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📦 | "The anti-vaccine book that disappeared from Amazon is back" "The first step" The electronic version of the ban is lifted, "The first step", etc ...


"The anti-vaccine book that disappeared from Amazon is back" "The first step" The electronic version of the ban has been lifted, "The first step", etc ...

If you write the contents roughly
It is not just a misunderstanding of facts, but a fatal mistake of completely mistaking the premise of previous research.

Author: Ryo Takano From June 2021th to 6th, 20, "The anti-vaccine book that disappeared from Amazon is back" "" Hajime no Ippo ... → Continue reading

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Factual misunderstanding

Previous research

Previous research(Senkoukenkyu)


If you want to do some research in the field of science, you need to first look at previous research.If what you want to try is something that has already been done and the content remains the same, the research itself may be meaningless.But more important than that is knowing where the research you are trying to do is in the flow of science.If you understand it and consider the results you have obtained, the position of the judgments you can obtain from them will also become clear.This series of work is called "Research historyOrganize "[1].

If not found

There will be no previous research on areas that no one has focused on until then.This often creates a whole new development in the world of science, but in that case there is no other fact to support the treatise.When an academic paper is published without prior research, the legitimacy of the research theme, such as the possibility of the author's belief, may be questioned.

However, in the field of science, there are few research papers that have no previous research.This is partly because scientific research is based on technological improvements.Even in the experimental operation, for exampleBiology A detailed study ofmagnifying glassからmicroscopeIt is linked to the progress of science and technology.Therefore, new developments will be based on research using previous technologies.Normally, a completely new field does not exist independently of all previous fields, so at leastReferencesIs usually present.

However, there are cases where previous research is difficult to find and is discovered later.The famous oneMendel's lawsSo, about 40 years after the announcement, it turned out that it was already announced after it was announced as a new discovery.[Source required]..Originally, his research should be regarded as a previous research, and the results should exceed that.However, even in this case, many other studies on mating experiments are referenced.[Note 1].

A little more confusing is when previous research is in a different field.It sounds like a contradiction, but it's not unheard of.For example, it represents an increase in the number of living organismsモデルIsLogistic equationIt is,EcologyIn the field of20st centuryAt the beginningDrosophilaExperiments such asPopulationAlthough it was derived from the research of19st centuryToPierre-Francois FerfurstWas later found to have already been announced[Source required]..This is his studyDemographicsThis is because it was a different field dealing with the same phenomenon.

Nara UniversityDepartment of literature教授Norio Murakami (History of Japanese Culture) suggests the following four possible causes for not finding previous research.

  1. It may be a research theme that no one has noticed (has never dealt with) in the past.
  2. Too esoteric or withstands research and analysisPrimary materialPossibly a subject that is scarce and impossible to study.
  3. There is a possibility that it is a meaningless theme to study because the results are roughly understood by referring to or diverting existing research results.
  4. It is possible that the previous research could not be found (overlooked) simply because there was a flaw in the search method.

Of these, 1 is an extremely lucky case because it is easy to produce research results even if there is no previous research, and it can be a pioneering achievement in that research. Depending on the method, it may lead to research results, but regarding 2.3.Research historyHe says that the failure to organize is likely to have already done his research by someone in the past, leading to the most disastrous consequences.[2].

How to find

There are several ways to look for previous studies.

A typical method is to search for the reference in a treatise.If you are going to do research in a certain field, you should have seen at least a work with literature or description on the subject.If it's legitimate, you'll find references to it at the end of the book, etc.The treatises obtained in this way also have references, which makes it possible to go back further.If it's too big and old, you can't go all the way back, but in that process you'll be able to pick up important key literature.

It is also a basic method to search from search magazines.Since the search for such prior research is important in all fields, journals have been published to assist such search in fields of a certain size.They are often called abstracts and abstracts, and list the titles, authors, journal names, content summaries, keywords, etc. of the treatises published for each period in the past in the field. Can be found from there (reasonable).


Knowing previous research can change your perspectivePrejudice, Having a prejudice, which can distort research and its results.

Old timesFabreHowever, he has repeatedly warned against relying on examining previous studies.This is of his timeEntomologyThere was little decent research on habits, so it was useless and often wrong.Pasteur SilkwormI visited Fabre to gain basic knowledge for the study of illnesses, but at the same time I was surprised that Pasteur was too ignorant of the silk moth, and at the same time, new research was also done in such an innocent state. I praise it as possible.However, Fabre himself disregards previous research, so it is kind ofStink bug Egg massThere are also failures such as denying the observation that it protects[Source required].


注 釈

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ There is also a theory that they knew and ignored Mendel's work, which is one of the mysteries in the history of science.[Source required].


  1. ^ Murakami 2019, pp. 68-70.
  2. ^ Murakami 2019, pp. 45-47.


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