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📦 | Mass production of attractive characters ... A man who raised a simple caricature into a manga / The story of June 6

Photo: Mr. and Mrs. Kitazawa Rakuten

Mass production of attractive characters ... A man who raised a simple caricature into a manga / The story of June 6

If you write the contents roughly
At the end of the Edo period, "Japan Punch", which was derived from the British caricature magazine "Punch", was launched in Yokohama, and this became the etymology of "Ponchi-e".

On June 1915, 6, in Chofu, Tokyo, manga artists belonging to newspaper companies gathered and called the "First Manga Festival" ... → Continue reading


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Caricature magazine


Bakumatsu(BakumatsuIt is,Japanese HistoryOut ofEdo Shogunate administrationThe era when I was holdingEdo Period) Refers to the end stage.In this article,Kurofune visit(1853From)Boshin War(1868) Is mainly dealt with.


There is no strict definition of the period at the end of the Edo period,1853May 7(Kaei6Lunar calendar November 6)ofBlack shipThat is,Matthew PerryLed byUS NavyThe general view is that the arrival of the fleet is the beginning.Great command of the royal revival(1868) Also points out that "an unprecedented national crisis since Yin Water Ox (1853)" is a milestone in system reform.

For the end,1867May 11(Keio3Lunar calendar November 10)Yoshiki Tokugawa ResignationAt the time of doing, the next1868May 5(Lunar calendar November 4)ofEdo CastleThere can be various viewpoints such as the time of.The resistance by the former Shogunate army is overHakodate WarEnd of (1869),Bakuhan systemIs completely overAbandoned DomainWas carried out1871May 8(Meiji4Lunar calendar November 7),Western EuropeOf expressionsolar calendarIsGregorian calendarTheEraThe day before it was adopted1872May 12(Meiji5Lunar calendar November 12) Etc. can also be the final stage.

At the end of the Tokugawa shogunate, the heightened awareness of national defense was affected by the "Western shock."nationalismAgainst the backdrop of the rise of the nation, the national polity became more conscious based on Japanese-style Sinocentrism such as Mitogaku, the shogunate system in which General Tokugawa reigned as the de facto national sovereign was dismantled, and the domestic political power was reorganized. It is a process to proceed.It was the center of itSatsuma Domain,Choshu clan,Tosa Domain,Hizen clanSo-called southwestMale clanMet.At this time,IsolationJapan abandoned and opened the port with foreign countriesFree tradeWorldwide by the start of資本主義Market economyColonialismWas incorporated into.Also some xenophobia (Sonnojoi Movement) Despite the riseStrong lineIt was also a time when society itself changed dramatically under the influence of Western civilization due to its overwhelming presence.The process at the end of the Edo period, for exampleShimazaki FujimuraThe novel "Before dawnIt is also depicted in many literary works such as.

On the political side, there are two views: the end of the Edo period is just a transitional period, or it is a unique political system that is different from before and after.On the other hand, in the history of international relations, "ModernFrom the end of the Edo period, when Japan entered the modern Western system by concluding a series of treaties.Second World WarDefeated in and made the emperor the sovereignImperialismUntil the nation collapses, that isOpening(1854From)World War II defeat(1945There is also a view that up to) is "modern."The end of the Edo period and the followingMeiji EraIs "Bakumatsu / MeijiIt is often called collectively as.

Political history

Treaty conclusion and general succession issue (1853-1858)

1853May 7(Kaei 6 yearsMay 6),The United States of AmericaWas dispatched byPerryOf the four ships led by the AdmiralBlack ship UragaCome offshore[1],Edo ShogunatePressing to open the countryPresidentBrought a national book.Old ageOf the topMasahiro Abe(Bingo Fukuyama DomainLord)Tokugawa Masaaki(PreviousMito DomainLord) et al.Matsudaira Yoshinaga(Yoshinaga,Echizen clanmain)·Shimadzu(Satsuma DomainLord) et al.Relative-Outside DaimyoWe asked for opinions from the general public as well.In such a turbulent situationGeneralTokugawa IekeiDied, of the worldIesadaIs appointed as the 13th Shogun.

The following 1854May 2(Kaei 7 yearsMay 1), Perry repeatedly demands the opening of the country.Full powerHayashi Akira1854 by negotiations with (university head) and othersMay 3(Kaei 7 yearsMay 3Japan-US Treaty of Peace and AmityWas signed, and the so-called "isolated country" system was over.[2]..Also in the UKSterlingMizuno Tadanori1854 in negotiationsMay 10(Kaei 7 yearsMay 8)Anglo-Japanese Friendship Treaty,Russian Empire OfPuchachinKawaji Sacred Music1855 by negotiations withMay 2(RevisedAnseiFirst yearMay 12)Japan-Russia Treaty of Peace[3]1856, a little lateMay 1(May 12) Japan-Ranch Friendship TreatyThe signing was signed.In order to reorganize the system in the shogunate that established diplomatic relations, Abe is recruiting human resources from the shogunate and outside, establishing research and education facilities, and reorganizing the military system.Naoyuki Nagai-Iwase Tadashi-Ichio Okubo OfSea defenseMetsuke promotionNagasaki Navy Training School,LibraryInstallation of[4]..These reforms that had been ongoing since before the opening of the countryAnsei ReformsCalledKatsu KaishuAlso attracts attention from this movement[5].

Under the Convention of Kanagawa, for the salary of wood and waterShimoda-HakodateAlong with the opening of the port, as needed by both countriesConsul GeneralWill be placed,1856(3rd year of Ansei) The United StatesHarrisTo Shimoda.Harris urges the Shogunate to conclude a trade treaty aimed at free trade and opening a port.After Abe's death, he became the leader of Rōjū.Hotta MasayoshiDismissed Tokugawa Nariaki and sent Harris to Shimoda.1857May 12(4th year of AnseiMay 10) Is a generalTokugawa IesadaI made him listen.Harris is in EdoSecond Opium WarInclearHe told Hotta about the world situation, such as his defeat, and insisted that Britain and France were in danger of forcing a detrimental treaty on Japan.Regarding Harris's remark that if he wanted to avoid this situation, he should conclude a treaty with the United States first, Hotta decided that it was inevitable to conclude a trade treaty, even though he knew that it was a false allegation, and proceeded with negotiations.The agreed content isConsular courtAdmit,Customs autonomyAnd one-sidedMost favored country treatmentImposedInequality treatyMet[Annotation 1][6].

After agreeing to the treaty, HottaEmperor Takaaki OfCharterTo ask forKanpakuNaochu KujoWorked through[7]..However, although Emperor Komei allowed the salary of wood and water for the slaughter of foreigners, he opposed the opening of the city (domestic residence of foreigners) and the opening of the port, and alsoIwakuraMany officials criticized Kampaku's attitude toward the shogunate (Courtier XNUMX Lords' Participation Case), I couldn't get the permission.On the other hand, because the sickly Shogun Iesada had no children, domestic public opinion was divided into two as to who would be the successor to the Shogun.Kishu clanmainTokugawa KeifukuTo pushNanki factionWhen,Hitotsubashi Tokugawa familyThe ownerYoshiki TokugawaTo pushHitotsubashi factionConflict violently, along with treaty issuesEdo・ Political work in Kyoto has become fierce (General succession problem[8]..In the Hitotsubashi factionHashimoto left(Echizen feudal lord) ・Saigo Takamori(Satsuma Domain), in the Nanki factionNagano Shuzen(Hikone clanSamurai) and other low-ranking samurai played an active part in these works[8]..Later, Shimazu Nariakira tried to move to Tokyo in order to solve these problems, but he got sick and died suddenly just before the decision.

Ansei Purge and Sakuradamon Incident (1858-1860)

1858May 6(5th year of AnseiMay 4)The elderWas appointed toNaosuke Ii(Hikone clanThe Lord) tried to solve the general succession problem and the treaty problem at once by a powerful method.In other words, regarding the general position, in 1858 immediately after taking office as the elder.May 6(5th year of AnseiMay 5KishuKeifukuTo be the successor.Keifuku was renamed Iemochi andEdo Castle(Inauguration of Shogun is 5 years in AnseiMay 10).Naosuke himself thought that he needed a royal license, but he didn't need a royal license.Matsudaira TadakataPushed byMay 7(5th year of AnseiMay 6), Without getting downInoue KiyonaoIwase TadashiAs full powerUS-Japan Amity and Trade TreatySigned[9]..Immediately after the signing, Ii dismissed Hotta and Matsudaira Tadakata.[10], Have experience working in old and middle ages insteadOta Sukemoto(Michigo, in frontKakegawa Domainmain)·Mabe Masaki(Sabae Domainmain)·Matsudaira Norizen(Nishio DomainLord) was appointed as an old man.After that, a treaty similar to the Japan-US Treaty of Amity and CommerceThe United Kingdom-France- Netherlands・ It was also tied to Russia (Ansei Treaties[9]..It was said that the opening of the city would be done in stages, but this is the successor to Ii.Ando NobumasaWas dispatched byBunkyu Envoy to EuropeByLondon memorandumWill be signed and the time will be staggered.

Naosuke's powerful method has been repulsed one after another, and Tokugawa NariakiTokugawa Yoshikatsu(Owari DomainMain) ・ Matsudaira Yoshinaga and others climbed the castle for protest, but on the contrary, they were dismissed by Naosuke because they climbed the castle without permission.[10]..Kampaku was closer to the shogunate when the treaty was signed in a way that ignored Emperor Komei.Naochu KujoLose the emperor's trust and become isolated, but still "PreviewKampaku, who has the right, was still the most important person.It was with the Shogunate on September 1858, 9 (August 14, 5) without a preview.Mito DomainBoshoku no KeiWas issued, and then the fact that Kujo Kampaku had cut off the information for the shogunate became clear, and a private command was issued asking for resignation, and the preview was stopped.[11].

Mabe Shun, the old man, to recover from the lost landKyoto office OfSakai TadaakiJoraku and was involved in this secretShigezaemon Kondo,Umeda UnhamaStarting with the arrest ofRai MikisaburōAnd the former KampakuTakashi MasamichiOf vassalsYoshisuke KobayashiSuch,Official housePeople who oppose the Shogunate led by Ii, including his vassals, were captured one after another.[12]..Against the background of this threat, Mabe reinstated Kujo Kampaku and Keifuku Iemochi.ShogunateWas made authoritative, and even a de facto treaty edict was obtained.Due to Mabe's further intimidation of the imperial court,Sonno Joi OfLeft ministerKonoe Tadahi-Right ministerTakatsukasa SukeResigned, former Kampaku Takatsukasa Masamichi, formerMinisterSanetsumu SanjoWith the decoration and priesthood[12].

In Edo, the crackdown was also carried out by Ii.In particular, the crackdown on the Mito Domain was extremely fierce.Elder OfAjima Nobutatsu TheAccused, Oku-YuhitsuKayane Iyonosuke TheSwordWas involved in carrying the secret edict to EdoUkai Yoshizaemon-KokichiFather and son are slaughteredGokumonBecame[13]..In Daimyo and Hatamoto, Tokugawa Nariaki is a permanent residence, Yoshinobu HitotsubashiDate Sojo(Uwajima Domainmain)·Mountain contents hall(Tosa DomainIn addition to the fact that the Lord) and others were retired, Tadanari Iwase, a vassal of the shogunate who was regarded as a Hitotsubashi faction,Naoyuki NagaiWas dismissed and ordered to live permanently[12][13]In addition, Ota Suketsu and Manabe Akikatsu, who are old men, were also dismissed.Also, of the arrested Sanjo vassalsKiuchi IizumiThe number of arrested people increased from the letter[14], Sanai Hashimoto was also arrested.The person captured in Kyoto was sent to Edo for interrogation with the Edo arrested.As a result of the interrogation, Sanai Hashimoto, Rai Mikisaburō, Kiuchi Iizumi,Matsushita Village SchoolOrganizerYoshida ShoinWas slaughtered[13]..Umeda Unpin and Yoshisuke Kobayashi[15], Satsuma Domain who was involved in the secret imperial religionIsanji KusakabeDied in prison[16]..Political crackdowns targeted by activists, opinion leaders, their guardians and sympathizers, feudal lords, and working bureaucrats inside the shogunate, who work on public opinion and the imperial court,Ansei no Hell".Within the Mito clan, they fell into sectarianism over the issue of the return of the secret royal family, split into fierce and religion groups (provisional reform groups), resulting in extreme confusion with the sectarian parties who oppose them.[17].

Ansei Purge is the former Hitotsubashi factionSonno Joi-Sonno sectInvites repulsion.The fierce faction of the Mito Domain and the Satsuma Domain who were indignant at the repeated crackdownsRoninSecretly devised an assassination plan,1860May 3(Ansei7May 3), Naosuke on the way to Edo CastleSakuradamonRaid outside and assassinate (Outside of Sakuradamon).The result of the assassination of the administration's most powerful person was to greatly undermine the authority of the shogunate.

Kobu Gattai and Sonno Jōi sect (1860-1863)

From the death of Naosuke Ii, the ShogunateKuze Hirochika(Sekijuku ClanLord) andAndo Nobumasa(Iwadaira clanThe main) was effectively operated as the prime minister.The shogunate promoted the Kobu Gattai to restore the shogunate by the authority of the imperial court.MannobuApril 4, 12 (June 1860, 6), PrincessKamiya parent and childTokugawa Iemochi was asked to surrender to the imperial court, but Emperor KomeiImperial princeI ordered an engagement with and refused[18]..The shogunate continued to petition and was a chamberlain of Emperor Xiaoming.IwakuraAdvocated a gentle opportunity to restore the royal government through the Kobu Gattai.Emperor Komei admitted to surrender when the Shogunate promised to abolish the treaty or destroy the armed forces with a deadline of "XNUMX to XNUMX years", and KazumiyaBunkyuEntered Edo Castle on November 11, 15 (December 1861, 12)[19]..Emperor Komei tries to trust the diplomatic measures of the Shogunate, but there are rumors that he is planning to abolish the emperor, and Iwakura and Iwakura go down to Kanto as a messenger.Iemochi Tokugawa wrote an autograph to pledge allegiance.On April 2, 4 (May 7, 1862), Emperor Komei made clear his intention to make a defeat by the deadline set by the Shogunate.As a result, the shogunate was bound by its own promise.

On June 6, 6 (July 2, 1859)Yokohama portOpened the port.SettlementWas placed and foreigners came and wentキ リ ス ト 教Was not allowed to spread to Japan.TradeRaw silk, Tea is exported,Cotton thread,fabricWas imported.Domestic and foreign gold coins and silver coins were exchanged with the same mass, but JapanGold and silver priceIn a short period of time, a large amount of gold, which is said to be 10 cars, was leaked overseas.[20]..On April 4, 10 (May 1860, 5), the ShogunateMannobu ovalWas issued to deal with the confusion.But traditionalTenpo OvalThe Mannobu Koban, which has about one-third the amount of gold compared to the above, caused confusion because the existing oval was used for increasing the number of steps according to the amount of gold contained.There were people who made a profit, such as Yokohama merchants, but the ones in the local economic zone were in Edo rather than the production areas.WholesalerAs a result of shortage of goods and soaring prices without sending supplies to the citySmashAnd localRebellionHas increased dramatically.Due to economic turmoilGoshin Edo Circulation OrderHowever, Britain was dissatisfied with the restrictions on the export of raw silk.From today's perspective, it was unusual for exports to be subject to tariffs, but the Shogunate monopolized tariff revenues, and the Southwestern Yuhan was dissatisfied.These problemsSatsuei WarLater with EnglandSatsuma DomainBecame the basis for approaching, and became a factor that caused conflict between the Shogunate and the Yuhan over trade control seen in the opening of Yokohama Chain Port and Hyogo Port.

On the other hand, in diplomacy, the Russian warship Posadonic attempted to occupy the country in February 1861 amid active trade in Yokohama.TsushimaStay inRussian warship Tsushima occupation caseOccurs.The Russian side built a barracks in Imosaki and demanded a permanent concession in the vicinity.Tsushima domainAnd the islanders resisted, and the shogunateForeign magistrate OfOguri TadanoriDispatched and asked for withdrawal.However, the Russian ship did not move, and after all the British ministerAll cockTwo British ships were dispatched at the request of cooperation, and finally moved out in August.[21].

While the Kobu Gattai of the Shogunate was stagnant, the daimyo embarked on a national theory in the central political world.Choshu clan TheNagai GagakuTo KyotoVoyage strategy"Send the white paper to the imperial court[22], NagaiBunkyuHe was told that he was delivered to Mikano on June 6, 2 (July 1861, 7), and received his waka poem.Also, on August 9, 8 (September 3, 1861), I had the opportunity to meet with Nobumasa Ando and express my opinion.The movement of the Kobu Gattai of the Choshu clan stimulated the Satsuma clan.9nd year of Bunkyu, Kyoto ShoshidaiSakai TadaakiShishi entered Tokyo one after another as if ignoring.They led Sakai and Kampaku / Nairan, who led Princess Kazu.Naochu Kujo such asPublic military coalitionWas hostile to.Izumi Maki,Genzo KusakaA grassroots network is formed around the center of the Org activity.Kiyokawa HachiroThe Kyushu speech contributed.A male feudal clan in the Kanto regionMito DomainThen, while pursuing the performer of the assassination of Ii, he sought to stabilize by appointing a dignitary dignitary to the government.However, the fierce faction with a strong will of Joi is the Choshu clan.Kogoro Katsura,Gozo MatsushimaAlthough he was aiming to reform the shogunate government by exercising his strength in partnership with the Choshu clan, the voyage strategy became a clan theory and he could not move.The fierceUtsunomiya Domain OfOhashi TokuanIn partnership with Bunkyu January 2, 1 (February 15, 1862),Ando NobumasaWas attacked outside the Sakashitamon Gate of Edo Castle.Ando was injured and his life was saved, but he was dismissed afterwards (→Weirdness outside Sakashitamon[23]..The Utsunomiya domain glared at by the shogunateGamo KunpeiIs a breakthrough survey (Sanryoshi) Was used to repair the tomb of the Emperor, and the movement was carried out during the Kobu Gattai, but of course the contradiction continues as a rule.In addition, "foreign slashing" by a radical sonno jōi was rampant.A crew member of the Russian envoy's escort fleet was attacked in Ansei 6 and killed two people.HarrisInterpreterHeuskenWas attacked by the Satsuma Domain and died[24]..In the first year of Bunkyu, the Mito clan attacked the British Embassy.Tozenji IncidentOutbreak[25].

April 2, 4 (May 16, 1862), the most powerful person of the Satsuma domain.Hisamitsu ShimazuWent to Tokyo with a clan soldier to realize the Kobu Gattai.BeforehandIchizo OkuboHe made a request for a royal license to go to Tokyo as a messenger, but was refused by a euphemism, and in the crisis of the heavenly dynasty, he went up to Kyoto at his own discretion with the desire to devote his edict to carry out the reform of the shogunate government.The imperial court, which was frightened by the movement of the priests, gave Hisamitsu the decree of slaying the ronin.On the other hand, Hisamitsu is the former Minister of the Left.Konoe TadahiEstablished the opening of the country and the strengthening of armaments[26]..However, my concern was the outburst of the Sonno Jōi faction within the Satsuma domain.Shinshichi ArimaPlanned terrorism to drag the Satsuma domain into the revered sect, targeting Kyoto Shoshidai and Kujo Kampaku.Hisamitsu supervised them and persuaded them, but as the Sonno Jōi faction moved to Tokyo and entered the ship's inn, he was forced to purge (→).Teradaya riot[27].

As a messenger to the Shogunate reform by the imperial court work of HisamitsuShigenori OharaWill be sent.The Shogunate side had no power to refuse it, and was dismissed in Ansei Purge.Yoshiki TokugawaTheGeneral guardianship,Matsudaira ShungoThePolitical governorshipIt was forced to reform including personnel affairs.And Yoshinobu and Yoshinaga who returned to the shogunate, and the brain of Yoshinaga.Yokoi KogusuDue toMatsudaira Yoho(Aizu DomainLord)Kyoto guardianAppointment andParticipation shift systemReforms etc. were carried out (→Bunkyu's reform[28]..On the other hand, the Satsuma domain soldiers led by Hisamitsu were on their way back to Japan on September 1862, 9 (August 14, 2).Namamugi VillageCauses a slashing incident on an Englishman trying to cross the procession atNamamugi Incident[29]..The British side demands the execution of the criminal, but the Satsuma Domain, whose father of the Nation, Hisamitsu, is a theory of opening the country but has not yet been unified into the theory of opening the country, cannot comply with this request and will leave a stigma later.[30]..After that, Hisamitsu made a triumphant return to Kyoto, but the political affairs of Kyoto were occupied by the Sonno Jōi faction, and in the Choshu clan, Nagai was dismissed due to Katsura, Hisaka, and Maki Izumi, and the clan theory was converted to Sonno Jōi.Hisamitsu, whose resentment did not subside, pulled him up to Kagoshima.

In Kyoto, which was occupied by the Sonno Jōi faction, the Choshu clan,Tosa DomainThe Sonno Jōi faction used the pressure of the imperial court to force the Shogun Joraku movement.Regarding the Tosa domain, the lord of the domainToyonori Yamanouchi Tosa Emperor's Party OfTakeshi SeosanHe went to Tokyo with them, and worked closely with the Choshu clan to reach the imperial court.These movements bear fruitMimi Sanjo-Anekoji publicly knownWent down to Edo and urged the shogunate to take action and shogun Joraku.[31]..In the shogunateYour side agency OfIchio OkuboIf he preaches the theory of opening the country and is rejected by the imperial courtResignationWas relegated because he insisted on doing[32], The Shogunate decided to accept Shogun Joraku.Then, on April 1863, 4 (March 21, 3), Iemochi was the first shogun in 3 years (third generation).IemitsuSince then), he entered Kyoto, but was caught up in the pace of the imperial court and was forced to promise a decisive action on June 1863, 6 (May 25, 3).[32]..However, the Shogunate interpreted Joi as a withdrawal of the treaty rather than the use of force, and the old manNagayuki Ogasawara(Karatsu DomainSeiko) paid compensation for the Namamugi Incident at his own discretion, while requesting foreign countries to temporarily move out of Yokohama, but this was refused.[Annotation 2][33].

On the other hand, on June 6, the day of the decisive action, the Choshu clanGenzo KusakaUnder their commandKanmon StraitBombard a foreign merchant ship passing through.But 20 days laterThe United States of AmericaAnd four days laterFranceYou will know the difficulty of exorcism by yourself, such as occupying the turret after receiving a retaliation attack fromShimonoseki War).In addition, the Choshu clan who lamented the weakness of the clan soldiersTakusugi TakasugiIncludes new non-samurai statusStrange soldiersFormed, followed byCorpsWas formed one after another and became the armed force of the later Choshu clan.In addition, a war broke out between the Satsuma Domain and Britain on August 1863, 8 (July 15, 3) due to the problem of compensation for the Namamugi Incident.Satsuei War).In the Satsuei War, by the British fleetKagoshima CastleA battle broke out between the lower artillery and the Satsuma domain artillery that counterattacked it.While the human damage on the British side was great, part of the city of Kagoshima was burned down, and the Satsuma domain also realized the impossibility of expulsion and unified the theory of the domain into the opening of the country.Through this negotiation, Britain learned that the Satsuma domain was actually based on the theory of opening the country, and since then it will rapidly approach the Satsuma domain.[34].

Sonno Joi (1863-1864)

Around this time, I went to Kyoto for the Sonno Jōi school.AspirantGathered, "TenchuThe security was extremely deteriorated, such as assassinating the opposition.Involved in Ansei PurgeKujo familyVassalShimada SakonThese acts of terrorism, which originated in the assassination of the Bakushin, terrorized the shogunate and officials.[35][36]..On the contrary, the case where Anekoji, who was seen as a representative of the revered sect, was assassinated (Weirdness outside Sakuheimon) And Sonno JiSeiichiro HommaWas assassinated[37][38][39]..The Kobu Gattai Kuge, such as Tomomi Iwakura, was eliminated, and the Kobu Gattai Kuge, such as Sanjo Sanetomi, began to move the morning debate, and the power of the Kobu Gattai declined.The Choshu clan has 8000 expatriates in Kyoto, and it is said that XNUMX can be mobilized if sympathizers are included.[Source required].

Contrary to Emperor Komei's speculation that he was worried that the debate would be held by the Sonno Jōi, Izumi Maki and his colleagues from the Sonno Jōi faction campaigned to realize the debate and the restoration of the royal government.1863August 9 (25rd year of Bunkyu)May 8), The emperorTomb of Emperor Jinmu-Kasuga Grand ShrineThere is an apology that he will be happy to go to Japan and pray for the exile and hold a military conquest of the pro-conquest.[40]..In response to this, for some timePrince Kuni Asahiko NakagawaOf the Satsuma domain who knew the true intention of the emperor throughSataro TakasakiIs of the Aizu clanAkizuki TeijiroPreached Matsudaira Katamori through[40]..Katamori recalled the Aizu clan soldiers on their way home, made a detailed plan with Nakagawamiya, and with the consent of the emperor, with the Satsuma clan.30 days(3rd year of BunkyuMay 8), And carried out a coup d'etat to withdraw the Choshu clan soldiers and seven princes including Sanjo to Choshu.August XNUMX political change,Seven Lords), Succeeded in clearing out the revered forces of the Choshu clan such as Maki and Kusaka Genzui[40].

On the other hand, 1864May 2(3rd year of BunkyuMay 12) After that, Yoshinobu Tokugawa, Harutake Matsudaira, Matsudaira Katamori,Date Sojo(Uwajima DomainMain) ・ It will be the first lords' meeting by Hisamitsu ShimazuAttendance meetingWas held, and agenda items such as the Kanagawa chain port talks, the treatment of the Choshu clan, and the strengthening of the defense of Osaka port were discussed.[41]..Yoshinaga, Hisamitsu and other lords advocate the opening of the country, but Yoshinobu, who represents the Shogunate, insists on the Yokohama chain port and confronts them. Became[41]..Yoshinaga and his colleagues returned to Japan and had a depositary council system for only a few months.The Satsuma domain will take this opportunity to deepen the feud with the Shogunate and Yoshinobu.After this, Yoshinobu, who was appointed by the imperial court as governor-general of the forbidden guardian and commander of the defense of the sea, was Kyoto Shugoshoku Matsudaira Katamori (lord of the Aizu domain).Kyoto officeMatsudaira Sadataka(Kuwana DomainTogether with the main) brothers, they will move semi-independently from the Edo Shogunate (main).Ichikai mulberry system).

Around this time, there were movements by extremists to use their abilities in various places, but all of them failed. 1863May 9(3rd year of BunkyuMay 8),YamatoThen.LordNakayama Tadamitsu,Torataro Yoshimura-Ike built-in thick(Tosa Domain),Matsumoto Kyoudou(MikawaKariya Domain),Fujimoto Tesseki(Okayama Domain), And evenHanoi OfSquireYoshinosuke MizugunAlso joinedTenchu ​​set strangeOutbreak, followed byTajimaThen.Nozawa Sawa(One of the seven lords exiled from Kyoto the previous year) ・Hirano KuniomiBy (Fukuoka Domain) and othersIkuno IncidentOccurred in a chain[42]. AlsoTosa DomainThen I chanted the Emperor of the ClanTakeshi SeosanLed byTosa Emperor's Party(Clan Consul in the previous yearToyo YoshidaWas suppressed by the former feudal lord, Toyonobu Yamauchi, who returned to the Kobu Gattai, and the revered forces retreated.

Furthermore, in the Mito domain, 1864May 5(MotoharuFirst yearMay 3),Koshiro Fujita-Takeda KounsaiEt al.Tengu Party Mt. TsukubasanRaised soldiers.There was also an incident that was destroyed by the pursuit of the Shogunate army at the request of the Mito Domain (→Tengu Party Rebellion[43].

Under these circumstances, the Choshu clan, the center of the Sonno Jōi faction, whose influence had declined since the political change on August XNUMXth of the previous year, was enthusiastic about advancing to Kyoto.Aizu clan custody that was in charge of maintaining security in Kyoto from time to timeShinsengumiBut,Ikedaya IncidentHe killed several scholars of the Choshu clan and other scholars, so he was forced to add oil to the fire, and the Choshu clan soldiers finally moved to Tokyo. 1864May 8(First year of GenjiMay 7), Clashed with the Shogunate and the Aizu / Satsuma army, which were defending Kyoto, and a battle involving the area around the Imperial Palace was held (→Forbidden).In this battle, the Choshu clan, which was covered in a defeated land, became a rebel and was expelled from Kyoto, and a conquest army was dispatched from the shogunate.[44].. furtherMay 9(First year of GenjiMay 8), The Far East Fleet of the United Kingdom, France, the United States, and the Netherlands joined forces to attack Shimonoseki in retaliation for the bombardment of foreign ships in Shimonoseki the previous year.Choshu, which is inferior in equipment, was defeated here as well, and the Choshu clan was in trouble (Shikoku Fleet Shimonoseki bombardment case[45].

Satcho Alliance and Choshu War (1864-1866)

To the Choshu clan who became a rebelConquest of ChoshuWas announced and became the general generalTokugawa Yoshikatsu(Owari DomainMain), deputy generalMatsudaira Mochiaki(Fukui feudal lord), Saigo Takamori (Satsuma feudal lord) was appointed as a staff member.September of the first year of the Genji era in OsakaKatsu KaishuSaigo, who realized the disadvantage of exercising his strength against the Choshu clan after the meeting with him, decided to avoid the start of the war and draw an apology from the Choshu clan.After the defeat in the Shimonoseki bombardment of the Shikoku fleet, the shokasonjuku-affiliated low-ranking feudal lords retreated.Tota RinashiThere was a secular sect centered on Fudai daimyō.Because he approved the acceptance of the surrender conditions presented by Saigo, such as the execution of the person in charge, following the Kyojun route to the Shogunate.Second Choshu ExpeditionWas to be avoided[Annotation 3][46].

However, at the end of the same year, as the former Joi faction continued to be purged within the Choshu clan.Nomura NomuraShinsaku Takasugi, who was encouraged by the Kiheitai, confronted various units such as the Kiheitai.ChofuKozanji TempleRaised soldiers atKozan-ji revolt).At the beginning of the following year, the basket of the central part of the clanHagi CastleAttacked, destroyed the secular faction, and regained the clan theory to the anti-curtain faction[47]..Due to the re-conversion of the clan theory, the frustration of the Choshu clan that did not fulfill the prescribed surrender conditions increased, and Nagamichi OgasawaraBill of accountsOguri TadanoriThe theory of reconquest of Choshu by hardliners emerged, and Shogun Iemo went up again.

On the other hand, although it was specified in the Ansei Treaties, the port was not opened because there was no permission from the imperial court.Hyogo(Kobe Port) Britain over the problemMinisterPerksThe British-French Combined Fleet led by1865May 11(KeioFirst yearMay 9), Approaching off Hyogo (Hyogo port opening request case[48]..Parks and others, who thought that the shogunate had deliberately stagnated diplomacy due to consideration for the sect, said that the obstacles should have been removed when Satsuma abandoned the sect, and intimidated him to open the port of Hyogo or seek a treaty permit. I went there.As a concession plan, Britain has also shown its willingness to reduce the Shimonoseki war reparations.Rōjū aiming for diplomacy led by the ShogunateMasabe Abe-Takahiro MatsumaeTokugawa Yoshinobu, who attaches great importance to cooperation with the imperial court, is reluctant to open the port of the Shogunate alone in response to this move.The imperial court issued an order to dismiss Abe and Matsumae, who decided to open the port of Hyogo at their own discretion. There was confusion such as Iemochi leaking the resignation of the shogun.While persuading Iemochi, Yoshinobu gathered various feudal lords in Tokyo over the treaty and the opening of Hyogo.May 11(First year of KeioMay 10) Allowed the imperial court to approve the treaty (opening of Hyogo port postponed)[48]..The Shikoku fleet left off Hyogo as the British purpose of obtaining an agreement to amend tariffs was also achieved.Next time1866May 6(Keio2May 5)Tax break agreementWas signed and import tariffs were significantly reduced, resulting in a sharp increase in Japanese imports.Japan's handicraft cotton fabrics were hit hard by the inability to compete with cheap mass-produced cotton products.[48][49].

Under these circumstances, the Satsuma domain gradually began to show a non-cooperative attitude toward the Shogunate, and the minister to Japan.Harry parks,Ernest SatoUnder the advice of, seek a partnership with the Choshu clan.Ronin Tosa under the patronage of the Satsuma DomainRyoma SakamotoAlso, with Tosa RoninShimonosekiI was following Sanjo Sanetomi and others who had been blocked inShintaro NakaokaThe two feudal lords of Satsuma Choshu are approaching each other in a rotating manner.[50]..After undergoing economic cooperation such as Satsuma purchasing weapons instead of the Choshu clan, which was nominated as a rebel and was unable to purchase ostensibly weapons,1866May 3(Keio 2th yearMay 1), Takayoshi Kido, Saigo and others witnessed in the residence of the Satsuma domain in Kyoto.Chief allianceSecret agreement was signed[50].

Coincidentally, the Shogunate announced the second Choshu expedition the day after the Satcho Alliance was signed.May 7(Keio 2th yearMay 6), But after cooperating with Satsuma, prepare the armaments andMasashiro OmuraChoshu troops trained in Western military art overwhelm the Shogunate army[51]..1866 amid a series of defeats by the Shogunate forces in various parts of the countryMay 8(Keio 2th yearMay 7) IemochiOsaka CastleDied of illness[51].Tokugawa familyYoshinobu who inheritedConquestAlthough he shows his will, he turns around and seeks peace.HiroshimaKatsu Kaishu, the messenger of the Shogunate, and the messenger of ChoshuHirosawa Saneomi-Jun InoueBetween themArmistice agreementWas tied, and the second Choshu expedition came to an end.

Taisei Hokan and Restoration (1866-1867)

After Iemochi's death, Yoshinobu Tokugawa, the guardian of the shogun, inherited the Tokugawa So family.Conqueror GeneralHe refused to take up the post.But five months later1867May 1(Keio 2th yearMay 12) Finally, he was appointed as a shogun under the command of the shogun, and announced that he would conquer Choshu as a mourning battle for Iemochi.Emperor Komei relied very much on Yoshinobu and opposed Shigenori Oohara and others against the Choshu expedition.22 LordWas enough to punish[52]. But,May 1(Keio 2th yearMay 12)smallpoxBecause the emperordemiseTo[52].May 2(Keio 3th yearMay 1) Was carried by Emperor Meiji ()Emperor Meiji).

Saigo of the Satsuma DomainToshimichi OkuboThey sought the Yuhan Union to take the initiative in the political affairs, Hisamitsu Shimazu, Matsudaira Yoshinaga, Munenori Date,Mountain contents hallEncouraging (former Tosa feudal lord) to move to Tokyo,May 6(Keio 3th yearMay 5From) Shiho ConferenceWas held to discuss the issue of opening Hyogo and disposing of Choshu with Yoshinobu Tokugawa, but Yoshinobu's political power surpassed and the lack of unity of the Four Hou Conference was incapacitated.[53].May 6(Keio 3th yearMay 5)regentNijo NariyukiMany belowLordYoshinobu's initiative was being established, such as the edict of the opening of Hyogo Port, which had been a long-standing concern, due to the all-night morning meeting.In addition, Yoshinobu is the French ministerRocheIn addition to the French-style military training that received the advice ofTakeaki EnomotoUnderShogunate NavyWas prepared[54]..Oguri KozukeKurimoto plow cloudThey also took the lead in discussing a large loan with France.In addition, the Rōjū system has been revised, and the Rōjū leaderKatsushika Itakura(Bitchu Matsuyama DomainEach old man with the prime minister as the prime ministerarmy-NavyA form similar to that of the Cabinet, which also serves as the president of each of the ...Keio Reforms[54].

In this situation, the Shogunate was trying to bring it back to life, and Satsuma and Choshu realized that they could only overcome the situation by force, and the Tosa Domain.Geshu DomainTo take in.In the Tosa domainShojiro GotoHowever, partly due to the influence of Ryoma Sakamoto, he proposed the Taisei Hokan to avoid the armed defeat route, and the Satsuma Domain agreed with this.May 7(Keio 3th yearMay 6)Satsudo AllianceIs concluded[55]..This was a measure to confess to Yoshinobu Tokugawa that he would voluntarily return to power, and if refused, switch to pressure by force.However, he is reluctant to activate troopsMountain contents hallAlso, the Satsuma domain decided that Yoshinobu's refusal was the cause and that only armed forces would be used, so from the disagreement between the two domains.May 10(Keio 3th yearMay 9) The pact is canceled.After all, the Tosa domain was on October 10 (29rd year of Keio).May 10) Yamauchi Toyoshige independently submitted a white paper on the repatriation of the Taisei Hokan to Itakura in the old age.[55]..On the other hand, Okubo and Saigo of the Satsuma domain formulated a political change plan with the Choshu and Geshu domains against the background of force.In addition, I worked with Tomomi Iwakura, who was hiding in Rakuhoku,Nakayama Tadayasu(Grandfather of Emperor Meiji) ・Nakamikado Keiyuki-Masachika Town Sanjo Real LoveBy1867May 11(Keio 3th yearMay 10)Secret imperial religionWas given[56]..However, Yoshinobu Tokugawa adopted the suggestion of Yamauchi Toyoshige, and on the same dayResignationTo the Emperor Meiji[Annotation 4], The debate group lost the cause.The administration by the Edo Shogunate was formally terminated by the repatriation of the Taisei Hokan.

Yoshinobu in 1867May 11(Keio 3th yearMay 10), But the shogunate's resignation was left for the time being, and the shogunate's rule remained virtually unchanged.Iwakura, Okubo and others to overturn this situationCoup d'etatPlan.1868May 1(Keio 3th yearMay 12),Great command of the royal revivalWas issued, the resignation of Yoshinobu's general post was approved, the shogunate, regent, Kampaku, etc. were abolished, and the establishment of a new government consisting of the president, decree, counselors, etc. was announced based on the emperor's pro-government.[57]..It was held on the same night while guarding the Satsuma Domain soldiers.Kogosho meetingIn, the agenda will be the resignation to Yoshinobu Tokugawa and the return of the territory.Yamauchi Toyoshige and Matsudaira Yoshinaga who participated in the meeting strongly opposed, but Iwakura and Okubo pushed it out, and it was decided to resign.[57]..In response to the decision, Yoshinobu retired to Osaka Castle, but the resignation place was gradually drained by the mediation of Yamauchi Toyoshige, Matsudaira Yoshinaga, and Tokugawa Yoshikatsu.Therefore, Saigo et al.Soraku SozoThey gathered the Ronin and caused a riot in Edo, provoking the former Shogunate side.Responsible for security throughout Edo CityShonai DomainAnd the accountant Oguri Kozuke and others were in a rage,Burning down the Satsuma domain's residence official[58].

Around this time, due to political instability and the hardships of living due to soaring prices,World rebirth"SmashFrequently occurs, and as a social phenomenon, "Come on, it's okA strange epidemic was widespread[59].

Boshin War (1868-1869)

When the news of the burning of the Satsuma feudal clan's residence in Edo was transmitted to Osaka Castle, the former shogunate soldiers in the castle were excited and started to advance to Kyoto with the "Satsuma table". 1868May 1(Keio 4th yearMay 1Tobakaido-Fushimi KaidoThe battle with the Satsuma army began in (Battle of Toba and Fushimi[58]..Means government armyNishiki no mihataTurned into the Satcho Alliance, and the Shogunate army became a thief army.Yodo Domain,Ano Tsu DomainThe defeat of the Shogunate army will be decisive two days later.[60]..Tokugawa Yoshinobu is a warshipKaiyo MaruEscaped to Edo, and the former Shogunate army collapsed.After that, a series of civil wars that took place until the following year was held in the 4th year of Keio.Zodiac signs(舊舰)Boshin War".During the Boshin War1868May 10(Lunar calendar November 9) From KeioMeijiIt was changed to.

Governor of ToseiAsArisugawa MiyajinWas appointed,Tokaido-Nakasendo-Hokuriku RoadTo the East Conquest Army (Government armyAlso called) was dispatched.On the other hand, the new government needs to set indicators for future administration,Fukuoka Takashi(Tosa Domain),YuriTakayoshi Kido of the Choshu clan revised the draft drafted by (Echizen clan) and others, and said, "Pledge of the Five ArticlesWas promulgated as.

In Edo, Oguri and his colleagues rejected the thorough anti-war route, and Yoshinobu expressed his decency.Katsu Kaishu was in the process of ending the war in response to Yoshinobu's will.Yamaoka RailwayCircumference byTenshin-inThe decisive battle was avoided by the appeal of Kazumiya and the Saigo-Katsu talks,Edo Castle is a bloodless castleThe Tokugawa family is from EdoSunpuIt was transferred to 70 stones.

However, the shogunate who were dissatisfied with this escaped andNorth Kanto,Hokuetsu,South TohokuContinued resistance in various places.Some areHonorable partyFormed(I.e.Kaneiji TempleI had a basket, butMay 7(Keio 4th yearMay 5) It will be suppressed in just one day by the Allied Forces of the various domains led by Masujiro Omura of the Choshu Domain (→Ueno War).

The Aizu and Shonai domains, which were guarding Kyoto and Edo in the old shogunate, were regarded as morning enemies, and although Aizu expressed his obedience to the emperor, he showed his will to arm himself against the new government, and the new government showed the will of armed hostility to the surrounding domains. In the situation where he was forced to send troops to Aizu.Under the leadership of the Sendai Domain, who hated to participate in the new government in an inferior position, and the Yonezawa Domain, who wanted to restore the old territory during the Warring States period, Mutsu, Dewa, and EchigoOuetsu Reihan AllianceWas formed and was in Tohoku after the Battle of Ueno as an allyRinojimiya Epiphany Hosshinno(LaterPrince Kitashirakawa Yoshihisa) Was supported.Nagaoka(→Hokuetsu War) ・ Aizu (→Aizu War) ・ Akita (→Akita War) Etc., but all of them ended in victory of the new government army.

oldShogunate NavyVice PresidentTakeaki EnomotoLeads the warships owned by the Bakufu, gathers the forces of the Bakufu side that were defeated in various places,Hakodate OfGoryokakuOccupy.Focusing on the samurai on the former shogunate sideMeiji governmentSeeking an independent government from (so-called ""Republic of Ezo”),Hakodate WarAs a result of the following 1869May 6(Meiji 2May 5) Surrender to the new government army,Boshin WarIs over.

Meanwhile, Satsuma, Choshu, Tosa,HizenBy the whitening ofRedemptionWas planned, and in September of the same year, the feudal lords (daimyo) returned the territory (print) and people (family register) to the government.Daming TheWisdomAnd separated from his vassals.1871May 8(Meiji 4May 7) HasAbandoned DomainWas carried out, both in name and realityBakuhan systemIs over (→Meiji Restoration).

国際 関係

Japan-US relationship

1846May 7(Hiroka3 years leapMay 5Secretary of StateJohn CalhounReceived the life ofJames BiddleHowever, he came to Uraga in search of trade.Biddle's arrival was only a confirmation of the feel, and when the Shogunate refused to do so, he immediately left.HoweverAmerican ink warAs a result, when California became an American territory, trading with China using the Pacific route became an important issue for the United States.In this case, it was desired to use a Japanese port as a supply base on the way.Therefore, the purpose of Perry's arrival was to open Japan as a supply port, and trade negotiations became secondary.as a result,1854 May 3(Kaei7May 3) Was signedJapan-US Treaty of Peace and AmityDid not include a trade clause.

Based on the Convention of Kanagawa1856May 8(Ansei3 May 7) To the first generationUS ConsulTownsend HarrisCame to Japan.Harris first negotiated additional provisions of the Convention of Kanagawa, and when it was signed as the Shimoda Agreement,1858May 1(Ansei4 May 12From)US-Japan Amity and Trade TreatyStarted negotiations in the same yearMay 7(5th year of AnseiMay 6) Was signed (at this point HarrisMinisterPromoted to Edo, the embassyZenpukuji TempleOpened to).In this negotiationIwase TadashiProposed and accepted the exchange of ratification documents in the United States (First year of Mannen US Envoy).The envoy is1860May 5(MannobuFirst year leapMay 3)WashingtonBuchananPresidentI handed over the audience and ratification document to.We also visited many modern facilities on the way and touched on a part of Western civilization.

In this way, Japan's external relations in the early days of its opening were centered on the United States.Harris has a different diplomatic route from Europe, especially the United Kingdom, and is the British minister.Rutherford AllcockFrom now on, it was sometimes regarded as "too close to the shogunate."During negotiations on the Japan-US Treaty of Amity and Commerce, Harris said, "If the signing is delayed, the UK will impose a treaty under stricter conditions due to military power, so we should conclude a treaty on favorable terms for the United States and Japan." In fact, the Shogunate offered 12.5% ​​as a tariff on general goods, while Harris proposed and agreed on a higher 20%.This is the same yearclearWas pressedTianjin TreatyIt was much more advantageous than 7.5% ofAnsei Five-Country TreatyIs the so-called "Inequality treatyHowever, it was not a treaty that was particularly disadvantageous to the Shogunate at the time of signing.Tariffs are reasonableConsular courtThe shogunate rather welcomed the recognition.Also, unlike the Tianjin Treaty, there were unequal provisions for foreigners, such as restrictions on foreigners' domestic travel).ArrogantHarris remained in Edo even after the movement became active and the embassies of each country pulled it from Edo to Yokohama.I am familiar with the inside of the shogunateOpening of Niigata / Hyogo / Edo / Osaka / Postponement of opening of cityI agree with this when the Shogunate asks for it.

But,1861In 4 monthCivil WarAfter that, the United States' influence on Japan diminished.For example, the Shogunate was in 1861May 8(First year of BunkyuMay 7) Asked Harris to order two warships (frigate and corvette), but the US government was unable to accept them.On behalf of Harris, who resigned for health reasons1862May 5(Bunkyu2May 4) To the new minister Robert PruynHas arrived.The pull-in also initially followed Harris's own diplomacy.However, after the US merchant ship was bombarded by the Choshu clan (Shimonoseki case), Changed to a cooperative route with Britain and France.Pull-inFujiyama MaruI had a problem with ordering and lost the trust of the Shogunate.1865May 4(KeioFirst yearMay 3Anton PortmanReturned to Japan in the middle of his term as a deputy minister.1866May 1(First year of KeioMay 12) As the third ministerRobert Van ValkenburgHas arrived, but cooperation with Britain and France has not changed.Boshin WarThen outside the stationNeutralWas maintained.The shogunate is an ironclad warshipIroncladWas purchased, but could not be received because the United States declared neutrality, and it was handed over to the Meiji government after the neutrality was lifted.Hakodate WarIt had a considerable influence on the transition of.

Japanese-English relations

1849ToCantonConsul (since 1854Hong Kong Governor) BecameJohn bowringAimed to conclude a trade treaty with Japan at once instead of the Treaty of Amity and Friendship through negotiations against the background of naval power.However, the outbreak of the Crimean War has prevented Britain from allocating sufficient military power to the Asian region.1854September, Commander of the East India SquadronSterlingEntered Nagasaki in pursuit of Russia's Putyatin, which became an enemy country, but in 1854May 10(Kaei7May 8),Nagasaki magistrateMizuno TadanoriIs half forciblyAnglo-Japanese Friendship TreatyTie.As a result, Britain could only acquire the same rights as the United States, and the idea of ​​concluding a trade treaty did not come true.Although Bowing opposed the treaty, it was ratified after all because it was said that there was a merit that British ships could use Hakodate in the current state of war with Russia.Since thenArrow warBritain could not devote resources to diplomacy with Japan,Trade treatyAlso, it was behind the United States.The first generationBritish Minister(Consul General at the time of arrival)Rutherford AllcockIt is,1859May 7(Ansei6May 6)Edo CastleThe castle was climbed and ratification documents were exchanged.The embassyTakanawaTozenji TempleWas taken.

1860(MannobuIn the first year), the Shogunate was promised in the Ansei Treaties as a compromise with the Joi faction.Opening / postponement of opening of Hyogo / Niigata / Edo / OsakaWas offered to the countries that signed the treaty.US Minister Harris accepted this, but Alcock disagreed, saying that "the treaty should be complied with" and that "such significant changes should be discussed by sending an envoy to the treaty states."1861May 7(BunkyuFirst yearMay 5), The British embassy was attacked and Alcock escaped, but two embassy staff were injured ().First Tozenji Incident).After the incidentMay 8May 8For 2 days (first year of Bunkyu)May 7May 7) AlcockOld ageAndo Nobumasa,Young peopleSakai TadamasuHe had a secret talk with him and honestly confessed the decline in the power of the Shogunate.Also, at this meeting, AlcockRussian warship Tsushima occupation caseProposed and implemented by the Royal Navy for resolution).As a result, Alcock changed his mind that it was not a good idea to oppose the opening of the port and the postponement of the opening of the city, and was dispatched to Europe.Bunkyu Envoy to EuropeIt was decided to actively support (the negotiation mission to postpone the opening of the city).Alcock used his free time to return home to negotiate with the British government along with the envoy.1862May 6(2rd year of BunkyuMay 5London memorandumWas signed, and the opening of the port and the opening of the city were postponed for five years.Alcock has a delegationLondon World's FairArranged to attend the opening ceremony of the French ministerDuchesne de BercourtIn cooperation with them, the delegation arranged for them to learn about the advanced civilization and industry of Europe.

Chargé d'Affaires to the United Kingdom while Alcock is returning to JapanJohn NealeHowever, during this period, Japan-UK relations faced the greatest crisis.1862May 6(2rd year of BunkyuMay 5), The British Embassy was attacked again (Second Tozenji Incident).In addition, the same yearMay 9(2rd year of BunkyuMay 8)Namamugi IncidentThere has occurred.Commander of the British East India Squadron to urge the Shogunate to crack down on the Joi factionJames HopeProposed to consider Japan's naval blockade and limited attacks on some batteries, if necessary.This proposal is1863May 1He received an edict at the Privy Council meeting held in the presence of Queen Victoria.Britain demanded £ 1 for the Second Tozenji Incident and £ 10 for the Namamugi Incident.Negotiations were difficult, but the date of payment of compensation was set in 1863.May 6(3rd year of BunkyuMay 5) Was settled.However, at that time in KyotoTokugawa Igemo Emperor TakaakiIn 1863May 6(3rd year of BunkyuMay 5) Has promised to carry out the expulsion, and under the influence of this, the Shogunate has notified the postponement of payment.Neil is furious and commands the new East India Squadron to take military action against the ShogunateCuperI entrusted it to.It was just before the war, butOld ageNagayuki Ogasawara In 1863, the day before the execution of Joi, at his own discretion.May 6(May 5) Was paid a lump sum of £ 11, avoiding the war between the Shogunate and Britain.After the negotiations with the Shogunate were concluded, Neil decided to go to Kagoshima himself to negotiate with the Satsuma Domain.However, the negotiations broke down on August 1863, 8 (15rd year of Bunkyu).May 7), A battle has occurred (Satsuei War). same yearMay 11(May 10), The peace treaty of the Satsuma War was established, but this negotiation triggered the approach between Satsuma and Britain.

Based on the order to execute Joi, the Choshu clan began firing on foreign ships passing through the Shimonoseki Straits, and the Kanmon Straits were impassable. In March 1864 (February 3th year of Bunkyu), Alcock, who returned to Japan after his free time, launched an armed attack on the Choshu clan and decided to "inform him that it would be impossible to slaughter."Alcock obtained the agreement of the French, orchid, and US ministers in 4.May 9(4rd year of BunkyuMay 8), The Combined Fleet of the Four Nations bombarded the battery of Shimonoseki, and landed and occupied the Japanese Navy Land Force (Shimonoseki War).However, this action was considered "overkill" by the home government, and Alcock was summoned to his home country.Through this incident, Britain also built a relationship with the Choshu clan.

The compensation for the Shimonoseki War was a huge amount of 300 million dollars, but the payment was to be made by the Shogunate.New ministerHarry parksThought that even if the compensation was reduced, it would be more beneficial for Britain to open Hyogo early.At that time, the main shoguns under Shogun Iemochi Tokugawa were staying in Kyoto.For this reason, Parks is a treaty imperial (this idea is an interpreterErnest Sato Ito HirobumiIn order to request the early opening of the port in Hyogo, I invited France, Orchid, and the United States, and brought eight warships with me.1865May 11(KeioFirst year May 9) Came off the coast of Hyogo and engaged in coercive negotiations (Hyogo port opening request case).As a result, although the early opening of Hyogo was not permitted,May 11(First year of KeioMay 10) ToAnsei Five-Country TreatyThere was an edict for.In addition, an agreement was reached on a tariff review, and the next1866May 6(Keio 2th year May 5)Tax break agreementWas signed, and import tariffs were significantly reduced.As a result, Japan's imports surged and some industries were hit hard.

Parks maintained its position of non-intervention in domestic affairs in accordance with the policy of its home country.However, in addition to visiting the territories of some influential daimyo himself, his subordinates Sato and othersMittford, And even civiliansThomas GloverUsing, "Restoration ShishiI also actively contacted them.However,Yoshiki TokugawaI highly appreciate it, and I did not expect the Shogunate to collapse.However, at the same time, in preparation for such a situation, he had previously requested the credential of Queen Victoria to the emperor from the home government.For this reason, after the establishment of the new government1868May 5(Keio 4th year leapMay 4), I was able to approve the new government as soon as possible.

Britain is out of the office when it comes to the Boshin WarNeutralWas declared, and other countries followed suit.In addition, regarding the new government army's total attack on Edo Castle, Parks said, "Attacking against non-resisting Tokugawa Yoshinobu isUniversal LawOpposed as "contrary to"Edo Bloodless KaijoIt is also said to have contributed to this.

Japan-France relations

France isRyukyu KingdomBetweenRyubutsu Preference TreatyIt had signed (1855), but unlike the United States, Britain, Russia, and Lan, it did not have a peace treaty with Japan.1858May 10(Ansei5May 9)ofJapan-France Treaty of Good TradeBecame the first treaty between the two countries.Next time1859May 9(6th year of AnseiMay 8), First Consul (later minister)Gustave Duchesne de BercourtHas arrived.Duchesne de Bercourt is basically in step with the UK,Namamugi IncidentIf Britain later took military action, France would take over the defense of Yokohama.However, after negotiations on the Namamugi Incident, Duchesne de Bercourt gradually took a pro-Bakufu position.1863(BunkyuIn the fall of 3rd year, the Shogunate began to talk about the chain of Yokohama, but while the ministers of each country refused to do so, only Duchesne de Bercourt showed his understanding.Yokohama Chain Port Interpretation MissionAssisted the dispatch of.1864May 4(4rd year of BunkyuMay 3), Duchesne de Bercourt succeeds the missionLeon RochesHowever, the old man pleaded with the French government for Duchesne de Bercourt's stay.For this reason, Roche can also build a close relationship with the Shogunate, and France will be more actively involved in the policies of the Shogunate.

February 1864 (MotoharuAugust 8st year), the shogunateShozuru MaruRepairs while anchored in YokohamaFranceI asked the warship crew.Due to the integrity of the work on the French side at this time, the Shogunate came to strongly trust France.Yokosuka WorksAsked France to build1865May 10(KeioFirst yearMay 8) Was started.Construction funding was estimated at $ 240 million.Initially, the shogunate planned to export raw silk directly for this payment, but it was not realized due to the opposition of Britain.

Furthermore, RocheOguri TadanoriRequested to support a $ 600 million loan,1866May 9(Keio 2th yearMay 8), The contract was once concluded.Oguri planned to use this $ 600 million to strengthen the armament of the Shogunate, overthrow Satsuma and Choshu, create a centralized nation centered on the Shogunate, and achieve modernization of Japan. 1866May 12(Keio 2th yearMay 11 ), RocheYoshiki TokugawaProposed reform of the shogunate government at the request ofKeio ReformsRealized as.1867May 1(Keio 2th yearMay 12From)French military advisory groupbyShogunate armyTraining has also begun.Yoshinobu's younger brotherTokugawa AkitakeAs Yoshinobu's nameParis World ExpositionDispatched to, thenParisI was studying abroad at.

However, as the foreign minister of his home country changed and began to take cooperative measures with the United Kingdom, the loan was suspended and Roche was abandoned from his home country.Battle of Toba and FushimiAfter being defeated, Yoshinobu Tokugawa returned to Edo, but Roche climbed the castle three times and urged Yoshinobu to come back.However, Yoshinobu refused this.Later, when British minister Parks proposed an out-of-office neutrality, Roche had no choice but to obey it.Soon Roche was dismissed as a minister and his successor took a joint line with Britain.

Sino-Japanese relations

The Netherlands is isolatedDejimaIs allowed to trade inDutch bookWas reporting overseas circumstances to the Shogunate.furtherOpium WarAfter that startsSpecial style bookWas created to report in detail the British advance into China by force.1844May 8(HirokaFirst yearMay 7The warship Palembang, which entered Nagasaki in), was the King of the Netherlands.Willem IHe carries his letter and recommends that he open the country peacefully before being forced by force.I was reappointed in old ageMizuno TadakuniInsisted on opening the country, but could not obtain the consent of other shoguns, and the shogunTokugawa IekeiThe Shogunate refused this, partly because of the opposition.1852April (KaeiJune 5),Janus Henricus KurtiusArrived,Dejima OfDirector of the Dutch Trading HouseHowever, this was a personnel affair in anticipation of the opening of the country, and Curtius was qualified to act as a diplomat.Curtius foretold Perry's arrival in a special essay and submitted a draft trade treaty for East India Governor-General Van Twist, but negotiations were not reached.

1853May 7(Kaei 6 yearsMay 6), Perry arrived and left after announcing his return the following year, but the Shogunate ordered a warship and offered to train its crew through Curtius in preparation for the opening of the country.This offer was made with Captain Fabius of the Smoothing, which arrived in March of the following year (February, Kaei 3).Nagasaki magistrateMizuno TadanoriMore materialized among, 1854May 11(Kaei 7 yearsMay 9), Two Corvettes in the Netherlands (Kanrinmaruas well as the Chaoyang Maru) Was ordered.further,1855May 12(2th year of AnseiMay 10May 10th)Nagasaki Navy Training SchoolWas established and the Netherlands donated the Smoothing as a training ship (laterSightseeing circle).Herhard Pers Reiken(the first),Willem Huyssen van KattendikeAn instructor group headed by (second) was dispatched.This achievement was recognized1856May 1(2th year of AnseiMay 12)Japan-Ranch Friendship TreatyWas signed, and Curtius became a director of the Netherlands in Japan.1857May 10(4th year of AnseiMay 8), An additional treaty between Japan and the Netherlands was signed, and although it was not free trade, a significant expansion of trade was recognized.

1858(Ansei 5th year) In the spring, Curtius and his aideDirk de Graeff van PolsbrookWent out to Edo and started negotiations on a trade treaty, which was about a month behind the US-Japan Treaty of Amity and Commerce, but in 1.May 8(5th year of AnseiMay 7Sino-Japanese Treaty of CommerceI got to the signing.Polsbrook1863He became a minister (diplomatic clerk) in July (June, 7rd year of Bunkyu),Shimonoseki War,Hyogo port opening request caseAt that time, we took a joint step with Britain, France and the United States.In addition, Polsbrook was actively involved in concluding treaties with the Shogunate with European countries such as Switzerland, Belgium and Denmark.

Nagasaki Naval Training Center1859It was closed in (Ansei 6) due to lack of funds,1862Became the largest warship of the Shogunate Navy in (2nd year of Bunkyu)Kaiyo MaruWas ordered by the Netherlands.To underwrite a warship,Takeaki EnomotoFifteen international students were sent to the Netherlands.1867May 5(Keio 3th yearMay 4), Kaiyo Maru was handed over to the Shogunate.

Derived from the Naval Training CenterNagasaki English School,Nagasaki nursery schoolHas changed its name and is still alive today.Where,Verbeck,Pompe,Bauduin,HaratamaThey contributed to education and contributed to human resource development at the end of the Edo period and the beginning of the Meiji era.

Japan-Russia relations

Russia's interest in Japan was high, partly because it was geographically close to Japan.Already1705(Hoei2 years)St. PetersburgA Japanese language school has been established in Japan.1771(Meiwa8 years),ハンガリーPeopleMaurice Benyovski KamchatkaEscape fromAwaCame toDirector of the Dutch Trading HouseThrough "RussiaEzoWe are planning an attack on them. "As a result, there is a growing sense of caution about Russia.1781(TenmeiAround the first year) Kudo HeisukeAka Ezo style theoryWritten and read thisTanumaHas advanced the exploration and development of Ezo.I also considered trading with Russia,1786He lost his position in (Tenmei 6) and did not realize it.

The first Russians to seek trade with JapanYakutskMerchantPavel Lebedev-Last ChickenIs.After a few failures1778(Ernst & YoungIn 7th year), Dmitry Shabarin, a subordinate of the last chicken, and Ivan Antipin, a student of a Japanese language school in "Siberian aristocrats", Ezo.AkkeshiCame toMatsumae clanSucceeded in contact with.The group also arrived the following year, but the Matsumae domain refused to trade at its own discretion the following year and was not reported to the Shogunate.Kansei4 years(1792)Adam LuxmanFormally asked for trade.RōjūMatsudaira SadanobuIs a permit to enter Nagasaki in consideration of limited trade with Russia.ConfidenceWas delivered.However, Laxman returned to Japan without going to Nagasaki.1804(cultureFirst year), I had this credibilityNikolai RezanovCame to Nagasaki.However, the definite confidence has already been lost, and the negotiations have failed.Rezanov got angry, his subordinates1807Let (4th year of culture) attack Ezo (XNUMXth year of culture)Invasion of culture), Japan-Russia relations became tense.For this reason, Ezochi was temporarily under the direct control of the Shogunate.After that, the tension was eased as Russia's interest turned to the Black Sea.1821(BunseiIn 4th year), Ezochi was returned to the Matsumae domain.

1853May 8(Kaei6May 7), About a month behind PerryEffim PucharchinCame to Nagasaki,Japan-Russia Treaty of PeaceNegotiations have begun, but the signing is1855May 2(AnseiFirst yearMay 12), And negotiations began laterAnglo-Japanese Friendship TreatyI was late.This is because the Japan-Russia Treaty of Shimoda discussed the issue of the Japan-Russia border.KarafutoThe border between the two countries was not settled and it was regarded as a mixed area of ​​both countries.afterwards,1859In August (July 8th Ansei)MuravyovArrival,1862April (Bunkyu(July 2)Bunkyu Envoy to EuropeDiscussions were held during the visit to Russia, but they were not settled and finally1867May 3(Keio3May 2)Japan-Russia Sakhalin Tentative RuleWas tentatively signed, but the Shogunate did not ratify it.Border issues1875(Meiji8 years)May 5 OfKarafuto-Kishima Exchange TreatyI saw a tentative conclusion.

When Muravyov arrived, two Russian Navy soldiers were killed by a samurai warrior.This was the first murder of a foreigner at the end of the Tokugawa shogunate, but Muravyov did not claim compensation.

Russia, unlike other countries, has a consulate generalHakodateBecause I was there, I was hardly involved in Japan's internal affairs.However1861May 3(BunkyuFirst yearMay 2) For about half a year, Russian warshipsPosadnikOccupies the tip of Tsushima potatoes in the name of repairing a ship (Russian warship Tsushima occupation case) Is occurring.The Shogunate could not deal with it alone, and British intervention resulted in the evacuation of Russian warships.

German-Japanese relationship

The unification of Germany1871Therefore, it was initially diplomatic.Prussia,continueNorthern GermanyMet.

Siebold,KaempferSuch,Dutch East India CompanyThere was a German (a person whose native language is German) who visited Japan as an employee of the company, but the official relationship is1861May 1(Man'enFirst yearMay 12)EulenburgBegins with the signing of the Treaty of Amity and Commerce with the Shogunate.This negotiation was difficult. 2 years agoAnsei Five-Country TreatyUnlike, there is a lot of momentum in Japan, and even more.PrussiaNot only in the treatyGerman Customs UnionThis is because it requested that more than thirty countries such as countries be included.In the end, the treaty was signed only with Prussia, but the treaty was negotiated.Hori ToshihiroIs committing a mysterious suicide.

He came to Japan with Eulenburg as the first Consul to Japan.Max von BrandtWas appointed.At that time Prussia was seeking a colony abroad, but Brandt was in Ezo.LandlessHe claimed that he could occupy a fleet of more than a dozen ships and 5 landers.[61].. actually,Boshin WarOn the occasionAizu Domain-Shonai DomainOf the Ezo land thatNemuro,RumoiHe had proposed a partnership with Prussia in exchange for the transfer of the Prime Minister at the time.BismarckDid not admit this[62]..Brant believed that the Boshin War would be a long-term war, and in some cases Japan would split north and south.Outside the office as well as Britain, France, Lan, America and ItalyNeutralWas declared, butOuetsu Reihan Alliancenot onlyHakodate administrationAlso showed a sympathetic attitude.He was also the clerk of the Prussian Consulate.Henry SnellRetired from the consulate and served as a military adviser to the Ouetsu Clan Alliance, and his younger brother Edwald established the Snell Company to supply weapons to the Alliance.However, the situation did not affect the battlefield, and the diplomatic relations between Japan and Prussia were maintained even after the end of the war.However, the farm run by the Prussian merchant Gartonel in the suburbs of Hakodate is said to be at risk of colonization from this point, and the Meiji government has paid compensation to collect it (Garutner Clearing Treaty Case).






private school

Thoughts at the end of the Edo period


Foreign relations


  • Bakuhan system(Bakuhan system theory absolutism, rehabilitation situation theory, etc.)

Derived from Sakuma, mainly in the Tohoku region (Ouetsu Reihan Alliance-Republic of Ezo) Was strong.


Weapons at the end of the Edo period

The shogunate and each clan tried to compete for the latest Western weapons for defense and security, and later for the defeat movement and its countermeasures.However, during the long seclusion, the gap with Western military technology was widening, and it was difficult to make it by itself, including ammunition, so most of it was purchased from foreign merchants.

Japanese swordAs for, of the Sonno Jōi factionAspirantBetweenEmperor sword,The Japanese sword fittingsA long length called about 3 shaku with little warpageKnifeBecame popular, and the Samurai faction began to use long swords as a countermeasure.


Sengoku periodSince then the gun.With the arrival of Taihei under the control of the Shogunate, incentives for evolving and improving weapons have become less likely to occur.Also from combat maneuvers to competitionGunneryAs it became more popular, major modifications of tools could be avoided.
Gewehr gun
In the muzzle-loading smoothbore gun, use an ignition method other than the fuselagecheekJapanese style to hitStocknotshoulderThose with a Western-style stock that hits and receives recoil.flintTo useFlintlock typeSince it does not require a matchlock or fire type, it is easier to operate in Japan where it rains a lot, but the accuracy of the hit is inferior to that of a matchlock gun because the impact of the hammer spring is large and the time lag from operation to launch is long.LaterPercussion typeHas the same accuracy and range as a matchlock, but it can be used without problems even in the rain.For this reason, imitations and improved products were produced in Japan as well.
Front loadingRifle.RiflingAlthough the accuracy of the hit was significantly improved by adding the, it became difficult to hit with the muzzle loader because it was necessary to let the bullet bite into the rifling.
Minié rifle
FranceMuzzle loader rifle made. The invention of a unique bullet called the "Minié rifle" makes it easier to load.It was also used as the main gun of both armies because of its high accuracy.
Enfield gun
The United KingdomMuzzle loader rifle made.The Enfield brand Minié rifle was called the Enfield gun in Japan at the end of the Edo period.Civil WarInConfederateIt was the main rifle of, but at that timeWesternStrong lineDue to the fact that it was obsolete, a large amount of surplus goods were imported into Japan after the end of the war.
Dryse gun
PrussiaMade of needle-loading breech-loading rifle.Bolt action methodPractical breech loaderRifleIt ’s the first in the world, butPaper cartridge podsThe leak of the propellant gas was severe, and the power was weak.Needle-driving type.Also with a Tunnar gun.
Chassepot gun
FranceBreech loaderRifle..Emperor of the FrenchNapoleon IIIThanShogunateWas sent toShogunateGiven to the elite troops of the army.It was an improved version of the Dreyse gun and was the most advanced gun in the world at that time.However, it was difficult to procure special ammunition in Japan, and it did not affect the majority of the battlefield.
Snider gun
The United KingdomMade.Minié rifle-Enfield gunWas remodeled into a breech loader..A modern boxer patron made of paper and brasscartridgeUse the prototype of.Early Meiji eraarmyBecomes the main rifle of.
Spencer gun
AmericaBreech loaderRifle.. It was a lever action rifle that could fire 7 times in a row, but it was expensive and valuable, and had the disadvantage of not being able to shoot prone.


Armstrong cannon
Made of steelBreech loaderRifle cannon..A pointed shell filled with charge and fitted with a fuze was used.Since it is a breech loader, the loading time can be significantly shortened compared to the conventional method.HizenSaga DomainUsed.
Four-sided cannon
Breech loaderRifle cannon..OriginallyMountain gunHowever, the main force of both armiesField gunWas used as.Originally developed in France, but domestically produced by the ShogunateSekiguchi FactoryAnd Satsuma DomainShuseikanBut it was manufactured.
Gatling gun
America'sCivil WarThe earliest practical, developed in the periodmachine gun.Saga Domain,Tsunenosuke KawaiLed byEchigo Nagaoka DomainIs used.Crossed over to the new government armyArmored ship-IroncladIt is also installed inBattle of Miyako BayHas been successful in battle.


  • Domestic ship
    • Phoenix Maru --Building the Shogunate.
    • Shoheimaru --Building the Satsuma Domain.
    • Kimizawa form --Mass production of the Heda, which was built by the Shogunate under the guidance of Russians.
    • Tatsumaru --Building of the Choshu clan.
    • --Building the Sendai Domain.
    • Chiyodagata --Building the Shogunate.The only domestic steamship.
  • Foreign-made ships
    • Sightseeing circle --A former Dutch warship donated by the Netherlands to the Shogunate.Paddle wheel.
    • Kanrinmaru --The Shogunate placed an order with the Netherlands and built a new one.
    • Chaoyang Maru --The Shogunate placed an order with the Netherlands and built a new one.
    • Current circle --The Saga domain placed an order with the Netherlands and built a new one.
    • Kaitenmaru --A former German warship imported by the Shogunate.Paddle wheel.
    • Kaohsiung Maru(Kaiten) --A former American ship imported by the Akita domain.
    • Fujiyama Maru --The Shogunate placed an order with the United States and built a new one.
    • Kaiyo Maru --The Shogunate placed an order with the Netherlands and built a new one.It was the largest warship in Japan around the end of the Edo period.
    • East ship --Former United States with which the Shogunate made an import contractConfederateWarship (made in France).Acquired by the Meiji government.Japan's only before and after the end of the Edo periodArmored shipIt was (Kotetsukan).


  • Shinagawadaiba -"DaibaAs the name suggests, it was built on the coasts and riverbanks of various places for the purpose of destroying foreign ships.
  • Goryokaku --Incorporating Western-style fortificationBastion fort.. at firstHakodate Port openedIt was built by the Shogunate to strengthen the defense force and establish a government office, but later the former Shogunate army became the last base and the new government armyHakodate WarWill be unfolded.
  • Shiryokaku --A four-pointed star-shaped fort built as a branch of Goryokaku. Also called "New Goryokaku", but actuallyField FortificationIt stays close to.
  • Tatsuoka Castle - HakodateSame format as Goryokaku.


[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ Same day,KurihamaUraga magistrateThe following 60 people were training in the artillery of the large cylinder.The training was on the third day.In the evening, four foreign ships passed offshore and anchored off Uraga.Two of them were steamships. (Katsuo Inoue "End of the Edo Period / Restoration" Series Japanese Modern History ① Iwanami Shoten <Iwanami Shinsho 4> 2, page 1042)
  2. ^ Kanji Ishii, "History of Greater Japan 12 Opening and Restoration," Shogakukan, 1989, pp. 25-27.
  3. ^ Kanji Ishii, "History of Greater Japan 12 Opening and Restoration," Shogakukan, 1989, pp. 28-31.
  4. ^ Kanji Ishii, "History of Greater Japan 12 Opening and Restoration," Shogakukan, 1989, pp. 37-40.
  5. ^ Kanji Ishii, "History of Greater Japan 12 Opening and Restoration," Shogakukan, 1989, pp. 36-37.
  6. ^ Yoshiki Seki, "The Treaty of Amity and Commerce between Japan and the United States, which was not" inequality, "" The man who opened Japan, Tadashi Matsudaira, the old man who laid the foundation for modern Japan, "Sakusha, 2020.
  7. ^ Kanji Ishii, "History of Greater Japan 12 Opening and Restoration," Shogakukan, 1989, pp. 50-52.
  8. ^ a b Kanji Ishii, "History of Greater Japan 12 Opening and Restoration," Shogakukan, 1989, pp. 51-52.
  9. ^ a b Kanji Ishii, "History of Greater Japan 12 Opening and Restoration," Shogakukan, 1989, p. 58.
  10. ^ a b Kanji Ishii, "History of Greater Japan 12 Opening and Restoration," Shogakukan, 1989, p. 59.
  11. ^ Kanji Ishii, "History of Greater Japan 12 Opening and Restoration," Shogakukan, 1989, pp. 59-60.
  12. ^ a b c Kanji Ishii, "History of Greater Japan 12 Opening and Restoration," Shogakukan, 1989, p. 60.
  13. ^ a b c "What is Ansei Purge?-Kotobank". 2021/9/17Browse.
  14. ^ "What is Kiuchi Iizumi?-Kotobank". 2021/9/17Browse.
  15. ^ "What is Yoshisuke Kobayashi?-Kotobank". 2021/9/17Browse.
  16. ^ "What is Isanji Kusakabe? --Kotobank". 2021/9/17Browse.
  17. ^ Kanji Ishii, "History of Greater Japan 12 Opening and Restoration," Shogakukan, 1989, p. 62.
  18. ^ Kanji Ishii, "History of Greater Japan 12 Opening and Restoration," Shogakukan, 1989, p. 91.
  19. ^ Kanji Ishii, "History of Greater Japan 12 Opening and Restoration," Shogakukan, 1989, p. 92.
  20. ^ "Read Again Yamakawa Modern History of Japan" Yasushi Toriumi
  21. ^ "What is the Russian Warship Tsushima Occupation Case?-Kotobank". 2021/9/17Browse.
  22. ^ Kanji Ishii, "History of Greater Japan 12 Opening and Restoration," Shogakukan, 1989, pp. 93-94.
  23. ^ Kanji Ishii, "History of Greater Japan 12 Opening and Restoration," Shogakukan, 1989, pp. 86-87.
  24. ^ Kanji Ishii, "History of Greater Japan 12 Opening and Restoration," Shogakukan, 1989, pp. 82-83.
  25. ^ Kanji Ishii, "History of Greater Japan 12 Opening and Restoration," Shogakukan, 1989, pp. 83-84.
  26. ^ Kanji Ishii, "History of Greater Japan 12 Opening and Restoration," Shogakukan, 1989, pp. 104-105.
  27. ^ Kanji Ishii, "History of Greater Japan 12 Opening and Restoration," Shogakukan, 1989, pp. 94-95.
  28. ^ Kanji Ishii, "History of Greater Japan 12 Opening and Restoration," Shogakukan, 1989, pp. 95-97.
  29. ^ Kanji Ishii, "History of Greater Japan 12 Opening and Restoration," Shogakukan, 1989, pp. 105-106.
  30. ^ Kanji Ishii, "History of Greater Japan 12 Opening and Restoration," Shogakukan, 1989, p. 106.
  31. ^ Kanji Ishii, "History of Greater Japan 12 Opening and Restoration," Shogakukan, 1989, p. 98.
  32. ^ a b Kanji Ishii, "History of Greater Japan 12 Opening and Restoration," Shogakukan, 1989, p. 100.
  33. ^ Kanji Ishii, "History of Greater Japan 12 Opening and Restoration," Shogakukan, 1989, p. 108.
  34. ^ Kanji Ishii, "History of Greater Japan 12 Opening and Restoration," Shogakukan, 1989, p. 107.
  35. ^ Kanji Ishii, "History of Greater Japan 12 Opening and Restoration," Shogakukan, 1989, pp. 97-98.
  36. ^ Taro Ichisaka, "The History of the Restoration at the End of the Edo Period," Chuokoron-Shinsha, 2020, pp. 58-61.
  37. ^ Kanji Ishii, "History of Greater Japan 12 Opening and Restoration," Shogakukan, 1989, p. 99.
  38. ^ Taro Ichisaka, "The History of the Restoration at the End of the Edo Period," Chuokoron-Shinsha, 2020, pp. 66-68.
  39. ^ Taro Ichisaka, "The History of the Restoration at the End of the Edo Period," Chuokoron-Shinsha, 2020, pp. 106-108.
  40. ^ a b c Kanji Ishii, "History of Greater Japan 12 Opening and Restoration," Shogakukan, 1989, p. 102.
  41. ^ a b Kanji Ishii, "History of Greater Japan 12 Opening and Restoration," Shogakukan, 1989, pp. 119-120.
  42. ^ Kanji Ishii, "History of Greater Japan 12 Opening and Restoration," Shogakukan, 1989, pp. 112-113.
  43. ^ Kanji Ishii, "History of Greater Japan 12 Opening and Restoration," Shogakukan, 1989, pp. 114-115.
  44. ^ Kanji Ishii, "History of Greater Japan 12 Opening and Restoration," Shogakukan, 1989, pp. 116-119.
  45. ^ Kanji Ishii, "History of Greater Japan 12 Opening and Restoration," Shogakukan, 1989, pp. 121-122.
  46. ^ Kanji Ishii, "History of Greater Japan 12 Opening and Restoration," Shogakukan, 1989, pp. 122-123.
  47. ^ Kanji Ishii, "History of Greater Japan 12 Opening and Restoration," Shogakukan, 1989, pp. 125-128.
  48. ^ a b c Kanji Ishii, "History of Greater Japan 12 Opening and Restoration," Shogakukan, 1989, pp. 129-130.
  49. ^ "What is a tax reform agreement?-Kotobank". 2021/9/17Browse.
  50. ^ a b Kanji Ishii, "History of Greater Japan 12 Opening and Restoration," Shogakukan, 1989, pp. 131-133.
  51. ^ a b Kanji Ishii, "History of Greater Japan 12 Opening and Restoration," Shogakukan, 1989, pp. 137-139.
  52. ^ a b Kanji Ishii, "History of Greater Japan 12 Opening and Restoration," Shogakukan, 1989, pp. 143-144.
  53. ^ Kanji Ishii, "History of Greater Japan 12 Opening and Restoration," Shogakukan, 1989, p. 151.
  54. ^ a b Kanji Ishii, "History of Greater Japan 12 Opening and Restoration," Shogakukan, 1989, pp. 146-147.
  55. ^ a b Kanji Ishii, "History of Greater Japan 12 Opening and Restoration," Shogakukan, 1989, pp. 152-153.
  56. ^ Kanji Ishii, "History of Greater Japan 12 Opening and Restoration," Shogakukan, 1989, pp. 151-152.
  57. ^ a b Kanji Ishii, "History of Greater Japan 12 Opening and Restoration," Shogakukan, 1989, p. 161.
  58. ^ a b Kanji Ishii, "History of Greater Japan 12 Opening and Restoration," Shogakukan, 1989, p. 162.
  59. ^ Kanji Ishii, "History of Greater Japan 12 Opening and Restoration," Shogakukan, 1989, pp. 154-155.
  60. ^ Kanji Ishii, "History of Greater Japan 12 Opening and Restoration," Shogakukan, 1989, pp. 162-163.
  61. ^ A.H. Baumann "Hokkaido Colonization Plan in the 19th Century-Comparative Study on the Proposals of Three Germans-" Journal of the Japanese Society of German Studies "History of Cultural Exchange between Japan and Germany" (3)
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注 釈

  1. ^ However, the consular court was rather requested by the Shogunate, and tariffs were also appropriate at this point.Rather, the problem was that it allowed gold-silver equivalent exchange →Currency problems at the end of the Edo period
  2. ^ Ogasawara does not intend to seriously negotiate and close the port, and has proclamed the merchants in Yokohama to be relieved because they will allow trade as before.
  3. ^ At this time, the hawkish shogunate advocating the strengthening of the shogunate wasMori-Mori HiroseHe tried to send his father and son and five lords to Edo, but Keikatsu ordered the withdrawal of troops before the order arrived.
  4. ^ I consulted with each feudal lord in Tokyo at Nijo Castle the day before.


A memoir of Japan at the end of the Edo period

A large number of memoirs have been written and photographs have been left by foreigners who came to Japan.The Japanese translation of the memoir is "New exotic series』(Yushodo Bookstore),Iwanami library,Kodansha Academic LibraryA considerable number have been published from.Also,Kyoji Watanabe"The Remnants of the Dead World" (Heibonsha Library, 2005), the contents of the main memoirs are introduced in detail.

There are many pictures,Takeshi OzawaHen "The Age of Photographs at the End of the Edo Period" (Chikuma art library, 1996),Yokohama Archives of History MuseumChapter "F. BeatoPhotobook 1. Landscape and People in Bakumatsu Japan ”,“ Same 2. Bakumatsu Japan Taken by Foreign Photographers ”(Akashi bookstore, 2006) is easy to read.In recent years, the development of digital technology has made it possible to reproduce coloring, and there are also published books using it (eg, "The Remnants of Edo", Futabasha Super Mook, 2011).

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