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Koharu Sugawara appears in the morning drama As with "Idaten", the role of an athlete is expected to be high on the Internet [Spoilers]
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In the taiga drama "Idaten," Sugawara enthusiastically performed Kinue Hitomi, who participated in the Olympics in athletics and won the first medal for a Japanese woman.
In the NHK TV series "Okaeri Mone" broadcast on the 4th, world-famous dancer Koharu Sugawara is a wheelchair marathoner ... → Continue reading
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Kinue Hitomi(Kinue Hitomi,1907〈Meiji40 years>May 1 - 1931〈Showa6 years>May 8) IsOkayamaMitsu-gun(Current:Okayama CitySouth ward) FromAthleticsplayer,journalist..First Japanese womanOlympicmedalist.100cm,200cm(Both are unofficial),Long jumpSource ofWorld recordHolder.
1907(40th year of Meiji)May 1Born in Fukunari, Fukuhama-mura, Mitsu-gun, Okayama Prefecture (currently Fukunari, Minami-ku, Okayama City) as the second daughter of Inosaku Hitomi and Kishie...HitomiRiceとRushWealthy to growHomegrown farmingAt home, it was a family of five, father, mother, grandmother, sister and Kinue Hitomi...Fish catcher in childhoodPlay tagPlayed with, and had more boys than girls.
1913(Taisho 2) April, Fukuhama Village Fukuhama Hirotsugu High SchoolVulgaris(CurrentOkayama City Fukuhama Elementary School)..Even when he became an elementary school student, he was still the most active girl in the "Tenkatake Game", always regretting the boy and jumping off the second floor to leave school...On the other hand, his academic performance is also excellent, especiallyNational languageIs good at, in classClass leaderServed as.. When in 6th gradeHomeroom teacherからTankaLearned and posted anonymously to, and developed literary talent.1919After graduating from the general department in (Taisho 8)HigherIn the era when it was said that "girls study", his father, Insaku,High schoolOkayama Prefectural Okayama High School for Girls with a magnification of 3.93 times (currentlyOkayama Prefectural Okayama Sozan High School) Passed the entrance examination.
1920In April (Taisho 9), after completing the first year of Fukuhama Elementary and High School, he entered the longed-for Okayama Prefectural Okayama High School for Girls (Okayama High School)... at that time,DaikuOne and a half ri (≒ 1) every day until the high woman in Okayama km) Walked to school..The principal, Masao Wake, who took office in September of the same yearEducation for allAs "Japanese women's grace"TankaWhile teaching the studentsTennis,volleyballParticipated in an external match..Takao Okayama at the prefectural garden ball tournament immediately after enrollmentOkayama Women's Normal School(Mr. Okayama, nowOkayama UniversityI feel regretful about losing to the Faculty of Education) and it is expensiveracketI bought and worked hard until 6 pm..Initially the family is humanSunburnAlthough he was reluctant to turn black, his father, Inosaku, rushed to cheer for the prefectural garden ball tournament in May 1921 (Taisho 10)...In this tournament, the Hitomi-Ukita pair defeated the Okayama female teacher who defeated the Okayama high school girl the previous year.Championship flagWas praised as "Kansai Daiichi's avant-garde" and "Tennis Hitomi-san".1923(Taisho 12)May 11,Osaka Asahi ShimbunAt the 2nd Okayama Women's Athletic Meet (Okayama Female Master) sponsored by the Okayama Communication DepartmentberiberiThrough[Note 1]Participated as a representative of Takao Okayama,Long jumpWon the highest record (unofficial) in Japan at that time at 4m67.
1924(Taisho 13) Entered Nikaido Gymnasium in April.Of the head of the schoolNikaido TokuyoReceive physical education guidance from. Participated in the 10rd Okayama Women's Athletic Meet (Okayama Female Master) in OctoberTriple jumpRecorded the highest in the world at that time at 10m33 (currently unofficial). November, All Japan Championship, Athletics (Meiji Jingu Gaien Stadium・ Participated in Jingu).Triple jump 10m38,Spear throwingRecorded 26m37.
1925After graduating from the same school, Kyoto Municipal Daiichi High School (currentlyKyoto Municipal Horikawa High School) As a teacher (gymnastics teacher), but at the request of Nikaido, he toured various parts of Taiwan as a practical gymnastics instructor and returned to Japan in the same year.Became a trainee at Nikaido Gymnasium and helped to approve the school's vocational school (the school became a foundation the following year)Japan Women's College of Physical EducationWill be). In October, the 10th Athletics Championships and Meiji Shrine Games Kinki Qualifying sponsored by the Osaka Athletic Association (Osaka City Ground・ Participated in Osaka)50m raceI won the championship in 6 seconds 8.Set a world record (currently unofficial) with a triple jump of 11m62, the second in NovemberMeiji Shrine GamesParticipated in (Jingu)50cmWon the championship at 7 seconds 0, and won the triple jump at 11m35.
1926January,Osaka Mainichi NewspaperJoined the company and assigned to the sports section.That year, he participated in the Tokyo-Osaka Asahi Shimbun-sponsored four-continental competition-the 1st women's competition (Jingu), winning the 50m in 7 seconds 0 and the triple jump in 10m76. In May, participated in the 5nd Kanto Athletics Championships (Jingu). 2m won the championship in 100 seconds 13.Shot put (6 lbs) sets a new Japanese record of 8m9.In addition, the 97rd sponsorship of Osaka Mainichi Shimbun (Miyoshino Athletics Stadium・ Informally participated in Miyoshino).Long jump(5m6),Shot squaresRecorded (9m39) and baseball throw (long throw of baseball ball) (25m). June,Tokyo Nichini ShimbunParticipated in the 2nd Women's Athletic Meet (Jingu) sponsored by.200cmIn 27, he set a new Japanese record of 6m5 in the long jump.Held as a model competition400mRでTadashi Terao and Bun sisters, Was added, and the best member at that time set a new record in Japan of 52 seconds 2. August,Alice Milliat2th hosted byInternational Women's World Games(Gothenburg), He was the only Japanese to participate and won the world record of 5m50 in the long jump.alsoStanding long jumpBut he won 2m47.Discus throwThen at 32m62, 2nd place,100 yard dash12rd place at 0 seconds 3,60cm5th place, 6th place (javelin throw and shot put are abstained).Score 15 personal pointsInternational Women's Sports FederationWas awarded the Honorary Award.In addition, I learned about the situation of overseas athletics for the first time in this expedition, and not only made use of it in my own training, but also widely conveyed to the younger generation through books such as the importance of exclusive coaches and training throughout the year.
1927January,Tanisan XNUMXIn May, participated in the 5rd Women's Athletic Meet (Jingu) sponsored by Tokyo Nichi Nichi Shimbun. He recorded two world record of 3 seconds 200 in the 26 meters and 1 m 2 in the standing long jump (currently unofficial).He also won the long jump at 61m2 and participated in the 5th Japan Women's Olympic Games (Miyoshino) sponsored by the Osaka Kenbokai and sponsored by the Osaka Mainichi Shimbun.400cmWon the championship in 61 seconds 2 but at 50m at the same time of 6 seconds 8 (currently Hikata High School for Girls)Wakayama Prefectural Hainan High School) Lost.It was the first defeat for Hitomi in a domestic tournament. In June, participated in the 6th Osaka Women's Athletic Meet (Osaka) sponsored by the Osaka Women's Physical Education Study Group. Recorded the world tie at that time in 7 seconds 100 at 12m. August, 4th All Japan Athletics Championships (currentlyJapan Athletics Championships) (Jingu) participated. The 50m won in 6 seconds 7 and the 100m won in 12 seconds 8. In October, participated in the 10th Athletics Championships and Meiji Shrine Games Kinki Qualifying (Osaka) sponsored by the Osaka Athletic Association. 6m is 50 seconds 6 and 5m is 100 seconds 12 to win the world tie. Participated in the 4th Meiji Jingu Athletic Meet (Jingu) in November, twins Tadashi Terao and Bun sisters (Prefectural Daiichi High School (currently)Tokyo Metropolitan Shirasagi High School)) And after a close battle, the 50m won in 6 seconds 4 (the world tie record at that time) and the 100m won in 12 seconds 5.
1928In May, he participated in the 5th Japan Women's Olympic Games (Miyoshino) sponsored by the Kenbokai, and set the world record (unofficial) of 5 at 400m. The 59-meter dash won in 00 seconds 100. He also won the championship (12 points), and set the world record (unofficial) of 8 seconds 194 in 100m of them.OthersHigh jump(1m43), javelin throw (28m89).Participated in the 15th All Japan Athletics Championships (Osaka). He set 100 seconds 12 in the 2m and jumped 5m98 in the long jump, breaking two world records. June, 2th Interclub Championship (UK), And won the long jump by defeating the British gun at 5m59.However, in the 100-yard dash handicap race, he failed to qualify. In July, he participated in the AAA Women's Championship (London) in 7 seconds 26 (2 seconds 25 in qualifying was the world tie record at that time), and although he won the javelin throw at 8m35, he lost in front of the gun in the 96-yard dash and long jump. rice field.
1928 Amsterdam OlympicsFor the first time as a Japanese female athlete, all female individual events (100m,800cm, Discus, high jump) (the long jump was not adopted, and it was practically limited to one 100m). On July 7, although he passed the 30m qualifying in 100st place, he missed the final in the semifinals on the same day with 1 seconds and 12th place in 8th place. On August 4st, he passed the 8m qualifying in 1: 800: 2. August 26,800m finalIs 2 minutes 17 seconds 6 in GermanyLina RadkeSecond place after, the first Japanese woman to be an Olympic medalist (silver medal) Became[Note 2].. On August 8, he participated in the high jump qualifying, but failed in the qualifying at 5m1.
August, International Competition (Berlin), The long jump won 5m51.The javelin throw was second in the 36m58 and the 2m lost the qualifying, but the final 100m won the championship at 800: 2: 23. In October, he participated in the 9th Athletics Championships (Osaka) sponsored by the Osaka Athletic Association, and suffered a second defeat to Yasuko Hashimoto at 10m (no timekeeping).Hashimoto's record was 7 seconds 100. In the 2mR, his team WSC won in 13 seconds 2.
After this, he left the competition once, but resumed practice the following spring.While exploring various places as an athlete, he was overwhelmed by the cost of training younger generations, lectures and competitions.
1929In April, participated in the 4th Japan Women's Olympic Games (Miyoshino).Recorded the world's highest in the three-kind competition (6 points) (217m: 100 seconds 12, high jump: 4m1, javelin throw: 45m32), and 13m won the championship in 200 seconds 26. The 8mH 80 seconds 13 set a new record in Japan, albeit extraordinarily. In May, he participated in the 6th Women's Athletic Meet (Jingu) sponsored by Tokyo Nichi Nichi Shimbun and set a world record of 5 seconds 5 at 200m.The long jump won 24m7, and the discus won the new Japanese record of 5m92. In August, he held a two-week training camp with 34 candidates for the International Women's Olympics, and also participated in the Japan-Germany competition Osaka tournament () in October, recording 18 seconds 8 at 15 meters.Korea-Japan-Germany competition (Keijo）に出場、100mで12秒0、200mで24秒4、走幅跳で6m075を出した（100mと走幅跳は追い風5.8メートルのため非公認の世界記録）。中国・日本・独三国大会（奉天=Shenyang）にオープン参加し100mで12秒0、60mで7秒5を出している。11月、第16回全日本陸上競技選手権大会兼第5回明治神宮体育大会（神宮）に出場しており200mは25秒4で優勝、走幅跳は5m91で優勝、400mRでもL.A.C.チームの一員として51秒6の日本新記録で優勝した。
1930In February, at an extraordinary general meeting, it was proposed to place support bags at girls' schools nationwide to solicit donations in order to raise the expeditionary expenses for the International Women's Olympic Games, and the expeditionary expenses reached the target amount three days before departure. In May, participated in three types of competitions at the 2th Japan Women's Olympic Games (Miyoshino) (winning 3 points and 5. 7m: 201 seconds 466, running height jump: 100m13, spear throwing: 0m1), 40 representatives of the International Women's Olympic Games Was decided.We will hold a training camp for a month under Sasago Tani. In July, participated in the farewell competition for women's athletes in Europe (Osaka) sponsored by the Japan Women's Sports Federation / Kenbokai, and participated in the farewell competition for women's athletes in Europe (Takao Sugiyama, Nagoya). Participate in.The long jump recorded 35m27, and the javelin throw set a new unofficial Japanese record of 6m1. September 7th, 5rd International Women's World Games (Prague), Leading five players (until September 5), won the long jump with 9m8.The three-kind competition is 5nd with 90 points (192m: 100 seconds 13, high jump: 2m1, javelin throw: 40m34), javelin throw (46g) is 2rd (600m3), 37m is 1rd (60 seconds 3), 7mR is 8 In the place (400 seconds 4), 52m lost the semi-final and 0m withdrew from the final.The Japanese team, which added 100 point to the relay, was ranked 200th out of 13 participating countries. On September 2th and 1th, it rained and I became ill. September 18th, Japan-Poland Women's Competition (Warsaw). Participated in 60m (7 seconds 8), 100m (12 seconds 6), high jump (1m40), long jump (5m39), discus throw (32m19), javelin throw (36m55), and the Japanese team lost to Poland with 35 points vs. 54 points. rice field. On September 9, he participated in the Japanese-English-German women's competition (Berlin) and won the 13m in 100 seconds 12 and the long jump in 4m5. The 56m is 200nd in 28 seconds 2 and the javelin 2m 33 is 90rd. Sightseeing in Switzerland on September 3th and resting in Paris on September 9th. September 14th, Japan vs Belgium competition (ブ リ ュ ッ セ ル), 100m (13 seconds 4), 400mR (53 seconds 4), discus throw (29m13), javelin throw (37m25) won the championship. At 800m, it will be second.The Japanese team defeated Belgium 2 points vs. 52 points.He returned to Paris at midnight on the same day, but got a high fever and participated in the Japan-France women's competition (Paris) on September 47st.Win the long jump (9m21), discus throw (5m61), and javelin throw (31m19). The Japanese team lost to France with 37 points vs. 44 points, although they finished second in the 80m, 200m, 400mR and high jump.I returned from London by sea on November 2th.
Although the International Women's Olympic Games performed well, the results of the team were worse than those of the previous Games and the Olympic Games.On their way home, the players were deeply hurt when they learned from newspaper reports and letters that the reaction in Japan was cold.Moreover, five tournaments were concentrated within half a month, which was a heavy physical burden.Although I took a rest at my parents' house in Okayama on the day of my return, I left for Tokyo the next day.Later, he had tonsillitis, but he thanked him for his work at a newspaper company and donations almost without a break until New Year.1931(Showa 6) On March 3th, he fell ill and went to Osaka.thirteenからAmagasakiTsukaguchiMoved to.. Hemoptysis from early morning on March 3,PeritonitisAt Osaka Imperial University Hospital (currentlyOsaka University Hospital) Admitted to Ozawa Internal Medicine..The doctor in charge was from Okayama, and my wife was from Takao Okayama, so I was able to receive generous medical care...Name tag "Naoko Karui" in Hitomi's hospital room[Note 3]Was hung.. Nikaido Tokuyo, who visited on May 5st, saw at a glance that he had a serious illness, shed tears, and handed the nurse, Cho Fujimura, 31 yen...After that, the hospital room was moved to the 2nd floor of the annex to avoid the hassle of the world... In mid-JulypneumoniaVisited to visitMikio OdaSaid that he was utterly disappointed in his strange appearance.. On July 7, I moved my hospital room to the main building and made a soft noise saying "It's painful" and "I want to go home" for the first time since I was hospitalized... The condition suddenly changed after 8:1 on August 18st,May 80:25 pm,Caseous pneumoniaDied by.. 24 years old..The poem of death poem says, "Breath and pulse are high, but my treatment is even higher."..It was exactly three years after the day of the 800m final of the Amsterdam Olympics..CriticalThe parents who rushed to hear the news did not catch up with the death of their daughter and were on their way to Osaka.Himeji Station OfRadio broadcastI knew death at..The teacher, Nikaido Tokuyo, said, "Sports did not kill silk branches, but silk branches died in sports."Public opinion』.
On August 8, the body was cremated at Abeno Funeral Home (Osaka Municipal Funeral Home), and on August 3, a farewell ceremony was held by the Osaka Mainichi Shimbun...More than 1,000 attendees visited the ceremony and received condolences from all over the world, including Alice Milliat of the International Women's Sports Federation... On August 8thBodhi TempleIsMyohoji TempleA Buddhist funeral was held in Japan and hundreds of people attended..Law numberIs "Myoho Kotoku-in Myo Satoshi Hihiro Daisister"..The graveyard of the Fujimura family, who had been taking care of themAomoriHachinohe CityThere is a bone tower at Honkakuji Temple).
International Olympic CommitteeA record officially recognized by the (IOC).
|100cm||12 seconds 2||1928/5/20||Osaka||Hold for 7 days until Cook in Canada hits 2 seconds 12 on July 0nd of the same year.|
|200cm||24 seconds 7||1929/5/19||Shogun||Hold for 1933 days until Dutch Schulman issues 8 on August 13, 24|
|Long jump||5m50||1926/8/28||Gothenburg||Hold for 8 days until British cancer issues 1m5 on August 75st of the following year|
|Long jump||5m98||1928/5/20||Osaka||Hold for 1939 days until German Schultz releases 7m30 on July 6, 12|
International Athletics Federation(IAAF) has officially recognized the world record on behalf of the International Women's Sports Federation (FSFI) since August 100 for the women's 1934-meter dash, August 8 for the women's 200m, and 1935 for the long jump.
Unofficial world record
It was set as a world record by the FSFI at that time, but it is now a reference record that is not officially recognized by either the IAAF or the IOC.
|400cm||59 seconds 0||1928/5/6||Miyoshino|
World record for events that have not survived to date
|50cm||6 seconds 4||1927/11/3||Shogun|
|60cm||7 seconds 5||1929/10/19||Shenyang|
|Standing long jump||2m61||1927/5/8||Shogun|
|Three kinds of competition||217 points (100m: 12 seconds 4, high jump: 1m45, javelin throw: 32m13)||1929/4/28||Miyoshino|
- The 800m record at the Amsterdam Olympics, 2: 17, surpassed the world record at the time.
- Hitomi has been recognized for his literary qualities since he was a girl's school.His writing was skillful, and he wrote tanka even during an overseas expedition and even on the bed of death.
- There is a newspaper article saying that the year he entered Nikaido Gymnasium in 1924 was 170 shaku 56 inch (about XNUMX cm) and weighed XNUMX kan (about XNUMX kg).
- He showed extraordinary talent not only in running and jumping but also in throwing competitions.I had no experience in discus throwing, but I bought a disc in Gothenburg and won a prize at the International Women's World Games after a month of practice.
- Just before the Amsterdam OlympicsChupei NanbuI offered a long jump to win the race by 1 cm..
- Prior to the Amsterdam Olympics, he had never run 800 meters in official competitions.At the time of the goal, Hitomi fainted and collapsed with the winning German Latke, and this affected the women's 800m next.Los Angeles Olympics (1932)からMelbourne Olympics (1956)Will be excluded from the event[Note 4].
- high school baseballAdmission march with a placard at the opening ceremony of the Koshien tournament and school song of the winning school, School flag raising was the idea of Hitomi in 19296th Selected Secondary School Baseball TournamentIt started from.
- After Hitomi's death, a monument built to describe his success at the 3rd International Women's World Games remains in a cemetery on the outskirts of Prague.The construction cost of this monument includes a donation from Nikaido Tokuyo..
- 1992 Barcelona OlympicsSo, in Japan, I became a female medalist on land since Hitomi.Yuko ArimoriIs from the same city of Okayama, and Arimori respects Hitomi because his grandmother was a junior at Hitomi's girls' school.Also, Arimori is at the Barcelona OlympicsmarathonThe silver medal was won on August 8nd (August 2st in the field), which is the same as the hitomi medal in Japan time, and these were introduced as strange ties at that time.
- At that time, the prejudice against women's track and field in Japan was severe, and there are many examples that suggest this.
- He recalls that when Hitomi started on land, he was seen by the people around him with cold eyes.
- It is said that letters such as "Japanese women should not be exposed to the thighs in public" and "Destroy the individuality of Japanese women" were sent to Hitomi's parents' house who had decided to participate in the Olympics. ..On the other hand, Hitomi wrote in an article about women's athletics, "Abuse as much as you want! I accept it. ".
- Had a Japanese record for sprintingTadashi Terao and Bun sistersHe went to his parents' house and persuaded him to participate in the Amsterdam Olympics, but due to the intention of Terao's family, the Terao sisters could not participate.It is said that this is also partly due to the public prejudice against women's track and field.
- Announced after the death of Hitomiア ニ メ ー シ ョ ン"Chameko's day], A film image of a human being in his lifetime is inserted.
- Medals and trophies are available during the warMetals Recovery OrderIt was thought that all of them were offered by the Olympic silver medal, but the Olympic silver medal2000Was discovered.It is said that it was hidden in the bedding used by Hitomi.
- 1964 Tokyo Olympics OfTorchAs he passes through Okayama, his father, Inosaku, embraces the remains of Hitomi.Okayama Prefectural Government BuildingHe greeted me and said, "Kinueda, this is the Olympic torch.".
- Passing through Fukuhama, Minami-ku, Okayama City, which is close to the birthplace of HitomiOkayama Prefectural Road No. 40 Okayama Port LineToRayon roadIt is given the nickname (Jinken Doro).Originally Kurashiki silk weave (currentlyKuraray) Okayama Factory (RayonSuch as chemical fibers, that isHuman silkThis nickname existed because it is a transportation route that connects the manufacturing factory of Okayama City and the central part of Okayama City, but this prefectural road is Okayama City Fukuhama Elementary School (formerly Fukuhama Village Fukuhama), which is also the school where Hitomi was born. After including (ordinary high school) along the railway lineRoad to honor the achievements of humanityIt came to be told.
- In Okayama City, Okayama Prefecture1982Held moreRoad raceTournament "Sanyo Women's Road Race TournamentIn the 10km road section of ""Kinue Hitomi CupIs nicknamed.
- Inheriting Nikaido Gymnasium, the alma mater of HitomiJapan Women's Sports UniversityThen, proclaiming the training of female junior athletics athletes,Kinue Hitomi Cup Athletics TournamentHas been held every year since 2003.
- Cosmetologist's pioneerYoshiyuki AguriAndOkayama Prefectural Daiichi Okayama High School for GirlsIs a classmate of.
Out of print below
- "Latest Women's Athletics Law", 1926. (Written before entering full-scale competitive life) --National Diet Library Digital Collection
- "Ars Exercise Course -Women's Competition-", 1928. (Part 1 of the co-book)
- "Traces of spikes"平凡 社, 1929. (The sentence published in "Fujin no Tomosha" in 1927 is a draft.1928 Amsterdam OlympicsCorresponds to the autobiography up to)
- "Until the Battle"Sanseido, 1929. (The content has much in common with "Spike Traces")
- "Family Science University", 26th Kinue Hitomi's "Women and Athletics", 1930. (Part 1 of the co-book)
- "Entering the Goal", 1931. (The sequel to "The Traces of Spike". From the post-Olympic Games to his return to Japan in 1930)
- "Fujin Koron University Sports Edition -Athletics-"Chuokoronsha, 1931. (Part 1 of the co-book)
- "Talking about Women's Sports", 1931. ("Home Science University 26th-Women and Athletics-" was published as a book)
- "Biography of Spike / Kinue Hitomi (Biography Series 154)" (, 1995/1,ISBN-978 4872364538）
- "Women's Physical Education Basic Literature Collection. Volume 11" (, 1995/1, 1926 "Latest Women's Athletics Law" is included,ISBN 4872369157）
- "Basic Literature on Japanese Physical Education: Taisho / Early Showa War. Volume 33" (Japan Book Center, 1998/12, 1931 "Entering the Goal"ISBN 4820558269）
- "Women's Modern Talking about Women's Sports (006)" (Yumani Shobo, 2000/7, Reprint of 1931 "Talking about Women's Sports",ISBN-978 4843300947）
- "Flame Sprinter Kinue Hitomi Autobiography" (Mikio Oda・ (Edit) ,, 1983/2, "Spike Trace", "Entering the Goal" is reconstructed into a modern translation)
- "Kinue Hitomi Flame Sprinter (Human Record 32)" (Mikio Oda·(edit),Japan Book Center, 1997/6, Renamed "Flame Sprinter Kinue Hitomi Autobiography" published in 1983,ISBN-978 4820542735）
- Do you know?!(Nippon TV/1990October 2)
- "Kinue Hitomi"
- Hikaru Nishida's Exciting Human Biography -Dashing life story-(NHK general TV/1991October 11)
- "The first silver medal for Japanese women"
- History moved at that time (NHK General TV /2004October 8)
- "Miracle silver medal Kinue Hitomi-When the first Japanese women's medal was won-"
- History story(NHK General TV /2012October 7)
- "" Nadeshiko Japan "started here! ~ Kinue Hitomi ~"
- THE History Retsuden ~ And a masterpiece was born ~(BS-TBS/2014October 6)
- "Female athlete Kinue Hitomi"
- Choice of heroes(NHK BS Premium/2016October 6)
- "Aim!" Nadeshiko "festival-Kinue Hitomi's decision-"
- Wisdom spring(NHK E Tele /2019October 3)
- "Women who paved the way Olympic medalist Kinue Hitomi"
- Comic version where history moved at that time Impressive sports edition
- It is depicted as "Miracle Silver Medal Kinue Hitomi-The Time to Win the First Japanese Women's Medal".The drawing is
- Geniuses without glory
- Included in Volume 1 of the book.
- Rising girl! ~ Kinue Hitomi Story ~
Actress who played
- Miyuki Ono - 1982 - 1983,NHK Morning TV series・'Yo Don"
- Yuki Matsushita - 1992,Every day broadcasting-TBSThe TV drama "120th Anniversary of the Mainichi Shimbun" broadcast on the systemRed lightning bolt Kinue Hitomi]
- Koharu Sugawara - 2019 ,NHK taiga drama・'Idaten -Tokyo Orympic Games-"
- "People who set records" ((Author),Sa ・ E ・ Ra Shobo<Sa-e-ra biography library> 6, 1965/10,Pierre de Coubertin,Jim Thorpe,Pavo Nurmi,Mikio Oda, Kinue Hitomi,Jesse Owens,Francina Blankers-Kun,Emile ZatopekIntroducing,ISBN-978 4378018065)
- "My Hitomi Kinue Densho Poetry Collection" ((Author), <Poetry Family Plexus)> Part 10, 1977/6)
- "The Burned Runner Kinue Hitomi's Life" (Toshihiko Ohara(Author),Yamato Shobo, 1981/2)
- "Morning runner Kinue Hitomi who sprinted through his life" ((Author), (Picture),PHP Institute<Nonfiction of PHP Heart> 28, 1984/11,ISBN-978 4569587448）
- "Geniuses without glory 1'' (Tomoyoshi Ito(Author),Shingo Morita(An illustration),Shueisha〈Young Jump Comics>, 1987/11, "Kinue Hitomi" in episode 7ISBN-978 4088614731）
- "Kinue Hitomi Story Women's Athletics Akatsuki no Hoshi (Asahi Bunko)" (Toshihiko Ohara(Author),Asahi Shimbun, 1990/6,ISBN-978 4022605849）
- "Do you know ?! 10 Kind-hearted winners" (Nippon TV, 1993/4, Kinue HitomiJigoro Kano-Oe Jixiong-Shuhei Nishida-Baron west-Babe Ruth-Katsutoshi NekotaCollected,ISBN-978 4820393016）
- "Geniuses without glory 1'' (Tomoyoshi Ito(Author),Shingo Morita(An illustration),Shueisha〈Shueisha libraryComic version>, 1997/5, "Kinue Hitomi" is included,ISBN-978 4086170925）
- "Hayate Female Runner Kinue Hitomi Hymn" ((Author), 2005/7)
- "Rising Girl! Kinue Hitomi Story" (Sakuya Hikochi(Author),Shodensha<Feel Comics>, 2005/8,ISBN-978 4396763640）
- "NHK "History moved at that time" comic version Impressive Sports Edition ”(NHK“ History moved at that time ”interview group (author),Home Company<Home Company Manga Bunko>, 2006/5, "Miracle Silver Medal Kinue Hitomi When Japan Women's First Medal Winning" (illustration) posted,ISBN-978 4834273588）
- "KINUE is a forgotten lonely medalist who runs" (Toshihiko Ohara(Author) ,, 2007/8,ISBN-978 4907838386）
- "Kinue Hitomi: 100th Anniversary Magazine" ((ed.)),Japan Women's Sports University, 2008/2)
- Tsuneo Anamizu, "As a Woman as a Person-The Way of Life of Nikaido Tokuyo-" Fumaidou Bookstore, May 2001, 5, p. 30.ISBN 4-8293-0403-0.
- Katsuko Katsuba and Shigeyo Murayama, "Daughters Who Left Nikaido-Prewar Olympic Players-", Fumaidou Publishing, April 2013, 4, p. 18.ISBN 978-4-8293-0498-3.
- Chuhei Nambu "Chuhei Nambu Autobiography" Baseball Magazine, Inc. <Horupu Autobiography Selection Collection Living in Sports 19>, June 1981, 6, p. 1.National bibliographic number:81046632
- Kazuko Yoshiyuki "Spinster is in a good mood today", 2008.ISBN 978 4101345352.
- ^ Not to mention sportsSchool excursionSymptoms are so severe that participation in the event can be stopped, and on the day of each attemptSchool doctor StethoscopeI was checking the condition by hitting.
- ^ Since then, Japanese female athletes have been the medalists of Olympic athletics.Barcelona Olympic(1992) In the women's marathonYuko ArimoriFor 64 years until he won the silver medal, the medalist in the Olympic track and field event through men and womenBeijing Olympics(2008) The Japanese team won the bronze medal in the men's 4x100m relay (1st place after the Beijing Olympic Games)Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euA player on the team was disqualified for a doping breach and was promoted to a silver medal) Has not appeared for 80 years, and the silver medal of the track eventRio de Janeiro Olympics(2016）Men's 4 x 100m relayIt did not appear for 88 years until the Japanese team won it.alsoWorld Athletics ChampionshipsEven if you expand the frame toMako Chiba(At that time: Asahi Kasei)1997 Athens World Championships in AthleticsUntil the women's 10,000m won the bronze medal, no Japanese women's athletes won medals through the Olympics and World Championships in the track and field events.
- ^ It is what Hitomi put up to encourage himself..
- ^ In addition, the athlete who became the women's 800m Olympic representative from Japan is2015As of March, besides HitomiTokyo Olympics(1964)ofMasako KisakiとAthens Olympics(2004)ofMiho SatoThere are only 2 people.
- ^ "12th IAAF World Championships In Athletics: IAAF Statistics Handbook. Berlin 2009. (pdf) ”. Monte Carlo: IAAF Media & Public Relations Department. Pp. Pages 546, 640, 641 (2009). As of June 2011, 6オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2009/8/2Browse.
- ^ Katsuba / Murayama 2013, p. 15.
- ^ Katsuba / Murayama 2013, pp. 15-16.
- ^ a b c d e Katsuba / Murayama 2013, p. 16.
- ^ a b Katsuba / Murayama 2013, p. 17.
- ^ a b Katsuba / Murayama 2013, pp. 17-18.
- ^ Katsuba / Murayama 2013, p. 18.
- ^ a b c Katsuba / Murayama 2013, p. 19.
- ^ Katsuba / Murayama 2013, pp. 19-20.
- ^ “Beijing Olympics Athletics Men's 400 Relays Japan Moves to Silver Due to Disqualification of Jamaican Players”. Sponichi Annex. Sports Nippon Shimbun. (April 2018, 12) 2019/6/16Browse.
- ^ a b c d e f Katsuba / Murayama 2013, p. 81.
- ^ Katsuba / Murayama 2013, pp. 81-82.
- ^ Katsuba / Murayama 2013, p. 82.
- ^ Katsuba / Murayama 2013, pp. 82-83.
- ^ a b c d e f Katsuba / Murayama 2013, p. 83.
- ^ Katsuba / Murayama 2013, p. 87.
- ^ Katsuba / Murayama 2013, pp. 83-84.
- ^ a b c Katsuba / Murayama 2013, p. 84.
- ^ Southern 1981, p. 112.
- ^ "Koshien's specialty, the secret story of the birth of school song singing-the trigger was the first female Olympic medalist". Sponichi Annex (Sports Nippon Shimbun). (February 2014, 8) 2014/8/24Browse.
- ^ Anamizu 2001, p. 23.
- ^ "Comic version that moved history at that time Impressive sports edition"Than
- ^ Katsuba / Murayama 2013, p. 85.
- ^ "Held the 13th Kinue Hitomi Cup Athletics Tournament (HTML) ”. Japan Women's College of Physical Education (March 2019, 3). 2019/6/23Browse.
- ^ Kazuko Yoshiyuki 2008, p. 155.
- List of records of Japan Athletics Championships
- List of people from Okayama Prefecture
- Japan Summer Olympics silver medal
- Japanese team at the 1928 Amsterdam Olympics
- Nikaido Tokuyo
- Tanisan XNUMX
- International Women's Sports Federation
- Sanyo Women's Road Race(Held as Kinue Hitomi Cup)
Athletics is a general term for sports that are mainly performed outdoors (fields, tracks, or roads in outdoor stadiums), and have three basic skills: running, jumping, and throwing..World Indoor Athletics ChampionshipsThere are also track and field competitions that are held indoors,60m runThere are also events where only the room is an official event.
Track and field competitions are roughly classified into running events and are conducted on stadium tracks.Track competition, Jump (Long jumpEtc.) and throws (Hammer throwEtc.) as the subjectField competition,furthermarathon,RacewalkRun a set course on the road outside the stadiumRoad raceThere is. However, depending on the stadium, there may be field competitions (especially jumps) located outside the track. Track and field competitionsAthletic fieldAs an internal competitionTrack & fieldMay be treated together with the competition.
Athletics776 BCThe 1thAncient olympic It is a competition with a history that goes back to. At this time (XNUMXst time), the running event for the length of the stadium,Running stadium(Short-distance running as it is called in modern times) was only performed, and the number of events increased after that. In addition to the stadium run (short sprint) at the Middle Greek Olympic Games,Dialos running(Medium-distance running),Doricos running(Long-distance running),Pentathlon,Discus throw,Spear throwing,High jumpWas also done[Note 1]..In addition to this in GreeceNemea Festival,Isthmian Festival,Putia Grand FestivalSuch a big competition was being held.
OtherCeltic,TeutonicDefeated the Roman EmpireGoth peopleIt seems that ethnic groups such as the above also held athletics competitions and were gaining popularity. However, in these races, athletics was generally associated with military discipline and was not very organized.中 世It seems that the sons of aristocrats were training in riding, jumping, wrestling, etc. Hosting competitions with rival competitors and friends was also widely practiced, both formal and informal.
It has been confirmed that many track-and-field sports have been popular across Europe beyond the time frame. AthleticsRenaissanceAfter that, it developed as a modern sport,1896Held in1st Athens OlympicsIt has spread throughout the world. Many land-based events have their origins dating back to ancient times, and the form as a sporting event had already been established in ancient Greece. Athletics1896Also held at the 1st Modern Olympic Games in, It will continue to be an ongoing competition, and it will be a flower competition in the first half of the Olympics, which has always been held since the first competition.SwimmingAlong with, it is said to be a flower-shaped competition in the latter half of the Olympic Games.Regarding athletics and swimming, the competition numbers are often No. 1 and No. 2 in general sports competitions other than the Olympic Games, and with the exception of pole vaulting and throwing in athletics, basically tools and opponents are used. Its existence value is emphasized because it is a universal sport that pushes the limits of humankind with only one's own body without needing it.Compared to commercial sports such as martial arts and ball games, which aim to make money as a professional, their raison d'etre is also different.However, in the first half of the 20th century, there was a strict rule that athletes participating in international competitions must be amateurs, but in the second half of the 20th centuryEastern countriesAlso inWestern countriesIn the early 1990s, such regulations no longer existed... In the 19th century, athletics belonged to men, and only men participated in the Olympic Games, but in 1921International Women's Sports FederationWas founded and women's athletics competitions began to be held in 1928.Amsterdam olympicWomen's track and field became an Olympic event in.
International Sporting OrganizationWorld athletics The1912Was founded in1983From now on, apart from the Olympics, as an athletics-only event,World Athletics ChampionshipsCame to hold.. World Athletics is one of the world's leading sporting eventsBerlin competitionIt is said that about 3300 million people watched the event.. otherWorld Indoor Athletics Championships,European Athletics ChampionshipsAnd so on. Also,Asian GamesAthletics are always held even in competitions by continent, and it is one of the flower competitions. Although it attracts a lot of attention during the major track and field events, especially in the Olympics, the general interest in many countries tends to be rather low in many sports.
In track and field competitions, a circuit competition was established in 1985 to compete for overall results by competing in competitions around the world. IAAF Grand PrixIAAF Golden League・Through2010The two are integrated fromIAAF Diamond LeagueNext,IAAF World ChallengeHeld every year from spring to summer (since 2020).. On the other hand, in marathon competitions, large-scale marathon competitions are being held all over the world.Boston Marathon-London marathon-Berlin marathon-Chicago Marathon-New York City Marathon5 tournaments and 7 tournaments including the Olympic and World AthleticsWorld Marathon MajorsCame to be held.. Furthermore, from the 2013 competition,Tokyo marathonParticipated in the World Marathon Majors, making a total of 8 competitions.
The United Kingdom
The United Kingdom imposed national restrictions on the enjoyment of sports during the 13th and 16th centuries. this isarcheryWas to make sure that the training of.. After this constraint was lifted in the 17th century, sports re-energized in Britain. Track and field organization activities began to take place in the 19th century. This has the effect that sports education has started to be implemented in schools. As the first appearance that the athletics in a regular school was adopted,Sandhurst Royal Military AcademyIn1812,1825There is no evidence to reinforce this, although there is a theory that it was done. The oldest meeting on record is the country'sShropshireShrewsburyで1940It was held by the Royal Shrewsbury School in1838から1841CT Robinson, who had been enrolled as a student until 60 years, wrote in details in several letters XNUMX years later.
1868According to the "Latest Athletics" published in, most of the athletics at that time were handicap races... AthleticsgamblingThe audience focused more on winning and losing and on the process of race and fairness than on record. Therefore, qualified handicappers were equipped with handicaps, such as adjusting the start position according to the track record of the athletes, to produce a heated race. On the other hand, eliminating professional runners,紳士Amateur track and field clubs aimed at character building through sports1866Was organized in London and held a permanent athletic stadium.. Track and field handicap races were held even in official races such as the Olympic Games until the first half of the 20th century, but they disappeared in the process of changing sports from modern sports based on amateur rules.
JapanThen.1873(6th year of Meiji)May 3ToTokyo-TsukijiWas inNavy soldier dormitoryOpened by an English teacher inCompetitive gameIs the first track and field event.. Competitive gameathletic sportsIn spite of this, sparrow chick nest (Suzume no Sudachi, 150 yards run), Tsubame Gakuhi (Tsubame no Tobinari, 300 yards run)High jump) Etc... In October of the same yearKaisei school(Tokyo UniversitySource)Emperor MeijiIt is possible that the first exercise of "Gymnastic Handbook" "Gyohi" performed under the seat next to you was a race... AthleticsJapaneseWhat will be done between1875(Meiji 8)Tokyo English School(Later the University of Tokyo)Frederick William StrangeAfter the dissemination activities by.. StrangeEaton CollegeI am fromBoat competitionSpecialize in practicing these and in the leisure time, attracted and disseminated students' interests.1883(Meiji 16)Tokyo UniversityIt became a specialty of the University of Tokyo since the athletic meet was held with three departments.. Later in this athletic meetMinoru FujiiSet a world record with 100m and pole vault.
Meiji 30s (1897 - 1906), with Tokyo Imperial UniversityDaiichi High SchoolCentered onGakuin,Higher commercial school(AfterHitotsubashi University), but athletics became popular,1907 - 1912)Spike shoesStarted to be used,Waseda University-Keio UniversityEmerged as a new force.Tokyo Higher Normal School(AfterUniversity of TsukubaIn)Jigoro KanoThe school had long-distance runs under the principal, but it was still weak in the track and field world..TaishoThe Japanese word "athletics" did not exist until the beginning of the era, and the athletics club that was founded around this time was "walking" at the Tokyo Higher Normal School (laterUniversity of Tsukuba Athletics ClubRenamed to),Waseda University,Meiji UniversityNow, I am calling the "race section".
Japan firstModern olympicParticipated in191245th (5th year of Meiji)Stockholm conventionAnd sprintingYahiko MishimaAnd long-distance runningShinzo KanaguriParticipated.. The first track-and-field competition held in Japan (organized by a non-school organization)This representative from JapanTournament for selectingInternational Olympic Pick Player Qualification"(Dainippon Athletic AssociationWas sponsored).. Kanaguri devoted his life to the spread of marathons after the Olympics,Tokyo Hakone University Ekiden RaceFounded.
The American Amateur Sports Federation, which was the umbrella body in the United States,Professional sportsAs the promotion progressed, it went out of its jurisdiction.As a new governing body, an organization called TAC (The Athletics Congress) was formed and later renamed (USA Track and Field; USATF; USA T & F).As an even looser organization, there is (RRCA) as an organization that promotes the spread of road racing.Both groups used toFake amateurismIt does not prohibit the act of earning money through race participation.
The following events are officially recognized as world records. The Japanese record is also compliant. Half marathons and Ekiden races have not been adopted for the Olympic Games or the World Athletics Championships. Like the marathon, this has to be done outside the track and field, that is, on public roads,Furthermore, because it is necessary to separate men and women, it is thought that traffic restrictions on public roads will increase too much, the burden on security will increase, and the impact of the restrictions on citizens' lives will be large.[Source required].. In the case of girls, most of long-distance running and walking, jumping, throwing, etc.Japan Land FederationMany of them started as non-Japanese record official events. Mostly1930Although it was officially approved by1980, Triple jump1986, Pole vault, hammer throw1993Became officially recognized.
The following eventsWorld recordCertified by World Athletics as.
- Short distance- 100cm,200cm,400cm
- Hurdles- 100m hurdle,110m hurdle,400m hurdle
- Medium distance- 800cm,1000cm,1500cm,1 miles,2000cm,3000cm,3000m obstacle
- Long distance- 5000cm,10000cm,1 hours,
- Relay- 4 x 100m relay,4 x 200m relay,4 x 400m relay,4 x 800m relay,, Distance Medley Relay
- Road Race-5km,Half marathon,Full marathon,100km,Load relay(42.195km)
- Racewalk- 10000m racewalk,20000m racewalk,,50000m racewalk / 20km walking,50km walking
- Leap- High jump,Pole vault,Long jump,Triple jump
- Throw- Shot squares,Discus throw,Hammer throw,Spear throwing
- Mixed competition - Seven competitions,decathlon
The next event is the Japan Athletics FederationJapanese recordIs certified as.
- Short distance- 300cm
- Road Race-15km, 10 miles, 20km, 25km, 30km, 35km
- Racewalk- 5000m racewalk / 5km,10km walking, 15km, 30km
U20 world record
The following events are officially recognized as U20 world records.
- 100cm,200cm,400cm,800cm,1000cm,1500cm,1 miles,3000cm
- 100m hurdle,110m hurdle,400m hurdle,4 x 100m relay,4 x 400m relay
- 5000m,10000cm, 2000m obstacle, 3000m obstacle
- 5000m racewalk, 10000m walking, 10km walking
- High jump, pole vault, long jump, triple jump, shot put, disc throw, hammer throw, spear throw, seven races,decathlon
Indoor world record
The following events are recognized as indoor world records.
- 50cm, 60m, 200m, 400m, 800m, 1000m, 1500m, 1 mile, 3000m, 5000m
- ,60m hurdle, 4×200m relay, 4×400m relay, 4×800m relay
- 3000m racewalk, 5000m walking
- High jump, pole vault, long jump, triple jump, shot put,Pentathlon, Seven competition
The following events are not officially recognized as world records. Or once licensed,Summer olympicBut it was an outdoor event that was being conducted.
- 60cm,100 yards,150cm
- Cross countryIndividuals, cross-country groups
- 80m hurdle,,,,
- Standing long jump,Standing high jump,Standing triple jump
- ,,,,Javerick Slow,
- ,Four races,Pentathlon,Eight races,Fourteen competitions,Twentieth competition
About measurement and unit
- About measurement of finish time (track competition)
- torsoThe runner's finish is reached when any of the parts (here, not including the head, neck, arms, hands and feet) reaches a vertical plane that includes the end of the finish line close to the start line... The boundary between the torso and the neck is the line connecting the recessed part of the upper chest and the protrusion of the 7th cervical vertebra, and the boundary with the arm is the outer end of the scapula..
- Photo judgmentIf the device is used, in competitions of 10000 meters or less, one thousandth of a second or less is moved up to one hundredth of a second. For competitions longer than 1000 meters, less than 1/100th of a second is increased to 1/10000th of a second. In addition, even for some races that are held outside the stadium, the tenths of a second or less is advanced to a second.
- Manual timingIn the case of, in the case of a track event, one-hundredths of a second or less is advanced to one-tenth of a second, and even in some races that are held outside the stadium, one-tenth of a second or less is advanced to a second. Also, 100clockIf two of them match, the time is recorded, and if all are different, the middle time is recorded. When there are two clocks, the later time is recorded. Therefore, multiple people are in charge of timing the same arrival order.
- About the unit of distance (track competition)
- Basically, competitions that are held on the stadium are expressed in meters, and competitions that take place on public roads are expressed in kilometers.
- Distance measurement (field competition)
- CentimeterTruncate less than and record in meters.
About wind speed measurement
wind speedMeasures the number of seconds below each item and rounds up one hundredth of a meter or less to one tenth of a meter.
- 60 meters 5 seconds after starting
- 100 meters 10 seconds after starting
- 200 meters 10 seconds after the first player goes straight
- 100 meters hurdle 13 seconds from start
- 110 meters hurdle 13 seconds from start
- 40 meters from the long jump crossing, 5 seconds after passing the mark by the runway, and 40 seconds from the start of the run if the competitor's run is less than 5 meters.
- 35 meters away from the triple jump crossing board, 5 seconds after passing the mark near the runway, 35 seconds from the start of the run if the competitor's run is less than 5 meters.
For track competitions, the measuring device is installed within 1 meters from the track on the lane side, 2 meters from the finish line, and in the case of field competitions, 50 meters from the crossing and 20 meters from the runway. Install. The height shall be measured at 2 meters for both track and field.
About clothes at the time of competition
- Even if clothes are wet, they are not transparent.
- Number cards in front and behind (former name:Number)[Note 2].
- Usually 1 to 4 digits. 5 digits in road races.
- Athletes will prepare for small-scale events.
- In some competitions (where there are limited number of participants with qualifying and standard records), a number card with the name of the event and the name of the sponsor will be distributed.
- Recently, depending on the competition and the event (such as short-distance running in a separate lane or a field event), the number card may not be attached.
- Track competitionPhoto judgmentAttach a waist number card that shows the lane number foranchorOften only).
- By the way, recent waist number cards are often stickered so that they can be removed immediately (since the lane is determined just before the race). Since this sticker is completely unfamiliar with the material of spats, it often peels off immediately after the start of the competition, and in the final races of the Olympic and World Championships, the sight of the player "dropping" the white number card at the start can be seen. Therefore, some athletes put the number sticker directly on the skin such as the thigh in a 3000 meter obstacle where the stick becomes easier to peel off when the foot gets wet in the water moat.
About major disqualification
- In track competition,Even onceIllegal startAthletes who are responsible for.. However, in a mixed competition (in addition to road races and Ekiden races according to the domestic rules), a competitor who made an incorrect start after the incorrect start of the first time.
- This rule, in which the first false start is immediately disqualified, began in January 1.WA sponsored tournamentIt is applied in.It will be applied on a trial basis in Japan for three years from 2010, and after 3.Japan Athletics FederationIt is applied at all tournaments sponsored and co-sponsored (excluding elementary school students). District competitions are at the discretion of each athletics association, but new rules are recommended. In principle, a flying judgment device should be installed, but if there is no such device, it will be judged visually and by video.Japan Student Athletics AssociationAlso with the Japan Student Track and Field Individual ChampionshipJapan Student Track and Field ChampionshipsThe new rules are applied in both tournaments.2011 World AthleticsOf the world record holder in the men's 100m finalUsain BoltWas disqualified due to a false start, so this new rule attracted attention.
- Introduced in 2003, the rule that every race is disqualified after the first flying in each race, but the fact that the first flying will not be disqualified, you can intentionally fly for bargaining Things were being questioned.
- National Elementary School Athletics Exchange CompetitionThen, if the same competitor makes two false starts, he will be disqualified.
- Interfering with other competitors, such as intentionally blocking the path of other runners.
- In open lane track competitions, when a runner comes into contact with someone other than another runner during the competition (because it is considered to have been assisted by an outsider. ).
- In an open lane track competition, invading inside the designated lane.
- In a separate lane track competition, deviating from your lane during the competition.
- Perform baton delivery outside the takeover zone by relay running.
- In a relay run, when the baton pass has not been established (the runner who receives the baton dropped before touching the receiving runner picks up, throws it, etc.).
- In a hurdle run, you stick out the hurdle and jump to a lower position, or you intentionally knock down the hurdle.
- When you do not accept the convocation (roll call before the start of the competition) by the designated time.
- Use of prohibited drugsTo do.
- SexFalsely enter the competition.
- Other, leading to the prescribed disqualification.
About the start signal of the running event in the international competition
- StarterEnglish-French· Give a signal in one of the venue languages.
- If it is less than 400m, the starter will first say "On your marks" to bring the athlete to the starting position. After that, the starter said to the player, "Set"Crouching startTake the posture ofStarter pistolShoot.
- If it exceeds 400m, the starter will say "On your marks" and will put the athlete in the starting position,Standing startAfter confirming that it is in the posture, shoot the starter pistol.
- With the revision of the 2006 Racing Rules, the signals given by starters will be unified in English at the following competitions.
- World Athletics Championships,Olympicand
- The World Championship is applied from the 2007 Osaka Games and the Olympic Games from the 2008 Beijing Games.
- Track and field championships with exclusive control of WA
- International competitions other than those mentioned above will be signaled in the language of the country or region in which they are held as usual, in English or French.
- World Athletics Championships,Olympicand
Handling of official events and official records
- The official event is an event officially approved by WA, etc.World recordRecognized as. This authorization is held by the IAAF.. In addition, it is treated as the "world highest record" in events other than the officially recognized events. In official events, the official records (world records, national records, various competition records) are 100 meters, 200 meters, 100 meters hurdles, and 110 meters hurdles.Long jump,Triple jumpIn the case of, a tailwind of 2.0m or less will be an official record. If the tail wind exceeds 2.0 m, ranking records of various competitions will be attached, but it is not recognized as an official record.Tailwind reference recordCan be stopped.
- In mixed competitions, if the average wind speed of the event that measures the wind speed is within 2.0m of the tailwind, it will be certified as the record of the mixed competition, otherwise it will be the "tailwind reference record" (2010 rule revision).
- Only an official record can be obtained unless it is recorded at a competition that complies with WA competition rules..
Since it was founded in 1912,World athletics(WA) of track and fieldInternational FederationHas become. At the beginning, it was named "International Amateur Athletic Federation" (IAAF)., Sports in the late 1970sAmateur rhythmFrom the shift from professionalism to professionalismIn 2001, the name of amateur was deleted and it was changed to "International Association of Athletics Federations" (abbreviated as IAAF)... Furthermore, the name was changed again in November 2019 and became the current name..
WA has 215 member countries and regions,Six great statesThere is a competition federation that governs each.. The six continental federations are Asia, Africa, Europe, Oceania, North America and South America. WA headquarters since 6(I.e.Being scented.
- AAA - Asian Athletics Federation
- CAA- African Athletics Federation
- CONSUDATLE – South American Athletics Federation
- NACACAA – North Central America Caribbean Athletics Federation
- EAA- European Athletics Federation
- ^ In addition, although the classification is different from the modern "land", at that time (outdoors) there were also tank races, wrestling, boxing (fisting),PankrationWas also done.
- ^ Only one front or back vault and pole vault is required.
- ^ a b Daijisen
- ^ "Cultural History of Sport: From the Ancient Olympics to the 21st Century" p29 Wolfgang Behringer Translated by Yoko Takagi Hosei University Press March 2019, 3 First edition First edition
- ^ "Illustration of the History of Humankind: Ancient Science and Technology 70 Great Inventions that Created the World" p207 Brian M. Fagan ed. Translated by Yoshihiro Nishiaki Asakura Shoten May 2012, 5 First edition First edition
- ^ "Cultural history of sports: From the ancient Olympics to the 21st century" p41-42 Wolfgang Behringer Translated by Yoko Takagi Hosei University Press March 2019, 3 First edition, first edition
- ^ https://www.joc.or.jp/sp/column/olympic/history/002.html "Beginning of the Modern Olympics" Public Interest Incorporated Foundation Japanese Olympic Committee Retrieved April 2020, 4
- ^ a b c "Sports World Map" by p86 Alan Tomlinson Translated by Ikuo Abe, Zenichi Terashima, Sadao Morikawa Maruzen Publishing May 24, 5
- ^ "Athletics Coaching Studies" p3-4 Japan Association of Athletics Federations Taishukan Shoten February 2020, 2 First Edition First Edition
- ^ https://www.jp.tdk.com/athletic/wca_tdk/ "World Athletics Championships and TDK" TDK Corporation Retrieved April 2020, 4
- ^ "Sports World Map" by p97 Alan Tomlinson Translated by Ikuo Abe, Zenichi Terashima, Sadao Morikawa Maruzen Publishing May 24, 5
- ^ https://www.afpbb.com/articles/-/2677080?cx_part=search "Bolts that made the world hot again in 2009" AFPBB December 2009, 12 Retrieved April 22, 2020
- ^ "Sports World Map" by p69 Alan Tomlinson Translated by Ikuo Abe, Zenichi Terashima, Sadao Morikawa Maruzen Publishing May 24, 5
- ^ https://www.marathon.tokyo/about/founders-history/ "History of the Games" TOKYO MARATHON 2020 Retrieved April 2020, 4
- ^ Kei Okao "Searching for Roots of Athletics" Bunrakukaku 1996 p.6
- ^ a b Toshio Nakamura "Sociology of Sports Rules" Asahi Shimbun <Asahi Election Book> 1991,ISBN 402259523X pp. 32-50.
- ^ a b Hasegawa 2013, pp. 59-60.
- ^ Hasegawa 2013, p. 59.
- ^ a b Hasegawa 2013, p. 60.
- ^ Hasegawa 2013, pp. 60-61.
- ^ Hasegawa 2013, p. 61.
- ^ Hasegawa 2013, pp. 61-62.
- ^ Hasegawa 2013, pp. 41-47.
- ^ Hasegawa 2013, pp. 112-128.
- ^ Hasegawa 2013, p. 66.
- ^ Hasegawa 2013, pp. 141-267.
- ^ a b c d e f g h Girls only
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j Boys only
- ^ Men's Japan Record
- ^ Women's Japan record
- ^ 7300 points or more for girls
- ^ a b Track competition referee Japan Athletics Federation
- ^ "Athletics Coaching Studies" p5 Japan Association of Athletics Federations Taishukan Shoten February 2020, 2 First Edition First Edition
- ^ Immediate disqualification after flying Kokusai Renren to introduce new rules - Asahi Shimbun
- ^ https://www.jaaf.or.jp/pdf/about/rule/1918.pdf `` Athletics Rulebook 2019'' p371 Japan Association of Athletics Federations viewed November 2019, 11
- ^ "Athletics Coaching Studies" p5 Japan Association of Athletics Federations Taishukan Shoten February 2020, 2 First Edition First Edition
- ^ https://www.jaaf.or.jp/athlete/rule/handbook_pdf/02.pdf "Official Competition" Japan Association of Athletics Federations, viewed November 2019, 11
- ^ "Sports World Map" by p94 Alan Tomlinson Translated by Ikuo Abe, Zenichi Terashima, Sadao Morikawa Maruzen Publishing May 24, 5
- ^ a b "Sports World Map" by p95 Alan Tomlinson Translated by Ikuo Abe, Zenichi Terashima, Sadao Morikawa Maruzen Publishing May 24, 5
- ^ https://www.jaaf.or.jp/news/article/13372/ "Notice Regarding IAAF Organization Name Change" Japan Association of Athletics Federations November 2019, 11 Retrieved April 22, 2020
- ^ IAAF National Member Federations Archived 2009-09-03 at the Wayback Machine.. IAAF.Retrieved on 26 March 2010.
- World athletics (WA)
- Japan Athletics Federation (JAAF)
- Para Athletics
- World Junior Athletics Championships
- World Youth Athletics Championships
- World Half Marathon Championship
- World Cross Country Championships
- World Marathon Majors
- Athletic field
- List of track and field athletes
- List of marathon runners
- Wikipedia: Articles in many languages but not in Japanese / Sports / Athletics
- Athletics competition list
- Athletes' sexual image problems
- Takamichi Hasegawa "Running XNUMXkm Marathon Father, XNUMXrd Kinaguri Reprint"Kumamoto Nichi-Nichi Shimbun・Kumamoto Athletics Association, August 2013, 8, p.20.ISBN 978-4-87755-467-5.
- Tokyo University of Education, Physical Education History Laboratory, "Illustrated World History of Physical Education," Shinshisha, 1964