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📦 | Nagasaki University talks to students about the significance of the earthquake disaster online seminar


Photograph Professor Takamura giving a lecture

Nagasaki University talks to students about the significance of the earthquake disaster online seminar

 
If you write the contents roughly
He talked about the environmental radioactivity of Tomioka Town, the significance of handing down the experience of the earthquake and the nuclear accident.
 

Nagasaki University held an online seminar to learn about disaster and radiation emergency medical science for three days from 6th to 8th."... → Continue reading

 Minami Fukushima Shimbun

A news site of the local newspaper "Fukushima Minyu Shimbun" that represents Fukushima Prefecture. Since it was first published in Meiji 28, we have been transmitting the latest community-based news as a “friend of the people of the prefecture”. The prefectural news covers a wide range of local news by connecting 25 news bases in Fukushima prefecture. We are also focusing on recovery from the Great East Japan Earthquake and articles related to TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. We will deliver a variety of articles such as gourmet, sightseeing, events, readable serials.


Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

Environmental radioactivity

Nuclear accident

Nuclear accident(Genshiryokujiko,British: Nuclear and radiation accidentsWhat isNuclear powerAt related facilitiesRadioactive material,radiationRelated toACCIDENTThat thing.Leakage of radioactive substances and strong radiation outside the facility will cause great damage to people's health, livelihoods and economic activities.Even if it is an accident in a nuclear facility, an accident completely unrelated to the leakage of radioactive materials or radiation is not called a nuclear accident.

Nuclear power plantIn the event of an accident such asInternational Nuclear Event Rating Scale(INES) impact index will be published in 0 levels from "level 7" to "level 8"[1]..In this item, events below INES level 4 are also described. Since the 1970s, Level 4 and above accidents have occurred at intervals of less than 7 years.

Accidents and abnormal events

At nuclear facilities in Japan, when radioactive substances are released into the environment and there is a risk of harming the health of the public or more, it is called an "accident", and an unexpected situation in the facility that does not lead to such a situation. Is called an "abnormal event" to distinguish[2].

Major nuclear accidents

Japan

INES Level 7 Accident

Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Core Meltdown / Hydrogen Explosion Accident

2011 Occurred on January 3Tohoku-Pacific Ocean EarthquakeByTEPCOFukushima Daiichi nuclear power plantPower lost.Melting occurred and the reactor building was wrecked by a hydrogen explosion.firstNuclear emergency declarationWas issued, and evacuation orders were issued to residents with a radius of 20 km.[3].

The Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency announced on the 12th that the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) Is a provisional value, and it is clarified that it corresponds to level 4 which is regarded as an "accident with local influence".Tokai Village JCO Nuclear Fuel Processing Facility Criticality AccidentSame level as[4]..The Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry is an international evaluation scale that indicates the seriousness of the accident at Units 1-3 (INES) Was announced to be the third most serious "level 8" of the eight stages.[5].. Then the same yearMay 4, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency is an international evaluation scale (INES) Announced that the provisional evaluation will be "Level 7"[6].

INES Level 4 Accident

1999 May 9 Tokai Village JCO Nuclear Fuel Processing Facility Criticality Accident[7]
Third in japanCriticality accidentTwo workers died.

INES level 3 or lower accident

1978 November 11 TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Unit 2 Accident
It is said to be the first criticality accident in Japan.
Five control rods were pulled out due to a mistake in the operation of the return valve, and it is said that the criticality continued for seven and a half hours from 5:3 am to 10:7 when the deputy director who came to work noticed and slowly corrected.
In a boiling water reactor, an accident with an essential weakness that the pressure inside the reactor rises due to an error in valve operation and the control rods come off.This information is not shared within the power plant, it is repeated at the power plant, and at other nuclear power plants (at least 6 cases in total). It may have prevented the 1999 Shika nuclear accident, and since it is an essential weakness, it may be occurring in nuclear reactors around the world.
Of particular importance was the accident on May 1991, 5, in which three control rods of Chubu Electric Power Hamaoka Unit 31 were also pulled out.Chubu Electric Power revised the manual in 3. "I didn't report to the government, but I did report to other power sources," he insisted.
It was discovered and announced on March 29, 2007, 3 years after the accident.TEPCO claims that "there was no mandated return at that time."
1989 May 1 TEPCOFukushima Daini Nuclear Power StationUnit 3 accident
An accident in which the inside of the reactor recirculation pump broke and a large amount of metal powder leaked into the core.Level2.
1990 November 9 TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Unit 9 Accident
As a result of the pin that stops the main steam isolation valve breaking, the reactor pressure increased and the reactor automatically stopped due to the signal of "neutron flux height".Level 2.
1991 May 2 Kansai Electric PowerMihama Power StationUnit 2 accident[8]
One of the heat transfer tubes of the steam generator broke, and 1 tons of primary cooling water leaked.Emergency core cooling system (ECCS) has been activated.Level 2.Release amount 0.6 Curie.
1991 May 4 Chubu Electric PowerHamaoka Nuclear Power StationUnit 3 accident
Due to an erroneous signal, the amount of water supplied to the reactor decreased and the reactor shut down automatically.Level 2.
1997 May 3 Power Reactor/Nuclear Fuel Development CorporationTokai Reprocessing Facility Asphalt Solidification Facility Fire Explosion Accident
A fire broke out and exploded at a facility that solidifies low-level radioactive materials asphalt.Level 3.
1999 May 6 Hokuriku Electric PowerShiga Nuclear Power StationUnit 1 accident
During the periodic inspection, the pressure inside the reactor increased due to an error in the valve operation of the boiling water reactor (BWR), the three control rods came off, and unexpectedly became uncontrolled criticality, and a scrum signal was output, but control The rod could not be inserted and the criticality lasted for 3 minutes until the valve was manually operated.The main causes of the criticality were the mistake of removing nitrogen for Scrum from all valves before the inspection and the manual valve operation being reversed.Level 15-1.
2011 March 3 TEPCO Fukushima Daini Nuclear Power Station Accident
Great East Japan EarthquakeAn accident in which the cooling function of the reactor temporarily failed due to the earthquake and tsunami caused by the earthquake.
Nuclear Safety and Safety AgencyOn July 2011, 3INESI gave a tentative evaluation that it was level 3.
2013 May 5 J-PARC radioisotope leakage accident
J-PARCLeaked into the controlled area at the hadron experimental facility due to equipment malfunctionRadioisotopeHowever, an accident that leaked out of the controlled area due to the artificial action of turning the exhaust fan.
Nuclear Regulatory CommissionTentatively evaluated this case as an event equivalent to INES Level 2013 on May 5, 27.

Other accidents

1973 3 Kansai Electric PowerMihama Power StationDamaged fuel rods
An accident occurred in the Mihama No. XNUMX reactor where the nuclear fuel rods broke, but Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc. did not disclose this accident and kept it secret.The accident was revealed by a whistleblower.
1974 May 9 Nuclear ship"Mutsu"ofradiationLeakage accident
1995 May 12 Power Reactor/Nuclear Fuel Development CorporationFast breeder reactorMonjuSodium leak accident
The sheath of the thermometer of the secondary main cooling system broke,sodiumLeaked and burned.Level 1.The accident forced Monju to suspend until April 15, nearly 2010 years later.
1998 February 2 TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station
During the regular inspection of Unit 4, 137 of the 34 control rods came off for 50 minutes, 25/1 of the total (1 notch about 15 cm).
2004 August 8 Kansai Electric PowerMihama Power StationUnit 3 secondary piping damage accident
Of the secondary cooling systemTurbine generatorA large amount of high-temperature and high-pressure steam is ejected due to a damaged pipe in the vicinity.Five workers who were late to escape died from burns.Level 5+.
2007 May 7 Niigata Chuetsu-oki EarthquakeTEPCO accompanyingKashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power StationA series of accidents in
The Niigata Chuetsu-oki Earthquake that occurred on the same day caused a fire in an oil-cooled transformer for an external power source, and a small amount of radioactive material leaked was detected.It is said that there was only one fire at the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station caused by this earthquake.
After the earthquakeHigh wavesThe site was flooded due to this, and as a result, some of the cooling water from the spent nuclear fuel rod pool was washed away.
Details of all damages are still under investigation as of October 2007.The accident forced the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station to shut down completely.
On November 2007, 11, the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry rated the accident as Level 13-.
2010 June 6 TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Unit 17 reactor automatic shutdown
Due to the momentary operation of the auxiliary relay during the work inside the control panel, the regular power supply stopped, the cooling fan stopped, and the reactor automatically stopped (Trip)did.その後、非常用Then emergencydieselTwo generators started automatically.電源停止により一時水位が低下したが、蒸気を駆動源とする原子炉隔離時冷却系The water level dropped temporarily due to the power outage, but the cooling system for reactor isolation using steam as the driving source[Annotation 1]Was manually started and the water level was returned.[9].

カナダ

1952 December 12 NRX accident
In 1947 in Ontario (150km northwest of Ottawa)Chalk River LaboratoriesExperimental reactor with an output of 4.2 kW constructed in(English editionIt is an accident.操作ミスで制御棒が引き抜かれ、1万キュリーまたは370テラベクレルの放射能を有する放射性物質が外部に漏れたA control rod was pulled out due to an operation error, and radioactive material with a radioactivity of XNUMX curies or XNUMX terabecquerel leaked to the outside.[10]..その後1993年まで稼働していたThen it was in operation until XNUMX[10].
May 1958, 5 NRU accident
A research reactor with an output of 1957 million kW, which was just built in the Chalk River Laboratory in 135.(English editionAccident[11][12][13]..When the fuel rods were pulled out, the fuel rods overheated and ignited, after which the fuel rods were torn in two and destroyed.火災は消し止められたが原子炉建屋内と研究所内の広範囲が汚染され、修復と除染に2ヶ月を費やした後に再稼働したThe fire was extinguished, but extensive areas inside the reactor building and laboratory were contaminated and restarted after spending three months repairing and decontaminating.[14]..除染作業に従事したカナダ軍人1名が、後に珍しい種類の皮膚癌を発症し、カナダ政府から障害者年金を受給されたA Canadian military officer engaged in decontamination work later developed a rare type of skin cancer and received a disability pension from the Canadian government.[15][16].

Former Soviet Union / Russia

1957 May 9 Ural nuclear disaster
oldSoviet UnionUral regionBuilt in "Chelyabinsk 65In a secret city with the code name ""MayakWeapon (meaning lighthouse)Atomic bomb)useplutoniumTo produceReactor5 units andReprocessing facilityAn accident that happened in a plant with. 200 million including plutoniumCurieRadioactive material was scattered. This is an accident that informs the danger of an accident associated with the mass storage of radioactive materials. Initially this accident was kept confidential,WestToexile officialscientistIsJaurès A. MedvedevBecame known for publishing a paper in the English scientific journal "New Scientist" in 1976.International Nuclear Event Rating ScaleIt was a major level 6 accident, and radioactive contamination is still ongoing.
October 1958th, 4 (English edition
Under the Soviet UnionKyrgyz Republic,Jalal-AbadHas a uranium mineClosed city(English editionLandslides and earthquakes had occurred frequently at (Western name: Mailbox 200).TectonicsThe uranium slag, which was set up on the hillside of the unstable hill, was piled up in the open.Slag damCollapsed and adjacent(Russian versionA large amount of slag flows into the slag,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euNot only downstreamKara Darya RiverAdjacent throughRepublic of Uzbek(Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu)ofFergana ValleyRadioactive contamination spread throughout the area. The uranium mine closed in 1968, but the Soviet government did not take any measures to contain the slag, and after that, multiple large and small slag collapse accidents occurred and the pollution continued to spread. After the collapse of the Soviet UnionUnited Nations,World BankSurvey on the actual situation with the investment ofBlacksmith InstituteThe Mayli Su area is considered to be one of the 10 most radioactively contaminated areas in the world.
1980 (English edition
Republic of Ukraine Of(English editionNewly built inKhrushchyovkaOne after another from two families of the people who moved into the style apartmentleukemiaThere was a death due to. Up to three of the four deaths were children, but doctors were initially unable to identify the cause of the leukemia and presumed that it was due to genetic factors, but this explanation is not convincing. The situation was discovered when the father of one family complained to the authorities in 4 that something was wrong with the building. The cause was mixed in as aggregate in the concrete of the wall of the apartment.Cesium 137It was a radiation source of. This radiation source was in the 1970sDonetsk OblastIt was used as an industrial radiation source at the quarry in Japan, and was reported to have been lost from the quarry in the late 70s and remained missing even after a search. The unintentionally embedded wall of this radiation source was located right next to the bed in the children's room of two families, causing a tragedy that killed three teenagers.ウクライナAuthorities immediately cut out part of the wall and the capsule(English editionWas recovered and abandoned. The apartment, which was the stage of the tragedy, had the same radiation dose as the natural world after the capsule was removed, and the surroundings regained peace. The number of deaths in a series of situations varies depending on the materials, and according to the report immediately after the incident was discovered, there were 3 children and 1 adult, but at this time 4 child and 1 adult were seriously ill. However, since he died later, the total number of people may be six.
1982/2 (English edition
Murmansk OfSoviet NavyIn the spent nuclear fuel storage pool in Japan, the leakage of contaminated water from the cracks in the 5th pool due to the freezing and thawing of the stored water in the midwinter began. The Soviet Navy was aware of the occurrence of the situation due to the rapid rise of gamma rays near the 5th pool, but the Soviet Navy initially damaged the pool to a pinhole, and the detected dose leaked 30 liters per day. Judging as a degree,Wheat flourWas only dealt with by means such as throwing it into the pool. After that, the Soviet Navy went to the scene because the gamma dose increased sharply.LiquidatorsDecided to put in. In April, methods such as filling 4 square meters of the underground part of the pool building with concrete and freezing the stored water were tried, but they had little effect. In September, leaks increased to 600 tons per day, threatening to expose spent nuclear fuel to the air, but Rikubidator and his colleagues used a method of covering the metal case of the pool with a mixture of iron, lead, and concrete. The leak was completely stopped on February 9, 30. The total amount of contaminated water leaked into Andreyev Bay reached 1983 tons. After that, all 2 spent nuclear fuel containers in the pool had been shipped to Mayak by December 14, 77. Officially, no deaths or injuries have been recorded in a series of events, but in the recollections of liquidators, one fell into the pool during the removal of the spent nuclear fuel container and another fell into the pool for rescue. Dive in and bigBeta rayHigh-level radioactive liquid waste inside the container often leaks to the outside due to exposure to radiation or corrosion or damage during the removal work of the container.Cherenkov radiationAn eerie luminescence phenomenon that seems to have been witnessed by several liquidators, but official reports of the Soviet Navy to the Soviet government testify that all of these events were concealed and a gag order was laid down.The number of liquidators introduced in this accident was about 1000, mainly the dock workers at the Murmansk naval port, but all of them understood that "radioactivity is extremely scary" on a daily basis. Since it was only, the secondary human damage was minimized.
1986 May 4 Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident
Under the Soviet UnionRepublic of UkraineChernobyl nuclear power plantA level 4 major accident in which Unit 7 exploded and burned, and a large amount of radioactive material was released into the atmosphere.There are various theories about the cause, but it is said that the power generation surged during the power generation experiment.放射性物質は気流に乗って世界規模でRadioactive material rides in the airflow on a global scaleExposureBrought.There are only dozens of workers and rescue workers who died directly.But,2005 Announced inwho According to the results of an international joint survey by multiple organizations such as (WHO), the direct death toll from this accident was ultimately estimated at 9,000. At the 2000th Anniversary Memorial Ceremony held on April 4, 26, it was announced that 14 of the 85 workers engaged in accident handling had died.With this accident, the importance of international nuclear information exchange was recognized, and(English edition (WANO) was formed.
1993 May 4 (Russian version
Russian FederationTomskThe city ofSeverskSince the former Soviet eraTomsk-7ReprocessingComplexAtnitric acidAn accident in which the tank explodes during cleaning.The explosion released a cloud of radioactive gas.国際原子力事象評価尺度レベル4の事故International Nuclear Event Scale Level XNUMX Accident[17].
2017 year 9 month,(English edition
From September to November 2017, nuclear power agencies in several European countries such as Switzerland and France have a small amount of unknown origin.Ruthenium 106Increased air radiation dose was detected.The significant increase in ruthenium 106 suggests the occurrence of a nuclear accident, etc., and each nuclear agency in European countries inquired the Russian government whether the Mayak Production Association in Russia was the source, but the Russian government itself Has denied a connection with Mayak and officially remains unexplained.
August 2019, 8,(English edition
Arkhangelsk OblastSeverodvinskSuburbs(English editionAt the experimental facility in the village9M730Cruise missileAn explosion occurred during a test of a nuclear propulsion engine, which is believed to be the one, and was involved in the accident by August 8.RosatomFive workers died from acute radiation sickness.The following day, about 5 villagers in Nyonoksa village were temporarily evacuated, but the evacuation order was lifted the next day.

The United Kingdom

1957 May 10 Winsker reactor fire accident
The world's first serious nuclear reactor accident.The United KingdomProduces northwestern military plutoniumWinskaleNuclear factory (currentlySellafield) In the core of two reactorsgraphite(carbonMade)ModeratorA fire broke out due to overheating, and it continued to burn for 16 hours, releasing a large amount of radioactive material to the outside.International Nuclear Event Rating ScaleLevel 5 accident[18]..No local residents evacuated because no evacuation order was issued.数十人がその後Dozens of people thenleukemiaDied in.At present, the incidence of leukemia is three times the national average.当時のAt the timeMcMillan administrationWas kept secret, but it was released 30 years later.It is still in danger. 2万キュリーのOf XNUMX curiesIodine131Is famous for polluting 500 square kilometers around the factory and informing about the danger of iodine.It took time to inject water due to the risk of hydrogen explosion.This was repeated on Three Mile Island.

The United States of America

1958 May 12 Los Alamos Criticality Accident
New mexicoLos Alamos OfLos Alamos National Laboratory OfplutoniumOccurs at a collection facility.溶液処理槽で作業員が電動撹拌機を回したところ水が有機相を破って臨界状態に達してしまい、作業員3人がWhen a worker turned an electric stirrer in a solution treatment tank, water broke the organic phase and reached a critical state, and three workersExposuredid. 1 per personSievertHe died after being exposed to the above.Caused by work under harsh working conditions.
1959 May 7 Santa Susana Field LaboratoryFuel rod melting accident
CaliforniaCity of Los AngelesAbout 50km in the suburbsSimi ValleyWas in(English editionFuel rods have melted. 1500-6500Curie OfIodine 131And 1300 curieCesium 137Is said to have been released into the environment. It was closed in 1960 and then dismantled. It was confidential until a student accidentally discovered and published the material in 1979.
In 1996Plutonium-239Cobalt 60, In 2011cesiumWas detected several to several hundred times the regulated value, respectively.
1961 May 1 SL-1 accident
SL-1 (Stationary Low-Power Reactor Number One)America OfIdaho FallsWas inNavyIt is a military test furnace.Operating output is 400 as thermal energy for heating for military bases kWThe electrical output was 200 kW, for a total of 600 kW, and the design output was 3 MW.[Needs verification][Source required]Three engineers were killed in a runaway accident at this reactor.At that time, the cause of the accident was unknown,1971 ToUnited States Atomic Energy CommissionIn a report compiled by, one of the deadsuicideIt is concluded that the accident was caused by pulling out the control rod for the purpose of[19].. ::The control rod was pulled out as much as 10 cm where it should only be pulled out up to 50 cm.It is known from the pre-incident video that this control rod was caught in the housing when it was pulled out, and it is believed that the operator pulled it by force.As a result, a large amount of steam was instantly generated, the pressure inside the furnace became high, and the furnace was destroyed.The runaway caused a 13-ton reactor vessel to jump nearly 3 meters.The energy released in the accident was equivalent to about 50 MJ, and it is believed that about 100 percent of the fission products of about 1 million curies in the reactor were released.Although the reactor went out of control, it is believed that it stopped spontaneously due to the loss of moderator light water.It is also considered that the core did not melt even if the coolant was lost because the output of the reactor was small.[Needs verification][Source required]
1964 May 7 Wood River Criticality Accident
America·Rhode Island OfuraniumWoke up at the collection facilityCriticality accident..1 workersSievertHe died from the above exposure.The factory managers who dealt with the accident were exposed to re-criticality.
1966 May 10 Enrico Fermi Unit 1
Enrico Fermi Furnace (Enrico Fermi Nuclear Generating Station) Is AmericanDetroitWas in the suburbsFast breeder reactorIt is a test furnace. 1966年10月5日にOn October XNUMX, XNUMXCore meltWas raised and closed.It is said to be the first example of a nuclear reactor core meltdown accident that actually occurred.後にこの事故について書かれたドキュメンタリーのタイトルには、『我々はデトロイトを失うところであった』と書かれたThe title of the documentary later about the accident said, "We were about to lose Detroit."[20].
1979 May 3 Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant Accident
America·Three Mile Island Nuclear Power StationCore meltdown accident.Level 5 accident, incomplete equipment maintenance,ErgonomicsThe layout of the control panel, which does not place importance onInitially, it was reported that a large amount of radioactive material was released to the outside.The impact of the accident forced the US government to suspend construction of a new nuclear power plant.アメリカではこの事故を契機にトラブルや運転等の情報を共有する組織としてIn the United States, as an organization that shares information such as troubles and driving in the wake of this accident(English edition (INPO) was formed[21][22].
October 1979th, 7 (English edition
New mexico(English editionWas managed by United Nuclear (now Gulf United Nuclear)(English editionThe slag dam broke down.New mexico OfNavajoSettlementContaminated.In addition, the uranium slag that has flowed out isColorado RiverDownstream along a tributary ofArizona,ネ バ ダ 州Moved to and polluted the entire basin.

France

1969 XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,(French version
Saint-Laurent-de-Zoe nuclear power plantAt, 1 kg of uranium began to melt during the fuel insertion of the graphite-cooled gas-cooled reactor No. 50.この事故はThis accidentInternational Nuclear Event Rating ScaleClassified as level 4.これは2012年までのフランス原子力史上最も大きな事故であったThis was the biggest accident in French nuclear history until XNUMX[23][24].
August 1980, 3,(French version
2 kg of uranium in the graphite-cooled gas-cooled reactor No. 20 at the Saint-Laurent de Zoe nuclear power plantCore meltAn accident has occurred.激しい損傷を受けて原子炉は3年半の間運転できなかったThe reactor was inoperable for three and a half years due to severe damage[23]..This accident, like the 1969 core meltdown accident, was classified as Level 4 of the International Nuclear Event Scale.
1999 XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,(English edition
Gironde riverFaceBordeauxnearBlayais nuclear power plantAnd a big storm ((French version) Caused a flood, all external power supply systems were shut down, and all power supplies for Units 1 and 2 were lost. Units 1 and 2 were able to cool the core with a steam generator, and ESWS was restored.幸い4号機が30日未明に復旧しこの事態は収まったFortunately, Unit XNUMX was restored before dawn on the XNUMXth, and this situation subsided.[25]..International Nuclear Event Scale Level 2.This lesson was also known in Japan,JNESNo safety measures were taken at domestic nuclear power plants in response to the 2007 indication.[26][Annotation 2].
2008 XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,Tricastan Nuclear Power StationACCIDENT
From the night of the 7th to the 8th, FranceAvignonBorders the northern city of BollèneTricastan Nuclear Power StationAturaniumApproximately 3 uranium solution from the tank during maintenance of the solution storage tankliterOverflowed, more than 100 staff members were exposed, and 74 in nearby rivers kgUranium has flowed out.原発は一時閉鎖され、水道水の使用や河川への立ち入りが禁止されるなどしたThe nuclear power plant was temporarily closed, and the use of tap water and access to rivers were prohibited.[28][29].

スイス

August 1969, 1,(English edition
スイスLoss of coolant in a research gas-cooled underground reactor in Lucens, Vaud, partially melted core fuel and leaked radioactive material into the cave[30].

Brazil

1987 January,Goiania exposure accident
Brazil OfGoianiaRadioactive contamination accident that occurred in the city.閉鎖された病院に放置されていたWas left in a closed hospitalRadiation therapyA radiation source was stolen from a medical device for use and was dismantled by a local scrap company inside.Cesium 137Is exposed.Radioactive materialUnable to recognize the danger ofFluorescent substancePeople who were curious about the characteristic of shining in the dark took them home, and the pollution spread mainly in the shantytowns.By December of the same year, 12 people had been exposed and 250 died from acute radiation sickness.By March of the following year, seven heavily polluted houses were demolished and the surrounding soil was replaced.

メキシコ

1962 year 3 month,(English edition
メキシコ OfMexico CityRadioactive contamination accident that occurred in the city.当時10歳の少年が放射線療法用の医療機器のA XNUMX-year-old boy at the time used medical equipment for radiation therapyCobalt 60Five family members, including a boy, were severely exposed to radiation sources from somewhere and brought home, and by October of the same year, four families, including a boy, had died of acute radiation damage.The only survivor of the family was the boy's father.Although the scale of pollution is different, it is a nuclear accident with almost the same content as the Goiania exposure accident, and it is also a typical example of the tragedy caused by improper management of radiation sources.

スペイン

December 1990-12, 10,(English edition
スペイン OfZaragozaReceived maintenance due to improper procedureRadiation therapyTwenty-five of the 5 patients treated died when the equipment emitted more than five times the default radiation.According to a survey by the International Atomic Energy Agency, 27 of the 25 deaths were identified as acute radiation sickness.メンテナンスを請け負っていたゼネラル・エレクトリックは、総額で25億General Electric, which undertook maintenance, totaled 11 millionPeseta(Approximately 2 millionEuro) Will be liable for damages.

Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu

August-September 1996,(English edition
Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu OfSan JoseIt is inSt. John a DeoAt the hospital, radiation therapy equipment using Cobalt-60 emitted more radiation than the default value due to misalignment, and 114 patients were overexposed, 13 of whom died of acute radiation injury.

パナマ

August 2000-March 8,(English edition
パナマ OfPanama CityAt a national cancer treatment facility in Tokyo, due to a programming error in the radiation therapy planning system that calculates the dose distribution and dose for individual patients, the input contents by doctors in multiple sections are not properly reflected in the cumulative dose display. As a result, the patient was exposed to a cumulative dose that was not normally acceptable.Over the course of the process, 20 patients were overexposed, 8 of whom died of acute radiation injury.

Major military nuclear accidents

Nuclear submarineWe will outline accidents such as (nuclear submarine accident).

Nuclear submarine

Former Soviet Union / Russia

The name of the class isNATOIs named.The real name was top secret at the time, so the oldSoviet navyEvenNATO nameDescribed in.深さは沈没したDepth sanksubmarineIs the depth of the place where[Annotation 3].

  • 1961 May 7 K-19(Soviet Navy's first nuclear submarine,Hotel-class nuclear submarinePrimary cooling systemIt is an accident caused by the pressure drop of. Eight people died.原因は、修理中の溶接棒の破片が冷却回路内に入っていたためThe cause was that fragments of the welding rod being repaired were inside the cooling circuit.[Annotation 4].
  • 1985 May 8Around noon Echo type 2 K-431.VladivostokAt a ship repair shop in the suburbsFuel rodDuring the replacement, the control rod was pulled out due to an erroneous operation of the reactor,CoreThe nuclear reaction increased and the reactor exploded. Ten people died instantly and 10 were exposed. 290万キュリーの放射能を持つ放射性の塵と、500万キュリーの放射能を持つ放射性のRadioactive dust with 200 million curies of radioactivity and XNUMX million curies of radioactiveNoble gasIt is said that the species spilled and spread over 30km northwest.Estimated total amount of radioactivity released in this accident 26KyotoBecquerelMet[31].
  • 1989 Former Soviet Navy nuclear submarine carrying two nuclear torpedoes on April 4Comsomoretsu(K-278) sank in a fire off the coast of Norway.A July 2019 sinking survey by Norwegian authorities detected 7 Bq / L in seawater in the hull duct hype, but no other leaks of such high concentrations were confirmed.[32].

The United States of America

  • 1963 April 4 United StatesPermit-class submarine"ThresherIt sank 2,500 m off the Atlantic Ocean in New England.Emergency shutdown of the reactor. The June 1962 collision and the involvement of undersea internal waves are suspected. 6 people died.後の潜水調査で、残骸からFrom the wreckage in a later diving surveyCobalt 60Has been detected.

Aircraft accident

Other accidents

Nuclear testDescribe the cases of widespread radioactive contamination caused by the accident at the munitions factory.

  • (English edition --Built in the Soviet Union from 1945 to 1948Mayak Production AssociationHas a smaller area of ​​effluent containing medium- and low-level radioactive waste than the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station in the facility.(English editionIt has been released to.(English editionAccording to the report, Lake Karachay is the most radioactively contaminated place in the world.
  • (English edition --At the Mayak Nuclear Technology Facility, waste liquid containing high-level radioactive waste was stored in a tank, but if the waste liquid cannot be stored due to insufficient capacity of the tank body, or due to factors such as corrosion by chemical substances, the tank itself When the object was in danger of being damaged, the waste liquid was discharged to the adjacent Techa River as an emergency measure.大規模な放流は1949年-1951年5月に掛けての6500万Large-scale release from XNUMX to May XNUMX, XNUMX millionCubic meter, June 1951-September 6 million cubic meters, October 9 6200 million cubic meters, three times have been recorded.
  • (English edition --A nuclear facility in the United StatesRocky FlatsIn the surrounding area, a facility fire caused by the ignition of plutonium cutting chips in 1957, and waste liquid containing radioactive wasteDrumHighly radioactive contamination due to three accidents of facility fire caused by plutonium cutting chips that reoccurred in 903, due to leakage of waste liquid due to corrosion damage of drums in "Pad 1969" that was packed in large quantities and piled up in the open. Has been reported.
  • Hanford Site --For cooling the reactor from 1944 to 1971 at a nuclear facility in the United StatesColumbia riverTake a large amount of water from the reactor and cool the core for up to 6 hours.reservoirIt was released again after being stored in.In addition, trace amounts of radioactive substances were routinely released into the air during the plutonium separation process, with the highest release, especially from 1945 to 1951.それ以外にも孤発的な事故により度々大きな放射能漏れが起きていたが、最も悪名高いのは1949年12月2から3日に掛けて実行されたOther than that, there were frequent large radiation leaks due to sporadic accidents, but the most notorious one was carried out from December XNUMX-XNUMX, XNUMX.(English editionIodine-5500 of 12000-131 Curie was released into the atmosphere by an experiment called.
  • Johnston Island --The United States nuclear test conducted in 1962,(English editionA total of four nuclear missile launch accidents occurred at the island, and the crashed nuclear missile caused radioactive contamination over a wide area of ​​the island.

Artificial satellite fall

Fiction work on the theme of the nuclear accident

* Includes works in which the accident is treated as one episode in the story.

  • Prometheus Crisis (The Prometheus Crisis) - (English edition(English edition1975 American novel by.巨大原子力発電所が事故を起こしロサンゼルスを死の灰が襲うA huge nuclear power plant causes an accident and fallout hits Los Angeles[33].
  • China Syndrome -American movie released in 1979
  • Chain reaction --Australian movie released in 1980
  • Golgo 13 Episode 213"The Wilderness of 2" -In this episode of the Japanese series manga, released in 5, a nuclear power plant that started operations in Southern California is in danger of meltdown.ゴルゴ1984は貯まった水蒸気を逃がすために原子炉内のパイプを狙撃するGolgo 13 snipers the pipe in the reactor to let the accumulated steam escape[34].
  • Invisible cloud --A German novel for young adults published in 1987. 2006年には映画化されたIt was made into a movie in XNUMX
  • The destruction of the earth in 1988-announced in XNUMXKiriyama YasuoJapanese novel by.世界4ヵ国にある5ヵ所の原子力発電所が爆破され、世界中に死の灰が広がるFive nuclear power plants in four countries are blown up and fallout spreads around the world[35].
  • Fifth Planet Asuka --Japanese light novel announced in 1989
  • "Akafuji", "Kiho"-Japanese-American collaboration movie released in 1990 Akira KurosawaAn omnibus movie based on the director's dream. "Red Fuji" depicts the eruption of Mt. Fuji in a nuclear accident, and the following "Kiho" depicts a world in which people live as demons due to radioactive contamination.
  • Abuse Miscellaneous Words (Barizogon) -Announced in 1996Fumaki WatanabeBy the directorIndependent movie..Suicide and murder occur due to a serious trouble at a nuclear power plant in Fukushima prefecture.事件を知った主人公が村人から話を聞いて回る間に、村への大規模な原子力発電所の誘致の動きが進むWhile the hero who learned of the incident listens to the story from the villagers, the movement to attract a large-scale nuclear power plant to the village progresses[36].
  • The White House Season 7Episode 12Duck and Cover--In this episode of the American TV drama series, which aired in January 2006 (broadcast in Japan in 1. The Japanese title is "Duck and Cover"), an accident occurs at a nuclear power plant in California.
  • COPPELION --Japanese manga serialized from 2008 to 2016
  • Critical illusion 2011 --A Japanese stage play that was performed under the title of "Critical Illusion" from 1981 to 82, and has been re-performed since 2011 after being adapted to "Critical Illusion 2012".
  • Country of hope --Japanese movie released in 2012
  • House in the morning sun --Japanese movie released in 2013

footnote

注 釈

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ Emergency core cooling systemIs different from.
  2. ^ On February 2001, 02, the Onofre nuclear power plant in Southern California also experienced power loss due to a fire in the power system.[27].
  3. ^ Please note that it depends on the source of information.
  4. ^ 2002 ハ リ ソ ン · フ ォ ー ドStarring and executive producerK-19』It was made into a movie.

Note Power outage of nuclear facility

Source

  1. ^ "Nuclear Safety Regulations Evaluation scale for nuclear reactor failures and troubles". Nuclear Encyclopedia ATOMICA.General Incorporated FoundationResearch Organization for Information Science and Technology. October 2011th, 3Browse.
  2. ^ Fumie Suguri 1997 [Page number required]
  3. ^ "The building of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant exploded = 1 people were injured, the reactor vessel was safe-evacuation range, radius 4 km". Newsletter(July 2011, 3). http://www.jiji.com/jc/c?g=soc_30&k=2011031200517 October 2011th, 3Browse. [Broken link]
  4. ^ "Fukushima nuclear accident, JCO level = provisional value of international evaluation-NISA". Newsletter(July 2011, 3). http://www.jiji.com/jc/c?g=soc_30&k=2011031300014 October 2011th, 3Browse. [Broken link]
  5. ^ “Fukushima Nuclear Accident, International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) --NISA”. Nihon Keizai Shimbun(July 2011, 3). http://www.nikkei.com/news/headline/article/g=96958A9C93819595E3EAE2E28A8DE3EAE2E1E0E2E3E3E2E2E2E2E2E2 October 2011th, 3Browse. 
  6. ^ "Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Accident" Level 7 "". CNN(July 2011, 4). http://www.cnn.co.jp/world/30002422.html October 2011th, 4Browse. [Broken link]
  7. ^ "Well-understood nuclear power Tokaimura JCO criticality accident”. A meeting to think about nuclear education (October 2008, 10). October 2011th, 3Browse.
  8. ^ Yoshio Tachibana, Hideo Kobayashi. “Nuclear power plant steam generator Heat transfer capillary rupture February 1991, 2, Mihama Town, Fukui Prefecture (PDF)". Failure Knowledge Database-XNUMX Selections of FailuresHatamura Institute of Creative Engineering. October 2011th, 9Browse.
  9. ^ "Survey results regarding automatic reactor shutdown at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Unit 2". Press releaseTEPCO (July 2010, 7). October 2011th, 5Browse.
  10. ^ a b Cleveland, Cutler J. (August 2007, 8). “Chalk River, Canada”. The Encyclopedia of Earth. October 2010th, 1Browse.
  11. ^ "Ottawa (AP) An atomic test reactor ..." The Owosso Argus-Press newspaper. May 27, 1958.
  12. ^ The Canadian Nuclear FAQ --Section D: Safety and Liability
  13. ^ An accident at NRU --Candu: The Canadian Nuclear Reactor --Science and Technology --CBC Archives
  14. ^ Myers, DK, Morrison, DP and Werner, MM, "Follow-up of AECL employees involved in the decontamination of NRU in 1958", AECL Report, AECL-7901, 1982 September 1.
  15. ^ "Battle For Pension Ending" by Peggy Curran, the Montreal Gazette, April 16, 1985
  16. ^ "Nuclear Mishap Seen First Hand" by Michael Farber, the Montreal Gazette, April 29, 1986
  17. ^ “Timeline: Nuclear plant accidents”. BBC News(July 2006, 7). http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/5165736.stm October 2010th, 7Browse. 
  18. ^ Richard Black (March 2011, 3). “Fukushima --disaster or distraction?”. BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-12789749 October 2011th, 4Browse. 
  19. ^ 61 U.S. military nuclear power plant runaway accident Actually, a technician's suicide love triangle trouble pulling out a control rod "Asahi Shimbun" March 1979, 54 (Showa 3) 8th edition 13nd page
  20. ^ John Fuller "We Almost Lost Detroit" ISBN-978 0345252661
  21. ^ "About Us "Our History"”. Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO). October 2013th, 2Browse.
  22. ^ "Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) (13-01-03-10)". ATOMIC. October 2013th, 2Browse.
  23. ^ a b A Saint-Laurent, EDF a renoncé à construire une digue contre les inondations
  24. ^ Le jour où la France a frôlé le pire
  25. ^ Yasuhiko Miyasaka "Why was the regulation of loss of all AC power at nuclear power plants delayed? (PDF) "ATOMOΣ Journal of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan, Vol. 54, No. 1, January 2012, p. 1,"October 2013th, 12Browse.
  26. ^ "Transition of Severe Accident Countermeasures in Japan Where was the Nuclear Regulation Authority Wrong? (PDF)”. P. 6. October 2015th, 12Browse.
  27. ^ "Emergency stop due to fire at San Onofre nuclear power plant". Failure knowledge databaseHatamura Institute of Creative Engineering. October 2013th, 12Browse.
  28. ^ Le Monde (September 2008, 9). “Les autorites nucleaires se veulent rassurantes face au rejet d'uranium sur le site de Tricastin” (French). http://www.lemonde.fr/cgi-bin/ACHATS/acheter.cgi?offre=ARCHIVES&type_item=ART_ARCH_30J&objet_id=1043894&clef=ARC-TRK-D_01 October 2011th, 3Browse. 
  29. ^ OVNI (September 2008, 9). “Future of radioactive waste”. http://www.ilyfunet.com/actualites/a-propos/639_apropo.html October 2011th, 3Browse. 
  30. ^ "Swiss nuclear power development and development system". ATOMIC. October 2012th, 8Browse.
  31. ^ Yatsuhiro Nakagawa 2012 [Page number required]
  32. ^ “80 times more radiation from the sunken Russian submarine off Norway”. BBC NEWS JAPAN(July 2019, 7). https://www.bbc.com/japanese/48959841 October 2020th, 11Browse. 
  33. ^ Kenichi Aoki "Will Nuclear Power Plants Explode? -Reading Prometheus Crisis," Alliance, No. 222, All Japan Labor Union, January 1977, 1, pp. 1-76.; Nobuo Matsuoka "Serious" Nuclear Western Drama "-TN Scocia, FM Robinson, Translated by Kiyoshi Isaka," Prometheus Crysis ", Tide, No. 211, Tide Publishing Co., Ltd., December 1976, 12, pp. 1-327.; "Prometheus Crisis-1-City of California Disappeared in the Nuclear Accident (Thomas N. Scortia, Frank M. Robinson, Translated by Yutaka Ichi)" (Suspects of Nuclear Power PlantsAsahi JournalVol. 18, No. 19, May 1976, 5, pp. 14-26.; "Four seasons". Japan Agricultural Newspaper (Japan Agricultural News): p. Comprehensive 1st page 12th edition. (July 2015, 7). "<Prometheus Crisis> is a metaphor for uncontrollable science and technology." 
  34. ^ Masahiro Fujimoto. “April 2011 article”. Iwaki Management Consultant Office. October 2016th, 7Browse.
  35. ^ "XNUMX Earth destruction". Agon Shu Official Blog (September 2016, 5). October 2016th, 7Browse.
  36. ^ Abuse miscellaneous words - Movie Walker, Viewed May 2015, 1.

References

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