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The feature is that only the head of a small shrimp called Jakoebi caught in the Seto Inland Sea is removed, and the whole shell is minced and kneaded.

Aoki Gamoten Co., Ltd. (Headquarters: Shikokuchuo City, Ehime Prefecture, Representative Director: Yoshiomi Aoki), which manufactures and sells shrimp chikuwa, loves ... → Continue reading


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Seto Inland Sea

Seto Inland Sea(Setonaikai) isHonshuWestern,Shikoku,KyusyuSurrounded byJapanBiggestInland sea(Area is 2square kilometer). There are more than 700 islandsTeshikaiThe total length of the coastline is about 7,230km.[1],Yamaguchi ,Hiroshima,Okayama,Hyogo,Osaka,Wakayama,Tokushima,Kagawa,Ehime,Oita,FukuokaEach has a coastline.Including coastal areasSetouchiIt is also called (Setouchi), but it is not the name of the Seto Inland Sea, and the Seto Inland Sea means "Seto Inland Sea."Since ancient timesKinaiConnecting Kyushu withWest JapanProspered as the main route of.Surroundingclimate TheSeto Inland Sea climateIt is called, and it is warm and has little rainfall.

450 km east-west, 15-55 km north-south, average water depth: about 38 m[1], Maximum water depth: Approximately 105m (Toyo StraitandNaruto Strait).The Seto Inland Sea, which is the inland sea, has multiple island groups and is rich.EcosystemKnown for having.Was a doctor and a naturalistSieboldIt is a scenic spot that has been highly evaluated by many Westerners, includingSeto Inland Sea National ParkIs specified in[2].

Late 19th century1860,in JapanMeiji RestorationImmediately after visiting the Seto Inland Sea,Silk roadIs also the name ofGermanyPeopleGeographyA personFerdinand von Richthofen(Ferdinand Freiherr von Richthofen, 1833–1905) introduced to the world in his China Travel Diary that "there is nothing better than this in the world."[3]..It is still an area that is acclaimed as a scenic landscape.[4][5].


Range defined by IHO

International Hydrographic OrganizationIn "The Boundary between the Ocean and the Sea" published by (IHO) in 1953, the Seto Inland SeaEnglishIn versionSeto Naikai or Inland Sea,FrenchIn versionMer Intérieure (Seto Naikai)The range is defined as follows:[6][7].

Range stipulated by law

The waters of the Seto Inland Sea are treated differently depending on the purpose of the decree, and the scope is defined by multiple decree.

In the following quotes, some Chinese numerals are converted to arithmetic numerals.

Watersas well as the Connected water areaLaw Enforcement Ordinance (Territorial Waters Law Enforcement Ordinance) Article 1
  • 一 Kii Hinomisaki Lighthouse(north latitude33 degrees 52 minutes 55 seconds,east longitudeFrom 135 degrees 3 minutes 40 seconds)Cape Kamoda LighthouseLine drawn to (33 degrees 50 minutes 3 seconds north latitude, 134 degrees 44 minutes 58 seconds east longitude)
  • two Sadamisaki LighthouseFrom (33 degrees 20 minutes 35 seconds north latitude, 132 degrees 54 seconds east longitude)Sekizaki LighthouseLine drawn to (33 degrees 16 minutes north latitude, 131 degrees 54 minutes 8 seconds east longitude)
  • three Takenoko IslandFrom (33 degrees 57 minutes 2 seconds north latitude, 130 degrees 52 minutes 18 seconds east longitude)WakamatsuDokai BayLine drawn to the mouth breakwater lighthouse (33 degrees 56 minutes 28 seconds north latitude, 130 degrees 51 minutes 2 seconds east longitude)
* Internationally, this range is considered to be the Seto Inland Sea.
* At the western endKanmon StraitIt is the western end of.The entire Kanmon Straits and Dokai Bay are included in the Seto Inland Sea.
Setouchi Sea Environmental Conservation Special Measures Law (Setouchi Law) Article 2, Paragraph 1
The following sea levels surrounded by straight lines and shores, and sea levels adjacent to them, as specified by Cabinet Order.
  • Ichi Wakayama Prefecture Kii Station from Misaki Lighthouse Tokushima PrefectureIjimaas well as the MaejimaThroughCape GamotaStraight line leading to
  • Ehime prefectureCape SadaStraight line from Sekizaki Lighthouse, Oita Prefecture
  • Yamaguchi PrefectureHinoyamaStraight line from the lower lighthouse to the Fukuoka lighthouse
* "Cabinet Order" means the following "Ordinance for Enforcement of the Seto Inland Sea Environmental Conservation Special Measures Law".
* The western end is the narrowest part of the Kanmon Strait (close to the eastern end).Most of the Kanmon Straits and Dokai Bay are not included in the range of one to three.
Seto Inland Sea Environmental Conservation Special Measures Law Enforcement Ordinance Article 1
  • XNUMX (Omitted) From Ehime prefecture to Oita prefectureCape TsurumiSea level surrounded by straight lines leading to
  • XNUMX (Omitted) From Yamaguchi Prefecture Lighthouse to the same prefectureTsunoshimaThe straight line leading to, the straight line from the same Sai to Fukuoka Prefecture Lighthouse, and the sea surface surrounded by the shore
* Added to the range of XNUMX to XNUMX of the Setouchi method.
■Early sucking SetoAnd a considerable area outside the Kanmon Straits is included in the Seto Inland Sea.
Maritime Traffic Safety Act Enforcement Ordinance Article 1
* The western end is not mentioned.
Fisheries Law Enforcement Ordinance Article 27
  • A straight line from Kii Hinomisaki Lighthouse in Wakayama Prefecture to Cape Kamoda Lighthouse via Ishima and Maejima in Tokushima Prefecture
  • A straight line from Sadamisaki Lighthouse in Ehime Prefecture to Sekizaki Lighthouse in Oita Prefecture
  • A straight line from Hinoyamashita Current Signal Station in Yamaguchi Prefecture to Fukuoka Prefecture
* Almost the same as XNUMX-XNUMX of the Setouchi method.


The waters of the Seto Inland Sea

The Seto Inland Sea is composed of multiple sea areas.

"Law on territorial waters and connected waters], It is composed of the following 10 divided sea areas in order from the east side.

  1. Kii Channel
  2. Osaka Bay
  3. Harima Nada
  4. Bisan Seto
  5. Bingo Nada
  6. Hitanada
  7. Akinada
  8. Hiroshima Bay
  9. Iyo Nada
  10. Suo Nada

"Seto Inland Sea Environmental Conservation Special Measures Law] Is composed of a total of 10 categories, including the following 12 categories plus the following sea areas.

  1. Bungo ChannelNorth
  2. Hibiki Nada

There is no clear baseline (boundary) that indicates the individual sea areas of the above 12 divisions.


Natural treasureIsArthropod OfHorseshoe crab, SmallWhale OfSunameli,Long-beaked dolphin(In recent yearsIse bay,Omura BayIn addition to the Seto Inland Sea, re-establishment of this species has been confirmed in various sea areas known as habitats for finless porpoises.SweetfishOver 400-500 types includingFishesInhabits.Many types are designated as natural monuments, and in addition to the horseshoe crab mentioned above, Hiroshima PrefectureMiharaUryu Island TheCephalochordateAs a habitat for the prefectureTakeharaTakasakiAwa IslandThe surrounding area was registered in 1930 as "Finless porpoise whale migratory sea level".

  • The sea sand collection business of the amphioxus became active.ShowaIt showed a significant decrease from the 30s, and was not confirmed around 60.However, it was rediscovered in the 1990s, and a smooth natural recovery has begun to be seen, probably because of improved protection measures.[8].
  • Awajima used finless porpoises rather than finless porpoises themselvesJapanese sea bassThe traditional fishing method of Japan is designated as a memorial, and it is the only example of cetacean-related designation in Japan (Marine mammalAs relatedNansei Islands OfdugongAnd only two of this example).As of 2015, this fishing method has been abolished due to the decrease in the number of finless porpoises.Finless porpoises have decreased significantly throughout the Seto Inland Sea, but in recent years large-scale herds have been reconfirmed.Osaka Bay OfKIXThe population is increasing in the surrounding area (terminalArtificial reef(Functions as)[9]..Also, Okayama prefectureUshimado Town[10] ,KitakyushuAijima[11] So, this kind of protection andObservation businessHas been enforced.

Especially for birdsJapanese MurreletIs attracting attention,NagashimaIt can be confirmed in a relatively wide range even now.

RichEelgrassThe place is also an important part of the original Seto Inland Sea ecosystem, 1960 in the 20,000s.HaA colony area exceeding the above was widely seen in this area, but as of 1978, it decreased to about 7,000 hectares.Due to various factors such as environmental pollution, no significant increase has been seen since then.[12]..In recent years, in various placesSeaweed bedIn addition to the restoration movementGeiyo IslandsHas a relatively good distribution.

In January 2015, it was a new speciesEndemic species Ofsnails"Akira gypsy moth" has been discovered[13].

Large creatures

It's hard to imagine from the current situation, but onceJapanese sea lion,A whale,ウ ミ ガ メ,sharkIt is also a major habitat of the kind and is coastal.Gray whale[14] ,Right whale,Shark,Whale shark,Great White Shark,Onite mackerel,SunfishLarge fish such as[15] ,Leatherback turtleAnd nowEndangered speciesIt is said that many large creatures have become.For exampleSuo Nada,Beppu BayThere is also an opinion that such things were a child-rearing area for cetaceans.[16]..Small scale in various parts of the Seto Inland SeawhalingThe company is established, etc.huntingとFishery:Pressure andHigh economic growthRapidly expanded during the periodrevetmentCoastal development and environmental destruction, includingMarine pollutionAfter that, these animals are from the Seto Inland SeaEdo PeriodからShowa periodDecrease or region in the early daysPopulationIt has reached extinction.The endangered species mentioned above have almost disappeared, but whales of other species, for example, can still rarely enter.

  • Tosa BaySettle inBryde's whale(Balaenoptera) Was onceBungo Channel,Osaka Bay, It is said that it normally inhabited the Seto Inland Sea, and even in recent years the Geiyo Islands[17][18] ,Uwa Sea[19] There are examples that have been established for a short period of time (old stories related to many cetaceans around the Seto Inland Sea)Whale moundRemains, and in the Geiyo Islands, "Manga Japan Old Story』Introduced in the folk tale" Whale thank you "[20], The Bungo Channel has a story called "comparison of whales", which is reminiscent of the breeding behavior of whales on the sea surface.[21] However, it is unclear to what extent the past ecology of large cetaceans in these areas was).
  • Also often seen in Tosa Bay and Bungo ChannelBottlenose dolphin,Oki GondoEtc. have also been witnessed relatively frequently.Bungo Channel currently has at least bottlenose dolphins,Southern hand dolphin,Long-beaked dolphinAre believed to be settled seasonally or throughout the year[22]..Also, in recent years with the recovery of the populationHumpback whale,Minke whaleConfirmation and small stays are increasing, albeit weakly.Sperm whaleConfirmation is also especially inside the strait that connects the Pacific Ocean in both east and west.Genpei War (Responsibility and Rebellion of Toshinaga), There is also an anecdote that the auspicious sign of the battle record was foreseen using the direction of travel of the dolphin herd traveling in the Seto Inland Sea.[21].
  • In 1957, with the Akashi StraitHarima NadaTo the coupleOrcasesIt has been established for about two months until it is exterminated in consideration of the conflict with the fishery, and it is possible that there was a flock that once established in the Seto Inland Sea.[23][24] There are no observations of surviving individuals in Osaka Bay,Fin whaleIs washed ashore one after another.It is clear that whales, which seem to be large fin whales even on old records, were frequently witnessed from the ferry in the same area.blue whaleAlsoSecond World WarPreviously it was confirmed.As an aside, it is the only modern period in Japan.Bowhead whaleAn example of a stray has occurred in Osaka Bay.Omura's whaleWas certified as a new species near the waters of the Seto Inland SeaTsunoshimaAt.

Besides whalesJapanese sea lionUntil the beginning of the 20th centuryNaruto Strait[25] Found in various parts of the Seto Inland Sea, including[26],Japanese otterWas confirmed to live until 1975[27]..Also, although it is terrestrialSika deer,Japanese wild boarSince ancient times, the sight of a person swimming in the Seto Inland Sea and crossing it has been seen.

Loggerhead turtle,Green turtle[28] Although it decreased sharply, the migration is still continuing.Akashi CityBokai beach[29] Such spawning grounds are the most famous, but before the war there were such spawning grounds in various parts of the Seto Inland Sea, and even in recent years, the coast of Osaka Prefecture andAwaji IslandIt has also been confirmed[30]..However, only the Akashi coast still functions as a regular breeding ground.Leatherback turtleIs 2002[31] And 2003[32][33] Has been found in. There is information that the confirmation in 2002 was spawning, but so far the only confirmed example of spawning in Japan isAmami OshimaOnly.



Approximately 450 km east-west, 15-55 km north-south, total coastline length 7,230 km, area 23,203 km2, Average depth 38.0m, volume 8,815 billionkm3Is[1].TeshikaiThere are 0.1 islands with an outer circumference of 727 km or more.[34].Less than thatIf you include up to, it is said to be thousands, but it is not clear because it depends on the standard of "island".

The overall tendency is shallower toward the east.It has a complex structure in which wide areas called Nada and Bay are connected by narrow waterways called Seto and Straits.The waterway part is strongtrendBy the bottom of the seaerosionHas been done.The deepest part is thought to be about 195m in the Hoyo Strait (Hayasui Seto) and about 200m in the Naruto Strait.

Strong tide

The Seto Inland SeaThe tide differenceKnown for being big.This becomes more noticeable as you go deeper, and in the innermost partHitanadaIn the surrounding area, the tidal range is more than 2m.For this reason, the tides of the Seto Inland Sea are extremely strong, and in some places they flow like rivers.Due to this strong current, "Naruto Whirlpools"Has occurred.In addition, this strong current constantly winds up nutrients on the seabed,PhytoplanktonIt is believed that it promotes the growth of.In other words, the Seto Inland Sea is richFishing groundOne of the reasons for this is this large tidal range.

Major islands

There are 3,000 large and small islands in the Seto Inland Sea, including uninhabited islands and small islands with a circumference of only a few meters.

The main islands of the Seto Inland Sea are shown below.

Major inflow rivers

Basin area 1,000 km2The above inflow water system (river) is as follows

Major coastal cities


Honshu and Shikoku道路-TrainOn the Seto Inland Sea as a bridge or road connecting withHonshu-Shikoku connecting bridgeThere are the following three routes.


The main islands of the Seto Inland Sea
Island names <,> on the map indicate their location
Full screen view with detailed location and links to articles Marks indicate the location of the island or the location near the center of the island



Setouchi Ward, which is a geological province that extends almost parallel to the Sanin and Hokuriku Wards, is mainlyMiddle and NewMainly belonging toQuaternaryIt is roughly divided into those belonging to, and there is an inconsistent surface between the two groups.This suggests that there were two predecessor seas in the Seto Inland Sea, the former beingFirst Seto Inland Sea, The latter isSecond Seto Inland SeaIs called[35].


The first Seto Inland SeaCenozoicNeogeneMid-termMioceneFormed around[35]..This sea is the presentHiroshimaFrom the northNaganoIt extends to the south, about 500km east-west and about 80km north-south, and is thought to have been the same archipelago as the current Seto Inland Sea.[36]..The first Setouchi Group produces fossil communities consisting of terrestrial mammals and marine mammals.For the Hirata fauna(English edition)(Rhinoceros) AndGomphotherium(Proboscideans) And other large herbivores are included, and the existence of large carnivores that preyed on them is also certain.Tokari animalsDesmostylus(Desmostylia) AndYurino Delphis(A whale)andpinnipedIs included.It is suggested that terrestrial mammals have a high degree of commonality with European and Asian fauna, and that warm and water-rich forests have spread.On the other hand, marine mammals are composed of northern animals.[37].

The first Setouchi Sea landed and disappeared at the end of the Miocene (about 1000 million years ago) due to the uplift of the entire Setouchi Ward.In the land eraPlioceneIt lasted more than 500 million years until the beginning[36]..During this period, there was a remarkable change in structural movement.It became difficult to distinguish the four sub-districts that were clear during the time of the First Seto Inland Sea, and the wave-like movement in the north-south direction became dominant instead of the structural movement in the direction of Honshu that had been predominant until then.[35]..In response to this structural movement, Southwest Japan began to subside again, and lakes and marshes began to form.[36].


About 150 million years ago, seawater from the Pacific Ocean flowed into the Kinki region through the Kii Channel, and the second transgression about 130 million years ago created the Second Seto Inland Sea.Osaka UniversityDiscovered on Toyonaka CampusToyotamaphimeiaThe fossil of (Toyota Mahimeia Machicanensis) dates back about 100 million years after the birth of the Second Seto Inland Sea.[36].

Also, the earth around this timeIce ageとInterglacialCycle repeatsIce ageIn the second Seto Inland Sea, it was in the middle ofCoastal terraceWill be formed in large numbers.From such terracesNaumann ElephantFossil is produced.EventuallyUlm glacial periodWhen the sea level began, the sea level became 130-140 meters lower than it is now, and the Seto Inland Sea became land again.At the end of the glacial period, sea level rose (Jomon Kaishin).About 9000 years ago, sea level was about 20-25 meters lower than it is today.[36], About 7000 years ago, above current sea levelOkayama UniversityThe coastline was approaching near the Tsushima campus[38]..The current Seto Inland Sea is generally a reduced version of the Second Seto Inland Sea.[35].

Early Jomon periodShell moundIs produced in Okayama Prefecture, and it is suggested that the Jomon people at that time used the marine resources of the Seto Inland Sea to live their lives.[38].Setouchi CityOf the shell mound excavated fromYamato Shijimi The14CIt is suggested that it is about 8500 years old from the XNUMXs, and it is speculated that the sea began to spread on the plains at that time.In addition, the upper part of the shell mound inhabits more offshore than Yamato Shijimi.Oyster,Blood clamIt can be read that the dietary habits of the Jomon people were changing as the transgression progressed.[39]..The number of shell mounds has decreased since the middle of the Jomon period, but from this time on, micro-highlands have been formed by earth and sand, and the land will be used as a settlement later.[38].

Recorded history

Ancient times

Since ancient times, the Seto Inland Sea has functioned as a major transportation artery.The thing is"Wei Zhajin”And“Japanese calligraphy"ofDomestic productionAt the stageIzanamiIt can be inferred from the fact that the islands produced by the islands are lined up along the Seto Inland Sea route.

In ancient timesSettsu OfSumiyoshi TaishaOf the ancient port under the jurisdiction ofSumiyoshitsuWas the starting pointEnvoy,EnvoyThe Seto Inland Sea is the god of the sea because it was the route ofSumiyoshi OkamiSumiyoshi Shrine, which enshrines Sumiyoshi God, was built in various places under the influence of Sumiyoshi Taisha.Also around this time alreadyTomonouraBecause it is located in the center of the Seto Inland Sea, it prospered as a port town waiting for Shio.

Nara periodOn land transportation route (Sanyo road,Nankaido) Has been improved, but there are records that foreign envoys passed through the Seto Inland Sea, and it seems that the Seto Inland Sea route was still being used.

Heian periodIn the medium termGen Saga OfWatanabe TsunaAs a builderSettsu OfWatanabe PartyIs in the Seto Inland SeaNaval forceBecame a builder of a clanMr. WatanabeIs the generalstream ofHizen country OfMatsuuraIs the Kyushu NavyMatsuura PartyIt becomes a territory of.

Jun FujiwaraRebelled as a pirate builder in the Seto Inland Sea (Johei Tenkei no Ran), The Seto Inland Sea will be the stage for Sumitomo's activities.Iyo countryOf the guardianTachibana TohoCaptures Juntomo.

At the end of the Heian periodKiyomori TairaEstablished the Seto Inland Sea routeSeto of OndoDoing excavation business,Itsukushima shrineI proceeded with the maintenance of.

中 世

Kamakura PeriodからSengoku periodIn Iyo ProvinceOchi,Mr. KonoIn coastal areas and islandssamuraiBegan to gain power on the Seto Inland Sea route.Mr. KonoMurakamiThey call themselves pirate generalsPirates(Navy) was organized and the Seto Inland Sea route was put under control.At the end of the Warring States periodOrito administrationとMiyoshi,Ishiyama Honganji,Mr. Mouri,Mr. NagasokabeIt was also the stage of the conflict withThe First Battle of Kizugawaguchi,Second Battle of Kizugawaguchi,Shikoku attackSuch).

The early modern period

Hideyoshi ToyotomibyPirate suspension orderThroughEdo PeriodNavy forces are eliminated inCruise shipBy merchantsWest RoutePart of (Kanmon Straits ~Osaka), The Seto Inland Sea played a leading role in distribution.BakumatsuIsNagasaki PortA foreign ship departing via the Seto Inland SeaYokohama portWas sailing to[40].. 1864 (MotoharuIn the first year)ShimonosekiThe Seto Inland Sea was blocked by the bombardment of a foreign ship on the battery, which caused it.Shimonoseki War(Choshu clanThe battle between the battery and the British, French, Dutch, and American fleets) is taking place.


After the Meiji eraTrainDevelopment of Honshu-Shikoku transportation network such as opening, between Honshu and ShikokuSeto Ohashi BridgeAlthough it became less important as a transportation route than before, the tourist route was opened between Hanshin and Beppu in the Taisho era, and many tourist routes were established after the war.Cruise linerWas back and forth and was bustling.After that, the leading role of the routeferryI moved toHeiseiEven after entering, many regular routes continue to exist.Attempts are also being made to reconsider the Seto Inland Sea as a place for cultural exchange from the perspective of the Kan Setouchi Cultural Area.

Birth of the concept of "Seto Inland Sea"

The concept of the Seto Inland Sea was bornEdo PeriodIt is said to be late.Until thenIzumi Nada,Harima Nada,Bingo Nada,AkinadaEtc., narrower海域There was no point of view to grasp the entire Seto Inland Sea as one, only the concept of.That said, the "Setouchi" of the Edo period does not necessarily overlap with the current "Seto Inland Sea."1813Written inSado OfCruise shipIn the merchant's travel diary "Sea and Land Directions Diary"OnomichiとShimonosekiThe space is called "Setouchi".

It was the opportunity for the concept of "Seto Inland Sea" to be established as it is today.MeijiThis is because Westerners called this area The Inland Sea during the period.Japanese geographers translated the sea area called by Westerners as "Seto Inland Sea" from around 1872, and this became widespread in the latter half of the Meiji era (however, "Seto Inland Sea" at this time). IsAkashi StraitからKanmon StraitIt often took more time to extend the concept of the "Seto Inland Sea" to the wider waters as it is today).

The first cohesive discussion by the JapaneseKazu Konishi"Seto Inland Sea Theory" (1911).In this paper, Konishi pointed out the necessity of considering the Seto Inland Sea as one of the major themes, and positively evaluated the beauty of the islands of the Seto Inland Sea.In addition, Konishi said, "National parkI also pointed out the necessity of making "" in Japan, and laterImperial AssemblyProposed the establishment of a national park in Japan.Accept this proposalNational Park LawWas enacted in 1931,1934The Seto Inland Sea is Unzen (currently the current one) on March 3th.Unzen Amakusa National Park), Kirishima (currentlyKirishima Kinko Bay National Park) And Japan's first national park "Seto Inland Sea National ParkBecame[41].


Utamakura land

Since ancient times, the Seto Inland Sea has been known as a scenic sea, and on the coast, "Manyoshu''Old and modern Wakashu''Shinko Kon Wakashu』And appear inSong pillowAre scattered (Sumiyoshi,Namba,Suma,Akashi,Takasago,Nunobiki,Ikuta)

Medieval Japanese Literature and the Seto Inland Sea

In the Middle AgesIse story''Tosa Diary''The Tale of Genji''Yamakeshu』And other literary works have taken up the Seto Inland Sea, and the land that appears in the work becomes a famous place.

At temples and shrines

In the early modern period, when tourist trips for the common people became common,Heike story''Genpei Morishiki''TaihekiThe old battlefield that appears inYajima,Dannoura,Ushimado,FujiyaEtc.) will be attracting attention as a tourist attraction.AlsoKonpira shrine,Mount Ishizuchi,Sumiyoshi Taisha,Itsukushima shrine,Usa Hachimangu,Mt. Ooyama Gion ShrineWorship at such places will also be popular.Famous places in the Seto Inland Sea include ""Ukiyo-eIt also appears frequently.In addition, the tourism industry (main customers are tourists visiting these temples and shrines)A basket of lizards,Chaya, Souvenir shop, etc.)Marugame,Tadotsu,Shimotsui,MiyajimaAnd so on, and it came to show prosperity.

Also at this timeKorean communication ambassador TomonouraThere is a record that praised "Nitto Daiichi Scenic Spot (the best scenery in Japan)".

To the destination of modern tourism

19st centuryTo become and,SieboldAcclaimed the scenery of the Seto Inland Sea.Also in the Meiji eraThomas Cook,Ulysses GrantWesterners such as, came to Japan, and modern "tourist eyes" (about this conceptJohn urryThe Seto Inland Sea was reorganized by (see).In other words, while sightseeing in the Seto Inland Sea before the early modern period had the form of visiting "famous places" through literary works and worshiping at historical shrines and temples, Westerners seemed to be commonplace in various parts of the Seto Inland Sea (at that time). Scenery seen in (Tajima Sea,Terraced fields,White sand blue pine, Go and goJapanese boatEtc.), and gave them value as tourism resources.In other words, with the arrival of modern times, tourism in the Seto Inland Sea has changed from tourism that seeks "meaning" to tourism that uses "vision."[42]. Ferdinand von RichthofenThe Baron left behind the "China Travel Diary" (1943, 18) and praised the Seto Inland Sea as "a world of beauty that weaves between islands and the ocean, which is remarkable in the world." I'm doing[43][44][45]Many Westerners who arrived here were fascinated by the beauty of the archipelago, the calm scenery where nature and people's lives were fused, and the sequence scenery (moving scenery seen from the ship), and praised the Seto Inland Sea. doing[46].

Furthermore, in May 1912 (Meiji 45),Osaka Merchant Marine Beppu hot springMade in Germany on the Hanshin-Beppu route for the purpose of tourism developmentFreighter"Red pillThe cruise, which was purely for sightseeing, became very popular. In 1934 (Showa 9), it became one of Japan's first national parks as mentioned above.

Also, after the war, the Hanshin-Beppu route was taken over.Kansai SteamshipHowever, in 1960 (Showa 35), "MarumaruIn service, then 3,000 ton classCruise linerThe Beppu route (Setouchi route), which had a maximum of six vessels, carried many honeymooners to Beppu Onsen as a sightseeing route connecting Hanshin and Kyushu.

Bubble economy and overdevelopment

1987'sGeneral Recreation Area Improvement ActThe resort development rush of the Japanese archipelago accompanying the enactment was no exception to the Seto Inland Sea, and golf courses and marina were built one after another along the coast.However, such overdevelopment also destroyed the historic landscape of the Seto Inland Sea.Also,Bubble burstAfter that, the development of these resorts was suspended, and some land was abandoned during development.

Current Seto Inland Sea Tourism

In 1996 in Hiroshima CityAtomic bomb domeAnd HatsukaichiItsukushima shrine UNESCO Ofworld HeritageWas registered in.In 1999, when all the four bridges were completed, the Onomichi / Imabari route would be "Shimanami KaidoIt has come to attract attention as a tourist route. In 2016, we will manage tourist destinations in the Seto Inland Sea area.Setouchi Tourism Promotion OrganizationWas established.


12 km, which is 4% of the total area of ​​Japan2About a quarter of Japan's total population, 4 million people live in the coastal area of ​​the Seto Inland Sea.Heavy industry,petrochemistryMany industries are located here.The value of manufactured products shipped nationwideSteel industry46%, petrochemical industry 40%,Chemical industry35%,pulp-paperIt is an area where industrialization is progressing with 30% of the industry, but theseSecondary industryThe ratio of to the total production value is decreasing year by year.The highest ratio was 1970% in 42.6, but dropped to 2002% in 25.4.Agriculture and forestry-Fishing industryな どPrimary industryWas 1965% in 7.4, but was 2002% in 0.8.The ratio is increasingtransportation-communication,Wholesale-retail,金融-insuranceWork,Service industrySuch asTertiary industryIn 1965, it was 52.6%, but in 2002 it was 73.8%.Since ancient times due to population density and large number of industriesShippingWas well developed.Fishery:However, in the 2000s, the catch (weight) decreased by about 1980% compared to the 35s.[47].

In each placeLandfillIs done,Seaweed bed,Tidal flat, Etc. are decreasing, becauseSewer,Oil spill accidentDue to the influence ofred tideOccurrence etc.Water pollutionIs worried[47].

The Seto Inland Sea is an important waterway, and many ships operate in shipping and fishing. In recent years, the number of leisure boats has increased, and in multi-island areas and narrow water areas.Marine accidentIs also occurring frequently[48].


Pre-Edo fishery

The Seto Inland SeaJomon PeriodFrom to today, it has become a place for diverse fishing.Yayoi PeriodAlready inOctopus trapbyOctopusThe excavated material also reveals that fishing was taking place.

In the Edo periodfertilizerUsed forイ ワ シTo catchSeine netAnd fishing became popular.Alsosquid,Congridae,sillaginoid,shrimp,Sea cucumberFishing aiming for such things, even nowSea bream net fishing in Tomonoura, Various net fishing such as fishing by pulling a net while sailing was carried out.These fishing methods are not limited to the Seto Inland SeaBoso PeninsulaIt also propagated to.Also inside the Seto Inland SeaKishuThe sardine burlak fishing method devised inManabe Island,UwajimaIt is known that it has spread to various places.

Aim for the big gameSingle-hook Fishing:Fishing is also a fishing method developed during the Edo period.This is a fishing method mainly conducted in Seto, where the tide is fast.Red snapper,Hamachi,Flounder,Japanese Spanish mackerelEtc. were targeted.It was the natural products that came to be imported from China that promoted the development of single fishing.TegusIs the existence of.The first one to use this for single fishing is in what is now Naruto City.DouraWas a fisherman, but this fishing method was introduced in the latter half of the 17th century.Suo Oshima TownIt is inOkikamuro IslandOkikamuro Island prospered as one of the leading single fishing bases in the Seto Inland Sea.Even now, the basic design of fishing hooks for big fish hooks, "", was devised in Okikamuro Island.Other,Saganoseki,Otodo, Mitsuhama, Ushimado,SaikazakiIs a fishing village famous for single-line fishing.

The high-class fish caught in this way are on boardCageIt was carried to Osaka with it in the box and sold at a high price.Gion FestivalThe season comes aroundSpider TheIkejimeToKyotoWas carried to.Hiroshima oystersIn the Edo periodKansaiWas widely distributed in.

Seto Inland Sea fishermen go abroad

After the Meiji Restoration, there were an increasing number of cases where fishermen in the Seto Inland Sea went out of Japan in search of fishing grounds.Single fishing fishermen in Yamaguchi and Hiroshima prefecturesTaiwan,HawaiiFishermen who use Utase netsフィリピンI went fishing.Takashi Morimoto reveals that the fishermen of Okikamuro Island played a key role in the Hawaiian fishery.[49]..Also in Japan, there are cases where fishermen from Suo-Oshima built a village in Tsushima and migrated.Tsuneichi MiyamotoReported by[50].

House ship

The Seto Inland Sea until the latter half of the 20th centuryHouse shipIt is also known that the fishermen who got on (Ebune) were active.A houseboat is a small wooden fishing boat equipped with a simple roof and loaded with living utensils such as futons and cooking utensils.[51]..Many fishermen in the Seto Inland Sea boarded these boats as a couple and lived on the sea for the rest of their lives.[52]..There is also a theory that their origin may be the descendants of the Murakami Suigun, which was dismantled by Toyotomi Hideyoshi.[53].

Beppu hot springThen, while sleeping in a boatHamawaki OnsenGo to Beppu OnsenHot springThe custom has been seen for a long time and continued for some time after the war.Nearly 100 boats moored at the wharf in springHot spring boatCalledSeason wordsBeppu's springTraditional poetryIt was.

Overfishing and reduction of fish stocks

After World War II, the catch in the Seto Inland Sea increased explosively, reaching a peak in 1982, four times that of the early Showa period.However, after that, the amount of resources decreased due to environmental destruction and overfishing, and sardines, sea breams, Spanish mackerels, etc.TroughThe stock of major fish species is far from recovering.ClamsAlsoLandfillThe number has decreased sharply because the growing environment was destroyed due to such reasons.ClamIs almost extinct.

Oyster, yellowtail, sea bream,Wakame,SeaweedAquaculture is also popular.Oyster farming in HiroshimaMuromachi PeriodGo back to.

Branded products

Of the Seto Inland SeaHorse mackerelEtc.GreeneryIs known for the fact that there are many "setsuki" that do not migrate, especially in Saganoseki.Seki Aji""Seki mackerelIs famous.In addition, in each coastal areaRed snapper,octopus,鰈(EspeciallyKarei Castle),Fish,Puffer fish(EspeciallyShimonoseki) And other items that are branded nationwide, they exist in the Seto Inland Sea.


Terraced fields

Since the remote islands in the Seto Inland Sea have few cultivable flatlands, the residents have cleared the mountains.Terraced fieldsWas often made.However, the terraced fields that were cleared in this way often had thin soil, so farmers were forced to use lower fertilizer.SeaweedWas manually carried up and fertilized to improve the soil.In general,ClearingIt was said that it would take 10 years before a decent crop could be harvested.This terraced fieldMandarin orangeSuitable for cultivation, especiallyEhime mandarin orangeIs famous.


After clearing all the mountains on the island, he sometimes went to a nearby island and cleared it there.Having farmland on another island in this way was called "departure", "departure", or "migratory".The farmers got a small wooden boat (farm boat), which went to and from the island with farmland.

Citrus cultivation

Many of the terraced fields that were cleared in this way were found after World War II.citrusIt was diverted to the cultivation of.The terraced fields with excellent sunlight and drainagesugar contentIt was suitable for growing high citrus fruits.However, since it takes a lot of time and effort to farm in terraced fields, in recent yearsAbandoned landIs increasing.

Cotton cultivation

The climate of the Seto Inland Sea coastCottonSince it was also suitable for cultivation, cotton was cultivated in various places during the Edo period.Especially in the Kawachi region, cotton cultivation was popular.HarimaRegion,Okayama Plain,FukuyamaSurroundings, around Hiroshima,TemplePeripheral etc.However, due to the import of high-quality cotton from overseas during the Meiji era, cotton cultivation in these areas declined.

Pyrethrum cultivation

Transferred to Japan at the end of the 18th centuryDalmatian pyrethrum(Pyrethrum) began to be actively cultivated in Hiroshima Prefecture in the 20th century, and pyrethrum cultivation became the center of agriculture until after World War II, including the islands.

Salt industry

The coast of the Seto Inland Sea has a warm climate with little rain since ancient times.Salt makingHas been actively practiced.Yayoi PeriodToKibiIn the countrysideEarthenwareSalt production begins by adding seawater to the beach and boiling it, and in the Nara period, it shifts to the "Shiojiri method" that uses sandy beaches.In the Middle Ages, the seawater pumped up was sprinkled on a sandy beach to evaporate the water and then boiled down.ShiodaTransition to, further17st centuryIn the first halfHimeji DomainでtidalThe Irihama salt farm was devised, and the Seto Inland Sea became the center of salt production.The salt from the Seto Inland Sea during this period was also called "Jushu salt".this isHarima country,Bizen country,China,Bingo country,Aki country,Suo,Nagato country,Awakuni,Sanuki country,Iyo countryIt means salt produced in 10 countries.

It was a salt industry that took advantage of the climate of Setouchi, but it is not affected by the weather or climate.Ion exchange membraneDue to the development of the salt-making method, it was temporarily cut off in 1972.However, when the sale of salt was completely liberalized in 2002,SensuijimaAlthough it was a small scale, the salt industry was revived.

Salt industry and white sand blue pine

The salt industry is an industry that consumes a large amount of fuel.Since salt production was active along the coast of the Seto Inland Sea, the satoyama that supplied wood as fuel was cut down one after another.Bald mountain(For details, see "SatoyamaSee).In the Seto Inland SeaWhite sand blue pineOne of the reasons why there were many was from Satoyama, which became a bald mountain in this way.graniteIt has been pointed out that erosion caused the spillage to flow down the river, enter the Seto Inland Sea, and become "white sand."


Pacific beltPlaying a part of the industrial areaSetouchi Industrial AreaAnd accounts for about 9% of the total shipment value of all industrial areas.In the westKitakyushu Industrial AreaThe eastern part is one of the three major industrial areasHanshin Industrial AreaIs formed.

Also, taking advantage of being a remote island in the sea,Sulfurous acid gasWas criticized for smoke damagecoppersmeltingThe business has advanced to the Seto Inland Sea.Mitsubishi Materials OfNaoshima,Sumitomo Metal Mining OfShisakajimaetc.

Environment issues

red tide

1970From (Showa 45)1976(Showa 51)red tideThe number of cases increased from about 80 to about 300.The Seto Inland Sea contaminated with factory wastewater and domestic wastewater was temporarily called the "Sea of ​​Death," and in 1973 the "Seto Inland Sea Environmental Conservation Special Measures Law" (Setouchi Law) was enacted.[54]..Although it has been gradually decreasing since then, about 2002 cases have been confirmed in 14 (100).The sea areas that occurred in the same year were Osaka Bay, Kii Channel, the opposite shore of Awaji Island in Harima Nada, Ehime Prefecture in Nada, Hiroshima Bay, Bōyo Islands, and Suo Nada.The outbreak of red tide has caused damage to the fishery of farmed yellowtail, sea bream, true oysters, and natural seafood.

March 1992, 4Environment AgencyAccording to Notification No. 67, in seawaternitrogen,phosphorus(Lin) is designated as a closed sea area as a sea area where (phosphorus) affects marine plankton and causes remarkable proliferation, and in 2004 (16) and 2005 (17) including red tide. Algae of unknown cause are damaging the catch.

Seto Inland Sea nutrient problem

The Seto Inland Sea1960 eraから1970 eraOvereutrophicationRed tide is occurring due to1973ToSeto Inland Sea Environmental Conservation Temporary Measures LawWas enacted,2001ToCODIn addition, restrictions on the total amount of nitrogen and phosphorus have been introduced.Along with this, the occurrence of red tide in the Seto Inland Sea has decreased and the transparency of the sea has increased.On the other handCultured seaweedFrequent discoloration.Catch of sardines that feed on plankton and Spanish mackerel that prey on them is also sluggish.These causes are "the sea is thin", that isNutrientsExcessive decrease in[54], So to speakeutrophicationThere are also researchers who seek the opposite of "oligotroph".[55]..Small fish that feed on seafoodZooplanktonUnderPrimary productionBear theAlgae-PhytoplanktonThis is because nitrogen and phosphorus are required.However, as a counterargument, the decrease in catchoverfishingThere is also an opinion that is the main cause.Decrease in nutrients to the Seto Inland SeaShellfishCauses a decrease in catchTidal flatDecreasedamNutrients from the construction of concrete and the maintenance of rivers with concreteSedimentIt is also pointed out that the cause is the decrease in the outflow to the Seto Inland Sea.[56].2015The Seto Inland Sea Environmental Conservation Special Measures Law was revised on October 10.[57] In February of the same year, the Seto Inland Sea Environmental Conservation Basic Plan was changed.[58] Then, the conventional idea of ​​"preserving water quality" in the Seto Inland Sea will be changed to "conserving and managing water quality (managing water quality according to regional and seasonal characteristics)", and tidal flats and seaweed beds will be regenerated. By improving the environment surrounding the Seto Inland Seabiodiversity・ Culturally "rich sea (satoumi)[59]) ”Will be investigated, researched, and countermeasures will be taken.

In 2018, Hyogo Prefecture presented a new standard draft to set a lower limit of nitrogen concentration at a subcommittee of the Prefectural Environmental Council.It was a turning point in the administration that aimed to reduce the nitrogen concentration.Takenori Fujiwara (Kyoto UniversityHonorary professor) Is transparent enough for diving when the nitrogen concentration is 0.2 mg / l or less (presented as the lower limit).He commented that in the Seto Inland Sea, not only seaweed but also clams and small fish are affected.[60].


[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ a b c Overview of the Seto Inland Sea Ministry of the Environment(Retrieved September 2020, 8)
  2. ^ Seto Inland Sea National Park Ministry of the Environment (browsed on July 2020, 8)
  3. ^ "Seto Inland Sea Road Concept" Table of Contents and Concept Philosophy (PDF) Hiroshima Prefecture, 2011
  4. ^ For example, it passed through the Seto Inland Sea in May 2007.HawaiiVoyageCanoe"HokureaIn the official report, the crew expresses the beauty of the Seto Inland Sea as follows. "The scenery of the Seto Inland Sea was like a dream. We passed countless islands that were soft and rounded and covered with greenery. Waves were rising around the islands. I was dreaming. Of course I also enjoyed Fukuoka, but the beauty of this wilderness is exceptional. No, the excitement of this voyage today cannot be described simply by the beauty of the wilderness. "Excerpt from Hokule'a Voyage Blog "May 5 <Iwaishima and Oshima>"
  5. ^ Masanori Nishida "Admiration of the scenery of the Seto Inland Sea by modern Westerners"Landscape Studies," 1995, Vol. 59, No. 4, p.298-309, two:10.5632 / jila.59.298.
  6. ^ Limits of Oceans and Seas (3 ed.). International Hydrographic Organization. (1953). P. 23. http://www.iho-ohi.net/iho_pubs/standard/S-23/S23_1953.pdf 2015/2/25Browse. 
  7. ^ Limites des Océans et des Mers (3 ed.). Organization hydrographique internationale. (1953). P. 32. http://www.iho.int/iho_pubs/standard/S-23/S-23_Ed3_1953_FR.pdf 2015/2/25Browse. 
  8. ^ "Part 14 Hometown of Life ―― XNUMX.Cephalochordate regeneration Sea sand ban, breathe back"."Shikoku Shimbun(1999). 2015/1/13Browse.
  9. ^ "Finless porpoise paradise off the coast of Kansai, abundant food with no fishing," miraculous "". Asahi Shimbun digital(2012). http://www.asahi.com/eco/news/OSK201209050063.html 2015/1/13Browse. 
  10. ^ "Meeting to watch over the finless porpoise of Ushimado". 2015/1/13Browse.
  11. ^ "Finless porpoise watching”. Settle ferry, New Daiyomaru. 2015/1/13Browse.
  12. ^ "Seagrass beds on Iwagi Island, Ikina Island, Akahone Island, and Tsuba Island --The eelgrass beds that are disappearing from the Seto Inland Sea”. Iwaki Seimei Fisheries Cooperative. 2015/1/14Browse.
  13. ^ Yuji Harada (2015). “New snail:“ Akiramaimai ”found in the Seto Inland Sea”. ""Mainichi Newspapers". http://mainichi.jp/select/news/20150115k0000m040182000c.html 2015/1/28Browse. 
  14. ^ Yoshikazu Uni (2004). “Record collection and transit strait of the western group Gray Whale Eschrictius robustus”. Uni Natural History Institute, Tokyo University of Agriculture-Faculty of Biological Industry. 2015/1/13Browse.
  15. ^ "Setouchi Fish Catalog”. Seto Inland Sea Environmental Conservation Association. 2015/1/13Browse.
  16. ^ "Part 3 Hometown of Life ―― 2. There was a whale (middle)"."Shikoku Shimbun(1999). 2015/1/12Browse.
  17. ^ "Fishing Information 2001.6.8 Washer, Bikkura Koitagar ... Whale Witness Atsugu". Iwaki VillageGovernment Office Industry Promotion Division (2001). 2015/1/12Browse.
  18. ^ ""Recent status of Ichirokukai members / Gekisha"”. Iwaki Village Office Industrial Promotion Division (2001). 2015/1/12Browse.
  19. ^ Tadasu Yamada: “Witness of an unknown baleen whale off the coast of Uwajima City, Ehime Prefecture". National Science Museum. p. Marine Mammal Information Database (2005). 2015/1/12Browse.
  20. ^ "Thank you for the whale”. Ichirokukai (2008). 2015/1/12Browse.
  21. ^ a b Kazuto Miyawaki "The Japanese Heart Seen from the Whale Mound-Following the Memories of Whales in the Bungo Suido Sea"
  22. ^ Bungo Channel Katsura Maru. “Dolphin migration information". 2015/2/1Browse.
  23. ^ "Killer whale uproar". Osaka ECO Animal and Marine College (2011). 2015/1/9Browse.
  24. ^ "Transition Database (1901-2012), Hyogo Prefecture”. Shimonoseki Cetacean Laboratory (2014). 2015/1/9Browse.
  25. ^ "Mermaid Legend History Expedition Recorded in Naruto in the middle of the Edo period". Hometown History Expedition. ""Tokushima newspaper(July 2010, 1). 2015/1/13Browse.
  26. ^ Tetsuro Ito,Kazue Nakamura"Free Meeting Report (Report of the 1995 Meeting of the Japanese Society of Mammals), 1995 Japanese Sea Lion Dialogue"Mammalian Science, Vol. 35, No. 2,"Mammalogical Society of Japan, 1996, pp.176-179, two:10.11238 / mamanlianscience.35.176,2019/6/5Browse.
  27. ^ Nobuo Ishii. “Endangered Species Information (Animal) -Japanese River Otters (Populace South of Honshu)-”. General Incorporated FoundationNatural Environment Research Center. 2015/1/13Browse.
  28. ^ Naoki Kamezaki (2012). “The Seto Inland Sea and the future from the perspective of large marine animals” (PDF). Central Environment Council Seto Inland Sea Subcommittee Planning Expert Committee Local Hearing (Eastern) February 2012, 23 (Kobe City Suma Beach Aquarium, Japan Sea Turtle Council, a non-profit organization, The University of Tokyo Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences / Faculty of Agriculture). http://www.env.go.jp/council/former2013/11seto/y111-hearing03b/mat03_3.pdf. 2015/1/13Browse.. 
  29. ^ Hiroshi Takamatsu (2014). “Sea turtles spawn in the Seto Inland Sea for the first time in 6 years, confirmed in Akashi, Hyogo”. Asahi Shimbun Digital. http://www.asahi.com/articles/ASG6K4QVJG6KPIHB01H.html 2015/1/13Browse. 
  30. ^ "Part 3 Hometown of Life ―― 15. Sea Turtle Return Artificial sandy beach is a spawning ground". Shikoku Shimbun (1999). 2015/1/13Browse.
  31. ^ "Basic knowledge of leatherback turtles". Specified nonprofit corporationCaretta Isumi, Isumi Community Group that protects and nurtures nature, Boso's Natural Environment Association. 2015/1/13Browse.
  32. ^ ( Leatherback turtle. Kyotango City. (2004). http://www.city.kyotango.lg.jp/cms/shisei/singikai/kekka/bunkazaihogo/documents/h170306.pdf. 2015/1/13Browse.. 
  33. ^ "Activity report-collecting materials”. (2003). 2015/1/13Browse.
  34. ^ How many islands are there in the Seto Inland Sea? Japan Coast Guard(Retrieved September 2020, 8)
  35. ^ a b c d Southwest Japan Cenozoic Research Group "Cenozoic history of Southwest Japan (<Special feature> History of structural development of the Japanese archipelago-especially focusing on the Grin Tough era (Part 1)-)"Earth Science" 50-51, 1960, pp. 56-65, two:10.15080 / abcjchikyukagaku.1960.50-51_56.Open access
  36. ^ a b c d e Sadaki Hashimoto "Kinki region once upon a time --Natural history after the Cenozoic Neogene-- (<Special feature 3> Kinki region once upon a time)"Earth Science Education and Science Movement," Vol. 10, 1981, pp. 73-80, two:10.15080 / chitoka.10.0_73.Free to browse
  37. ^ Yoshihiko Okazaki "Miocene Mammals in Japan: Proceedings of the Natural History Study Group V"Plant Classification, Geography," Vol. 29, 1-5, 1978, pp. 138-144, two:10.18942 / bunruichiri.KJ00001078294.Free to browse
  38. ^ a b c Kentaro Minami "Memories of exchanges created by the Seto Inland Sea"Buried Cultural Property Research Center Bulletin" No. 59, January 2018, 1.
  39. ^ Kazuo Sugiyama (October 2019, 10). “From the plains to the sea-formation of the Seto Inland Sea”.. 2021/8/17Browse.
  40. ^ Ernest Sato"Meiji Restoration as seen by a diplomat (above), A diplomat in Japan" Translated by Seiichi Sakata, Iwanami ShotenIwanami library) 1990, p. 116-
  41. ^ "Setouchi Kai Encyclopedia" Nannansha, 2007
  42. ^ Masanori Nishida "Discovery of the Seto Inland Sea"Central public opinion new company,Year 1999
  43. ^ "Seto Inland Sea" discovered by foreigners
  44. ^ Seto Inland Sea P3, which was also praised by foreign geographers
  45. ^ ① Seto Inland Sea World Jewels
  46. ^ World Jewels Oriental Paradise Seto Inland Sea
  47. ^ a b Ministry of the Environment, Setouchi Net "Overview of the Seto Inland Sea"
  48. ^ Japan Coast Guard "Current status of marine accidents and countermeasures (23 edition)"
  49. ^ Morimoto et al. "Okiyamuro Seto Inland Sea Fishing Island" Mizunowa Publishing, 2006
  50. ^ Tsuneichi Miyamoto "Forgotten Japanese" Iwanami Bunko
  51. ^ Similar ships can be found in the Philippines and Indonesia.
  52. ^ Yukichi Habara "Drifting People" Iwanami Shoten, 1963/2002
  53. ^ Kazuteru Okiura"Ethnography of Setouchi" Iwanami Shoten, 1998
  54. ^ a b Seto Inland Sea "Beauty" or "Abundance""Mainichi Shimbun" morning edition July 2020, 7 (living navigation side) Viewed August 21, 2020
  55. ^ Mr. Minoru Tanita, director of the Hyogo Prefectural Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Technology Center and Fisheries Technology Center, actually mentions "oligotrophic" in the Seto Inland Sea.
  56. ^ Research on nutrient supply from rivers to coastal waters and utilization of seaweed --Hidezo Takagi
  57. ^ About the law to partially revise the Ministry of the Environment Seto Inland Sea Environmental Conservation Special Measures Law
  58. ^ Regarding the Cabinet decision to change the "Seto Inland Sea Environmental Conservation Basic Plan" by the Ministry of the Environment (Notice)
  59. ^ Satoumi is said to be "a coastal area where bioproductivity and biodiversity have increased due to the addition of human resources."What is Satoumi? | Satoumi Net (Ministry of the Environment)
  60. ^ "Water quality has improved too much and is not caught. For the first time in Japan, the prefecture has a lower limit on nitrogen concentration.". Kobe newspaperNEXT (August 2019, 6). 2019/6/4Browse.

Related item

外部 リンク

Coordinate: 34°10'N 133°20'E /34.167 degrees north latitude 133.333 degrees east longitude / 34.167; 133.333


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