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food(Shokumotsu),GroceriesAlso called (shokuryohin).
There are terms with close meanings such as "food", "food", and "food", but in general, "food" is a concept closer to ingredients than food, and food is a cooked food. Can also be explained..For example, rice harvested from rice (rice nuts) is "food" as it is, but it can be used as it is.Polished riceThen, it is positioned as "food" and the rice that has been polished isCooked riceThen, it can be explained that there is a relationship that it becomes "food" called "rice" (rice)... However, the term "food" tends to be used vaguely because the scope is not clear..
There are various taxonomies for food. In addition to the major classifications such as "vegetable foods/animal foods...", they are further subdivided, and nutritional classifications such as "protein foods/starch foods/fatty foods..." There are classifications based on the processing state such as "fresh food/processed food" and classification based on the processing method such as "brewed product/canned food/retort food/frozen food...". →# Food classification
Foods can be evaluated and analyzed based on their values such as safety, nutrition, economy, practical use, and taste. → #Value of food
Foods are preserved to prevent quality deterioration, stabilize transportation and supply, food safety, and maintain nutritional value. → #Preservation of food
There are methods such as refrigeration, freezing, packaging, and drying for preserving food as it is, and methods for preserving it after processing include salting, candied fruit, pickled vinegar, soy sauce / miso, bottling / canning, and the like. → #How to store food
- Various foods
Definition of food
A humanWhat you take by mouth affects human health.For example, many of the things that came to be called "vegetables" were originally native to the wild.plantIt has a history that when humans try it and eat it, their health condition is improved and they gain vitality.
For example,onionOriginally, in ancient times,staminaIt was a food that brought about illness and was positioned as a "medicine" to help cure most diseases. After thatEpidemiological surveySo, eating onions has the effect of reducing stomach cancer, colon cancer, and esophageal cancer,HyperlipidemiaIt became clear that.
On the other hand, apart from "food", "medicine", which has a specific medical effect, is placed in a different category, and a mechanism is in place to firmly strengthen legal regulations on them.
JapanFood Sanitation ActArticle 4 is "food by this law means all food and drink.Act on ensuring the quality, effectiveness and safety of pharmaceuticals, medical equipment, etc.(Law No. XNUMX of XNUMX)Medicine,Quasi-drugAnd does not include this. ”[Note 1].Food Safety Basic ActThe definition of "food" in Article 2 is also the same.
米 国In the institutional classification of, "things that come in by mouth for the purpose of food and nutrition intake" are mainlyMinistry of Health and Welfare(Department of Health and Human Services, HHS)US Food and Drug Administration(Food and Drug Administration, FDA) is under the jurisdiction of the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)..
Classification of food
The main categories are as follows.
- Large classification: vegetable food / animal food / synthetic food
- Subdivision (subdivision of plants, animals, etc.):GrainKind / 種-FruitKind / PotatoKind / beansKind / mushroomKindVegetablesKind / fruitKind.seafood / BeastmeatKind / eggKind / milkKind.SeaweedKind
- Nutritional classification:proteinSex food / StarchSex/Fat Foods...
- Classification by presence or absence of processing: Fresh produce / processed food
- Classification according to dietary habits: main food / side food / luxury food / seasoning 
- Classification by production type:Agricultural productsFood / LivestockFood / FisheriesFood.. In addition, "natural products / AquacultureGoods "
- Classification by processing method and packaging:brewingGoods / canningFood / Retort food / Frozen food / freeze dryFood
- Classification by cooking style: Instant Food / ChilledFood / Kit Food / Cooked Food
The Japanese system distinguishes foods from pharmaceuticals, and foods are divided into general foods and foods with health claims (Food for specified health useas well as the Nutritionally functional food).
In the US system, foods are classified as general foods, additives, dietary supplements, and medical foods..
Codex Food Classification System
- Dairy products and similar products
- Dairy products derived from milk such as cows, sheep, goats, and buffalo.. Milk and milk drink (milkEtc.), fermented milk,condensed milk,cheese, A milk-based dessert (Pudding, Fruit yogurt, flavor yogurt, etc.Yogurt) Etc... Similar products are products in which milk fat is partially or completely replaced with vegetable oil..
- Fats and oils
- Edible ice containing sorbet and sorbet
- Fruits and vegetables (including mushrooms, roots and tubers, legumes and legumes, and aloe), seaweed, and seeds
- It is further divided into two major categories: fruits (04.1), vegetables, seaweed, and seeds (04.2)... Fresh fruits and processed fruits (frozen fruits,Raisins,pruneDried fruits such as pickles, canned, bottled,jam,marmalade,Chutneyand so on.. Vegetables are also fresh vegetables and processed vegetables (frozen vegetables, dried vegetables, pickles,picklesand so on.
- Cereals and cereal products derived from grains, roots and tubers, legumes, legumes and palm mesocarps or soft cores, excluding bakery products
- Bakery products
- Meat and meat products, including poultry and game
- Fish and fish products including molluscs, crustaceans and echinoderms
- Eggs and egg products
- Raw eggs with shells (10.1), alternatives to raw eggs (10.2), other egg products (10.3 and 10.4), etc..
- Sweeteners including honey
- Salt, spices, soups, sauces, salads, protein products
- Food for special nutrition
- The Codex Food Classification System defines “special purpose processed foods specially processed or adjusted to meet special dietary requirements due to having a particular physical or physiological condition and/or a particular disease or disorder”. "Food for special nutrition".
- Beverages excluding dairy products
- Flavor products that can be eaten as they are
- Snacks made mainly from potatoes, grains, cereal flour or starch (15.1), processed nuts such as nuts and nut mixes (15.2), snacks mainly made from fish (15.3), etc..
- Cooked food
- Foods not included in other food categories.
In Japan, nutritional foods are often classified according to the six basic food groups.
|First group||Fish, Meat, eggs,soy, Soy food||mainlyproteinSource of.筋肉And those that create various organizations.|
|First group||milk,Dairy products, Seaweed, small fish||mainlycalciumSource of.bone,toothThat regulates each function of the body.|
|First group||Green and yellow vegetables||mainlycaroteneSource of.皮膚,MucosaProtects the body and regulates each function of the body.|
|First group||Light vegetables,fruit||mainlyVitamin CSource of. It regulates each function of the body.|
|First group||sugar, Cereals, potatoes||mainlycarbohydrateSource of. A source of energy.|
|First group||Fats and oils, fatty foods||mainlyfatSource of. A source of energy.|
Many foods in JapanAct on Standardization of Agricultural and Forest Products and Appropriate Quality Labeling(Commonly known as JAS method)Japanese Agricultural StandardLabeling in accordance with is required.1999 (Heisei11 years) by the amendmentconsumerQuality labeling (production area, raw materials, etc.) on food and drink products has become mandatory.In addition, the Food Sanitation Law andHealth promotionThere was also a regulation on food labeling, but in 2013 (Heisei 25)Food Labeling LawWas enacted, the food labeling regulations of these three laws were unified...In addition, with the establishment of the Consumer Affairs Agency in October 2009, the ministries and agencies in charge of food safety administration have been unified into the Consumer Affairs Agency..
Food Sanitation Act
The Food Sanitation Act (22 Law No. 233) is a law to prevent the harm caused by eating and drinking in Japan. JurisdictionMinistry of Health, Labor and Welfare-Consumer Affairs Agency..Establish principles such as standards, labeling, and inspection of foods, additives, and utensil containers.The Food Sanitation Law also sets standards for food labeling.Label the additives used.In 2003 (Heisei 15), the Food Safety Basic Law was enacted as a basic law for food safety management..
- In the United States, "mainly by mouth for food and nutrition intake"Ministry of Health and Welfare(Department of Health and Human Services, HHS)US Food and Drug Administration(Food and Drug Administration, FDA).
- United States Department of Agriculture(United States Department of Agriculture, USDA) has jurisdiction over fruits, meat, poultry and egg products.. Organic (organic) assessment labeling certification for food is also under USDA jurisdiction.
- EPA-registered household disinfectants
- United States Environmental Protection Agency(Environmental Protection Agency, EPA) has jurisdiction over the safety inspection for food environmental pollution such as the setting of pesticide residue in food..
- Federal Trade Commission(Federal Trade Commission, FTC) is responsible for labeling foods and dietary supplements, health claims, and advertising content..
- Ministry of Finance
Value of food
Food has the following value.
- Safety value-food and drink is of paramount importance as it has a large impact on the health of the consumer
- Nutritional value-variousNutrientsIs required to be easily digested and absorbed
- Economic value-related to ease of regular use as a daily food
- Practical value-Ease of storage, cooking, storage, transportation, etc.
- Preference value-such as aesthetics and taste. All foods have a palatability, not just palate
The most important of these is “safety value”. This is because food affects the health and life of the person who consumes it.
Purpose of food preservation
- Preventing quality deterioration
- Aim to stabilize food supply by transporting food from production areas to remote areas
- Preventing health hazards and ensuring dietary safety
- Keep the nutritional value of food
How to store food
How to store food in its original form
- 0 without freezing food℃It is a method to store at 10℃.. It is suitable for short-term storage because it cannot completely suppress bacterial activity.
- Method to store at minus 20℃ or below after freezing at minus 25℃ to minus 15℃.. It is suitable for long-term storage, but it does not kill bacteria,UnzipNeed to be careful of later handling.. In addition, there is a disadvantage that the structure of the food is changed by freezing and the freshness is lost..
- By blocking food from the outside by packaging,foreign bodyPrevent mixture of air and inflow of air.. There are various forms, and the development of packaging materials is progressing..
- sun,Hot air,Electrical,FreezeBy (freeze dry)BacteriaProliferation and酵素To reduce the water required for the action of.. The degree of drying is about 15%Is less than.
- Food in the soil,concreteHow to put in the hole.Sweet potatoUsed to store.
- Heat sterilization
- Heat destroys microorganisms that cause decay and spoilage and destroys enzymes.. In addition to Haya, specific methods include pasteurization used for liquid bottled foods and high temperature sterilization used for canned foods... It is important to note that heat-sterilized foods are prone to spoilage after opening..
- preservativeAddition of
- How to use preservatives to kill bacteria and stop the growth of bacteria and inhibit the action of enzymes.. The amount of preservatives that can be added is stipulated by law.
How to process and store food
- How to add salt to food.. When food is placed in a high salinity stateOsmotic pressureByDehydrationAnd prevent bacterial growth.SaltedTypical pickles are also used for storing seafood.
- Soaking in sugar solution with a concentration of 50% or more suppresses bacterial growth by dehydration.. As an examplejam,jelly,Yokan,Sweetened condensed milkな ど.
- The bactericidal action of vinegar,Hydrogen ionMethod of suppressing bacterial growth by utilizing the property of changing concentration.
- Pickled in soy sauce,Miso pickles
- Utilizes the dehydrating action of salt to enhance seasoning and preservation.
- Seasoning-Preservation may be improved by heating or dehydration during the seasoning process... For example, Tsukudani.
- Seasoned foodbottle,canPut it in, seal, degas, heat sterilize.
- A method that preserves the seasoning by adding salt and drying... The more salt and less water, the better for long-term storage.. SeafoodDried fishIs given as an example.
- Add salted meat and fish to woodIncomplete combustionPlace in the generated smoke and sterilize by dehydration.. Food absorbs smoke components, giving it a unique aroma and flavor.
- Bacteria, yeast,MoldUse of
- A method of suppressing the growth of other bacteria by growing useful bacteria, yeasts and molds.. The ingredients of the food change and the flavor increases.. Examples include natto, sake, miso, soy sauce, cheese, etc..
What is considered food is not so culturally and regionally different, and it is not uncommon that what is considered important food in one area is not considered food in another area. For example昆虫It is,熱 帯,SubtropicalA lot of culture aroundInsect foodHowever, there are many regions that have a strong sense of resistance to foods, while having almost no insect food culture..
Also eachReligiousEveryCommandmentSince food regulations such as are very different, what can be eaten is different in each religious area. For exampleJudaismThen.TorahAccording to the regulations of (Moses XNUMX)CachetThere is a food regulation calledCashel(= Meals that meet the cleanliness regulations and can be eaten), and meat of animals that are not ruminant and have separate hoofs, and fish without fins and scales are prohibited from eating, so pork, jellyfish, Catfish, sharks, abalone, clams, scallops, crabs, shrimps, squids, etc.Unclean creatureIt is forbidden to eat.
IslamThen,QuranIs considered "unclean"Dream PorkIs contraindicated to eatIslamic lawIngredients allowed in (Halal) Is required to eat.HinduismIs referred to as the "holy beast"牛 OfmeatIt is strongly repelled to eat meat, but in addition to this, there is a strong sense of repulsion to meat eating in general.casteStrict not to eat fish, chicken, or even eggsVegetarianThere are many people who practice.However, since Hinduism does not adopt veganism, dairy products that do not involve killing are rather actively eaten, and are indispensable for the Hindu diet... Similarly, a food often contraindicated is liquor. Liquor is dogmatically prohibited in Islam.. Although Hinduism does not contraindicate liquor, it is considered to be very socially objectionable..
Refuse to consume all animal foods, except vegetarians, other than religious disciplineVeganThere are people who reject certain foods according to their beliefs.In addition, even if it is a food that is normally distributed, depending on the individual, when it is ingestedAllergiesIt may react and cause various symptoms in the body.strongFood allergyIf there is, in the worst case it can even be fatal.
さ ら に,世界There are some that are not edible in most ofculturePeople may use special treatment methods to make food.For examplePuffer fishStrong inpoisonAlthough it is not edible in most cultures, it is widely distributed in Japan as a delicious product with the toxic portion removed.
Even with the extreme cases mentioned above, the differences in the foods used mainly in each region are still large. Each region supplies mainly carbohydratesStaple foodBut alsoWheatFrom areas where staple foods are rice, corn, and other grains,Cassava,TaroThere is a wide range of areas where potatoes such as..Dairy products are also foods with many regional differences, and while the range of use of dairy products is expanding over a wide area centered on nomads, dairy products have traditionally not been used in East Asia and Southeast Asia.But the regional differences in these foods are especially1990 eraSince the rapidGlobalizationStandardization is progressing due to the progress of.
Ancient(I.e. ThehuntingByAnimalHunt,海,riverでFishing(fishing)Fish,Marine ProductsAnd got vegetable food by collecting..やがてEventuallyTueWith the start of the use of cereals, cereals, beans, potatoes, etc. that could not be eaten raw until then became edible, and the breadth of food expanded greatly...The food obtained in this way is also stored,Ice ageDrying at the endSmokedIt has been confirmed that there was also a preservation technology such as.
Then around the worldAgricultureWhen is started, people in each area will be in that areaplantSelect plants that are easy to use for food from amongDomesticationIt began to. Cultivation was carried out more or less in the areas where agriculture began, but among them, the cultivation of grains has a large regional bias.ChugokuNorthern ChinaYunnan~Southeast Asia~IndiaNorth,Central Asia,Near East,Africa(SahelZone andEthiopian Plateau),Central america, South AmericanAndesIs the origin..Similarly of animals in various parts of the worldDomesticationIs also done, which means that not only meat but also sustainably available secondary products, ieDairy productsIs also available.. With this farmingLivestockThis has enabled humankind to produce food more efficiently.
The animals and plants that were domesticated or cultivated independently in each region eventually began to spread to other regions due to increased trade and exchange.Above all1492 ToChristopher Columbus Discover AmericaThen,Old continentとNew worldLarge-scale exchange with (Columbus exchange) Is performed, "Old world"Tocorn,potato,new worldWheat andsugar caneBoth types of food have increased significantly due to the introduction of.
19st centuryTo enter the,Industrial revolutionIf science and industrial power greatly advance due to this, food will also be affected, and the modern food industry will be established along with the progress of the distribution system.And food science andNutritionEstablishment of, And the introduction of food safety regulationsThe situation regarding food has changed drastically.In the case of agricultural society, in the pre-modern period, people lived on a single staple food that supplies carbohydrates, but due to economic growth and distribution improvement, etc.Developed countryNow that a wide variety of foods are on the table, dependence on staple foods has greatly decreased...On the other hand, in developing countries, many diets still depend on staple foods such as grains and potatoes..
If an individual does not get enough nutrients from foodmalnutrition, EnoughcalorieIf you couldn't takehunger, If there is a shortage of food in one areafamineOccurs.Looking only at world food production figures, those figures are always above what is needed, and in the 20th century.Population explosionEven inGreen revolution"Food production per capita" has increased significantly due to innovations in food production technology such as..However, hunger has not disappeared in the 21st century.The cause ispovertyIt has been pointed out that there is a problem in food reallocation that food cannot be obtained due to such reasons, and problems are being solved by providing food assistance from rich countries to poor countries and reducing poverty...Also, even if you can get the minimum amount of calories and you are not starving, you are malnourished because it costs more to eat a healthy diet with all the nutrients you need. There are many people.. on the other hand,Food lossThe problem is also serious, and one-third of the food produced in the world is discarded without being eaten..
- ^ Article 4 of the Food Sanitation Act before the revision of the law states that "food in this law means all foods and drinks. However, pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical departments stipulated in the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Act (Law No. 35 of 145) Foreign goods do not include this.".
- ^ In other languages,Luo: alimentum alone: Groceriesetc.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Shogakukan"Encyclopedia Nipponica" "Food"Tomomi Kono writing.
- ^ Kojien6th edition
- ^ a b Onion medicine
- ^ "Glossary (see food loss)". Kyoto. NovemberBrowse.
- ^ "Food Sanitation Law (Law XNUMX, December XNUMX, XNUMX)". e-Gov Law Search.Administrative Management Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. NovemberBrowse.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i "Health Food Survey (US)”. Japan External Trade Organization Los Angeles Office Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries / Food Research Division. NovemberBrowse.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v "Appendix 1-1. Codex Food Classification System (FCS)”. Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. NovemberBrowse.
- ^ "Food and Health Food Safety" (Health and Nutrition Science Series) p13 Independent administrative agencySupervised by National Institute of Health and Nutrition Nankodo April 2013, 25 (Heisei 4) 1st printing
- ^ "Food and Health Food Safety" (Health and Nutrition Science Series) p13 Independent administrative agencySupervised by National Institute of Health and Nutrition Nankodo April 2013, 25 (Heisei 4) 1st printing
- ^ "Food and Health Food Safety" (Health and Nutrition Science Series) p8-9 Koji Arizono Independent administrative agencySupervised by National Institute of Health and Nutrition Nankodo April 2013, 25 (Heisei 4) 1st printing
- ^ Food Health Study Group (ed.) 1989, pp. 29–31.
- ^ Food Health Study Group (ed.) 1989, p. 29.
- ^ Food Health Study Group (ed.) 1989, pp. 29–30.
- ^ Food Health Study Group (ed.) 1989, p. 30.
- ^ a b Food Health Study Group (ed.) 1989, p. 31.
- ^ Food Health Study Group (ed.) 1989, pp. 91–92.
- ^ a b c d e f Food Health Study Group (ed.) 1989, p. 92.
- ^ Food Health Study Group (ed.) 1989, pp. 92–93.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i Food Health Study Group (ed.) 1989, p. 93.
- ^ Food Health Study Group (ed.) 1989, pp. 93–94.
- ^ a b c d e f Food Health Study Group (ed.) 1989, p. 94.
- ^ Food Health Study Group (ed.) 1989, pp. 94–95.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j Food Health Study Group (ed.) 1989, p. 95.
- ^ Food Health Study Group (ed.) 1989, pp. 95–96.
- ^ "Insect food as a food culture" p43 Kenichi Nonaka (Collection of "Beginning of Cultural Entomology" Jun Mitsuhashi-Masayasu KonishiHen 2014 (Heisei 26) August 8, 20 1st print)
- ^ "Jewish Cuisine of Israel" p110 ("Chapter 62, 2nd Edition to Know Israel" Ryoji TateyamaEdited Akashi bookstore June 2018, 30 (Heisei 6) 30nd edition 2st print)
- ^ "Islam and Food" p370 (collected in "Indian Cultural Encyclopedia") edited by Indian Cultural Encyclopedia Production Committee MaruzenPublished January 2018, 30 (Heisei 1)
- ^ "Food and Health India's Pure / Unclean View and Society" p107-109 ("Comparative Food Culture Theory of Internationalization Learned from World Food" Toshimitsu KawaiHen November 2011, 23 11st Edition 25st Print
- ^ "Islam and Food" p370 Satoshi Yamane (collected in "Indian Cultural Encyclopedia") edited by Indian Cultural Encyclopedia Production Committee Maruzen Publishing Co., Ltd. January 2018, 30 (Heisei 1)
- ^ "Alcohol" p384 Aya Ikegame (collected in "Indian Cultural Encyclopedia") edited by Indian Cultural Encyclopedia Production Committee Maruzen Publishing Co., Ltd. January 2018, 30 (Heisei 1)
- ^ "For 90 Billion People to Eat" (Science Palette 025) p90-91 by John Krebs Translated by Yuko Ito and Toshihiro Ito Maruzen Publishing Co., Ltd. June 27, 6
- ^ "Introduction to New Food Culture" p30 --34 Takushi Morie-Naoto MinamiHen Hirobundo October 2004, 16 First edition 10 print issued
- ^ "Diversity and Standardization of Food Culture" p79 Nobuyuki Iwama ("Globalization Shrinking World" Noritaka Yagasaki-Kiyoumi Yamashita-Masahiro KagamiHen Asakura Shoten March 2018, 30 (Heisei 3) First Edition First Edition)
- ^ a b "Fire and Humans" p4 Hiroshi Isoda Hosei University Press April 2004, 16 First Edition First Edition
- ^ "Illustrated Human History Separate Volume 70 Great Inventions that Created the World of Ancient Science and Technology" p119 Brian M. Fagan, edited by Asakura Shoten, May 2012, 24, First Edition, First Edition
- ^ "New Revised Edible Crop" p3 Maki Kokubun Yokendo August 2010, 22 8st edition
- ^ "Illustrated Human History Separate Volume 70 Great Inventions that Created the World of Ancient Science and Technology" p110 --111 Brian M. Fagan ed. Asakura Shoten May 2012, 24 First Edition First Edition
- ^ Naoto Minami "How has the tongue of Europe changed? Nineteenth century dining table revolution"Kodansha<Kodansha Selection Book Metier>, 1998, pp. 56-58.ISBN 4-0625-8123-X.
- ^ Naoto Minami, "How the European Tongue Has Changed, Nineteenth Century Dining Revolution," Kodansha <Kodansha Selection Mechier>, 1998, p. 98.ISBN 4-0625-8123-X.
- ^ Naoto Minami "How has the tongue of Europe changed? Nineteenth century dining table revolution"Kodansha<Kodansha Selection Book Metier>, 1998, pp. 195-200.ISBN 4-0625-8123-X.
- ^ Naoto Minami, "How the Tongue of Europe Has Changed", Kodansha <Kodansha Selection Book Metier>, 1998, pp. 209-212.ISBN 4-0625-8123-X.
- ^ a b "World Map of Food" p78-81 by Eric Millstone and Tim Lang Translated by Satomi Nakayama and Naoya Takada Translated by Keiji Oga Maruzen Published October 17, 10
- ^ "For 90 Billion People to Eat" (Science Palette 025) p144-145 by John Krebs Translated by Yuko Ito and Toshihiro Ito Maruzen Publishing Co., Ltd. June 27, 6
- ^ "World Map of Food" p12-13 by Eric Millstone and Tim Lang Translated by Satomi Nakayama and Naoya Takada Translated by Keiji Oga Maruzen Published October 17, 10
- ^ https://www.unicef.or.jp/news/2020/0173.html "The world's hungry population continues to increase. There is a risk that it will be difficult to achieve" zero hunger "in 2030. New reports by five UN agencies, including UNICEF." Japan Committee for UNICEF July 5, 2020, February 7, 13
- ^  Kamakura City Retrieved July 2021, 7
- "Food Hygiene Sixth Edition You Should Know", Food Health Study Group (ed.)Ministry of Finance Printing Bureau, 1989.ISBN 978-4-17-217507-0.
- "Kojien" 5th edition
- Medical and food sources
- Emergency food
- Preserved Foods
- Fermented food
- Daily food
- Food safety
- Food culture:
- Restaurant industry(Food business in a broad sense)
- Monde Selection
- Food problems
- Food policy
- 2007-2008 World Food Price Crisis
- Special purpose food
- Space food
- Pet food