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"Education is the only way to break the chain of economic disparity.
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Financial inequality(Keizaikifubyoudo, Economic inequality), orWealth difference(Himpunosa) is in a broad senseEconomyIt is the difference between those who are rich and those who are not, which occur in the process of activity.
In a narrow sense, it refers to the international political system that promotes inequity in economic competition itself, injustice in economic rules, or inequalities.
現状 の 現状
As of 2009, the difference in per capita income between the richest and the poorest countries is more than 100 times higher..
August 2014, 9,FRBAccording to a household survey, the U.S. economy is on a recovery trend, while the gap between rich and poor is widening... The Fed has pointed out that while the unemployment rate has fallen and the economy has recovered since 2010, "there is a large disparity in income and assets.".
October 2014, 10, Fed ChairJanet YellenIn his speech, he said he was concerned about widening income and wealth inequality in the United States, saying that over the past few decades, "the wealthy income and wealth have increased significantly, while the standard of living for most income groups. "It can be said that the situation is sluggish." "It is appropriate to ask what it is in the light of the equal opportunities that the American people have traditionally emphasized.".
economistIs "Second World WarFor the next 30 years, income growth was about 3% per year, regardless of whether income was good or bad, but since then, most of the high-income earners have enjoyed the benefits of income growth. " Pointed out.."The median wages haven't changed since 1975 in terms of purchasing power, but now (2013) the top 1% of high-income earners earn about three times as much as they did at the time," said Robert H. Frank. doing.
Revenue gaps in OECD countries are the largest in the last half century, and across the OECD, the average income of the top 10% of the population was nine times the average income of the bottom 10% of the population, 9 years ago. Further increased from 25 times.
According to a study by economists, between 1988 and 2008, the income of the top 1% of the world's population increased by 60%, while the income of the bottom 5% did not change at all..
Economic Cooperation Development OrganizationAccording to a 2011 study by the (OECD)Income inequalityFrom the late 1970s to the early 1980sAmerica-The United Kingdom-イ ス ラ エ ルThis trend is said to have expanded further in the late 1980s...Income inequality has been in the last 10 years (as of 2013)Germany-スウェーデン-デンマークBut expand,France-Japan-スペインWith a few exceptions, the top 10% of earners have risen in many advanced economies, but the bottom 10% have stagnated..
In 2013Pew Research InstituteAccording to a pollster conducted by the government in 39 countries around the world, the disparity of more than 7% of people, not limited to developed and developing countries, has widened in five years, and the system as of 5 gives preferential treatment to the wealthy. thinking.
As of 2014, the top 1% of Japan's high-income group has a national income share of about 9%, an increase of 1980 points from 7% in the 2s.France, Germany and Sweden have expanded their shares at about the same pace as Japan, but in the United States they have increased by 10-15 points...The share of national income in the top 0.1% of the high-income group was about 2014% in Japan as of 2.5, up from 1980% in the early 1.5s..
- For Israel and the United States, the inequality was already high in the past, but the gap has increased further..Gini coefficientIn 10, the top 1910% of income groups in the United States accounted for about 50% of the country's total income.Second World WarAfter that, it decreased to about 30%, and in 2010 it increased to about 50% again...Regarding US wealth inequality, the top 1910% of wealthy people accounted for 10% of the country's wealth in 80, but after World War II that ratio dropped to around 60%, 2010. It has risen again to nearly 70% in the year.
- In traditionally egalitarian countries (Germany, Denmark, Sweden, etc.), the gap between rich and poor widened from 1980-1 in the 5s to 1-6..
- FrenchBelle EpoqueThe widening disparity in income and assets inWorld War IIt narrowed between the 1970s and the 1980s, but since 100, the income / asset gap has widened again and is approaching the state of XNUMX years ago..
- ChugokuIncome inequality in Japan is multi-layered, with various inequality in urban and rural areas, coastal and inland areas, and individual levels continuing to widen..Shanghai-Beijing-GuangzhouThere is an economic disparity between areas with 4 million people in large cities and coastal areas such as, and areas with 9 million people in inland and rural areas (as of 2010)...GDP per capita by region is nearly 10 times higher between Shanghai in the coastal area and Guizhou in the inland area (as of 2008)..GuizhouIs the poorest province in China, with an annual income gap of 15-16 times with Shanghai (as of 2010)... EconomistKenneth Rogoff"China's economic growth since 1970 has created income distribution inequality at an unprecedented rate in human history. China's domestic inequality has already overtaken the United States.Latin AmericaIs approaching the level of.
January 2014, 1, International Non-Governmental Organization (NGO)OxfamHas released a report that the gap between rich and poor in the world has widened and the total wealth of the 85 richest people has deteriorated to the extent of 35 billion people in the lower class (half of the world's population)...The report also points out that in 26 of the 24 countries for which data were obtained, the proportion of the top 1% of the wealthiest in the total population's income increased from about 30 years ago...In the United States, the report states that 90% of the bottom class has suffered financially, while the top 1% of the wealthiest have raked in 2009% of the profits from growth in 2012-95..
August 2014, 10,Credit SuissePublished a research report on the monopoly of wealth by millionaires, stating that as of 2014, Russia is the most advanced country for wealth monopoly by millionaires.。所得上位10%人口の資産が総資産に占める割合は、1位ロシア84.8%、2位トルコ77.7%、3位香港77.5%、4位インドネシア77.2%、5位フィリピン76%、6位タイ75%、7位アメリカ74.6%、8位インド74%となったとしている..The country with the highest distribution of wealth is Belgium...The proportion of assets of the top 10% of income population in total assets is 47.2% in Belgium and 48.5% in Japan, and the monopoly rate of wealth fell below 50% in two countries, Belgium and Japan. Was only..For China, the wealth of the top 10% of income population accounted for 2000% of total wealth in 48.6, rising to 2014% in 64, making China the most in the last 14 years. It is said that it has become a nation with advanced monopoly of wealth.
On January 2015, 1, the international support group Oxfam estimates that the total wealth of 19% of the world's population will be comparable to the total wealth of the remaining 1% of the population by 2016. announced..Oxfam also estimates that the wealth of the world's top 80 wealthiest people is comparable to the wealth of the poor 35 billion..
According to the "China National Financial Survey Report" released by the Central National Financial Research and Research Center jointly established by the People's Bank of China and Southwestern University of Finance and Economics, the asset gap between urban and rural areas is 10.2 times on average and 1.7 times on median. The difference between the average value and the median value of urban household assets is also 31.4 times...Looking at the ratio of income and assets in the top 10% to the total, household income is 57.0%, financial assets are 61.0%, non-financial assets are 88.7%, and total assets are 84.6%..
On February 2014, 2, a research institute at Southwest Finance and Economics University in Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China released a report that the top 23% of wealthy households in China own 10% of the country's total wealth. doing..According to the report, the average annual income of the top 1% of millionaire households is 115 yuan (about 2 million yen) (the average annual wage of Chinese workers and staff in 1900 was about 2012 yuan)..
Causes and effects
In the primitive ageAgriculture:When (farming) began, it became possible to accumulate crops and economic inequality began to occur. According to a paper submitted to the scientific magazine "Nature" in 2017, when comparing the residential areas of archaeological sites for about 1 civilizations around the world since about 1000 years ago,(I.e.Etc. tamedEurasiaWhile the disparity continued to widen in such cases,家畜North and south where there were no large animalsAmericaIt is analyzed that the widening disparity stopped in about 2500 years..
After that, economic inequality continued and widened due to differences in the formation and control of groups and powers such as nations, trade and commerce, conditions of residence and technological progress.Dissatisfaction with poverty and inequality is often the case in JapanRebellionOf the people including反 乱,revolutionCaused.For this reason, while the politicians collect private wealth as taxes, they have been forced to take care not to increase economic inequality extremely until today.
There are various causes of economic inequality.Causes According to the conclusion of the OECD report "Divided we Stand: Why Inequality Keeps Rising", in 22 member countries, the extremes of wealthy people and poverty are being strengthened due to the effects of their actions and policies. (OECD 2011-12-05).
Factors of economic inequality include "a big difference in wages and income (skilled workers earn more than others)""Wealth concentration""Labor market (Globalization・ Technology changes and policy changes) ”“ Regressive taxation And tax havens and tax havens"Higher education bubble""Computerization and technological innovation"Racial inequality"Gender difference"Relationship societyAnd the like.
Economists cite four factors that make the difference between rich and poor: 1) wealth at birth, 2) qualities, 3) luck, and 4) effort...Ito points out that the propositions "Effort produces wealth" and "Difference in effort is the difference between rich and poor" are wrong, and there is no basis that wealth belongs to the person himself. ".
EconomistFumio Otake"The main cause of wage inequality, which is an important part of income, is productivity differences. Productivity differences between individuals are caused by different innate talents, education, efforts and luck." Pointed out..Otake also said, "Because the level of effort cannot be observed by others, there is a wage gap as a means of encouraging people to make efforts. In other words, peopleIncentiveThere is a wage gap as a means of bringing about. ".
Fumio Ohtake points out that "differences in attitudes toward competition and whether or not they can demonstrate their abilities in competition lead to economic disparities, and are likely to affect the productivity of society as a whole.".
EconomistHideomi Tanaka"Non-regular employment has unstable income, and the instability has various effects. For example, if parents are non-regular employment and their income is unstable, children are also unstable in income. It could live a lifetime, and some empirical studies suggest that. ".
According to Professor Curry of the University of Columbia, the cause of the chain of poverty that children in poor families become poor and children also become poor is not inheritance, but pregnant women with poor nutrition give birth to low-weight children → children grow up However, he says that he is in poor health, becomes a low-income → low-income parent, and gives birth to a low-weight child..
Fumio Ohtake said, "According to an American study, the difference in children's mathematics scholastic ability depending on the income class of parents has already appeared at the age of 6, and the difference in scholastic ability will continue to widen thereafter. If you have been educated before, school education aid can be very effective. ".
現代 のMarket economyIn economic inequality, wagesLabor marketThe majority are due to being determined by.Another cause is about each industrySupply and demandThere are some imbalances, but this is a small number.It is difficult to assume that the real market is generally efficient.This is because there is some kind of imperfect competition in almost every market (uneven distribution of information, inequality in education and skill improvement opportunities, and many other imperfect conditions).So the government is thisMarket failureIs said to have a great potential role to correct.
Pure資本主義In a commercial production format (for example, specialized agencies and trade unions do not regulate the number of workers), the income of workers isUnionIt is determined by the market, not by the workers themselves.In other wordsEqual pay for equal workIn the situation where is true, labor is considered to be the price of skill skills in the market, which causes price inequality.Under the law of supply and demand, the price of labor skills is determined by the balance between "demand for skilled workers" and "supply of skilled workers".this is"Markets, on the other hand, concentrate wealth, impose environmental costs on society, and abuse workers and consumers.""Markets themselves can lead to great inequality, even in normal stability, with undesired results from a broader perspective.Is the reason why it is said.
If an employer can only pay below market prices, his business will be chronically understaffed.Competing players in the business can take advantage of this situation by offering higher wages and pulling out workers.For business players who value profit most, it would be unreasonable to offer wages that are higher or lower than the labor market price..
Wages fall for jobs where a large number of workers want to work for long periods of time (large supply) and few job openings (low demand).This is among job seekerscompetitionThis is becauseExamples include dishwashing and customer service.When competition among job seekers is occurring, the wages of the work tend to decline because it is rational to use the workers as disposables.On the other hand, wages in the industry will increase for businesses that have a small number of workers and job seekers (low supply) but have great needs (high demand).This is due to competition between employers in job seekers, which raises wages.For example, there are examples of higher skills, rare skills, and high-risk work.
In industries where there is competition between employers, wages tend to rise due to the relatively small number of workers in the job.The bureaucracy and labor organizations limit the number of workers in their jobs to increase demand and raise wages for their members.The members are collective bargaining, political activities,strikeWages can be raised by.
It is clear that this supply-demand relationship is associated with economic inequality in order to widely diversify income levels in the society.But wage bias alone cannot explain the concentration of wealth and the fact that 1% of people earn very high incomes. "It is clear that the market must be improved and remodeled to the benefit of many citizens.'.
Another cause isincome taxInProgressive taxationThe rate.The progressive tax system is a system in which the higher the amount of income, the higher the tax rate...For income levels that impose the highest tax rate in progressive taxation, raising or lowering that level is said to have a direct impact on the level of inequality in the society.Furthermore, imposing a progressive tax on a sharp curve has the effect of compensating for variability in income.Pre-tax and post-taxGini indexThe difference is an indicator of the effect of this progressive taxation.As a result, the income tax rate in the United States is the OECD average..
There is debate among political scientists and economists as to whether wealth inequality will be improved or exacerbated by the tax system.
Paul Krugman,Peter Richard Orszag,Emmanuel SaezSuch aseconomistThe post-WWII tax system widened the income gap by allowing wealthy American workers greater access to capital than low-income Americans. Claims to be obvious.
Free tradeSpreads the scale of economic inequality from global to domestic..When a rich country trades with a poor country, the wages of unskilled laborers in rich countries fall and the wages of unskilled laborers in poor countries rise as a result of market action.
Paul KrugmanFree tradeAnalyzing the impact of the United States on inequality, it found that trade expansion with poor countriesMeans of productionDue to the diversification of unskilled labor, unskilled labor became more and more tradeable, but technicallyInnovationFor some reason, the impact on US inequality was minor.In the same view with other experts, Lawrence Katz analyzes that the impact of trade has only increased income inequality by 5-15%.But some economists have argued against this causal relationship, especially Robert Lawrence, who is no longer able to replace unskilled labor in rich countries with machines through technological innovation and automation. Manufacturing workers claim they don't need much due to competition with poor countries.
In many countriesLabor marketBecause men are preferred inWage gap between men and womenExists.For example, in American full-time workers, women paid an average of 77% more than men.This disparity is due to various factors.On average, women are more likely than men to do more than salary when seeking employment, and are less likely to want to travel or relocate..
In his book Knowledge and Decisions, Thomas Sowell argued that this difference was caused by women being unable to get a job because of marriage or pregnancy, but income studies cannot explain the difference. It is supposed to be.Men are more likely than women to get high-risk jobs that are more likely to earn higher incomes.
In the US Census, "When we account for difference between male and female work patterns as well as other key factors, women earned, on average, 80 percent of what men earned in 2000 ... Even after accounting for key factors. that affect income, our model could not explain all of the differences in earnings between men and women. "".
In the United States, women earn more than men when comparing men and women who are unmarried or have no children...In addition, women who work part-time have a higher average income than men who work part-time..
It is argued that gender inequality and discrimination bring poverty and vulnerability to society as a whole...It is said that the knowledge and property brought to the home and the home form the center of the individual's opportunity to live outside the home and the ability to respond to threats...High levels of education and social adaptability increase the productivity of the whole family, thereby improving the wealth of society as a whole.There is an attempt to explain the impact of this factor on poverty with a tool called the Gender Equality Index..
In February 2013, a study by Brandeis University in the United States revealed that the wealth gap between whites and blacks in the United States has nearly tripled in the last 2 years.。2009年の時点で、白人世帯・黒人世帯の資産の中央値はそれぞれ26万5000ドル（約2440万円）と2万8500ドル（約260万円）となり、その差は23万6500ドルと、1984年の8万5000ドルに比べて3倍近くまでに拡大している.
Uneven distribution of wealth
Concentration in cities and exhaustion of local economy
Economists point out that "the income levels of Asian countries are low compared to those of Europe and the United States, but land prices tend to be higher due to the high population density.".
The OECD reports that "up to a population of 700 million means wealth, but beyond that there is a negative correlation between metropolitan size and income.".
Fixing the difference by inheritance
The economic inequality that has arisen isinheritanceByparentからChildIt may be fixed by being inherited by.DisparityIf is fixedclassIs called.Also,Human relations,DutiesupperKnow-howIntangible likepropertyIs inherited from parents to children, causing economic inequality to take root.
Stage of economic development
Kenneth Rogoff saidwealthy classとPoorThe widening gap witheconomic growthIt is an unavoidable fact as a negative aspect of.It is not easy to resolve such income inequality by national policy.There is a limit to imposing taxes on the wealthy"The rapid progress of technology and globalization has favored highly skilled workers, and income and wealth inequality has risen to record highs. Income inequality is socially stable regardless of country. There is no doubt that it is the biggest threat that shakes the market, but if the market works well, it will ultimately play a role in social stabilization. ".
EconomistYasuyuki Iida"If there is a boom and labor shortage, inequality and poverty cannot be serious."..Iida said, "When economic growth occurs, inequality rises in the early stages, but it reaches its peak and falls, becoming equal. For example, Japan.Meiji EraThen, as they grew up, capitalists appeared and became more and more unequal.However, as the number of companies increased by capitalists, there was a shortage of workers, workers had stronger rights and inequality decreased."Economic growth strengthens the voice of workers. In strengthening the voice, the fruits of economic growth can be allocated to the review of redistribution policies and social security can be expanded."I point out.
Part ofAustrian SchoolEconomists are high due to the country's monetary policyinflationClaims the theory that leads to economic inequality..According to the theoryMoney supplyInflation due to is an unreasonable measure that is advantageous for those who already have profitability, but disadvantageous for those who live on fixed income such as savings, which exacerbates inequality. To let you.
They investigated the correlation between inflation and inequality, and inflation was "printing banknotes ("printing money) ”, And discusses the causal relationship between inflation and inequality.
Fumio Ohtake said, "The impact of lowering nominal wages is great, and it is highly likely that the gap between workers will be stronger than it really is. This has made people realize that the gap has widened since the end of the 1990s in Japan. It is one of the causes. ".
Immobilization of vested interests (economic, political, position, innate, ability) increases inequality because those interests reduce economic liquidity.
Reducing economic inequality in modern timespolicyIt is the main theme of.
For information on how to correct economic inequality
- Demand more burden on the wealthy, or eliminate poverty and reduce the degree of difference
- Sharing (a part of) the wealth that is the source of rich and poor, eliminating the concept of economic inequality in the first place
There are two possible directions.
As a way to reduce the degree of economic inequalityWealth redistributionThere is a theory.
EconomicsIn traditionalClassical economicsThen.Pareto efficiencyThe focus was on improving the efficiency of society as a whole, as represented by, but we also paid attention to distribution in response to the growing economic inequality in the real world.Welfare economicsIs one of the major fields.
There are various factors of economic inequality, but they can be classified into two types: "government-related" and "market-related".The strengths and benefits of each approach are the subject of today's discussion.
The following is a typical example of the government's economic inequality mitigation law.
- Public education --By increasing the supply of skilled workersEducationReduce the income gap caused by.
- Progressive taxation ――Reduce income disparity in society by taxing high-income earners more proportionally than low-income earners.
- minimum wageLegislation-mostwageIncrease the income of low-income workers.
- nationalizationDepends onSubsidy --Goods and services that everyone needs (Food-Medical-住宅By providing cheap or free of charge, the government can increase the purchasing power of low-income groups in society.
- Wagner methodSuch,UnionEnactment of law to support
Although these methods can usually correct inequalityHowever, it can sometimes accelerate economic inequality (in the Soviet Union, the distribution of these government interestsPrivileged classWas dominated by).Political scientists argue that public policy, run by high net worth organizations, has gradually eroded economic equality in the United States since 1970..
The following are methods for correcting economic inequality based on market principles that do not depend on the government.
- Marginal Propensity to Consume-The more wealth and income you have, the more people will consume.In the extreme case, in a situation where one person owns all the wealth, he will soon need to hire people to preserve those property (job creation), which will result in a concentration of wealth. descend.
- Union --Based on the power of the labor market, labor groups are said to reduce inequality by negotiating standard wages (but unemployment will increase).However, due to the weakening of labor unions and the widespread use of performance-based wage systems, economic inequality is occurring due to productivity inequality..
Fumio Ohtake said, "What reduces the income gap due to luck and bad luck is private insurance, family help, and tax / social security reallocation system. If private insurance and family help fail, Income reallocation and job creation by the government will be indispensable. ".
Health and social cohesion
British researchersRichard G. WilkinsonとKate PickettIn countries with large income disparities, the proportion of health and social problems (obesity, mental illness, murder, teenage birth, imprisonment, child quarrel, substance abuse) is high, and social goods (life expectancy, education level)・ It was discovered that the level of trust between others, the status of women, social mobility, and the number of patents issued) is low.They found that health and social issues were with Japan in statistics covering 23 developed countries and 50 US states.フィンランド,in AmericaUtahとNew HampshireIn states and countries where the difference in household income is small, the United States, the United Kingdom, andMississippi,New York StateI found that the problem is small compared to the states and countries with large household income such as.
Increasing income inequality increases the benefits of property offenders such as robbery, extortion, theft and fraud..
Declining economic growth rate
At the 2015 World Economic Forum, it was concluded that structural reforms such as wage cuts and weakening trade unions increase the risk of a long-term recession.It has also been concluded that income inequality is the cause of long-term economic stagnation and should be addressed. .
As mentioned above, economic inequality has a great impact not only on the economy itself, but also on politics and society in general, so it has been the subject of scholarship and journalism in various fields.FrenchParis School of EconomicsThe World Inequality Institute, which specializes in this issue Is provided.
Opinions by school
violenceFrom those who are inferior to those who are superior by means such aswealthMay be robbed.When this situation becomes normal, economic inequality will increase.Military powerWas backed upTyrannyIs an example of "social deprivation".MarxismOfCommunismAccording toCapitalist TheWorkerからSteal wealthIt means that you are doing it.
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- ^ Webster (4b): increasing in rate as the base increases (a progressive tax)
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- ^ Princeton University WordNet: (n) progressive tax (any tax in which the rate increases as the amount subject to taxation increases)
- ^ Sommerfeld, Ray M., Silvia A. Madeo, Kenneth E. Anderson, Betty R. Jackson (1992), Concepts of Taxation, Dryden Press: Fort Worth, TX
- ^ Growing Unequal ?: Income Distribution and Poverty in OECD Countries, OECD Publishing, ISBN 978-92-64-04418-0, 2008, pgs. 103, 104.
- ^ a b “Economic Focus:”. The Economist, (London: The Economist Group): p. 81. (April 2008, 4)
- ^ a b “Are Women Earning More Than Men?”. Forbes(July 2006, 5)
- ^ Lukas, Carrie (April 2007, 4). “A Bargain At 77 Cents To a Dollar”. The Washington Post 2010/5/3Browse.
- ^ [Farrell, Warren in Why Men Are the Way They Are]
- ^ http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-15.pdf
- ^ Women'earn less than men across the globe' | Vedior --Global Employment News
- ^ Carrie Lukas on Wage Gap on National Review Online
- ^ a b c Nicola Jones, Rebecca Holmes, Jessica Espey 2008. Gender and the MDGs: A gender lens is vital for pro-poor results... London: Overseas Development Institute
- ^ a b Racial asset disparity triples in 25 years U.S. university research CNN.co.jp August 2013, 2
- ^ Robert H. Frank, "Thinking Everyday Questions with Economics" Nikkei Business Newspaper, Nikkei Business Bunko, 2013, p.238.
- ^ Nori Kurihara/Diamond, Inc. “Understand the illustration! The Mechanism of Economy [New Edition]] Diamond, 2010, 116 pages.
- ^ Global income gaps will narrow in the coming decades--Kenneth Rogoff, Harvard University Professor Toyo Keizai Online August 2011, 8
- ^ Norihisa Iwata "Economics that turns "anxiety" into "hope"" PHP Research Institute, 2010, p.258.
- ^ Yasuyuki Iida, Rin Amemiya, Economics of Poverty Elimination, Chikuma Publishing, Chikuma Bunko, 2012, p.162.
- ^ Yasuyuki Iida, Rin Amemiya, Economics of Poverty Elimination, Chikuma Publishing, Chikuma Bunko, 2012, p.196.
- ^ Yasuyuki Iida, Rin Amemiya, Economics of Poverty Elimination, Chikuma Publishing, Chikuma Bunko, 2012, p.267.
- ^ “Monetary Inflation's Effect on Wealth Inequality: An Austrian Analysis”. Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics (New York: Springer): pp. 1–17. (January 2009, 1)
- ^ Yoichi Takahashi "Deep News" "Making non-regular employees full-time" is the result of the BOJ's mild inflation Hyundai Business July 2014, 5
- ^ Morinaga Takuro, "The 50 Great Questions of the Japanese Economy" Kodansha <Kodansha Hyundai Shinsho>, 2002, 35 pages.
- ^ Fumio Otake, “Sense of Economic Thinking-How to Help People without Money” Chuokoron Shinsha <Chukou Shinsho>, 2005, p.202.
- ^ Bradley, David; Huber, Evelyne; Moller, Stephanie; Nielson, François; Stephens, John D. (2003). “Distribution and Redistribution in Post-Industrial Democracies”. World Politics 55 (2): 193–228 .
- ^ Huber, Evelyne; Nielsen, François; Pribble, Jenny; Stephens, John D. (2006). “Politics and Inequality in Latin America and the Caribbean”. American Sociological Review 71 (6): 943–963 "A strong record of democracy and a left-leaning legislative partisan balance are associated with lower levels of inequality."
- ^ Keller, KR (2010). “HOW CAN EDUCATION POLICY IMPROVE INCOME DISTRIBUTION? AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF EDUCATION STAGES AND MEASURES ON INCOME INEQUALITY”. The Journal of Developing Areas 2010/5/24Browse"this study shows that income distribution improves by ensuring that expenditures per primary-school student are adequately kept up with increases in cohort size to prevent education quality from deteriorating."
- ^ "The impact of economic growth, tax policy and economic freedom on income inequality --Conclusions". 2010/5/24Browse. “While some degree of progressive income taxation may be a useful strategy for those who desire increased income equality, broader economic interventionism is not consistent with their desired goal.”
- ^ Duncan, Denvil; Peter, KS (June 2008). “Tax Progressivity and Income Inequality”. Andrew Young School of Policy Studies Research Paper Series (papers.ssrn.com): 30 2010/5/24Browse"as taxes become more efficient, via lower progressivity, income inequality tends to increase [although consumption ine quality may rise, especially where tax evasion is wide spread] ""
- ^ Winner-Take-All Politics by Jacob S. Hacker, Paul Pierson
- ^ García-Peñalosa (2006)
- ^ Gross, D. (June 2007, 6). “Income Inequality, Writ Larger”. The New York Times 2010/5/23Browse"the rise of performance-based pay has accounted for 25 percent of the growth in wage inequality among male workers from 1976 to 1993."
- ^ Fumio Otake, “Competition and Fairness-The Real Merit of Market Economy” Chukoron Shinsha <Chukou Shinsho>, 2010, p.20.
- ^ Statistics and graphs from Wilkinson and Pickett research.
- ^ Fumio Otake, “Sense of Economic Thinking-How to Help People without Money” Chuokoron Shinsha <Chukou Shinsho>, 2005, p.176.
- ^ Davos is starting to get it --inequality is the root cause of stagnation L. Elliot, The Guardian, 25 Jan 2015
- ^ Le Laboratoire sur les Inégalités Mondiales (World Inequality Lab) Retrieved February 2017, 12