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🙋 | Crowdfunding for the construction of protection and rehabilitation facilities in Okinawa rail


Crowdfunding for the construction of protection and rehabilitation facilities in Okinawa rail

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Akio Higa, the chairman of the NPO Yanbaru Regional Revitalization Support Center, is calling for cooperation so that we can protect as many Okinawa rails as possible.

An NPO corporation that is working to protect rare creatures in the prefecture is trying to restore the Okinawa rail that was involved in a traffic accident to nature ... → Continue reading

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Yanbaru Kina

Yanbaru Kina(Yamahara Mizutori[8],Hypotaenidia okinawae) Is a bird class Gruiformes RailaceaeHypotaenidiaBirds classified into the genus.


Japan(Okinawa IslandNorthernOgimi Village-Kunigami Village-Higashimura)Endemic species[5][7][9].

Type specimenThe production area (standard production area, type production area, type production area) is Fuenchijidake.[3]..The Japanese name is a name that refers to the northern part of Okinawa Island.YamaharaDerived from[4][7].

Background of discovery

From a few years ago in 1981Yamashina Institute for OrnithologyResearchers are located in the northern part of the main island of OkinawaYamaharaWitnessed unknown species of water rail in the area[10].. Two dead birds were captured in a 1981 survey (both of which were released after morphological examination, etc.), and a few months earlier, one carcass was obtained by Nagamasa Tamaki, who originally knew the individual Okinawa rail.StuffedSpecimen), As a result, it was found that it was a new species unknown to academia, and at the end of the same year, the Japanese name was changed to Okinawa rail.scientific nameTheRallus okinawaeA new kind of written paper was published as[3]..This stuffed specimenHolo typeIt was taken as a specimen.This is a stuffed carcass found by Nagamasa Tamaki (a guardian of birds and beasts in Kunigami village who knows the characteristics of Okinawa rail) near the road in Yona, and was stuffed by Tetsuo Tomori, a high school teacher who asked Tamaki to secure the carcass of a bird that seems to be a new species. And donated to the Yamashina Institute for Ornithology[11][12].


Overall length 35 cm[5][9]..Wingspan 15-16 cm[8]..Wingspan 48-50 cm[8].. Weight 340-430 grams[8]..The upper surface is dark olive brown, and the face and throat are black.[3][6]..From the feathers (ear feathers) that cover the ear canal, a white streak pattern that goes backwards enters.[6][8]..White spots on the tip of the eyes[3][4]..The underside from the neck to the abdomen is black with white horizontal stripes[5][4][6][9]..The feathers (lower tail tube) covering the lower surface of the base of the tail feather are blackish brown, and the feather tips of the lower tail tube are yellowish brownish white.[3][4]..The area of ​​the wings is small compared to the weight, and the muscles that move the wings are also poor[7]..The 10th first-row feathers are the shortest in the first-row feathers[5][3].

虹彩Is red[8]..Eyelids are red-orange[3][4]..The beak is thick[5]..The color of the beak is red[3][6][8][9], White tip[4][5]..Hind limbs are well developed and thick[5][6]..The color of the hind legs is red[3][5][6][8][9].

Eggs have a major axis of 5 cm and a minor axis of 3.5 cm[5]..Young birds have brown irises and beaks, and hind limbs are tan.[4].


Formerly the former Okinawa rail genusGallirallusIn the Clements Checklist, it is classified as the genus Okinawa rail as of 2019 (v2019).[13]..On the other hand, BirdLife International as of 2016, and IOC World Bird List as of 2021 (v11.1), this speciesHypotaenidiaClassified into a genus[1][2].

1978ToYonahatakeThere have been multiple sightings since it was discovered by a member of the Yamashina Institute for Ornithology.[7].1981A special research team was formed in June, and young birds were captured in June and adults were captured in July.[7]..After the discovery, it was found that there were examples of finding dead bodies in the field, examples of taking photographs, examples of recording crying, and dialect names as described later.[7].


From flat groundelevationMainly undergrowth under 500 metersEvergreen broad-leaved forestInhabit[6].Ryukyu pineIt may be found in forests, grasslands, and around private houses near the coast.[5]..I rest on the tree at night[4][9][6], This is believed to be to avoid snakes[5][7]..Can hardly fly[6], There is an observation example that an individual at a height of 6 meters above the tree glide at an angle of about 45 degrees without flapping its wings.[7].twilightDuskSometimes cry[4],TerritoryClaims territory by crying between adjacent individuals[9].

According to a survey of the stomach contents of 2016 birds (of which 31 died in a traffic accident) announced in 16.昆虫,Gastropods,Earthworm,fruit,seedHave been reported[14]..In this survey, 81% of individuals were bandana maimai.Bradybaena circulus(21 pieces), Okinawa YamatanishiCyclophorus turgidusGastropods (14 in total) such as (59) were found[14]..Large gastropods (conch) break the shell and eat only the soft body, and small snails and cyclophoridae with hard shells are swallowed whole (so it is easy to digest only the soft body in the stomach content survey. It is suggested that the proportion of large gastropods and earthworms may be small)[14].Mallotus japonicus,Harebell-Striped eel catfish・ Houroku strawberryRubus sieboldii-ヤ マ モ モ・ Since the peel of plants such as Ficus erecta was not digested very much, it is suggested that this species may be a seed disperser.[14]..Among the individuals who died in the traffic accident that was the subject of this survey, Ashijiro Hirafu ShiariTechnomyrmex brunneusAnd Okinawa HanmyoCicindela okinawana, Food that inhabits and grows naturally on open forest edges such as roads such as Mallotus japonicus, and prey that inhabits artificial water areas with advanced organic pollution such as hoverfly larvae. Suggested[14]..In another stomach content surveyWhite frog,Himeama frogHas been discovered in some cases[14]..The total length is 58 cm, which is longer than the total length of this species.Ryukyu Ao SnakeThere are examples of photography and reports of individuals who swallowed[15]..Eating on the forest floor, but sometimes in shallow water[6].

As an ectoparasite, from two young birds at Nishimedake in 2005HippoboscidaeA kind ofOrnithoica exilisHas been collected[16].

The breeding style is oviparous.Create a dish-shaped nest that combines dead leaves on the surface of the earth where fern plants, shrubs, and herbs flourish.[5].. Lay 3-5 eggs[5][9].

Relationship with human

Dialect names include Agachi (meaning "walking"), Yamadui (meaning mountain bird), and Shijadui.[5][7].

Deforestation, agricultural land development, habitat destruction and division due to forest roads and dam construction, traffic accidents, debilitating death due to chicks slipping into gutters, artificially transferredDog,Cat,Filly MongooseThe number of inhabitants is decreasing due to predation by[5][6][7][9]..IncreasedJungle Crow, Newly importedThai Once GeoThere are also concerns about the impact of[5][9].. In a survey using the method (playback method) of reproducing the bark recorded using the ecology of this species in 1996-2001 and confirming the habitat status by the presence or absence of a reaction, it was compared with the survey in 1985-1986. The results show that the southern limit of the distribution has moved north by 10 kilometers and the distribution area has decreased by about 25%.[5][17]..Especially for mongoose, the distribution moves north from the southern part of the main island of Okinawa and the southern limit of the distribution of Okinawa rail coincides very well.[18], Is believed to be the main cause of the decline of this species[17][19].. It almost disappeared in Ogimi village in 2000 and in Higashi village in 2005, and the continuous distribution was limited to Kunigami village.[9].. From June 1998 to June 6, there were 2003 reported deaths, 6 of which (22 per year on average, 16% of reported deaths) were attributed to traffic accidents.[19].. Road accident deaths tend to be more frequent in May-June, which overlaps with the breeding season and is actively active to feed the chicks, or be wary around chicks that have fallen into the gutters. It has been suggested that the parent birds are more likely to encounter a traffic accident.[19].. As of 2017, it is classified as Critically Endangered on the Okinawa Red List.[5].. In May-JuneRunover deathIt is also a big problem that there are many deaths (roadkill) due to[20]、巣立つ前の幼鳥に餌を与えるため親鳥が活発化することが原因だと考えられている。1995-2014年までに、交通事故確認件数が312件(うち278件死亡)されており、そのうち5月が75件(うち死亡69件)、6月が63件(うち死亡55件)と44%がこの時期に集中している。また、特に近年交通事故認知件数は増加傾向にあり、1998-2004年は年間1-6件だったものが、2014年は47件(うち死亡43件)発生している[21].

Okinawa Prefecture from 2000 (from 2001)Ministry of the EnvironmentThe extermination and capture of mongoose and cats using traps by[19], There is no prospect of complete extermination[9]..Regarding mongoose, measures such as capture by specialized workers, installation of fences to prevent northward movement, and introduction of search dogs are being promoted by the Ministry of the Environment and Okinawa Prefecture.[5]..For cats, measures such as the establishment of proper breeding regulations by local governments and the embedding of microchips led by veterinarians are being promoted.[5].. In 1999, the "Yanbaru Wildlife Conservation Center" was established.[9].. In 2005, the NPO Animal Hospital started the operation of the "Yanbaru Kina Emergency and Critical Care Center".[5].. in Japan1982To the countryNatural treasureIs specified in[5][9].1993ToSeed preservation methodWith enforcement,Domestic rare wild animal and plant speciesIs specified in[5].

The population of Okinawa rail was about 1985 in 1986-1,800.[5], Approximately 2005 birds in 720[5], 2010 ―― 845 birds in 1,350[9], Estimated to be 2014 in 1,500[5].Northern Yamanaka and Higashi villages of Ogimi village, whose habitat has not been confirmed in recent yearsTakaeHabitat has been confirmed.However, the distribution area is also discontinuous and the habitat is not yet stable.[Source required].

Since 2004, the Ministry of the Environment has formulated the "Yanbaru Kina Conservation and Breeding Project Plan", which is conducting ecological surveys and constructing captive breeding facilities.[5][9].. Since 2009, attempts have been made to establish a captive breeding method.[5].. The number of breeding individuals as of 2015 is 68[5]..About breeding, Okinawa Prefecture in 1998Nago OfNeo Park OkinawaFor the first time with eggs protected from the outdoorsincubationIn addition to the success, in 2007, the facility of the NPO Animal Hospital Okinawa[22]In 2012, the Ministry of the Environment succeeded in natural hatching of four eggs at the Okinawa rail breeding and breeding facility.In 4-2014, we succeeded in hatching 5 second-generation chicks from captive breeding individuals at the Yanbaru Kina Critical Care Center (owned by NPO Animal Hospital Okinawa).[23]are doing.

Endangered IA (CR)(Ministry of the Environment Red List)[9]

Status jenv CR.svg

Origin of Japanese name

The Japanese name comes from calling the northern part of the main island of Okinawa Yanbaru (Yanbaru).Prior to the description of the new species, among the research teams of the Yamashina Institute for Ornithology, which conducted a local capture survey in 1981, the Japanese names are "Yamashina" or "Yanbaru Fumil" ("Fumil" isバ ン OfLocal name) Was being discussed.At that time, the name "Yanbaru" was an uncommon name, so there was an opinion inside the Yamashina Institute for Ornithology that the name "Okinawa Rail" was appropriate, but "local understanding and cooperation are needed to protect birds. Since it is indispensable, it is better to put a more specific Yanbaru in the name, "and finally the Japanese name" Yanbaru Kina "was given.Even before this, there was an organism name bearing "Yambaru", but it was not until this species was named that it became widely known nationwide.[24].


The discovery of the Okinawa rail was widely taken up in Okinawa, and its prominent appearance helped to make it a hot topic.[11][25].. 1987 OkinawaMarine national polityThen.Mascot characterOf "quicky"motifUsed as[26]..Also, before and after thisYambaru Tenaga KoganeWas discovered, and Okinawa has come to have something like a new kind of boom.[27].

At that time, he was an all-Japan light flyweight professional boxer and later became the WBA world light flyweight champion.Katsuo TokashikiIs the affiliationKyoei Boxing Gym : Masanori KonpeiThe name of this species was used in many places, such as being given the common name of "Yanbaru Kina" by the chairman.This species has become so famous that it ’s from Okinawa.Prefectural birdMany people think that[28], Prefecture birdNoguchi GeraIs[28].


[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ a b c d BirdLife International. 2016. Hypotaenidia okinawaeThe The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22692412A93352408. https://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22692412A93352408.enDownloaded on 15 February 2021.
  2. ^ a b c Finfoots, flufftails, rails, trumpeters, cranes, Limpkin, Gill F, D Donsker & P Rasmussen (Eds). 2021. IOC World Bird List (v11.1). https://doi.org/10.14344/IOC.ML.11.1(Accessed 15 February 2021)
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Yoshimaro Yamashina and Toru Mano "A new species of water rail found on Okinawa Island"Yamashina Institute for Ornithology Research Report," Vol. 13, No. 3, Yamashina Institute for Ornithology, 1981, pp. 147-152_3.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Michio Fukuda "Okinawa Rail", "Animal Classification and Breeding in the World 10-II (Gruiformes)", supervised by Nagahisa Kuroda and Hiroyuki Morioka, Tokyo Zoological Park Society, 1989, p. 56.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae Tetsujiro Harato and Nobuhiko Odaka "Yanbaru Kina" "Revised Okinawa Prefecture's Endangered Wildlife (Red Data Okinawa) 3rd Edition Animal Edition", Okinawa Prefecture Cultural Environment Department Nature Conservation Division, 2017, 118- 120 pages.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Kunikazu Momose "Okinawa Rail" "Animal World Heritage Red Data Animals 4 India, Indochina" by Hideo Obara, Masanori Uramoto, Hidetoshi Ota, Masafumi Matsui,Kodansha, 2000, 176 pages.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Kiyoaki Ozaki "Yanbaru Kina" "Encyclopedia of Japanese Animals 3 Birds I" supervised by Toshitaka Hidaka,平凡 社, 1996, pp. 137-138.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Kiyoaki Ozaki "Yanbaru Kina" "Encyclopedia of Japanese Animals 3 Birds I" Supervised by Toshitaka Hidaka, Heibonsha, 1996, p. 140.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Kiyoaki Ozaki "Yanbaru Kina" "Red Data Book 2014-Japan's Endangered Wildlife 2 Birds" Ministry of the Environment, Natural Environment Bureau, Wildlife Division, Rare Species Conservation Promotion Office, Co., Ltd.Gyosei, 2014, pp. 44-45
  10. ^ Anonymous, 2004. From the discovery of the Okinawa rail to the present. (Yamashina Institute for Ornithology, 16 Yamashina Yoshimaro Award Ceremony / Award Commemorative Lecture and Symposium "? Living in the Okinawa Mountains? Is there a tomorrow for the Okinawa rail?". Yamashina Institute for Ornithology Place. P. 19.)History of Okinawa Rail (Yamashina Institute for Ornithology website "Yamashina Institute for Ornithology")Reprinted with almost the same content.
  11. ^ a b "New report archive, paper of that day <19> Discovery of Okinawa rail November 1981, 11 Evening edition”(October 2009, 11). As of October 13, 2015オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2019/3/26Browse.[Source invalid]
  12. ^ Tetsuo Tomori "It was! Yanbaru Kina ◇ Okinawa's flightless bird has been chasing for nearly 10 years and is involved in new species certification ◇" "Nihon Keizai Shimbun』Morning edition March 2015, 9 Cultural aspect[Source invalid]
  13. ^ Clements, JF, TS Schulenberg, MJ Iliff, SM Billerman, TA Fredericks, BL Sullivan, and CL Wood. 2019. The eBird / Clements Checklist of Birds of the World: v2019. Downloaded from https://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/ (Downloaded 15 February 2021).
  14. ^ a b c d e f Hiroshi Nanari, Nobuhiko Odaka, Katsushi Nakata, Takashi Nagamine, Yumiko Nakatani, Manabu Onuma, Yasumasa Sawashi, Yuji Miyake "Contents of the stomach of Okinawa rail", Kyushu Forest Research, Vol. 69, Kyushu Forest Society, 2016, 59- 64 pages.
  15. ^ Nobuhiko Odaka and Katsuyoshi Oshiro, "Predation of Ryukyu Ao Snake by the Endangered Okinawa Rail," Kyushu Forest Research, Vol. 69, Kyushu Forest Society, 2016, pp. 125-126.
  16. ^ Takeo Yamauchi and Kiyoaki Ozaki "Yanbaru KinaGallirallus okinawae(Gruiformes: Railaceae)Ornithoica exilis(Flies: Hippoboscidae)"Yamashina Institute for Ornithology," Vol. 38, No. 2, Yamashina Institute for Ornithology, 2007, pp. 97-99.
  17. ^ a b Kiyoaki Ozaki, Takao Baba, Shigegen Yoneda, Michio Kaneshiro, Yutaka Watakuchi, Tetsujiro Harato "Decrease in habitat of Okinawa rail"Yamashina Institute for Ornithology Research Report," Vol. 34, No. 1, Yamashina Institute for Ornithology, 2002, pp. 136-144.
  18. ^ Anonymous, 2004. Decrease in Okinawa rail. (Yamashina Institute for Ornithology, 16 Yamashina Yoshimaro Award Ceremony / Award Commemorative Lecture and Symposium "? Living in Okinawa Mountains? Is there tomorrow in Okinawa Rail?". Yamashina Institute for Ornithology. p. 14.) Decrease in Okinawa rail (Yamashina Institute for Ornithology website "Yamashina Institute for Ornithology, Ecology, Crisis")Reprinted with the same content.
  19. ^ a b c d Nobuhiko Odaka and Yasumasa Sawashi "Roadkill of Okinawa rail"Yamashina Institute for Ornithology," Vol. 35, No. 2, Yamashina Institute for Ornithology, 2004, pp. 134-143.
  20. ^ Nobuhiko Odaka, 2004. Death in a traffic accident in Okinawa rail. (Yamashina Institute for Ornithology, 16 Yamashina Yoshimaro Award Ceremony / Award Commemorative Lecture and Symposium "? Living in Okinawa Mountain? Laboratory. P. 11.)
  21. ^ "Rare species relationship”. Yanbaru Wildlife Conservation Center Ufugi Nature Museum. 2019/3/26Browse.
  22. ^ "Press Release: Successful Breeding in Okinawa Rail in 23 (Notice)". Naha Natural Environment OfficeMinistry of the Environment. 2019/3/26Browse.
  23. ^ "About the birth of Okinawa rail chicks in captivity (Notice)". Naha Natural Environment OfficeMinistry of the Environment. 2019/3/26Browse.
  24. ^ Anonymous, 2004. Origin of the name "Yamashina Institute for Ornithology" (Yamashina Institute for Ornithology, 16 Yamashina Yoshimaro Award Ceremony / Award Commemorative Lecture and Symposium "? Living in Okinawa Mountains? Laboratory. P. 14.) Origin of the name "Yamashina Institute for Ornithology" (Yamashina Institute for Ornithology website "Yamashina Institute for Ornithology")Reprinted with the same content.
  25. ^ "Discovery of Okinawa Rail”. TBS. As of January 2009, 8オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2019/3/26Browse.[Source invalid]
  26. ^ "Okinawa national mascot "quiqui"”. Bin planning. 2019/3/26Browse.
  27. ^ "XNUMX (Showa XNUMX) Okinawa Prefecture's Top XNUMX News-Ryukyu Shimpo-Okinawa Newspapers, Local News". ""Ryukyu Shimpo』. オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2010, 3.. https://web.archive.org/web/20100328032029/http://ryukyushimpo.jp:80/news/storyid-150846-storytopic-180.html 2019/3/26Browse. [Source invalid]
  28. ^ a b "Yahoo! News --Quiz --What about Okinawa's prefectural birds?”. As of May 2012, 1オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2019/3/26Browse.

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