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🌐 | Comiket "New C99" will be held at Tokyo Big Sight in December. To tens of thousands of people a day


Comiket "New C99" will be held at Tokyo Big Sight in December. To tens of thousands of people a day

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In addition, it is required to take general measures such as cough etiquette and hand washing to avoid the so-called "three dense (dense, close, closed)".

The Comic Market Preparatory Committee will hold "Comic Market 99" (C99) for two days from December 12th to 30st in Tokyo. → Continue reading

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Three dense

Three dense(Mitsu no Mitsu) is2020(Reiwa2 years)New Coronavirus Infection (COVID-19)In the expansion periodPrime Minister's Office-Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareRaised bySlogan[1]..Should be avoided to prevent outbreaksClosed / dense / closePoint to.. Three "dense"-Three denseAlso written as, generally3 denseAbbreviated as (sanmitsu).Also, in English-speaking countriesThree Cs-3CsIs popular as

Three "dense" and countermeasures


Sealing refers to places where there are no windows or no ventilation.[2]..It has been pointed out that there is a possibility that the virus concentration in the air will increase in a poorly ventilated space and there will be a risk of infection, and cases of actual infection have also been reported.[3]..As a countermeasure, sufficient ventilation is important regardless of the size of the room.[1][2]..At the Prime Minister's Office of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, in the case of a room with windows, the windows in two directions should be fully opened for several minutes to ventilate at least twice an hour, and for air conditioners such as passenger cars and trucks, the "outside air mode" should be set for trains and buses. Public transportation such as is calling for cooperation in opening windows[1]..The term "closed space with poor ventilation" is considered to mean that the air environment of a general building does not meet the standards.In that sense,Building Management Law StandardsIf the ventilation volume required to meet the requirements (per capita ventilation volume of about 30 cubic meters per hour) is met, it is considered that this does not apply to "a closed space with poor ventilation".[1][4][3]..Therefore, there is no need to worry too much even in a facility without windows, but it is necessary to further increase ventilation and reduce the number of people per room.[1]..In addition, since ventilation is not performed with a normal household air conditioner, separate ventilation is required.[1].


Dense means that many people gather or even a small number of people gather at a short distance.[2]..As a countermeasure, even if you reach out to each other with other people, you can not reach itEnough distanceIt is effective to keep (2 meters or more, at least 1 meter)[2].


Closely refers to talking, speaking, exercising, etc. within reach of each other.[2]..Closeness can happen in any situation[2]..According to the World Health Organization (WHO), a 5-minute conversation reports that as many droplets as a single cough fly (about 1).[1]..As a countermeasure, it is required to keep a sufficient distance and wear a mask during conversation, vocalization, exercise, etc.[2].

Interpretation of avoidance

Shinzo AbeWas his wife at the House of Representatives Welfare and Labor Committee on April 2020, 4.安 倍 昭 恵 OfOitaHe said that the problem is that three "dense" overlaps in relation to travel.[5].. At a press conference on the 22nd, Yoshihide Suga emphasized, "I'm not saying that there is no risk of infection unless the three conditions are met."[5]..About these consistencyMainichi NewspapersIs skeptical[5].

Also, in 2021, so-called in JapanMutant strainIt has been reported that the risk of spread of infection has increased even with "1 dense" and "2 dense" since the spread of[6].. In April, cases of infection at drinking parties (dense, close) in riverbanks were reported, and in March, cases of infection during training (sealed) at theaters at intervals of 4 meters or more were reported.[7].Yasutoshi NishimuraThe Minister for Economic Revitalization said at a press conference on May 5, "Recentcluster"There are cases that have never been seen before," he said. "There are cases where the infection has spread even with just one density," he cautioned.[6]..An expert organization that advises the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare on countermeasures also said, "There is a risk of infection not only in three dense situations, but also in two or one factor."[6].



May 2

Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareA cluster countermeasure group was set up,clusterIt was argued that more effective behavior change could be called for by finding and categorizing the common denominator of[8].

May 3

Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareSpread of COVID-XNUMX infectionAs a preventive measure, "To prevent outbreak of new coronavirusWas announced.ス ポ ー ツ ジ ム,Houseboat,buffetStyle dinner,Sparrow,Ski Ofguest houseAs a common point of mass infection (cluster outbreak), keeping in mind that cases where one infected person spread multiple infections in a closed temporary tent etc.

  1. Poor ventilation
  2. Space where people gather and spend
  3. Places where unspecified number of people are likely to come into contact

To alert[9].

May 3

On March 3, when the number of infected people in Japan began to increase, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare's expert meeting said that the places where outbreaks were confirmed so far are places and scenes that meet the three conditions, and should avoid them. Requested[10][11].. At this point

  1. Poor ventilationdenseClosed space
  2. lots of peopledenseset
  3. Conversation and vocalization at close range (distance that can be reached when reaching each other)

As "three principles to reduce the risk of cluster formation",

  1. Encourage ventilation
  2. Reduce the density of people
  3. Avoid close conversations, vocalizations, and vocals

Named[11]..In addition to these, we strongly recommended diligent hand hygiene, thorough cough etiquette, not using common items, and sufficient disinfection when using them from the viewpoint of infection prevention.[11]..However, at this point, there was no mention focusing on "dense".[10]..One of the official residence staff who heard the announcement of the expert meeting said that the third "short-distance conversation and vocalization" was one of the three conditions of the place and scene where the outbreak was confirmed.denseProposed to be "contact", "three dense" was born[10].

May 3

XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,Prime Minister's OfficeOfficial Twitter is

  1. Poor ventilationdenseClosed space
  2. Many gatherdenseMeeting place
  3. Have a conversation or utterance up closedenseContact scene

Call to go out and avoid[12], On March 3, posted a leaflet "Let's go out avoiding denseness!" on the official website regarding prevention of outbreak of new coronavirus[13].. This was later changed to "Avoid the 3 dense!"[14]..At this point, it had not yet spread widely to the public, but on March 3,Yuriko KoikeGovernor of TokyoAt a press conference, he put up on the board saying "NO !! 3 Cs, avoid 3 Cs and act", and this figure was widely reported and became well known.[10].

May 3

On March 3th,Shinzo AbePrime MinisterCalled at the press conference to avoid "three secrets"[15].

Since then, "three secrets" has been widely used as a slogan to prevent the spread of the new coronavirus, but with the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare from March 3 to April 3,LINEIn the first survey of users nationwide to combat the new coronavirus, it became clear that efforts to avoid the "three densities" were not sufficient.[16].

May 5

At the press conference, Prime Minister Abe called for the third of the "three requests" to continue to avoid the three secrets in every aspect of life.[17].

May 6

At a press conference on June 6, Prime Minister Abe said that while proceeding with cluster measures, he learned that "By avoiding the three dens, we can prevent infection while continuing our daily work and life." He stated that "three Cs" has come to be recognized all over the world as three Cs (Three Cs).[18].

Ripple / derivation

"Three Cs" did not spread sufficiently in Japan at the beginning of 3 and at the beginning of the spread of the new coronavirus infection, but as mentioned above.Yuriko KoikeGovernor of TokyoIt will be taken up in the mass media after being mentioned at the press conference, the "secret" remarks described later, and the mention at the press conference of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, and will be used as a matter of course as a measure to prevent the spread of the new coronavirus by the end of the year. It became so[10]..When we analyzed the responses of about 2400 million people nationwide in a national survey conducted in collaboration with the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare and LINE, the percentage of those who answered that they were avoiding the "three dense" was the first survey. As of (March 1st to April 3st), it was 31% nationwide, but on April 4th, the government announcedEmergency declarationIn the third survey (April 3th to 4th) after issuing the issue, it increased significantly to 12%.[19]..The English translation of "Three Cs" has also become widespread internationally as a measure to prevent the spread of infection. The same year's "" announced on November 11Yu Can New and Buzzword AwardEven with 30 candidate words, other "Abeno mask""Social distance""PCR testNominated with terms related to the new coronavirus such as[20], December 12st, "Three Cs" was selected as the annual grand prize[21].."The day before, announced on November 11th,"Sanseido The person who knits the dictionary chooses "This year's new word 2020』", "Dense" is elected in 3rd place[22].catch copyTo studyChuo University OfAsako IidaThe professor evaluates "dense" as "a character that symbolizes this year."[23]..The year-end customary "Society of the year is expressed in one kanji character"Kanji of the yearBut "dense" was chosen[24].

"Dense" remark

TokyoGovernor of Tokyo Yuriko Koike on April 4thCabinet OfficeCalled the reporters rushing for comment at "It's dense" and asked for a distance[23].. When this situation was reported, it became a topic on the Internet,twitterThere were a number of posts with remarks on[23].. Independent games also appeared[25][26], The game introduction video was played more than 1 million times a week, and Governor Koike said in the interview on 830nd, "If I say "dense" here, the game was completed"[27]..Asako Iida explains, "By saying'it's dense', you can easily convey that'please leave'."[23].. Announced on December 12st, "Net buzzword award In "2020", "Dense!" Collected 10.4% of the votes and became the silver prize (""Animal Crossing ForestSame rate)[28].


As with "three dense", as a word that indicates a situation to avoidCloseThe slogan (shukinpei) also spread on SNS[29][30]. this isNew coronavirus infectionSource ofWuhanHavePeople's Republic of China OfGeneral Secretary of the Communist Party of China(Head of state)'S nameXi JinpingIt is a play on, and each of the collection, near, and closing has the following meanings.[30].

  1. set = Avoid places where people gather.
  2. Near = Avoid short-distance conversations and interactions.
  3. Closed = Avoid closed or closed, poorly ventilated environments.

Dissemination outside Japan

Japan's Prime Minister's Office and the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare said "Avoid the Three Cs!"EnglishAs a version "Avoid the “Three Cs”!"Three Cs"

  1. Closed spaces
  2. Crowded places
  3. Close-contact settings

Is defined as

In addition to the English version of the Prime Minister's Office and the Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareChinese versionAlso createdChineseThe version is the same as the Japanese version, "3 Dense (XNUMX dense)denseClosed spacedenseMeeting placedenseOff contact field) ”.

New York City CouncilHygiene chairpersonMark LevinePosted a poster of "Avoid the Three Cs" on Twitter with an English translation on May 5st. "This is what Japan is working on. It's a good way to emphasize what is the most risky."[31][32].Los Angeles CountyHas regularly referred to "Three Cs" since calling on its official Twitter account on July 7 to wear masks, secure social distance, wash hands and avoid "Three Cs".[33].

In charge of measures against the new coronavirus on July 7Yasutoshi NishimuraMinister for Economic RecoveryIs riceWall Street JournalI mentioned "Three Cs" on paper[10].

On May 10EnglandJonathan Van Tam, Deputy Chief Medical Officer,Prime minister's residenceAttending a press conference of the British government held in Japan, he said, "The conditions for the spread of the virus are well summarized in the advice of Japan's" Three Cs "."Furthermore, "3 Cs" (Three Cs), D (duration = 3 dense state lasts for a long time) and V (volume = singing and screaming causes the virus to fly far away and accelerate infection) 3 Showed off "2 dense +3" with added items[34].

At a press conference on June 6, Prime Minister Abe acknowledged that "Three Cs" became known around the world.[18], The report of the private extraordinary investigation committee released on October 10 also states that "Three Cs's ideas were widely announced not only in Japan but all over the world."[10].

Recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO)

who (WHO) issued a message on July 2020, 7 calling for "avoidance of 11Cs (3Cs)", which corresponds to the English translation of the Three Cs, to prevent infection with the new coronavirus.FacebookとtwitterPosted above[35][36].. In addition, WHO

  1. Crowded places
  2. Close-contact settings
  3. Confined and enclosed spaces

And[36], The definition of the Prime Minister's Office and the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare is slightly different.

Campaign by local government (Japan)


School excursionMany students gather as a travel destination in JapanKyotoNow, we will launch the "Kyoto School Trip 3 Csting Prevention Measures Support Project" to support trips that avoid the three Cs.Specifically, when the originally planned means of transportation was changed to avoid three crowds, when the number of rooms in accommodation facilities and dining areas was increased, and when students were found to be positive for the new coronavirus infection. Support up to 3 yen per student when expenses such as transportation are incurred[37].


FukuokaIt is,Fukuoka CityOriginal actressImada MioSightseeing promotion video "Fukuoka"Confinement(secret)Journey "-Let's go to Fukuoka yet! ~ ”Was created and released on October 2020, 10[38]..The theme of the video is "a new trip" that avoids "three dense", and the Fukuoka Prefecture Tourism Promotion Division says "I want to convey the new charm of Fukuoka."[38].

Individual case

ア プ リ ケ ー シ ョ ン

YahooIn April 2020, the "Yahoo! MAP" app (iOSEdition,AndroidVersion) and the web version of "Yahoo! Map" have resumed the provision of "Congestion Radar" that ended on January 2020, 1.[39]..It is a function that allows you to check the degree of congestion in the area and around the terminal station on the map, and decided to restart it because the government and local governments are requesting avoidance of three "dense" to prevent the spread of the new coronavirus infection.[39].

Movie theater

Emergency declarationMany during the periodMovie theaterWas closed, and the box office revenue of the movie theater fell to 5% from the previous year as of May due to the postponement of the release of the new movie.[40]..Even in June, when the state of emergency was lifted, the number of customers did not return, and box office revenue was only 6% year-on-year.[40]..According to a questionnaire investigating the effects of the new coronavirus, 3% of the respondents answered that movie theaters "think three-cs", and the reason why movie theaters feel dangerous is "poor ventilation (= in a closed space). There are 63% of the respondents, and it is thought that the fact that many people are worried about the risk of infection has led to a significant decrease in the box office revenue of movie theaters.[40]..For such anxietyAichi Medical UniversityProfessor Hiroshige Mikamo said, "If you know that the movie theater is well ventilated, you won't talk during the movie and it's hard for droplets to fly. If the audience can watch the movie with a mask. , Can significantly reduce the chances of getting a new coronavirus infection. "[40]..In an experiment in which smoke was actually struck in the theater to photograph the state of ventilation, it was proved that ventilation was performed in about 20 minutes.[40], Ventilated three times an hour (the air in the theater is completely replaced), indicating that the theater is not in a "three-dense" environment[41][42].


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈


  1. ^ a b c d e f g "Guidance to avoid the three secrets!”. Prime Minister's Office. 2020/4/18Browse.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g "What are the three dense and social distances related to the new coronavirus?A doctor from the Clinic Fore Group will explain. | CLINIC FOR”(Japanese). CLINIC FOR Internal Medicine, Allergology, Dermatology (September 2020, 4). 2020/11/29Browse.
  3. ^ a b ""Ventilation" in COVID-19 control | Japan Medical Association COVID-19 Experts Meeting”(Japanese). www.covid19-jma-medical-expert-meeting.jp (September 2020, 5). 2020/12/5Browse.
  4. ^ "Ventilation to improve "closed space with poor ventilation" in commercial facilities"“P.4” (Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, March 2020, 3), and"Ventilation method to improve "closed space with poor ventilation"" (Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare April 2020, 4)See
  5. ^ a b c "Mr. Suga, 3 Cs" Risks even if they don't overlap "Mr. Akie Consistency with the Prime Minister's reply over the trip ..." (jp). Mainichi Daily News(July 2020, 4). https://mainichi.jp/articles/20200422/k00/00m/010/161000c 2020/12/5Browse. 
  6. ^ a b c INC, SANKEI DIGITAL (January 2021, 5). “Be careful of "XNUMX dense" Mutant strain increase situation change”(Japanese). Sankei News. 2021/5/13Browse.
  7. ^ Japan Broadcasting Corporation. “Risk of outbreak even if it is not "3 dense"". NHK News. 2021/5/13Browse.
  8. ^ "What is the background behind the birth of "Three Secrets"? -Professor Oshitani, Tohoku University (Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare Cluster Countermeasures Group) | Medical Restoration-Medical column at m3.com”(Japanese). www.m3.com. 2020/5/15Browse.
  9. ^ "Go out while avoiding the three “tightness”... Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare announces new alert with new corona". FNN Prime Online. 2020/4/18Browse.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g ""Three Cs" was devised by the official residence staff. A third Cs was added on the way: Asahi Shimbun Digital”(Japanese). Asahi Shimbun digital. 2020/10/30Browse.
  11. ^ a b c Japan Broadcasting Corporation. “Special Site New Corona Countermeasures "Avoid the Overlapping of Three Conditions" Expert Meeting's View [Full Text]|NHK". www3.nhk.or.jp. 2020/11/25Browse.
  12. ^ Prime Minister's Office (Disaster / Crisis Management Information) (March 2020, 3). “[Caution] #Notice about new coronavirus”(Japanese). Twitter @kantei_saigai. 2020/4/18Browse.
  13. ^ Prime Minister's Office (Disaster / Crisis Management Information) (March 2020, 3). “[#Caution] #Poster on HP for prevention of outbreak of new coronavirus”(Japanese). Twitter @kantei_saigai. 2020/4/18Browse.
  14. ^ Prime Minister's Office (Disaster / Crisis Management Information) (March 2020, 4). “News”(Japanese). @kantei_saigai. 2020/4/18Browse.
  15. ^ INC, SANKEI DIGITAL (January 2020, 3). “[Prime Minister's Press Conference] Prime Minister "Avoid the three "tights""”(Japanese). Sankei News. 2020/4/18Browse.
  16. ^ Japan Broadcasting Corporation. “Insufficient response to avoid “three secrets” Survey of communication apps New Corona". NHK News. 2020/4/18Browse.
  17. ^ "Prime Minister Abe press conference on new coronavirus infection”. Prime Minister's Office. 2020/12/5Browse.
  18. ^ a b "June 2, 6 Repress Prime Minister Abe Press Conference”. Prime Minister's Office. 2020/6/20Browse.
  19. ^ Japan Broadcasting Corporation. ““Three Cs) Stays in Half Regional Differences in Telework Corona National Survey". NHK News. 2020/12/5Browse.
  20. ^ ""Three Cs" "Abenomask" Many Corona-related Words-Buzzword Award Candidate: Jiji.com”(Japanese). Current affairs dot com. 2020/11/5Browse.
  21. ^ Japan Broadcasting Corporation. “"New Words / Buzzwords Award" Annual Grand Prize "3 Dense" Reflects the influence of the new Corona". NHK News. 2020/12/1Browse.
  22. ^ "This year's "New Word" Grand Prize is "Pien" Words related to the new corona are also in the top 10 one after another | ORICON NEWS | Web Tooku”(Japanese). Web Touhou. 2020/11/30Browse.
  23. ^ a b c d "What is the secret of the "dense" fashion? Mr. Koike remarked on the net-Expert “How to appeal is effective”: Jiji Dotcom”(Japanese). Current affairs dot com. 2020/5/15Browse.
  24. ^ Japan Broadcasting Corporation. “This year's kanji is "dense"". NHK News. 2020/12/14Browse.
  25. ^ "Governor Koike's "Dense" has received a great deal of attention online, and has become a material for games and manga music.”(Japanese). www.afpbb.com. 2020/11/12Browse.
  26. ^ "“Dense” 3D game version appears Governor of Tokyo flies to Iron Man and teaches “distance” to social distance”. Netorabo (May 2020, 4). 2020/5/31Browse.
  27. ^ "Governor of Tokyo Koike "I was able to play a game if I said "dense"" was a topic.”. NicoNico News (November 2020, 4). 2020/4/30Browse.
  28. ^ "Announcement of the results of the" Gadget Tsushin Internet Buzzword Award 2020 "!" Kimetsu no Yaiba "conquered with the 1st year Anime Buzzword Award of" Kimetsu Fever "". Gadget Communication GetNews(July 2020, 12). https://getnews.jp/archives/2835115 2020/12/1Browse. 
  29. ^ Original music(Nara newspaper Posted on April 2020, 4) Confirmed on April 10, 2020
  30. ^ a b "Corona countermeasures that are easier to understand than the government's point of view Spread through SNS “Beware of sickness” – Tokyo Sports Newspaper”(Japanese). East Sports Web – Tokyo Sports Newspaper. 2020/12/3Browse.
  31. ^ "Mystery / Mystery ... Western media, embarrassed by Japan where the number of infected people does not increase: International: News: Yomiuri Shimbun Online". www.yomiuri.co.jp. 2020/6/20Browse.
  32. ^ "@MarkLevineNYC Tweets". Twitter. 2020/11/6Browse.
  33. ^ "@CountyofLA Tweets". Twitter. 2020/11/6Browse.
  34. ^ "UK Corona Countermeasures "3 Dense +2" Added 2 Items to Japanese Version: Asahi Shimbun Digital”(Japanese). Asahi Shimbun digital. 2020/10/19Browse.
  35. ^ "WHO also appeals for "3 dense avoidance" advocated by Japan, and the effectiveness is confirmed”. Sankei Biz (July 2020, 7). 2020/7/19Browse.
  36. ^ a b @WHO. "Avoid the 3 Cs.There are certain places where #COVID19 spreads more easily:" (Tweet). TwitterThanRetrieved February 2020, 7.
  37. ^ "Kyoto MICE Information Site (Kyoto Cultural Exchange Convention Bureau)”(Japanese). Kyoto MICE Information Site (Kyoto Cultural Exchange Convention Bureau). 2021/3/27Browse.
  38. ^ a b "Mio Imada "A trip of concealment, let's go!" ... XNUMX "new trips" in your hometown: Economy: News”(Japanese). Yomiuri Shimbun Online (September 2020, 10). 2020/11/29Browse.
  39. ^ a b "Yahoo restarts "congestion radar" with app and PC, 3 to avoid dense, display congestion status from 2 hours ago to 26 hours ago”(Japanese). Travel voice. 2020/12/5Browse.
  40. ^ a b c d e "To eliminate the anxiety of "3 dense" and "ventilation seems to be bad" ... A movie theater that does not return customers releases a demonstration experiment of "ventilation"". FNN Prime Online. 2020/11/24Browse.
  41. ^ Locipo. “Is the movie theater 3 secret?Experiments supervised by infectious disease control experts ... The result is that the air is replaced 1 times in one movie”(Japanese). Locipo. 2020/11/24Browse.
  42. ^ ""Visualization" of the air flow in a movie theater "Ventilation demonstration experiment in a movie theater" --YouTube". www.youtube.com. 2020/11/24Browse.

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