,(I.e.According to sources, more than 1939 people fled by 1945-22[169].. Stowaway[170] Workers heading inland atComfort womanThere were women who worked as[171][172][† 12].

Korean society in Japan

The first Chosun town is now in OsakaIkuno WardThe area inside was recorded in 1909. As Japanese landlords tried to avoid renting to Koreans, they initially settled in places with few Japanese people, such as the zero-meter zone above sea level and near factories.[174].. The recession on the Korean Peninsula, the dismantling of the farmer class, and the labor demand in the inland area caused a rapid increase in the number of people traveling to and from the country. In particular, after the First World War, Japan's labor demand increased, and some people study abroad at universities in Japan.The number of Koreans living in Japan from about 1915 in 4000 to 1920 In the 3s, the number of people suddenly increasedKoreans in JapanSociety was formed. Some people who criticized the principal of Tokyo Prefectural First Junior High School and were discharged from school due to a conflict with Japanese people over the view of Korea signed the XNUMX Declaration of Independence.Cui LinI was there. The disdain for Koreans has been regarded as a problem by the Japanese side as well,Hayashi GonsukeCame to issue a directive to the Japanese[175].

Koreans worked at cheap wages, which led to a backlash from Japanese workers as they deprived them of employment opportunities. In addition, the ethnic movements of the Korean Peninsula were reported as unscrupulous acts inland, leading to bad impressions.Great Kanto EarthquakeThen.Korean massacre caseHappened. On the afternoon of September 9st after the earthquake, police and the military endorsed rumor about Koreans and killed them. Police canceled the rumor on September 1, but the military and civilian vigilantees did not stop the killings, killing many Koreans, Chinese, and misidentified Japanese. The Japanese government arrested and cleared the responsibility of the vigilante only, and no official investigation into individual victims was conducted.[176][† 13].. 578 victims were recorded by government records, and 813 were killed by the governmental survey of the Governor-General of Korea.[178].

In the 1920s, the number of families settled increased, and in the 1930 census, 40 out of 3 were second-generation natives. Scheduled for 1940Tokyo OlympicsAt that time, Koreans in Japan were gathered in Fukagawa and Shiozaki in Tokyo. A tenement house was built on the reclaimed land at the expense of the Governor-General of Korea in order to keep the Korean people away from foreign eyes as a result of the Japanese government's colonial policy.[179].

Independence movement/anti-Japanese movement

After the S.XNUMX independence movement subsided, there were some who left the Korean Peninsula and conducted anti-Japanese movements and independence movements in the United States, China, Russia, etc.[160].

Republic of Korea Temporary Government

Once joined by the Independent Association, Lee Seung-Yu went to America as an ambassador of Takamune to study in the United States. Lee became friends with Woodrow Wilson, and in Shanghai after the Japan-Korea consolidation treaty.Republic of Korea Temporary GovernmentBecame the first president of. Eventually, Lee Seung-Yu left the temporary government due to internal conflict,Sino-Japanese warWhenGold nineThe caretaker government led by Chiang Kai-shek moved to Chongqing and cooperated with Chiang Kai-shek's Kuomintang. Syngman Rhee in KoreaLeague of NationsHe also requested that the government be mandated by the United States, and thought that American support would be essential for Korea's independence. For this reason, there was a backlash from independence activists who aimed for immediate independence, but the surrender of Japan liberated South Korea in a manner similar to that of Lee Seung-yeon, and increased the reputation. Lee's exile lives for 40 years in total, returning to Japan after the war and establishing the Republic of Korea[180].

Anti-Japan Partisan

From northern Korea to Manchuria,Anti-Japan PartisanWas active. Anti-Japan Partisan of the Soviet UnionRed ArmyAnd ChineseRepublic of China ArmyThere is also a phase to cooperate withRussian Civil WarSo the Red Army, Anti-Japan Partisan,Republic of China Navy NikolaevskDestroyAmako Port IncidentAlso got up.Kim Il Sung Chinese Communist PartyTo teachTohoku Anti-Japanese Union ArmyParticipated in the anti-Japan partisan movement and developed the Soviet Union88th Special BrigadeIs transferred to and returned to Japan. Kim Il Sung founds the Democratic People s Republic of Korea after the war[181].

Independence and anti-Japanese movement on the Korean Peninsula

On the Korean Peninsula,Lu LunOf the Communist movementPark NorenagaThere was Lu Lunqing formed an underground organization saying that he was advancing preparations for the founding of Japan after the defeat of Japan by intercepting information from the Allied Forces while being monitored by the Governor-General. These activities will bear fruit in the post-war Korea National Preparatory Committee (Later[182].

Koreans in Japan

Among the anti-Japanese activities of Koreans in Japan were trade union movements and nationalist movements. Organizations such as those for the purpose of reconciliation did not increase their support because they cooperated with Japanese security authorities. The labor movement that emphasizes the right to survival such as wage increase and employment and the national movement that emphasizes the liberation and independence of the Korean Peninsula cannot be unified in policy, and a harmony group that promotes assimilation policies by protecting Koreans and saving lives becomes dominant. It was Was established in each prefecture and worked to control and assimilate Koreans in Japan.[183].

World War II Japan-Korea Policy

Second World War OfAlliesIs the United States, United Kingdom,Chinese national governmentbyCairo talksHold aCairo declarationannounced. The talk hopes for stability on the Korean PeninsulaChiang Kai-shekKorea demanded independence, and the Declaration mentioned the independence of the Korean Peninsula as a policy of Japan toward the Allies. The contents of the Cairo Declaration arePotsdam DeclarationWas taken over by. Of the allies, only the United States was in charge of self-determination and colonial liberation, and the colonized British, France, the Netherlands, and the multi-ethnic Soviet Union and China showed no interest.[184].

Economic side

Trade

Japan and North Korea concluded based on the rules of Japan-North Korea and Japan, and while Japan's political advancement receded after the change in Koshin, Japan made active economic advancement. Japan's exports are British cotton products, and due to the development of the spinning industry, they have been made in Japan. Korea's exports centered on grains such as rice and soybeans. Japanese traders provided funds to Korean merchants to buy and collect grain, causing a rice shortage and rising rice prices in Korea. The local government of Korea has banned the export of cereals by promulgating what was approved in the Japan-Korea trade award in order to solve the food problem. However, a Japanese trader who bought grain in advance had a dispute asking for damages against the ban on exports. Lee Dynasty's Merchant Responded to the Inequality Treaty's Advancement by Japanese and Qing Merchants[185][186].Sino-Japanese warIf Qing is defeated in Korea, Korea will end its tribute to Qing and Japan will proceed to colonize Korea. 80% to 90% of Korean exports and 60% to 70% of imports went to Japan[187].

Industrial worker

At first, Koreans who came to Japan often worked as coal miners and earthworkers. Employment of Koreans as a miner began in Chikuho in 1897. The Korean Peninsula was hired to devise railways for the purpose of laying colonial railways, and since the Russo-Japanese War there has been a rapid increase in logistics needs. The idea for railways was to lay down Japanese railways later.Hisatsu Line,Sanin LineEmployment has advanced, including. Japan's exports increased when exports from Europe to Asia declined in the First World WarWar economyA booming economy called ``the arrival of a booming economy'' led to a shortage of people, and the number of jobs for Korean workers in spinning, coal mining, and construction increased sharply. The wages of Koreans are less than two-thirds of the wages of Japanese people, which caused Japanese workers to reprove and contributed to the persecution of Koreans in Japan. The recruitment of workers was done by a broker entrusted to a Japanese company, but the Governor-General of Korea tries to prevent it because it caused damage to Koreans under severe working conditions and abuse. However, the rule of the governor's office did not extend to the inland area, so there was no end to malicious brokers. When the restrictions on travelers were lifted, the number of people increased from about 3 in 2 to 1921 in 3, and became the earthwork for road construction, water supply and sewerage construction, and hydroelectric power plant construction. There was also a case of death due to severe labor, and it became clear based on the report of the Yomiuri ShimbunShinanogawa fugitive worker murder caseThere is[188].. Many migrants alone, a 1924 survey found that 78 percent of earthmovers, 86 percent of workers and 65 percent of day laborers repatriated.[189].

Labor movement

World DepressionAs a result, the bankruptcies of small and medium-sized enterprises and the closing of factories occurred one after another, and many Korean workers were in such workplaces, and unemployment surged. Among them, the unemployment rate of Koreans in Osaka is high, about three times that of Japanese. This led to the union organization of Koreans and labor disputes. Was formed,Japan Trade Union National CouncilThe number of union members, which was 3, will be reduced to 2600 when instructed to integrate with. The radicalization of exercise also led to bad impressions of the general Japanese, and it declined due to the confusion of the leadership and the arrest of activists. For activistsSpecial policeSome were tortured by and were not released until the Japanese defeat. Many of the released activists became executives of the Korean Federation, which led to the fighting policy of the organization (Later[190].

金融

The Japan-Australia Amendment Regulations stipulates that Japanese currency can be used at the Korean port. Is the national bank of japanDaiichi BankThe Korean branch expanded its business and issued the first banknote to distribute it as the currency of the Korean Empire. Of the central bank established laterKorean bankWas a financial institution that assumed the subordination to Japan, such as the fact that the Japanese government was in charge of the founding affairs, the executives were Japanese, and the Korean banknotes could be exchanged for gold coins or convertible tickets of the Bank of Japan.[191].

World DepressionLater Japan advanced the block economy in order to protect its own economy. Centered on the Japanese yenNichinen Economic BlockKorea is included in theKorean banknotesIssued. There was also a plan to introduce the Japanese yen as the currency of Korea, but it was not adopted because it would spread to Japan in the event of a turmoil in Korea.[192].. Japan’s Sino-Japanese warPacific WarIn order to raise the war cost ofTemporary Government of the Republic of China OfChina Union Reserve BankI made a contract with. Inflation in Japan can be avoided by deposit, but at the same time inflation in China has deteriorated due to currency outbreak.[193].

Cultural aspect

thought

The foundation of the Kojo Peasant War in the Lee Dynasty wasChoiFounded byTogakuWas the thought of. Eastern studies include Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism, shamanism, etc., and the idea of ​​equality spread as the basis of anti-corruption, anti-feudalism, and anti-imperialistism. After the defeat of the Kojo Peasant War, the cooperation of Japan from the perspective of Eastern studiesRecitalWas also founded, but was dissolved by Japan after the merger.[194].. Permeates the Korean PeninsulaFeng Shui thoughtRegarding the above, the government-general of Korea issued a research book entitled "Feng Shui of Korea"[195].

Education

Study abroad from the Korean Peninsula to Japan began in 1880 and group study in 1883.Keio UniversityArmy Toyama SchoolStarted with[175].. As part of the patriotic enlightenment movement before the annexation, both groups and local leaders established private schools for modern education in various places and contributed to the spread of ethnic education. Through the Korean government, Japan regulated the education of the Patriotic Awareness Movement by establishing laws such as the Private School Ordinance. When the government of the Governor-General of Korea began, education of the Korean language was conducted along with Japanese education including primary education,HangulHas spread.Sino-Japanese warAfter that,OnenessUnder the name of, Korean, which was previously taught as an essential subject in public education,Korean Education OrdinanceBy amendment of1938Is an optional subject,Imperialization educationIt was done as a part of. Hit elementary schoolNational schoolOr the currentSeoul National UniversityThe predecessor ofKeijo Imperial UniversityWas taken over by the Korean government after independence[196].

building

When constructing the Governor-General of Korea, a plan was to dismantle most of the royal palace with the front of Gyeongbokgung as the site. Hit the main gateGwanghwamunWas planned to be dismantled,Soetsu YanagiRelocated and saved by opposition[197].

Publication/Literature

From the Lee Dynasty, modern literary works from Europe and America have come to be read. An international student who came to Japan from Korea after the Sino-Japanese War translated European literature into Japanese, and many works were introduced in double translation from Japanese translation. Eventually, writers who wrote their own works appeared after translation and adaptation,Korean Literature in JapanWas pioneered. There are also writers who present their works in both Korean and Japanese,Kim ShiraBecame the Akutagawa Prize candidate for "In the Light",Lee boxPublished a controversial novel or poem with difficulty. BesidesNine person societyOf the poet who participated in and pursued pure literary artsZheng Shiba, With the aim of modernization, "in the dark"Korean Art AwardOf the award-winning novelistLi GuangzhuThere are The first literary coterie magazine in KoreacreateWas published in Tokyo[198].. Active in the 1930s, when the number of Korean farmers leaving the country and their exile increased rapidly.Ginger respectWrote "Human Issues" and "Salt", which accuse of colonial policy, and "Nagayama Kushi", a Japanese work depicting the friendship between Japanese and Koreans.[199].. During the transitional period from independence to the founding of Korea, wrote "Crying Voice" at the end of the Japanese era. This is my daughterWomen's CorpsThe subject is the resistance of the mother to be sent to the inland by[200].

The active poverty party who campaigned against Japan after the Kono Peasant WarCondolenceOf the Hungul novel "Hongkichi Doden" written by the artist in the 17th centuryHongkichiAs a model[201].. By the Japan-Korea Protocol during the Russo-Japanese War, the assembly, association, and speech activities that would be detrimental to the Japanese army were proclaimed to be under the death penalty. Published by Independent AssociationIndependent newspaperBecame the first newspaper written only in Hangul, but was banned. The Patriotic Awareness Movement, which inherited the line of the Independent Association,Ernest BethelBecame the presidentKorea Daily ReportHe published newspapers such as Yaya and conducted speech activities. Japan regulated the speech of the Patriotic Awareness Movement by establishing the Newspaper Law under the Korean government[202].. As a book widely read for entertainment in Korea during the Japanese rule,Takuchi bookThere is[203].. Some of the newspapers on the Korean society in Japan were published in Inokino, Osaka, and in Tokyo.[204].

After World War II

Liberation and independence of the Korean Peninsula

Korean PeninsulaCold WarBecause of the influence ofAmerica, NorthUSSROf each of theAllied military period).1945August 8, the Japanese governmentPotsdam DeclarationAcceptAlliesDecided to surrender to (Surrender of Japan).

Governor-General of KoreaThen nextMay 8 OfTamane BroadcastPrior to that, he negotiated with the independent activist Lu Lun, and made a plan to prevent the confusion by transferring the administrative structure. Lu Lun isKorea Founding CommitteeFormedPeople's Republic of KoreaDeclares the establishment ofJapanese armyon behalfSeoulIncluding the southU.S. ForcesBut to the northSoviet army Military ruleLaid.

In North Korea which the Soviet Union occupiedKim Il SungAs a Soviet military officerPyongyangIn South Korea, which was occupied by the United StatesLee Seung-jae,Gold nineIndependent activists have returned to Seoul. Lee Seung-yeon solidifies his power base against the backdrop of American support, while KimRepublic of Korea Temporary GovernmentAnd of Lu LunPeople's Republic of KoreaWill not be realized and will fail. Lu Lun was assassinated by a person from the Lee Seung-hae group, and three years after liberation, two countries were established in the north and south by Lee Seung-bo and Kim Il Sung. Kim Jiu continued to insist on the North-South unified state and was assassinated after independence[205].

The Allies haveJapan after surrenderAs for the Korean PeninsulaDivide and conquer planExisted but was not executed.Douglas MacArthurLeadAllied Supreme Commander General Command(GHQ/SCAP, practically US military center),Indirect governance through the Government of JapanWas carried out[206].

In such a situation,1946May 2Mainly KoreansCommunismThousands of Japanese are massacred by forcesTonghua caseHappened.1948May 4Happened toJeju Island XNUMX/XNUMX IncidentA number of Jeju Islanders smuggled into Japan to evacuate the South Korean government's massacre[207].. In addition, many people smuggled into Japan from South Korea for economic success. By smugglersAlien Registration CardThat the forgery ofFingerprint imprintingIt is said that the system was established, and in later times it was treated as discriminatory treatment.Fingerprint imprint rejection movementIt became.

Return of Japanese and Koreans living in Japan

Manchuria(CurrentNortheastern China),Kanto(CurrentPeople's Republic of China-LiaoningDalian(Partial area), the protection and withdrawal of civilians in the occupied areaGreater East AsiaWas under the jurisdiction of. Daitoa has adopted a policy of local settlement for Japanese residents, and Koreans and Taiwanese have kept the same as before until further instructions. Jurisdiction over Korea, Taiwan, and KarafutoMinistry of InteriorIn line with this policy, as a result, the Japanese government abandoned the protection of life property of civilians in various regions.[208].

After the surrender of the Japanese military and large companies,Forced recruitmentDidKoreans in JapanHurried to return home. There was a reason to avoid punishment as a war criminal and to avoid the occurrence of riots. In the area where POWs of Allied soldiers were engaged in labor, U.S. military aircraft have been throwing flyers warning the abuse of POWs since the war, and companies that know the circumstances destroy the data of POWs and forced recruiters immediately after the war. And repatriated the forced recruitment.

In the postwar turmoil, the victims were sacrificed in the rush to repatriate before the government's policy was decided. On August 1945, 8, shortly after the end of the war,Ominato Security OfficeTransport ships repatriating more than 3700 Koreans, including those who had been forced to build a military moat, killed 549 people, including the crewUkishima Maru IncidentAlso got up.

Forcibly recruited people were left unattended at small and medium-sized coal mines and factories, and there were accidents that resulted in shipwrecks when attempting to return home from fishing ports on their own. In response to this situation, the government1945May 9Was issued a notice to "". Even after that, a passenger ship that was pulled up from the Korean peninsula was blown up and 545 people died.Tamazuru accidentHappened[209].

There are nearly 80 Japanese living in the Korean Peninsula, and 12 people have escaped from Manchuria.SalvageRan into trouble. OriginallyKorean armyAlthough many military personnel and police officers in Japan were able to use transportation, many Japanese immigrants needed to return to their own countries. In the southern peninsula, led by the United States1946Although the country's transportation was terminated, there was no planned transportation in the northern part of the peninsula, and more than 1946 people died in 3. There were 200 million Koreans in Japan at the end of the war, and 1946 million returned within 150[163].

Koreans also lived in Karafuto and the Nanyo archipelago due to recruitment.Nanyo archipelagoThere are 7 Koreans,サ ハ リ ンThere were 2 Koreans in South Karafuto. Koreans in the Nanyang Islands were sent directly to their home countries. Most Koreans in South Karafuto were from South Korea, but the Soviet Union only allowed them to return to North Korea,1990Will wait until the establishment of Korean-Soviet diplomatic relations[210].

Korean War

After the Japanese surrender, the Korean Peninsula is north38-degree lineWith the Soviet Union in the north and the Allied forces led by the United States in the south, the Cold War conflict will affect the Korean Peninsula.1948May 8To the southSouth KoreaSame year as (Korea)May 9To the northDPR Korea(North Korea) after becoming independentDivided stateWas born, North Korea invaded South Korea south of the 38th parallel,Korean War(June 1950, 6-July 25, 1953, the armistice since then) broke out. America isUnited Nations ArmyTo support Korea,Douglas MacArthurBecomes the UN Commander.

Japan at that timeAllied occupationAndTokyoThe United Nations Command was set up inside.US Army in JapanWas launched in South Korea, MacArthur was forced to implement a de facto "re-arming" to maintain Japanese security.Police reserveFounded laterSecurity forces, CurrentSDFWas reorganized into. Japan isJapan Special MinesweeperAnd port workers dispatched to South Korea,Republic of Korea) Supported Korea by accepting military training.

Economically,U.S. ForcesIn Japan, special demand for procurement of goodsLater). The Korean War brought about a confrontation between Koreans and North Koreans in Korean societies living in Japan.Korean nationals in Japan(Korean Mindan) dispatched volunteer soldiers to the North KoreanFederation of Koreans in Japan(The predecessor of the current Korean Soren) clashed with the occupation authorities.

In addition to the Soviet aid to the North Korean side,1949May 10Was founded inPeople's Republic of ChinaThe North Korean Army (Korean People's Army) As reinforcementsChinese People's Volunteer ArmyTroopsKorean War Armistice AgreementI had a truce due to"Truce", not "End of War"For,Nominally still during the warBecome[211].

Republic of Korea (Korea)

Founding of South Korea

1948May 8, In the southern part of the Korean PeninsulaSouth Korea(Korea) was founded,Lee Seung-jaeIs the firstPresidentWas appointed to. But in reality,AmericaUnder the strong influence ofAnti-communismRaiseWestern countriesAlthough South Korea has a high degree of commonality with Japan in that it is a member of the group, in South Korea, a politician with anti-Japanese sentiment, led by Lee Seung-bo, who was from the independent movement, took the lead.

While the Lee Seung administration has made exiled activists a minister,Japanese ruleRehired pro-Japanese personnel[212].. Repression of the citizens with the idea of ​​the anti-Lee Seungjun administration,Yeosu/SuncheonA stowaway to Japan was also created in the event of a Korean military uprising.1949May 1, LeeTsushimaClaiming Korean territory and requesting return to Japan[213].

Korean War

Kim Il SungInvaded by North Korea,Korean WarAfter the outbreak of the Korean name (Korean War: Korean War, Korean Uprising or the 6/25 War), many Koreans who took an anti-government position smuggled into Japan.

The armistice negotiations for the Korean War1953May 7When the armistice broke inLee Seung-nou lineThe Korean government frequently shot and captured Japanese fishing boats, killing dozens and detaining thousands.[† 14].

1954Is a territory unique to Japan that was taken in by the Korean side on the same line.TakeshimaIt sent an army to (Korean name: Dokdo) to occupy the island. Since then, South Korean armed police have been stationed, and Japan has protested this as illegal squatting by South Korean armed forces (Takeshima problem).

Returning business for Koreans in JapanStarted, South Korean operatives trying to prevent return to North KoreaNiigata Red Cross Center Bombing AttemptHappened. Relations between the two countries did not show a significant improvement until Lee Seung-dying.

Japan-Korea diplomatic recovery

May 5 Military coupBecame president of South KoreaPark ParkIt is,Dainichi this empireArmy AcademyBorn and oldJapanese armyHe was also familiar with Japanese circumstances, such as his military career. Park Jung-hee has determined that in order to protect the nation from the pressure of North Korea, the realization of economic support through the restoration of diplomatic relations with Japan is essential. Meanwhile, in JapanLDPThe administration also hoped to restore diplomatic relations with South Korea in order to strengthen the anti-confederation in Northeast Asia and to clear the negative heritage in World War II.

1964May 3ToSeoul National University-Korea University-Yonsei UniversityMore than 5000 students in Japan perform a demonstration against "humiliation diplomacy against Japan"[214].

1965ToJapan-Korea Basic TreatyJapan-Korea Claims AgreementJapan confirmed that the issue of claims between Japan and South Korea and its citizens was completely and finally resolved, and Japan paid $5 million to South Korea. Regarding this payment, the Japanese governmentcompensationIt is not economic cooperation. Japan recognized "Korea (Korea)" as "the only legal government in the Korean Peninsula."

Japan-Korea relations during the Cold War

America'sVietnam RepublicBy intervention in (South Vietnam)Vietnam War(November 1955-April 11, 1975) broke out, and the Japanese and Korean governments cooperated with the United States. Korea sent about 4 troops to Vietnam and participated in the war, gaining production and construction of munitions supplies, dispatching workers, and paying soldiers from the United States. Japan is South Vietnam, South Korea,Taiwan(Republic of China),Hong Kong,Thailand,フィリピンExported to areas around Vietnam such as. These were also called (Later).

With Japan-Korea normalization, KoreaPark ParkFrom Japan under the military dictatorship ofYen loanUtilizing economic cooperation such assubway-highwayDevelop various transportation infrastructure such asHan River MiracleIt has achieved industrialization and economic development. Japanese trading companies have expanded into South Korea, and the cheap labor force has made South Korea an important export base for Japan. Also in terms of securityEisaku SatoWith the Prime MinisterRichard NixonUS President announced that maintaining the peace and security of South Korea is important for Japan[215].

After the defeat of Japan,Subject descentIt has been madeOld royal family OfNashimoto PalaceFrom homeLeeIt is,Korean Empire OfLi YinAfter becoming the princess ofThe Constitution of JapanUnderKoreans living in JapanWas taken. In the days of the Lee Seung administration, he could not return to Japan, and finally with the Park Chung-hee administration, the couple returned to Korea with Lee Bae. After returning to Japan,Education for children with disabilitiesWas approached in South Korea, and the funeral was a quasi-national funeral based on the ceremony of the Korean dynasty.Emperor ShowaThe youngest brother ofroyal OfTakahito Mikasa·samePrincess YurikoMr and Mrs attended[216].

Although Japan-Korea diplomatic relations have normalized with respect to diplomacy and investment,Restoration systemUnderKim Dae Jung Incident,Bunsei light incident,Park Chung-hee assassinationHappened and became a diplomatic problem[217].. In the Mun Se-gwang incident that occurred in 1974, diplomatic concessions were made, such as the request from the South Korean side to regulate the "anti-Korean criminal group" (Chongryon).[218].

Regarding historical recognitionHistory textbook problemThe national sentiment of both countries was not always good, such as the occurrence of. On the Japanese side, the Unification Society that has advanced from South Korea (former: World Christian Unity Religious Society, the currentWorld Peace and Unification Family Union)byInspired businessThere was criticism, butYasuhiro NakasonePrime MinisterChose Korea instead of the US, which is customary as the first foreign destination after taking office, and decided on a $ 40 billion ODA loan,ZentoFirst Korean official visit to Japan realized[219].Roh Tai FookPromotion of local autonomy during the presidential era,1988 Seoul OlympicsHeld and liberalized overseas travel, in addition to the government- and business-led exchanges up to that point, private-sector exchanges at the local level such as sister cities and school excursions increased.[220].

Moves to improve Japan-Korea relations

Soccer World CupWhen the decision was made in 2002 to co-sponsor in Japan and South Korea, the momentum for improving Japan-Korea relations has increased.

Japan-Korea Joint Declaration Keizo ObuchiWith the Prime MinisterKim Dae JungAnnounced by the President, "Japan-Korea will overcome past history and develop future-oriented Japan-Korea relationship,"Restricting the inflow of Japanese popular culture in KoreaIt was also announced that it will be released in stages. The year 2000 was designated as "Japan-Korea Exchange Year" andvisaMutual visits (without visas) were made permanent, and exchanges were expanded, especially in tourism. Signs in the languages ​​of the other countries have been installed in the cities of both countries, and tourism that has been visited by many Japanese people until then has seen changes such as the appearance of Korean tourists in Japanese tourist destinations. Came to be.

History recognition problemJunichiro KoizumiThe Prime MinisterYasukuni ShrineAbandoned worship,Japan-Korea History Joint ResearchI tried to lean toward Korea, such as advocating. Also,Emperor AkihitoBut"Japanese sequel"[† 15]"Takano ShinkasaIs described as "a distant relation of the Baekje royal family,"Relationship with KoreaI made a statement[221].

Modern Japan-Korea relations

For some time, it was said that “Japan-Korea relations have improved” due to this process, but there has been controversy between the two countries, and it has been deteriorating since the 2010s.

Japan-Korea issueMuch of the controversy, also calledTakeshima problem[222](Korean name: Dokdo)), World War II (Yasukuni Shrine worship problem,So-calledComfort women problem[171]),culture(Cultural property return problem)and so on. Regarding history recognition, the Japan-Korea history joint research by experts from both countries started, and the chairperson of the first term wasTaichiro MitaniAnd the second term committeeYasushi ChokaiBecame the chairperson[223].Japan-Korea Basic TreatyWith regard to the problem of compensation for Koreans, which was resolved in January, the chairman of the Korean Bar Association, Wei Cheong, presented a settlement solution.[224].

North Korea (DPR KoreaThere is also a security problem for ).2006May 10ToNorth Korea nuclear testWas first done,Shinzo AbeWith the Prime MinisterRoh Moo-hyunThe president-Japan summit meeting confirmed Japan-Korea cooperation. Interoperability between Japan, the U.S. and South Korea with the United States, a common ally, has become a problem,Japan-Korea Secret Military Information Protection Agreement(GSOMIA) has been concluded,(English editionHas been signed between Japan, the U.S. and South Korea, but not in Japan and South Korea as of January 2017.[225].

Japanese-Koreansister cityIs 2016 pairs as of November 11.Fukuoka CityBusanHas adopted sister city cooperation and adopted the ability to run on public roads even across borders[226][227].

2017May 9IsEmperor Akihito,Empress MichikoBut on my 8th private tripKoma ShrineWorshiped in Koma Shrine is located in Koma-gun, where the immigrants from Koguryo once lived.Emperor worshipBecame[228].

In the late 2010s, JapanShinzo AbeGovernment and Korean (Ms. Park→)Wen ZaiyinDue to the influence of mutual hard line on foreign policy under the administration,Japan-Korea Agreement on Comfort WomenDiscarding theRecruitment lawsuit problemAnd towards Japan's SDF aircraftShooting radarIs irradiatedKorean Navy radar irradiation problemOccurrence ofSecurityMutual export control management on (Catch-all regulation) StricterJapan-Korea trade disputeOutbreak, according to the Korean sideJapan-Korea Secret Military Information Protection Agreement(GSOMIA) has been abandoned, and Japan and South Korea's neighboring countries have conflicting arguments, and the deterioration of bilateral relations is becoming more serious.

Even in the 2020s, Japan-South Korea relations continued to cool. At the G2021 Summit held in the United Kingdom in June 6, South Korean President Moon Jae-in was also invited, but no talks were set up by the leaders of Japan and South Korea.Yoshii KanI only gave a one-minute greeting with the Prime Minister. June 1th, Korea's leading newspaperChosun Ilbo,JoongAng Daily News"The two countries agreed to meet at the G7 summit, but Japan unilaterally canceled the meeting," said a South Korean government official. "The Japanese side is the Korean military's customary Tokai territory (Takeshima). I did not respond to the brief meeting because of the protection training, "he reported accusing the Japanese side.[229],same day,Katsunobu KatoThe Chief Cabinet Secretary completely denied at a press conference that "there is no such fact."He also revealed that he protested against the South Korean government through diplomatic routes between Tokyo and Seoul.[230].

Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea)

In this item, the North Korean abbreviation is the abbreviation of the Democratic People s Republic of Korea for comparison with South Korea.

Founding of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea

1945Took control of the northern part of the Korean PeninsulaSoviet UnionDismantled the traditional Japanese governance system,CommunismProceeded with the construction of the new system. North Korea is oldManchuria(CurrentNortheastern China) Was also a return point for Japanese immigrants and residents from Japan, but many lives were lost.

1948May 9ToKim Il SungWas the prime ministerDPR Korea(North Korea) was established. afterwards,Korean People's ArmyInvaded south of the 38th parallel, and reached South Korea.Korean War(North Korean name: homeland liberation war) broke out, the capitalPyongyang[† 16]A wide area of ​​land, including

During the Korean War1952May 4In JapanSan Francisco Peace TreatyRegained its independence due to the entry into force, but is in an alliance with the USAnti-communismJapan as a nationLDPThe government did not approve the Democratic People s Republic of Korea, and with the mass media, "North Korea(Hokusen)".

on the other hand,Japanese Socialist Party,General commentEtc. of JapanSocialismPowerUnionThinks of "Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea)" as "the only legal government in the Korean Peninsula" and calls it "Korea" and makes South Korea (South Korea) "South Korea" under US military control. .. Once in South Korea before independenceCommunismPark participated in the movement as Deputy Prime Minister in North Korea, but after the armistice of the Korean WarspyHe was executed on charges.

General Assembly of Koreans in Japan (Korean Soren)

The establishment of North Korea also affected the political situation in Japan. Rebuilt as a legal party after World War IIJapan Communist PartyThere were a large number of Korean activists in the country, but they eventually separated and returned to North Korea orKoreans in JapanWe chose to develop the exercise.

inside that,General Assembly of Koreans in Japan(Korean Soren, Chosun Ren) was established. Under the guidance of the Korean Federation of Koreans, Koreans in Japan fought fights aimed at eliminating ethnic discrimination and improving living conditions across the country. Since the turmoil and oppression in South Korea were also reported in Japan, many people from South Korea also participated in the Korean Federation. In addition, the North Korean leadership party led by Kim Il Sung,Korean Labor PartyThe Japanese Socialist Party was the main exchange partner of the Korean Labor Party because it criticized the Communist Party's emphasis on parliament and the peace revolution route and broke the relationship.

Returning business for Koreans in Japan

1959,Returning business for Koreans in JapanHas started. this isJapanese Red Cross SocietyWas in charge ofI couldn't return because the Korean government refused to return[Source required]The Japanese government also actively cooperated in a project to support the return of people to North Korea. Hundreds of thousands of Koreans living in Japan are said to have crossed the sea, but the economic situation on the North Korean side, which had advertised itself as "a paradise on earth," was severe, and he hoped that he would be free from poverty and discrimination in Japan. Returnees were forced into a more difficult situation[† 17].

The Kim Il Sung administration, which strengthens the dictatorship, regards many returnees from Japan as potential spies and warns them, and executes many of them, orConcentration campHe is said to have been detained for a long time, but it is not certain.

Among the Koreans in Japan who learned about the local situation that leaked out through strict information control, the passion for returning to Japan gradually declined, and the living situation in Japan improved with high economic growth. So the return business ended in the mid-1960s.

However, returnees will not be able to return to Japan,Japanese nationalityProblem with spouse or child traveling with family while owning[231].. The South Korean side plans a sabotage to prevent the return business to North Korea,Niigata Red Cross Center Bombing AttemptHappened.

After Japan-Korea diplomatic recovery

When the Japan-Korea Basic Treaty was signed, Japan entered into diplomatic relations with South Korea. Among them, the Japanese government made "South Korea" the "only legal government on the Korean Peninsula", so it received strong resistance from the Korean Federation and the Japanese Socialist Party, which sought to conclude diplomatic relations with North Korea.Eisaku SatoThe administration voted by force in the Diet.

Since this treaty recognized Japan as the nationality of South Korea, some Koreans living in Japan switched from Korean status. Also, with this as an opportunity, the Korean word "Korea" was generally established.[† 18], The North Korean Democratic Republic has increased the number of cases where it is written as "North Korea".

1970,Japan AirlinesAircrafthijackBe done Yodo Hijacking CaseThere has occurred. Criminal stuck in revolutionary movement in JapanTakamiya TamiyaSuch asNew LeftBelongs toCommunist Alliance Red ArmyIn the group, North Korea accepted their asylum, while responding to the return of the aircraft and crew to Japan. Tamiya's thoughts and action policies did not match those of the North Korean side, but Tamiya and his colleagues formed a small group in the suburbs of Pyongyang and engaged in publicity and work activities for Japan in response to North Korea's wishes.

Eventually the Cold WarDetantEnter the period,North-South Joint StatementWill alleviate the conflict with Korea to some extent,People's Republic of ChinaWhile recovering diplomatic relations with (Japan-China relations normalization), Japan-North Korea relations also gradually expanded their trade value. Group return business for Koreans in JapanMangamineThe visit to the country and relatives continued, but no returnees of North Korea were allowed to return to Japan.

Japanese abduction issue

From this time資本主義The economic power of South KoreaCommunist countryIt will reverse North Korea, which is a big difference.

The North Korean side, who felt a sense of crisis, planned to abduct the Japanese and replace them with their own agents and enter Korea.

1973,FukuiObama City2 Child Abduction CaseOccurs.1975,Matsuumaru incidentThe Japanese fishing boat was shot and captured.1977The first to make factual findings between the two governmentsAbduction of Japanese people by North KoreaThere has occurred. same yearMay 11IsNiigataNiigataAt the age of 13Yokota MegumiWas abducted and later taken up as a symbol of this issue,1983It took more years for the series of incidents to become apparent[† 19].. In this case,Yodo Hijacking CaseIt is said that the criminal group and their wives were involved inProsecutor's officeHave been indicted by.

1980-90s

It wasn't the abduction issue that became a big concern between Japan and North Korea in the 1980s,Eighteenth Mount Fuji Maru Incidentwas. I was lurking in a cargo ship navigating between Japan and the morningKorean People's ArmyJapan granted his domestic stay and released him because a soldier's asylum application was filed[† 20].. The freighter that re-entered North Korea was detained with its crew members, and the captain and the chief engineer were sentenced to 15 years of teaching labor for suspected spying, and the hull was confiscated. Japanese public opinion called for the release of Japanese sailors, but negotiations between the two countries, which had no diplomatic relations, were difficult, and it took seven years to return to Japan.

In the month before this incident,Rangoon caseWas announced as a crime by a North Korean agent, and Japan's sense of caution against North Korea rose again. further,Korean Aircraft Bombing CaseAlso chilled the Japan-North Korea relationship. The bombing killed all 115 passengers and crew members,バーレーンThe people who were detained by and attempted to commit suicide by poisoning were "Shinichi Hachiya" and "Mayumi Hachiya" who claimed to be Japanese. Mayumi Hachiya, who survived, was sent to South Korea, where he was a North Korean agent.Princess KimConfessing thatLee blessingI received it from a Japanese woman.

September 1990, 9, ``Three-party joint declaration on Japan-North Korea relations(Liberal Democratic Party, Japan Socialist Party, Workers' Party of Korea) announced.

1994May 7ToKim Il SungHe is the eldest son and the eldest son in a form in which the nation's president died and power was inherited due to inheritance.Kim Jong IlAfter shifting to the system ofHard MarchThe economic situation and poor food situation in North Korea, which was calledNorth Korean defectorThe number of exiles calledMissile launch experimentIs doneJapanese abduction issue by North KoreaBecame more and more apparent, and Japan's distrust of North Korea was increasing.

2000-10s

2002 year 9 month,Junichiro KoizumiThe Prime Minister visited North Korea,Kim Jong IlGeneral secretary and firstJapan-North Korea summit meetingRealized, 17 daysJapan-North Korea Pyongyang DeclarationWas signed. During this visit, Kim Jong-il officially acknowledged the abduction of Japanese people by North Korea as "some heroic people had runaway" and returned five abductees to Japan. However, the North Korean side's reply that eight people were dead and one person was missing seems to be unacceptable from the Japanese side, and dissatisfaction erupted mainly by the concerned people, such as refusal of the family of the abductee victim to return to Japan. Public opinion also strongly opposed North Korea. in JapanSpecified ship port entry prohibition law[232] Was also established.

North Korea recognized nuclear development in 2002,North Korea nuclear issue Six party meeting(Rokugoku Talks) was held. Japan, South Korea, North Korea, the United States, China, Russia participated, but it has not been held since 2007. In 2006North Korea nuclear testThe Japan-Korea cooperation was confirmed at the Japan-Korea summit meeting. The nuclear test also brought criticism from various countries, leading to a condemnation resolution of the UN Security Council. It also affected regional exchanges and was the only Japanese sister city relationship with North Korea.SakaiminatoAfter the nuclear testMotoyamaAbandoned the relationship with[233].

2011May 12ToKim Jong Il’s defense chairman died, The third son of the same person due to inheritance金正恩Became the third Supreme Leader of North Korea and moved to a new system.

In 2016, the Japanese government decided to prohibit the entry and re-entry of North Korean nationals as a sanction for the repeated missile launch experiments by North Korea and the abduction issue of Japanese people by North Korea.[234].. In September 2017, North Korea's external contact agencyNorth Korea Asia Pacific Peace CommissionIssued a statement that "we will use nuclear weapons to sink the Japanese archipelago," and the Japanese government protested this.[235][236].

According to the Japan-Korea Basic Treaty, South Korea is “the only country on the Korean Peninsula”, so North Korea has not been approved as a state and there is no diplomatic relations until 2021.[237].

Economic side

Korean special demand

The Korean War is in the Japanese economyKorean special demandInspired called. The United States Armed Forces and the United Nations Forces' affiliated agencies from Japan have beenDollarI procured supplies by payment. The amount of this funding accounted for 1951% of Japan's foreign currency income in 26.4, reaching 1952% in 36.8 and 1953% in 38.2. Total amount reached 1000 billion yen to 1500 billion yen[238].

Vietnam special demand

Vietnam WarThe total amount of money South Korea got from the United States was 10 billion dollars, which was 3-4% of South Korea's GNP.[239].. Exports from Japan to areas around Vietnam were covered by foreign military spending and assistance from the United States, and nearly 1966% of Japan's export increase in 80 was to Vietnam and the United States. Japanese exports are industrial products and metal products, and industrialization has advanced in the area around Vietnam. Warthe Socialist Republic of VietnamHowever, the economic changes in the area surrounding Vietnam also contributed to the emerging industrial economy[240].

Japan-Korea export/import trends

With the conclusion of the agreement, Japan-Korea trade has begun. Japan and KoreaExport-oriented industrializationThe export industry was in competition with other fields such as automobiles, electric machinery, shipbuilding, and steel. One of the characteristics of Japan-Korea trade is the correlation between Korean exports and imports to Japan. The cause is that there are many assembly industries in the Korean manufacturing industry,Intermediate goodsThe big point is the import of. For this reason, in South Korea, as the number of exports to the world increases, the number of imports to Japan also increases and the deficit with Japan tends to increase.[241].

Until the 80s, South Korea had a structure that compensated for the deficit with Japan with a surplus against the United States, but with the growth of the Asian economy, both Japan and South Korea have increased intra-Asia trade, and in recent yearsChugokuIs greatly affected. Japan's exports to Korea were second in 1996 after the United States. South Korea had a large share of trade with the United States and Japan until the 2s, and since then the share of East Asia has continued to grow. Korea's imports to Japan peaked in 1980, and exports to Japan peaked in 1986.[242].. After establishing diplomatic relations with China in 1992, exports continued to increase rapidly, and in 2010, exports to China were 25.1%, which was comparable to the total of Japan, the US, and Europe (28.2%). Korea isWorld financial crisisOne of the reasons for the rapid recovery from Japan is the large trade surplus with China.[243].

Property rights and justice

Roh Moo-hyunThe administration is "Special Law Concerning the Truth of Anti-ethnic Behavior under the Japanese Emperor's Occupation"as well as"Special Law Concerning State Attribution of Pro-Japanese Anti-ethnic Actor Property) Was established to enable the country to effectively confiscate the land and property of descendants of anti-ethnic acts.[244].

Direct investment

Korea in the early 1980sHong Kong,Taiwan,SingaporeWithAsia four small dragonWas also called.US-Japan trade frictionStarted fromPlaza agreementWith the appreciation of the yen, Japanese companies will increase their overseas production. Japanese capital included KoreaNew industrial economyInvested in (NIEs) and brought growth and employment to the export industry at NIEs. Next, the economic development of NIEs spread into investment in ASEAN and China. Mutual trade of industrial products between different industries and division of labor of products and processes increased in East Asia. Completed domestic products and exported final products[245].

In recent years, Japan is increasingly choosing South Korea, which is closer to its customers, in research and development (R & D).[246].. In the consumer market, Japan has expanded into South Korea, and since the 2000s there have been many automobiles, restaurants and retailers. There are cultural similarities, and bilateral exchanges are also active, making the environment suitable for expansion. It is said that South Korea has anti-Japanese sentiment due to its historical background, but this does not hinder the acceptance of Japanese products.[246].

For direct investment in Japan from South Korea, there are many Japanese bases for sales and R & D of major conglomerates. It has been increasing since the mid-2000s, and is progressing in IT-related companies such as online games, aviation, cargo liners, broadcasting, etc.[247].

JapaneseJapan Bank for International CooperationIn 2017, Korea ranked 10th in a survey of "Japan's manufacturing promising regions and countries". The first reason is "current scale of local market" and the second is "future growth potential of local market"[248].

Financial crisis and currency financial cooperation

1996ToThailandOf the real estate bubble burstBahtFalls, similar to ThailandDollar peg systemSpread to countries usingAsian currency crisisAnd they reached South Korea. In South Korea, a government-led bank loan to a chaebol is being carried out to promote exports, and when the chaebol fell into a management crisis due to overcapacity, it affected banks that were financing. Renewal of short-term loans from overseas is at riskCentral Bank of KoreaForeign currency reserves have bottomed out,DefaultSince the possibility ofInternational Monetary FundThe Japanese creditor bank also provided support under the leadership of the (IMF). With this crisis, the Ministry of Finance as an institution assisting foreign exchange reserves in AsiaAsian Monetary FundAdvocate. However, it could not be realized because the support from the United States, centered on China and the IMF, was not obtained, and the Japanese side lacked a concrete proposal for establishment. Recognizing the need for financial cooperation within Asia,Chiang Mai InitiativeHas been agreed. This accommodates foreign currency reservesCurrency swapIn addition to Japan and South Korea, it was launched in eight countries: China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand.[249].

Corporate alliance

The number of businesses in which Japan and South Korea are promoting business alliances in third countries is also increasing. In the 3s, Japanese companies in Korea expanded into China, and in 1990, a joint venture company was established in Japan and South Korea for Korean companies expanding into China. There were also expectations for cooperation with Korean companies that had technical tie-ups up to that point and for human resources who were fluent in both Chinese and Korean. The number of alliances in regions other than China is also increasing, including resource securing, plant and infrastructure businesses.[250].

Japan-Asia trade

After the Inter-Korean Joint Statement, Japanese industrial products gradually entered the North Korean side, making it cheaper than North Korean products.Matsutake mushroom,Marine ProductsWas exported to Japan. At one time, there were more than one thousand ships entering Japan each year. The breakdown was that imports from Japan were mainly transportation equipment, and exports to Japan were mainly seafood. Import/export has been banned since 2009[237].

Fishery:

Since the 2010s, North Korean authorities have beenFishing rightsSold to China, more than 1000 Chinese fishing vessels began operating in the North Korean waters[251][252]Causes North Korean fishing boats offshore due to overfishing in China to drift ashore in Japan[253].

Cultural aspect

Travel/mutual exchange

South Korea isSeoul OlympicsThe year after the event was held, overseas travel was completely liberalized, and Korea was the number one foreign tourist to Japan that year. Travel from Japan to South Korea also increased after the Seoul Olympics. The total number of visitors to Japan and Korea reached 1 million in 2000, and mutual visa exemption was implemented in 354. Japanese-Koreanworking holidayStarted in 1999, Japan is a popular destination, and as of 2016, there are 1 people in Japan and South Korea.[254].. In 2016, the number of mutual exchanges exceeded 700 million and reached a new record high for the second consecutive year. Aimed at everyone[255].

情报

Some Japanese and Korean news media provide news in the language of the other country via the Internet. Japanese media Korean version siteNHKKyodo News.. The Japanese version site of Korean media was opened in 2001Chosun IlboIncludingJoint news,Han Gyore,Toa Nippo,JoongAng Daily Newsand so on. Chosun IlboYahoo! NewsAlso works with[256].. According to the Japan-Korea Joint Opinion Poll, 9% of the information about the partner country and Japan-Korea relations is obtained from the media of their own country.[257].

Education

Japan, the princess of the Lee royal familyOld royal family OfNashimoto PalaceFrom homeLeeAs a citizen of Korea after the warEducation for children with disabilitiesWorked on. Lee’s activity has been evaluated in Korea,National medalPeony badge was awarded[258].

As a language program, the public broadcasting of Japan in 1984NHKso"Anyon Hashimika Hangul courseIs starting.

Regarding the entrance examination, at the Japan-Korea summit meetingMoriThe Prime MinisterUniversity entrance examination center examinationIn foreign language subjectsKoreanWas announced in 2002 and was introduced in XNUMX.

Kyushu UniversityEstablished the Korea Research Center as a joint education project from 2011Busan UniversityHeld the Japan-Korea Straits College. Currently as an Asia Pacific College,Seoul National University,Yonsei University,Busan University, Kyushu University,Seinan Gakuin University,University of HawaiiIs being implemented[259].

Image

The Park Chung-hee administration is wary of the inflow of culture from Japan due to the normalization of diplomatic relations,Restricting the inflow of Japanese popular culture in KoreaBanned popular culture contacts. However, Japanese-made programs have been broadcast since the 1970s. For children who hide Japanese products via an American distribution companyAnimeIs being broadcast and has influenced young people in South Korea. Korea isUniversal Copyright ConventionSince joining China, imports under copyright law have begun, and restrictions on the inflow of culture have been eased from the Kim Dae Jung administration. With the restoration of diplomatic relations, co-production became possible, and in early animationGolden batAnd 'Youkai Human Bem], in the dramaフ レ ン ズ"and so on[260][261].

1992ToKorean Culture Broadcast(MBC) is the descendant of Lee DynastyEmperorThe TV drama program "Kingdom of Fury" that broadcastsAkihitoBecause I used the video of the emperor's coronation ceremony,JapaneseMinistry of Foreign AffairsReceived a protest from[Source required].

As a word that refers to Japanese culture in KoreaNichiryuAnd in Japan2003Korean drama "Winter sonata"After being aired2004Re-broadcasted to attract popularity,KoreanHas come to be used in Japan[226].

Sports

It was the first Olympic Games held in Asia1964 Tokyo OlympicsAt the time of the event, diplomatic relations had not been established between Japan and South Korea, but Korean players also participated.1988 Seoul OlympicsKorea was not a member of the United Nations at the time of the event, but both the East and West countries of the Cold War participated in the event, which symbolized the changing international situation. However, North Korea refused to participate. The Seoul Olympics triggered interest in South Korea in Japan[262].

2002 co-sponsored by Japan and KoreaSoccer World CupThen, both Japan and Korea advanced to the final tournament. At the opening ceremonyAkihitoIs the cousin ofNorihito Takamado-Princess KenkyuThe couple attended,royalAs the first official visit to Korea after the war”[215].

Music

As a Korean singer,Cho Yong PilIs the first year-end Japanese TV special program for the first timeNHK Red and White Singing BattleParticipated in[263].2010March 9SKE48At the 2010 Soul Drama Awards ceremonyStrong man""Blue sky”Was sung in Japanese and was broadcast live on Korean terrestrial television. South Korea allowed the broadcasting of Japanese songs in the 4th opening of Japanese popular culture, but the broadcasting station restricted it to recording only. This is the first time it has been broadcast live. The broadcast was decided after going through the Broadcast Communication Committee in advance.[264].. As Korean popular musicK-POPThere is a red and white singing battle in 2002BoA, In 2008Dong Bang Shin Ki, Dong Bang Shin Ki in 2011,Girlhood,KARAParticipated in[265][266][267].

Literary arts

Second World WarLater in JapanKindajuIncluding Koreans in JapanliteratureMore works,Lee,Lee Rie,Misato Yanagi,Gentsuki,Ikki Kaneshiro,Shiru CheTheir works have received the Japanese Literature Award. In translation, from JapanHaruki MurakamiMany works have been translated[268].Japan Translation AwardIn the first part ofPark MinkyuThe novel "Castella (Morning: 카스텔라) ”(,Mariko SaitoWon the award [269].

Registration in world memory

2017 year 10 month,United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization(UNESCO) isEdo Period OfKorean communication ambassador"Records about"World memoryDecided to register[270].

Chronological Table

Source/Footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ In Japan, Koguryo is called Koma, so there are names such as Koryo-gun and Koryo Shrine in the Japanese archipelago, but it is a different country from Korai, which was later established on the Korean Peninsula. ..
  2. ^ Suisho Touden Vol. 81, Retsuden 46: Silla, Baekje Minoru Daikoku, Tadashimono, Takayuki Nami, Tsukasa
  3. ^ Song Book The XNUMXth liezhuan: Jinhan ambassador, Jinhan, Silla, Jinhan, Jinhan, Rokukoku, Ando, ​​and Wang.Rise and death, younger brother Takeshi, self-reliant messenger, capital lord Baekje Silla Silla, Jinhan Confederate, South Korean military, Andong lord army, King Wa
  4. ^ Tribute map : Shirakuni: Shirakuni, Honto Dongyi Hanyuki Oguniya.Wei Toki Silla, Song Toki Silla, Kazuya Minoru.Some 屬 Korea or 屬 倭, King impossible self-communication
  5. ^ History of Mikuni Silla Honki: March of the first year, Wakoku Wakoku, Naemul of Silla, Kim Misahyn
  6. ^ History of Mikuni Baekje Honki: May XNUMXth Summer May Wakoku Wakoku Yuki Taiko Jeonji of Baekje Autumn July Great Review Hanshui Nominami
  7. ^ Actually, there is also a view as a pirate[35].
  8. ^ Koma History Series Vol. XNUMX "Wakayori-sama, rule construction cost, general imperfection..
  9. ^ "Original history" Article of the XNUMXth genre of the XNUMXth century, July XNUMX "Korean king's contract, shipbuilding XNUMX, conquest Japan"
  10. ^ British Chamber DirectorRichard CoxDiary of August 1617, 8 Some people (though they are commoners) say that the Korean messenger came to pay tribute to the subject and to offer tributes, or if the general would again set war on them. Rumored[121]
  11. ^ For the reason, it is said that the silver given in political ritual was interpreted as a gift for the tribute.[125].
  12. ^ There are discussions about comfort women in Japan, and there are no human rights violations at comfort stations such as sexual exploitation, as they are mere prostitutes.Anti-Japanese forcesThere are claims such as "conspiracy of". There is also a counterargument that these claims are “Japanese version of revisionism”.[173].
  13. ^ A Japanese support movement took place in China after the earthquake, but the Chinese were also killed. Many of them were farmers coming to work due to natural disasters in Zhejiang[177].
  14. ^ Daiichi Daihomaru IncidentThe chief fisherman has been killed
  15. ^ Vol. XNUMX of "Sequel to Japan" Vol. "《New Year's Encounter (XNUMX) New Year's Jikko [XNUMX]” (#December XNUMXth (XNUMX) December appendix)] Noon. Sanryu. Empress of the Empress Kazuya. Ryo Shinkasa.夙Author praise.Tenshu Takasho Emperor Ryu Jinnohi. Oujou No., Empress Sou, The King of Zhuang Zhuang Zhuang, King of the Heaven, a woman who feels like a woman in a river. P4473 《Spring Head》 Sequel to Japanese Vol. XNUMX <Eighteenth New Year, December, Dec. 〉”
  16. ^ The legal capital is Seoul until the new constitution was enacted in 1972.
  17. ^ However, it is necessary to understand that until the high economic growth from the late 1960s, South Korea was even poorer than the North Korean Democratic People s Republic and the national economy was inferior.
  18. ^ Even the Japanese Socialist Party and the Japanese Communist Party, at the end of the 1980sDemocratization of KoreaIn response to the start of exchanges with the locals, we switched from "South Korea" to "South Korea".
  19. ^ In addition, pursue this abduction caseSpecified Disappearance Problem Investigation CommitteeAccording to the report, there are “specific disappearances” who may have been victims from 1948 to 2004, and even from 1960 to 1991, especially in cases with a high suspicion of abduction.
  20. ^ Later, Min was granted Korean nationality and special permission to stay in Japan, but he was often arrested in criminal cases and committed suicide during his detention in 2004.
  21. ^ Changed Silla and Kukoku in 503

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References

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