We would like to improve the historical and cultural heritage such as Yatsushiro Castle, which will celebrate its 2022th anniversary in 400, and revitalize the castle town Yatsushiro.
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"Furu-Navi Crowdfunding" is a crowdfunding-type hometown tax payment in which a local government or an individual or group approved by the local government becomes the project owner of the cloud funding and raises funds using the "hometown tax payment" system. ..
We would like to improve the historical and cultural heritage such as Yatsushiro Castle, which will celebrate its 2022th anniversary in 400, and revitalize the castle town Yatsushiro [Furu ... → Continue reading
Yatsushiro contact book
This is a regional information site that disseminates information about Kumamoto Prefecture, centered on information about the second city of Kumamoto, "Yatsushiro City." We are transmitting various information such as sightseeing spots, events and gourmet foods!
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Furusato tax payment
Furusato tax payment(Furusato no Uzei) is mainly in JapanLocal creationOne of the purpose donation tax systems.They grow up receiving various services such as medical care and education in rural areas, but when they go on to school or get a job, they move their place of life to the city and pay taxes there, so that the tax revenue from those who grew up in the rural areas is collected by the local government in the city. Only get.Therefore, taxpayers can choose their own donation destinations, and each local government appeals to the people for local products and efforts that will be rewarded, so that they can pay their hometown tax. To be an opportunity to think about the ideal way ofMinistry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsSystem established by.
"Tax paymentAlthough the name isPart of income tax and inhabitant tax to be paid next yearTo any local governmentDonationIf you do, you will receive a gift of local products for the donation at your own expense of 2,000 yen, or you will specify how to use the donation.CrowdfundingCan be done.Actually live in the donation amountMunicipalitiesWith this system, which allows you to deduct donations by reporting to, you will "pay" a part of the desired municipal inhabitant tax. "Oldness and donationIs also called..When donating gifts to the local government where you live under the hometown tax system, you can specify the usage from plans set up by the local government, such as learning support for children and a playground base development project..
ふるさと納税は、個人住民税の寄附金税制が拡充されたものである。地方自治体に対する寄附金のうち、2,000円を超える部分（所得税は2009年分まで寄附金の5,000円を超える部分、個人住民税は2010年分まで寄附金の5,000円を超える部分）について、個人住民税所得割のおおむね2割（2015年までは1割）を上限とする金額が、所得税と合わせて控除される。2008年中に寄附をした場合は、2008年の所得税Final returnIncome tax deduction will be made by the individual inhabitants tax for the fiscal year 2009. In addition, from April 2015,Tax payment one-stop special systemWas founded.
The legal basis for "hometown tax payment" isLocal tax lawArticle 37-2 (donation tax credit), Article 314-7 (donation tax credit) andIncome tax lawArticle 78 (donation deduction).Of these, the article on the Local Tax Law was opened in 2008 (Heisei 20).169th Diet(Ordinary Diet) On April 4, the same yearHouse of Councilors OfRejectedThroughHouse of RepresentativesIt was re-approved in Japan and was newly added by the "Law for Partial Amendment of Local Tax Law, etc." (Law No. 20 of 21) promulgated on the same day.。この「地方税法等の一部を改正する法律」（平成20年法律第21号）では、第37条の3中「前2条」を「前3条」に改め、同条を第37条の4とし、第37条の2中「前条」を「前2条」に改め、同条を第37条の3とし、第37条の次に次の1条を加えると定め、従前の地方税法に「（寄附金税額控除）」の第37条の2を挿入し、第314条の8中「前2条」を「前3条」に改め、同条を第314条の9とし、第314条の7中「前条」を「前二条」に改め、同条を第314条の8とし、第314条の6の次に次の1条を加えると定め従前の地方税法に「（寄附金税額控除）」の第314条の7を挿入している.
Although it was not planned at the beginning of the system design, the amount of money donated toSpecialty goodsTheReturn goodsLocal government to send as, The number of local governments appealing the contents of the gifts and collecting donations has increased.
With the establishment of the designated system for hometown tax payment (preliminary examination system), after June 2019 (the first year of Reiwa), hometown tax payments to local governments that are not subject to designation are not subject to special deductions..
Some of the "hometown tax refunds" were contrary to the purpose of the system, such as highly cashable gift certificates with a return rate of 40% or more and luxury home appliances unrelated to the region, but from June 2019, the donation amount was 6% or less. The market price was corrected to be limited to local products..
History of discussions toward the establishment
2006 (18)May 3AttachedNihon Keizai ShimbunIn the evening column, at the crossroads article, "Proposal of "Furusato tax system" for regional review", Some politicians picked it up, and the discussion became more active.
Between regionsDisparity,DepopulationAs a new concept to promote the correction of disparities for local governments suffering from a decrease in tax revenue,Nishikawa Kazumasa(Governor of Fukui Prefecture) recommends the introduction of "hometown donation deduction" in October 2006.And is said to be the originator of hometown tax payments. Also, the governorMinistry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsHe was appointed as a member of the "Furusato Tax Payment Study Group" established by the company and made a positive statement from the standpoint of approval.
In the past, there were people who wanted to make some kind of contribution to a place other than their actual address.athlete,entertainerEven though there are many opportunities for activities in urban areas, it is a base for living because of the feelings for hometown.Resident cardIf you continue to pay resident tax to your hometown[Note 1],Yasuo TanakaHas moved from Nagano City, where the prefectural office is located, to Taifu Village, Shimoina-gun, and moved the resident card, saying that "I want to pay taxes to ambitious local governments that are focusing on home welfare even under difficult financial conditions.".
The government alsoShinzo AbeImportant issues that the Prime Minister has discussed during the presidential election period" (Yasuhisa ShiozakiChief Cabinet Secretary),2007 (19) October,Yoshii KanGeneral affairs ministerAnnounced its founding.Yoshihide Suga, who established the aforementioned "Hometown Tax Study Group" in the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications in June 2007, said to the people around him that "I was instructed to consider hometown tax payment not a little because of Yasuo Tanaka." Is.
However, when the discussions started at the aforementioned study group, it was not clear what the pros and cons were thinking of. On July 7th of the same year,Yoshihiro Murai(Governor of Miyagi Prefecture),Hiroshi Saito(Governor of Yamagata Prefecture),Shinji Hirai(Governor of Tottori Prefecture),Kamen Iizumi(Governor of Tokushima Prefecture),Furukawa Yasushi(Governor of Saga) jointly "oldness and tax payment systemscheme"announced. According to this, when an individual makes a donation to a “town, village, etc. with which he/she has a connection,” the tax will be deducted from income tax and resident tax up to the amount equivalent to 1% of the resident tax of the previous year. Although it is called “tax payment”, it is formally adopted as a combination of “donation” and “tax deduction”, which is similar to the institutionalized hometown tax payment.
In October of the same year, the study group reportedSummarized.
Pros and cons and pros and cons
In the opinion of the mayor of the municipality, who is the head of the local administration, due to disparities between regions and depopulation,Municipal mayors suffering from reduced tax revenues and chronic budget deficits due to small populationWhile there are many opinions that are welcomed and agreed with, there are many opinions that are opposed or cautious from the municipalities in the metropolitan areas that have tax revenue due to the large population at the moment..
In local governments, which had a special product received by Japanese people but were in need because of only individual sales channels and depopulation and no consumers, social security for residents was improved by the increased tax revenue from the hometown tax payment. As a result, the local government is enriched by increasing employment to meet the increasing demand of return goods producers.As for the issue of return rate and product return outside the region, the upper limit of 2019% or less nationwide was enforced in 30, so the place where the return product itself was returning the specialty product in the region was before 2020 in all local governments. The total amount of donations has recovered to the level of the fiscal year.On the other hand, in urban areas where the conventional large amount of tax revenue from the population was tolerated, we tackled the competition for the hometown tax system and put a stop to the local specialties, but we could not put out attractive specialties in the catalog. Divided into places where revenue declines increase.. The number of tax payments in 2019 was 2,333, and the amount of hometown tax payments received was 6,077 yen. In 4,875, there were 3,878 cases, and the amount of hometown tax payments received was 1,000 yen.The amount received was 2020% year-on-year, and the number of cases received was 3,488% year-on-year..
Hometown tax payment ranking by prefecture / local government
2020年度の都道府県別ふるさと納税額が最多は北海道で975.1億円、2位は鹿児島県で398.2億円。3位は宮崎県（365.4億円）、福岡県（364.9億円）、山形県（347.2億円）の順となっている。一方、もっともふるさと納税額が少ないのは47位の徳島県で15.1億円、46位は富山県、45位は山口県（23.0億円）、44位は奈良県（23.7億円）、43位は栃木県（33.2億円）となっている.. Miyazaki Prefecture is the number one hometown tax receipt by local government in 2020Miyakonojo City135 yen, second place is HokkaidoMonbetsu133 yen, second place is HokkaidoNemuro125 yen, second place is HokkaidoShiranuka Town97 yen, 3,664th place is Miyazaki prefectureTsunomachi82 yen, 6,849th place is Yamanashi prefectureFujiyoshida58 million yen, 3,124th place is Yamagata prefectureSagae City56 yen, 7,584th place is Hyogo prefectureSumoto53 yen, 9,823th place is Hyogo prefectureKasai City53 yen, 3,751th place is Shizuoka prefectureYaizu City52 million yen.
Merits and opinion
- Taxpayers can choose how to use the tax, although it is part of the tax payment amount.
- Even if you grow up and leave your hometown, you can contribute to the area.
- In rural areas, even if you pay taxes on education up to adults, you will move to another area when you get a job (= you will be able to pay taxes), so there are voices saying that you can not pay for the tax you poured. There is (a supportive opinion that the tax spent on education is regarded as "upfront investment" and the intention is to recover it).
- MunicipalitiesThe rewards provided by theSpecialty goodsHas been adopted and is sluggishLocal economy(Ibaraki Prefecture, which has a factory in the area)Hitachi City OfHITACHIHome appliances, Osaka PrefectureMisaki Town OfsharpHome appliances, etc.Providing home appliances from major manufacturers has led to job creation at regional factories).
- It is easy to design and reconfigure the system because it is part of the "donation tax system" rather than the strict "tax payment".
- Since it is a donation rather than a tax payment, some local governments offer a privilege when a certain amount of money is donated. As an example of the privilege, donation of special products (as an example when the address of the donor is outside the area, Nara Prefecture[Note 2], Hagi City, Yamaguchi Prefecture, Nagato City, the same prefectureSuch. Similarly, as an example regardless of address, Gotsu City, Shimane Prefecture, Etc., as well as cases of presenting works that are associated with the region (Miyashiro Town, Saitama Prefecture), Kurayoshi City, Tottori PrefectureEtc.)
- The return rate of return items was 30%, and only those within the region were set, but it has been revised and tightened since 2019 due to some local governments not observing the rules.Since then, due to fair competition, there is no longer an excessive concentration on some local governments..
- Revitalization of depopulated areas with specialty products that were buried as they are.In local governments in depopulated areas, which actually have local products, local traditional crafts and agriculture and fisheries are revitalized and become local due to the expansion of nationwide sales channels to traditional industries, the rise in popularity and demand due to attention. Benefiting from hometown tax payment system such as regular employment and expansion of thick social security.
- Compared to municipalities, prefectures are less likely to have an attachment as a hometown, and it may be difficult to collect donations. In addition, the deduction is also applicable to the side that did not make a donation, so there is a risk that the deduction amount will increase (for example, if you make a donation to the municipality, the prefectural tax not making the donation will also be deducted). ..
- "What is called" hometown "is not decided by law, and it is extremely strange to pay with residence tax. Nonsense as a tax system." Shintaro IshiharaGovernor of Tokyo (then)
- In the municipality where the taxpayer (donor) resides, 25% of the hometown tax payment will be reduced (75% will be covered by local allocation tax)... In addition, since it is not compensated by local grant tax non-delivery groups, the full amount of the oldness and tax payment will be reduced.
- Government Tax System Investigation CommitteeServe as a memberHitotsubashi University OfMasamitsu SatoThe professor pointed out that the hometown tax payment system as of July 2017 "is focused on reward items, and donations are not made to local governments that need financial resources."
- The amount of donations received in 2020 is highly biased, with only the top 20 local governments accounting for 2% of the total, and 267 local governments are in the red nationwide when expenses and rewards are excluded from the donated amount. There are opinions that criticize mainly local governments that have not benefited.
Oldness and actual tax payment amount
|Donation year||Applicant||Donation amount||Deduction year||Resident tax deduction|
No need to file tax returnsEmployment incomeIt was necessary for taxpayers to file a tax return in order to use this system, but from April 2015, 4, ``Oldness and tax payment one stop exception systemWas founded.
If the hometown tax is paid by 2,000 groups or less by salaried workers who do not need to file a tax return (such as salaried workers with an annual income of 400 million yen or less and pensioners with an annual income of 5 million yen or less), apply to each local government for an application regarding the application of special exceptions. On condition that you submit it, you can receive a donation tax credit for residence tax without filing a final tax return.In this case, the income tax donation deduction is not available, and the entire amount of the deduction including that amount is received in the form of a reduction in the inhabitant tax for the following year.However, this exception does not apply if you file a tax return with other requirements or if you donate to more than 5 local governments.
Movement after introduction
- NagasakiHirado CityAnnounced that the donation application amount in FY2014 under the Furusato tax payment system exceeded 10 billion yen. It is said to have exceeded 10 billion yen for the first time in local governments nationwide.
- MieIga CityAnnounced that it had donated 1,500 million yen in the "City Hometown Support Donation".
- TochigiTochigi CityThen, in December 2014, the total amount of donations this year reached about 12 million yen, which is more than seven times the amount of last year. It is said that many people want the locally produced strawberry "Tochiotome".
- OsakaIzumisanoIn FY2017, the amount of oldness and tax payments received exceeded 100 billion yen for the first time in Japan. In fiscal 2018, we collected about 497 billion yen.
Movement over rewards
- Local governments have also begun to use the donations from the oldness and tax payments for crime prevention and restoration for temples and shrines.
- DMM.comWas established on February 2015, 2 as "DMM Hometown Tax Payment"Kameyama KeijiIshikawa Prefecture, the birthplace ofKaga CityWe donated 50% of the donated amount as "DMM money" that can be used in the DMM service to the donors, and as of February 2, there were 28 donations, totaling 1,700 donations. It exceeded 5,300 yen. Many of the donors are DMM online game players.. Initially planned to be implemented by the end of March of the same year, but ended on March 3 at the discretion of the city.
- MieNabariFrom April 2016, 4, as a gift of oldness and tax payment,BeetleIs the largest species in the worldHercules beetleWas introduced,昆虫It became a hot topic among maniacs, and it was out of stock on the 6th of the same month, just 7 days later, and the production of aquaculture companies could not keep up.The city is confused that it was not well-recognized.
- MieTobaとShima city ThepearlThe pearl products were used as a return item for the production of ``, but in April 2017, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications said,Jewelry goodsThe exclusion was requested. The local isLocal industryでSeafoodI tried to persuade the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications to discontinue handling of pearl products in November 2017... Since then, donations from both cities have dropped significantly... With the revision of the local tax system in 2019, both were revived and the donation amount recovered..
- In April 2021, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications generated electricity within the local government.ElectricalFor the 9 cities and towns that had set as a giftPower company Ofpower lineAs long as it is supplied through electricity, it is inevitable that it will be mixed with electricity from other places, so we have notified that it cannot be said to be a local product.In response to this, each city and town excluded electricity from the gifts (OsakaIzumisano,FukushimaNaraha Town,AichiToyota City,GunmaNakanojo TownSuch).
- 2016 returnRiceAchievements areYamagataIs the top about 1 tons (from the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries report)
|Name of prefectures||Brown rice ton||share||Main brands|
|Saga||1,102||4.7%||From Sagami/Dream Drop|
Legal interpretation and administrative guidance
- For donation by oldness and tax payment,Real estateThe provision of a free gift transfer toLocal tax lawIt is pointed out that it violates. As an example, KyotoMiyazu CityThen, for donors of 1,000 million yen or moreCity landWas decided to be transferred free of charge, and the recruitment was started,Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsViolated by the law, pointed out.
- In Gunma prefecture, the vouchers given to the donors in honor of hometown tax payment,Internet auctionThere are many cases of resale in Japan, etc., and the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications says that it does not fit the purpose of the system and resells it to the prefecture.OrdinanceIt is required to implement measures to prevent resale, such as prohibition at.
- It is also possible to pay hometown tax to the municipalities where you live as of 2017...In this case as well, the tax incentives will not change.However, since the substance of hometown tax payment is "donations and corresponding deductions", politicians cannot pay hometown tax to their constituencies.Public office election lawThere is a risk of violating the “prohibition of specific donations” (Article 199). June 2017, Hyogo PrefectureYabu CityThis is the case where a member of the city council paid the hometown tax to Yabu City (the city council subsequently withdrew the tax payment)..
- KagoshimaShibushi CityHowever, systematic access to the reward items page prepared by the city, which is posted on the major site "Furusato Choice" that introduces the reward items of each local government, was found.At the site, each municipalityPage browsing (PV) Each of the number and user's favorite return itemsRankingHas also been announced, but since April 2016, the city has been working with city officials.manualAfter distributing, dailyMorning assemblyHe said, "Let's see the hometown choice page."As a result, the city's reward item introduction page recorded the number one PV number for three consecutive months from May to July of the same year and was "inducted into the Hall of Fame", and the city also prepared it in the favorite reward item ranking.Wagyu beef,AquacultureeelRanked high.The actual amount of donations to the city also recorded about 2016 billion yen in FY22, and it is said that it has risen to the 5,000th place in the whole country.Regarding the reason for the systematic access, the city's tax payment promotion office manager explained, "It was to make people aware of the importance of hometown tax payment."Yuru Chara Grand PrixIt's like calling a local character to vote.If there was no tax payment, the financial resources would be tight, and all the agencies would work together. "In addition, it is said that the city canceled the instruction of the act on November 1, 2017 (Heisei 29), about one and a half years after the start of the organized access act, saying that it "may give misunderstandings to users".On the other hand, the Trust Bank, which operates "Furusato Choice," commented that "information that was intentionally manipulated is not information that we want to convey to donors. We will call attention to local governments in the future.".
- Sendai cityは2018年（平成30年）1月24日、確定申告不要の「ワンストップ特例制度」を2017年（平成29年）度中に利用して他の地方自治体に「ふるさと納税」を行った仙台市民のうち271人に係る個人住民税（市・県民税）について、総額で394万2,700円少なく課税してしまっていたことを明らかにした。同市の説明によると、この271人分についてはいずれも住所や金額などを訂正する必要が生じていたが、訂正前の旧情報を削除せずに二重計上、寄附金額を合算して控除額を計算していた。同市では該当者に対し、同月下旬に正確な税額通知書を送付すると表明した.
- Chiba市 原 市Is required for tax credit for 2018 donors from 30 local governments nationwide who paid their hometown tax to the city on June 6, 12 using the "one-stop special system". It was revealed that the treatment had not been done.It was discovered on the 88th and 125th of the same month that the donors pointed out that they were "not deducted" because the city officials who handle the system forgot to process the confirmed input that should be done after confirming payment.In total, about 7 million yen of residence tax was not deducted.The city explained the contents and apologized to the donor by telephone, and then announced that he would request the local government of the donor to process the residence tax deduction again..
- Osaka OfHirakataWas prepared as a gift in return for "oldness and tax payment" on March 2018, 30 (A3 rank)Japanese beefBut, in reality, it is lower than thatbeefRevealed that they had shipped. I applied for the return itemKanto regionA resident pointed out that "it is not delicious. It may not be A5" to the city on January 1 of the same year, and a survey revealed that it was shipping A22 rank products.The reward item was provided by a company called "Tsunezune," which runs a steak restaurant in the same city, and started offering it in 4 (Heisei 2016).[Note 3]..After that, it was discovered that low-ranked meat was mixed in the A2015 rank Japanese beef that the company sold on the mail order site from November 27 to January 11, and it is operated by the company. It also turned out that most of the meat offered as "cow" at the restaurant was actually that of a bull.The company admits that it neglected to confirm the meat procured from the vendor.Hirakata City has excluded the company from designation as a reward goods trader since 2018, and Osaka Prefecture also responded to a series of scandals against the company on September 1, 5.Freebie display methodIssued a measure order to prevent recurrence based on.
- SagaSanyo-gun OfMiyaki TownAs a reward for "hometown tax payment" toChain sale transaction(MLM) Is sold by a Japanese corporation of an American company suspected of performingAroma oilAround the beginning of September 2018 (Heisei 30), it was found from the indication of the townspeople of the town that a device to diffuse the scent of oil was set.The gift was adopted in July of the same year after receiving a proposal from a general incorporated association located in the town and one of the contractors for the gift business.By August of the same year, seven applications had been submitted and shipped.Shortly after being hired, the townspeople pointed out that they had requested that they stop posting on the external "Hometown Tax" site, but they remained posted on some sites.In the town, 9 to 7 items are provided as rewards from about 8 companies in the town, and the amount of "hometown tax payment" received in 7 (Heisei 80) is 600 billion yen (700 nationwide), which is about 2017 times the previous year. Place) was recorded.The town admitted that "there was a lot of gifts, but the check was not so easy", and that the gifts were "inappropriate because they could be misleading" until September 29th of the same year. In addition to discontinuing the handling, the general incorporated association that proposed the reward item will be warned in writing, and other companies that provide the reward item to the town will be informed of the thorough confirmation..
- 2020 May 3,Kochi PrefectureNahari TownThe chief of the "Regional Revitalization Division" in charge of hometown tax payment, assistant chief, and president of a fish processing company are arrested.Suspect illegally moved the chief's son's resident card out of townElectromagnetic notarized original misrepresentation・It is doubtful that they will be in service, but regarding the oldness and tax paymentbriberyAn investigation was conducted with a view to suspecting charges...At a later date, it was also discovered that the arrested officials had prepared false documents that adjusted the price of the gifts and submitted them to the country..Kochi Prosecutor's OfficeClosed the investigation on August 2020, 8, prosecuting the person concerned for bribery charges. The total amount of bribes was about 14 million yen.
- LawyerUntil December 2015Mayor of OsakaAfter servingPoliticsRetiredTohashi HashishitaWas in the middle of May 2016, the year following the retirement of the political world.twitterThen, from the end of April of the same year to May,Weekly BunshunIt was discovered from a series of reports byGovernor of Tokyo(at that time)·Yoichi MasuzoebyPolitical fundsRegarding suspicion of misappropriation,Set moxibustion"The best way is to pay your hometown tax," he said to the citizens of Tokyo.Kumamoto earthquakeHometown should pay tax in the disaster area. Move the tax of Tokyo residents to the disaster area! ". In the meantime, the Kumamoto earthquake occurred about half a month before the release of "Weekly Bunharu" that reported this suspicion, killing 267 people (including death related to the earthquake) and the largest in Kumamoto prefecture alone. Over 18ShelterI was forced to live.Regarding the alleged misappropriation of political funds by Masuzoe, in addition to the above-mentioned Hashimoto, the formerProsecutorAt the lawyerNobuo GoharaIn his blog, he said, "Honestly, there is resistance to paying inhabitants tax to Tokyo where such a person acts as a governor. We want to make the best use of "oldness and tax payments" and minimize tax payments to Tokyo."entertainerFrom betweenIjuin Hikari radioAnd againMitsuyo OtaOn their own Twitter, calling for "protests against the Governor of Tokyo" through their hometown tax payments[Note 4].
- SagaKamimineParliamentOn December 2016, 28 (Heisei 12), the town council said that the town's finances had improved thanks to the "hometown tax payment".MemberA bill to increase the amount of "cost compensation"IndependentWhen a member of the Diet submitted it, more than 100 complaints such as "I didn't donate for the compensation of the member" and "Return the donation" were received from the donors due to "hometown tax payment" to the town by telephone or email. In response to the request, the member who submitted the bill himself withdrew it on the 16th of the same month when the bill was scheduled to be voted on.[Note 5]..In 2007 (Heisei 19), due to financial difficulties, the town stopped paying 1 yen per day as transportation expenses, which was paid to members who attended the plenary session and committees of the town council. ..After that, in 2,000 (Heisei 2009), the payment was resumed at 21 yen, which is half the price at the time of the suspension of payment.The above-mentioned bill to increase the amount of payment was to return to the same amount of 1,000 yen as when the payment was stopped because the town's finances improved.In response to the situation, the town commented, "The tax revenue of the hometown tax payment has a fixed purpose and will not be used for cost compensation.".
- In Saga小 城市A staff member who was the chief of the Commerce, Industry and Tourism Division forged a document about the registration of the change of officers of the Ogi City Tourism Association, an affiliated organization of the city, which he also served as the secretary general. Abusing the resulting deficit as a section chief in the cityPublic moneyOn November 2017, 29 (Heisei 11), he was suspended from work for 2 months, etc., and retired on request within the same day.[Note 6]。当該職員は副課長時代に「ふるさと納税」に着目、その副課長時代の最中だった2014年（平成26年）5月ごろより外部「ふるさと納税」サイトと契約するなどして本格的に取り組みを開始した。その結果、取り組み前の2013年（平成25年）には88万円だった「ふるさと納税」寄付受入額が、2014年には5億1,196万円、翌2015年（平成27年）には14億8,449万円に急増した[Note 7].. When he was promoted to section chief in April 2015 and also served as the secretary general of the tourism association, he will use the same increase in the amount of donations received for "hometown tax payment" as a reward for the city tourism association. He tried to proceed with the idea of establishing a new organization for the purpose of promoting industry, but in the process, he seems to have been involved in forgery of documents.This establishment concept was virtually shelved at the city tourism association meeting held in early November 4 after the staff concerned discovered the misconduct, but regarding the "hometown tax payment" for the city that was the basis of this establishment concept. , In December 2017 (Heisei 11), the year after this meeting was held, in Fukuoka cityAntenna food shop"Cow tail" opened and prepared by the cityOgi Yokan,Ariake seaweedWe displayed gifts such as "Hometown tax payment" and provided guidance on how to proceed.[Note 8]..However, immediately after the opening, a total of about 6 yen was applied for donations at the store, but after May 20, there were no donation applications at the store, and as of the end of March 2017 (Heisei 5). Closed[Note 9]..In addition, the City Tourism Association has been in the association because of the increase in the outsourcing cost for return goods due to the rapid increase in the amount of "hometown tax payment" received in the city since 2014.Corporate tax,consumption taxAccounting treatment such as is prolonged, and as a result, payment of corporate tax and consumption tax is not in timeDelinquent taxIt became clear on November 2015, 3 that he had been charged (83 yen in total for the three years up to 3,100)..
- OsakaTakatsukiThen,Kansai Shogi Hall OsakaFukushimaIn order to bear a part of the cost required for the relocation as it moves from2021 OctoberStarted soliciting donations from.At that time, Takatsuki City will be the centerpiece of the gifts for donors of 300 million yen or more.Japan Shogi FederationSpecified byPlayerWe have prepared a "premium guidance game" where you can choose a partner from among them and receive guidance.However, at this point, the Kansai Shogi Kaikan is located outside Takatsuki City, and making it the venue for the game is the standard for rewards stipulated by the government, "services provided within the area of the local government." It was judged to be contrary, and "Premium Guidance Game" was excluded from the reward items..
Competition for rewards
Oldness and tax payment started for the purpose of regional activation.. However, it became a problem that excessive rewards and rewards unrelated to local products did not fit the purpose of the system..
The Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications issued a notice in the name of the Minister of Internal Affairs and Communications in spring 2017 and spring 2018 to reduce the amount of donations to 3% or less of the donations and to make them local products in order to rectify the competition for rewards...This notice is not enforceable, and as of September 2018, 9, 1 municipalities (3%) have sent more than 246% of donations in return, of which 13.8 have no intention of reviewing or The time was undecided.
Apart from this, Saitama PrefectureTokorozawaThen, from April 2017, it announced that it will stop sending rewards to the donors of the hometown tax payment. Mayor'sMasato FujimotoCriticized the reward competition, saying, "The purpose is to get rewards.".
Amendment of local product limited / excessive return rate product ban
Amended local tax law
In September 2018, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications said that it would consider revising the municipality that is sending excessive gifts as a hometown tax exemption system so that tax deductions will not be received, and after discussions in the ruling party taxation, It showed a policy of submitting a revised tax bill to the ordinary Diet session in 9.. This amendment is March 2019, 3,198th DietWas approved by.
Under the new system under the revised Local Tax Law, returnables are limited to 3% or less of local products and donations, and 5% or less of the total amount of expenses and fees including intermediary site fees and shipping fees. The target municipality will be designated by the Minister of Internal Affairs and Communications and the amended law will come into effect in 2019May 6The following local governments (Tokyo and 1 city and 3 towns) were excluded from the hometown tax payment.
|Name of prefectures||City name||Exclusion reason|
|Tokyo||We did not apply for participation because we were against the new system.|
|Shizuoka||Oyama Town||Because some of the reward items did not correspond to local products.|
|Osaka||Izumisano||In return goodsOnline shopping company,Travel club Ofa gift cardBecause I collected a huge donation in.|
In addition, the following 43 municipalities are subject to the period for hometown tax payment by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications in the same year.May 9Has beenMay 10Announced that it must be certified by the time.. The Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications announced that it will be able to participate even after October if there are improvements in rewards in September of the same year.
On July 2020, 7, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications announced that Nahari Town, Kochi Prefecture would be revoked on the 17rd of the same month. The announced reason for cancellation is a violation of the 23% standard for returned goods..
Lawsuit between the country and Izumisano City
In May 2019, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications decided to exclude four municipalities including Izumisano City from the new system because it collected a large amount of donations for excessive rewards that deviated from the purpose of the system..
Izumisano City disapproves of national decision in June 2019National and Local Dispute Resolution CommitteeFiled for examination.. In September 2019, the Committee for Settling National Disputes recommended that the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications reconsider the possibility of violating the revised Local Tax Law... However, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications decided to continue exclusion in October 2019.
Izumisano City disapproves of national decision in June 2019Osaka High CourtFiled a lawsuit seeking cancellation of the decision[Note 10].. On January 2020, 1, the Osaka High Court sentenced to a dismissal of Izumisano's complaint.
In February 2020, Izumisano City appealed to the Supreme Court.. On June 2020, 6, the Supreme Court reversed the Osaka High Court's ruling and canceled the Izumisano City's exclusion from the new system.
The Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications excluded 1 city and 2 towns including Koya and Miyaki towns for the same reason as Izumisano city on July 2020, 7, and Oyama town excluded for another reason on July 3. Allowed to return to the new system.
On the other hand, the proceedings between Izumisano City and the government are continuing to seek the cancellation of the decision of the country that drastically reduced the special allocation tax of Izumisano City because of the large donation income from the hometown tax payment..
Unexpected use and impact
Donations and unexpected expenses to the disaster-stricken areas
On March 2011, 23, it was hit by a wide range of eastern and northern Japan, mainly in the three Tohoku prefectures of Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures.Great East Japan Earthquakeに際しては、発災から約2か月後の時点で、前記東北3県に対してだけでも、前年〔2010年（平成22年）〕の全国寄付総額の6倍以上にあたる400億円超が当制度を通じて送られた。これに加え、発災から1年あまり経過した2012年（平成24年）5月下旬には、長野県KaruizawaMale townspeopleJapanese Red Cross SocietyAnd self-acquired for multiple local governments affected by the Great East Japan EarthquakeGain on transfer of sharesIt became clear that about 7 million yen was donated as "hometown tax payment".
As mentioned aboveDonationIt was not expected that this system would be used to send a message at the beginning of the system, but now it is widely recognized, and on sites that specialize in hometown tax payment, a special corner for disaster support is set up. Has become.
In addition, for the purpose of reducing the administrative burden on local governments in the disaster area and devote efforts to responding to the victims.sister cityThere are also cases where other local governments that are connected to the disaster area act as a contribution to this system..
On the other hand, as a result of sending a large amount of donations through this system, a large amount of deductions and refunds will be generated by filing a final tax return, and as a result,Situations where the local government where the donor resides is forced to spend unexpectedlyIs developing into..In particular, with regard to the donations made by the residents of Karuizawa Town through this system, which amount to 1 million units, about XNUMX million yen has already been paid as a prefectural tax from the gain on the transfer of shares.Tax withholdingBecause it was done, by tax returnResident taxWe will get a refund of 7,870 million yen (prefectural tax and townsman tax). As a result, even if the burden of Nagano prefecture (3,170 million yen as "prefectural tax collection handling cost") is deducted in this town, it will be about 4,700 million yen. I was forced to take out and bear the yen. In this situation, the mayor, through Nagano Prefecture,Local allocation taxShowed the idea of seeking allowance by (special allocation tax).
2012 (Heisei 24)Governor of TokyoShintaro Ishihara,尖 閣 諸島For individuals who own land ofTokyoAnnounced a policy to purchase land and called for donations to fund the purchase (Tokyo Senkaku Islands donation). This allowsTokyo Metropolitan GovernmentAbout 14 billion yen was raised in Japan, but this was also called "hometown tax payment to Tokyo", and by filing a final tax return the following year, "Donation deductionIt was possible to receive.
Corporate version oldness and tax payment
The official name is "Regional Revitalization Support Tax System", which means that the tax burden is reduced when companies donate to local governments.From April 2016, 28 (Heisei 4) to March 20, 2020 (Reiwa 2), certain companies carry out "towns, people, and work" by certified local governments under the Regional Revitalization Law. If you donate to the "Creation Donation Utilization Project", in addition to the current donation deduction system, 3% of the donation amount will be tax deducted (Corporate business tax,Corporate resident tax,Corporate tax) Will be.2020 May 4Than2025 May 3Has been extended for 5 years to raise the tax credit ratio from 30% to 60% and simplify the certification procedure..2020 May 7, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications announces "corporate version hometown tax payment (temporary staffing type)".
|Item||Before revision||After revision|
|Applicable period||2019 May 10~2020 May 3||2020 May 4~2025 May 3|
|Tax credit (corporateBusiness tax）||1% of donation||2% of donation|
|Tax credit (corporatePrefectural tax）||2.9% of donated amount||5.7% of donated amount|
|Tax credit (corporateMunicipal tax）||17.1% of the donated amount||34.3% of the donated amount|
|Tax credit (Corporate tax）||If the corporate inhabitant tax does not reach 2%, the balance.However, up to 1% of the donation amount||If the corporate inhabitant tax does not reach 4%, the balance.However, up to 1% of the donation amount|
|Tax credit (total)||XNUM X rate||XNUM X rate|
|Town, person, work creationDonation utilization business||Businesses with certain subsidies are not covered||Businesses with certain subsidies are also covered|
|Certification procedure||Individual business certification||Comprehensive business certification by simplifying certification procedures|
(Example) It is not necessary to describe the project cost.
|Period of donation||Expandable period of donation|
Local governments need to properly implement and manage the project so that the donation amount does not exceed the project cost.
- ^ Shogi playerMt. Ooyama YasuharuIs living in TokyoOkayamaKurashikiWas said to have paid the residence tax to.
- ^ According to the governor's interview, the privilege is "luxury"MediaIt is said that we received coverage about oldness and tax payment from.
- ^ The problem wasHirakata"A5 rank"Japanese beef"of"ChateaubriandCourse "and"sirloinsteakCourse”. According to the city, by mistake, A2018 was sent to 30 donors (including the one who complained) within the period from January 1 to 14, 26. He said that he had sent the beef of the rank.The provided "Tsunezune" explained that "I made a mistake while packing many products during the busy season," and later retransmitted the legitimate product to the relevant donor..
- ^ Released on April 2016, 28 (Heisei 4)Weekly Bunshun In May 2016th, 5th, 5, Golden Week Extra Large Issue,MasuzoeGovernor of Tokyo(At the timePolitical fundsHad already begun reporting on the alleged misappropriation.
- ^ Prior to the submission of the bill, there was no prior consultation with the executive office, and Mayor Kamine and Yuhei Takehiro expressed discomfort, saying, "I have water in my ears. I wanted you to discuss it in advance." It should be noted that forty days or more are required for the submission of the bill from the local newspaper on December 2016, 28 until the mayor Takehiro makes a related statement on December 12, 13. Complaints have been sent.
- ^ The “Ogi City Tourism Association Secretary General,” who also held a post, was dismissed from the association at the end of September 2017..
- ^ According to the "Hometown Tax Payment" receipt amount ranking announced by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, it was ranked 2014th in 26 (Heisei 8) and 2015th in 27 (Heisei 16)..
- ^ ThisAntenna food shopRegarding the "gyu no tail," the said staff were promoting the installation while the city's Commerce and Industry Tourism Division Manager and Tourism Association Secretariat Director were in office..
- ^ Until the closing of the antenna food shop "Ushio", the actual operation was outsourced to a local advertising agency, but together with tenant fees and personnel expenses etc. It was said that he had paid to the agency. And about the fact that this shop was closed down about one year and three months after the opening, among the people related to the Ogi City Tourism Association, the staff who also served as the secretary general of the association was initially promoting the installation. Voiced that there was a lack of outlook.
- ^ The High Court is the first instance for cases filed with the National Dispute Resolution Committee under the Local Autonomy Law.
- ^ "XNUMX billion yen "outflow" due to hometown tax payment ... Tokyo's XNUMX wards, which are working hard on public relations "Something needs to be done" (Yomiuri Shimbun Online)”(Japanese). Yahoo! News. 2021/12/14Browse. "Professor Kazumasa Oguro (Public Economics) of Hosei University said," Since it is a system to support local areas, local governments with high tax revenues such as the XNUMXrd ward were not active in paying their hometown tax, but in the city center. There are many well-known tourist facilities, and if you create attractive rewards, you will be able to attract donations. " ”
- ^ "Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications | Hometown tax portal site | Local revitalization with hometown tax". www.soumu.go.jp. 2021/12/14Browse.
- ^ a b "Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications | Hometown tax portal site |Hometown tax payment". www.soumu.go.jp. 2021/12/31Browse.
- ^ http://www.city.yamato.lg.jp/web/content/000168005.pdf
- ^ https://www.soumu.go.jp/main_content/000614717.pdf
- ^ The deduction amount for donations is the total amount of three deductions: "deduction from income tax", "deduction from basic inhabitant tax", and "deduction from special inhabitant tax".The deduction from income tax is "(Amount of hometown tax paid-2,000 yen) x Income tax rate, The deduction from residence tax (basic portion) is "(Hometown tax donation amount-2,000 yen) x 10%, The deduction from the residence tax (special portion) is "(Donation amount for hometown tax payment-2,000 yen) x (90% -income tax rate x 1.021)".
- ^ Furunabi. “Resident tax will be so cheap with hometown tax payment!Benefits and deduction mechanism”(Japanese). Hometown tax payment site "FuruNavi". 2021/12/31Browse.
- ^ "I understand! Oldness and tax payment". Hometown tax payment portal site. Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. 2018/9/2Browse.
- ^ "Common question of city prefectural tax (page number 1004614)". FAQ. Kawanishi City. 2018/9/2Browse.
- ^ "https://twitter.com/nikkei/status/1441538071623725058”(Japanese). Twitter. 2021/9/25Browse.
- ^ "Hometown tax payment, winner is 905 local governments increase sales even after "bubble"”(Japanese). Nihon Keizai Shimbun (September 2021, 9). 2021/9/25Browse.
- ^ a b c "National municipality "Furusato tax payment" ranking ... The top amount received exceeds 135 billion yen (Gentosha Gold Online)”(Japanese). Yahoo! News. 2021/11/14Browse.
- ^ "Three Reasons to Recommend Tax Return for Hometown Tax”(Japanese). Nihon Keizai Shimbun (September 2021, 12). 2021/12/14Browse.
- ^ "XNUMX billion yen "outflow" due to hometown tax payment ... Tokyo's XNUMX wards, which are working hard on public relations "Something needs to be done" (Yomiuri Shimbun Online)”(Japanese). Yahoo! News. 2021/12/14Browse. "The hometown tax payment was questioned by the overheating of the" return goods competition, "and the (Taito) Ward looked coldly.However, with the number of tourists decreasing by XNUMX% compared to before the Corona disaster, we decided to make a full-scale entry in order to recover the damaged local industry.At the long-established restaurant "Ueno Seiyoken Main Store" in Ueno Park, gourmet gift sets such as frozen curry and meal tickets will be rewarded.Hideo Akimoto, general manager, expects that "although he was hit hard by the corona disaster, it is a great opportunity to publicize to people all over the country."According to the ward, the amount of donations last year was about XNUMX million yen, but this year about XNUMX million yen was donated about a month after the introduction of the gifts in October.With hometown tax payment, you can donate to the municipality where you live and specify the usage if you do not receive a gift.Setagaya Ward has noticed this mechanism.Last year, when we asked the inhabitants of the ward to donate for the new corona measures, about XNUMX million yen was collected, of which about XNUMX% was donated by the inhabitants of the ward.From this year, as new uses, we have prepared a total of XNUMX types of uses, including support for children's learning and a playground base development project.The person in charge of the ward is calling on the residents of the ward to donate, saying, "I want to publicize that I can decide how to use the tax on my own initiative." ”
- ^ a b Laws that partially amend local tax laws, etc. -From the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications website
- ^ a b "Laws that partially amend local tax laws, etc.". Enacted Law Information “List of Enacted Laws of the 169th Diet”. House of Representatives (September 2008, 4). 2018/9/2Browse. “→Details (including promulgated date and law number) from the stage of the bill (the bill that partially revises the local tax law, etc.)"
- ^ "Plenary session of the House of Representatives". 26The 169th Diet. (2008-04-30) 2018/9/2Browse. "PDF version ("Official gazetteIn the extra edition, April 20, 4 version)Posted on pages 5-7"
- ^ Wakako Takaoka (Financial Research Department, Nissay Research Institute)(PDF) "Nikkei Glocal" No. 338,Nihon Keizai Shimbun, March 2018, 4, p. 16, ISSN 1349-4880 , NOT 40021518399, National bibliographic number:01005672,2018/8/21Browse.
- ^ Hiroyasu Nishiyama (Utsunomiya Kyowa University, full-time lecturer)Actual conditions of patrol and management of vacant houses in oldness and tax payment"Utsunomiya Kyowa University Urban Economic Research Annual Report" No. 17, Utsunomiya Kyowa University Urban Economic Research Center, October 2017, pp. 10-126, ISSN 1881-7459 , NOT 40021401982, National bibliographic number:01013910,2018/9/2Browse.
- ^ a b c d e f Municipalities with over 3% of return items Asahi Shimbun, September 2018, 9.
- ^ Hometown tax payment portal site "Topics | About the designated system relating to hometown tax payment" (Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, April 2019, 4)
- ^ MLJ Co., Ltd. (February 2019, 2). “What are "local products"?Detailed explanation of the definition of "hometown tax refund" defined by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications”(Japanese). Hometown tax payment guide "Furusapo" | Easy-to-understand set and procedures even for the first time. 2021/9/25Browse.
- ^ “What is hometown tax payment? What are the advantages and disadvantages?”. Municipal clip (HOPE, INC. 《HOPE, INC.》). (April 2018, 4) 2018/9/2Browse.
- ^ a b Nihon Keizai Shimbun (October 2006, 10)
- ^ Toshihiko Kawaguchi"Mt. Ooyama Yasuharu's Evening Festival"Asuka Shinsha, February 2003.National bibliographic number:20525428.ISBN 978-4870315426 .
- ^ a b Yasuo Tanaka (2016). “Small but sure.”. Sunday Daily 2016 year 1 month 31 day issue: Pages 112-113.
- ^ Oldness and tax payment study group report(Furusato tax payment study group)-Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications
- ^ a b c Country Life Book September 2021 p9 --Country Life Book Editorial Department · 36
- ^ "Hometown tax receipts by prefecture-Todoran”(Japanese). Prefectural characteristics as seen by prefecture statistics and rankings. 2021/11/14Browse.
- ^ Hometown Nara Prefecture Support Site - Nara Prefecture
- ^ "Wednesday, July 20, 7 Regular Press Conference". This is the Governor's Office-Governor Press Conference (Past Log). Nara Prefecture (July 2008, 7). 2018/9/7Browse. "From the" Hometown Tax Payment "section at the end of the page" ※CurrentlyInternet archiveRemains in
- ^ "Please support Hagi who does his best with oldness and contribution”. Hagi City (April 2012, 4). As of December 1, 2012オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2012/12/27Browse.
- ^ "Information for "Nagato City oldness and support donation" (oldness and tax payment)". Nagato City.As of August 2012, 11オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2012/12/27Browse.
- ^ "Hometown making donation". Jiangjin City.As of August 2013, 1オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2012/12/27Browse.
- ^ System overview and application-A donation system that supports everyone in town development Archived August 2011, 5, at the Wayback Machine.-Miyashiro Town (March 2009, 3, viewed November 27, 2010)
- ^ About donation that utilized oldness and tax payment system Archived August 2011, 9, at the Wayback Machine.-Kurayoshi City (October 2010, 10, browsed November 22, 11)
- ^ Tokudane! (September 2017, 12). "Usefulness of oldness and tax payment? Unexpected use". Hodokyo 2018/9/7Browse.
- ^ Statement by Governor Ishihara (May 19, 5) | Tokyo Metropolitan Government Reform Promotion Promotion Officer Archived August 2014, 2, at the Wayback Machine. Governor of Tokyo (then)
- ^ Masakatsu Triangle(PDF) "Legal and Investigation" No. 371, Planning and Coordination Office, Secretariat of the House of Councilors, December 2015, pp. 12-59, ISSN 0915-1338 , NOT 40020661145.
- ^ Nihon Keizai Shimbun 2017/07/05, 3p
- ^ Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications | Furusato tax payment portal site | Related materials
- ^ Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications | Hometown tax payment portal site | Topics | About the current situation survey on 28 hometown tax payments (results of tax credits, etc.)
- ^ Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications | Hometown tax payment portal site | Topics | About the current situation survey on 29 hometown tax payments (results of tax credits, etc.)
- ^ "Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications ｜ Furusato Tax Payment Portal Site ｜ Topics ｜ Reiwa 2nd Year Hometown Tax Payment Status Survey". www.soumu.go.jp. 2020/12/22Browse.
- ^ Those who have paid their hometown tax -Special feature on the 26 tax return
- ^ A large number of applications for "KanColle" admiral and "Touken Ranbu" god of worship! "DMM oldness and tax payment" February donation exceeds 2 million yen!
- ^ ITmedia News “DMM Hometown Tax Payment” Aborted “DMM Hometown Tax Payment” Can Be Received Half of “DMM Money” Donated
- ^ Mie Nabari City Kabuto Large Fever Catch the hearts of adults Full of oldness and tax payments Mainichi Newspaper March 2016, 4
- ^ "Oldness and tax payment To stop the return of pearl gifts Shima/Toba”(Japanese). Nihon Keizai Shimbun (September 2017, 7). 2019/5/24Browse.
- ^ INC, SANKEI DIGITAL. “Furusato tax payment "Pearl" refund cancellation request from the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications for "jewelry and high asset" again Shima city, Toba city, Mie prefecture”(Japanese). Sankei WEST. 2019/5/24Browse.
- ^ "XNUMX million yen reduction if you stop pearls Furusato tax payment, mayor's grudge: Asahi Shimbun Digital”(Japanese). Asahi Shimbun digital. 2019/5/24Browse.
- ^ "Toba / Shima City, hometown tax payment V-shaped recovery successful pearl product revival / Mie" (jp). Mainichi Daily News(July 2020, 4) 2020/9/14Browse.
- ^ Keiichi Kitagawa (February 2021, 4). “Hometown tax refunds, no electricity, even“ local ”renewable energy”. Asahi Shimbun digital (Asahi Shimbun) 2021/4/30Browse.
- ^ Norio Sekisaka (April 2021, 4). "Nakanojo Town's hometown tax payment Electricity is excluded from gifts" Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications "Do not become a local product". Jomo Newspaper News (Jomo Shimbun) 2021/4/30Browse.
- ^ "Yamagata Prefecture, which has "Haenuki" and "Shiyahime", is the best in terms of the amount of "rice" shipped as a hometown tax.”(Japanese). Senior guide. 2019/12/24Browse.
- ^ Miyazu City, Kyoto: Waiting for "hometown with oldness and tax payment"! Afraid of tax law violation, canceled[Broken link] Mainichi Newspaper March 2014, 9
- ^ Hometown tax payment voucher resale measures, prohibited by ordinance Archived August 2016, 3, at the Wayback Machine. Yomiuri Shimbun March 2016, 3
- ^ However, due to the notification of the Prime Minister, some local governments have stopped sending the rewards.
- ^ "Is the adoptive city council in conflict with the "hometown tax payment" public election law?". MBS NEWS (daily broadcast)(November 2017, 6). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2017, 6. 2017/6/13Browse.
- ^ Tomoya Nozaki; Mayuri Ito (November 2017, 11). "Hometown tax payment site, let staff read it and rank Shibushi City at the top". Asahi Shimbun 2018/8/22Browse.
- ^ “Instruct the city staff to browse the rewards introduction site, aim for higher ranks in the Kagoshima/Shibushi city rankings with the oldness and tax payment”. Sankei Shimbun(July 2017, 11) 2018/8/22Browse.
- ^ Junichiro Nakagawa (November 2017, 11). ""Unagi Shoujo" Shibushi City on the flames is upset again... But the apology sentence was not bad". SankeiBiz 2018/8/22Browse. "All 3 pages (→2nd page-3nd page)"
- ^ Aya Noda (Network News Department) (December 2017, 12). “New movement for hometown tax payment". NHK Living Information Blog. NHK. 2018/8/22Browse.
- ^ "<Hometown tax payment> Miss tax is taxed to 271 people by donation deduction Miss Sendai city". Kahoku Shimpo(July 2018, 1) 2018/9/15Browse.
- ^ "Hometown tax payment of 125 people is not deducted from residence tax, Ichihara City, Chiba Prefecture". Sankei Shimbun(July 2018, 6) 2018/8/22Browse.
- ^ a b "Osaka and Hirakata City incorrectly sent hometown tax refund items, but Japanese black beef A5 should be A4... "Not delicious" pointed out. Sankei Shimbun(July 2018, 3) 2018/9/20Browse.
- ^ “Small beef misdelivery, Osaka-Hirakata City, Furusato tax payment”. Kyodo News(July 2018, 3) 2018/9/20Browse.
- ^ “Oldness and tax exemption products of the finest beef “not delicious” “A5” unjustified, discovered by consumers pointed out “Oldness” in Osaka”. Sankei Shimbun(July 2018, 9) 2018/9/20Browse. "All 2 pages (→2nd page)"
- ^ “Multi-product” returned as “inappropriate” rewards, deleted by Miyaki Town, Saga Prefecture”. West Japan Newspaper(July 2018, 9) 2018/9/21Browse.
- ^ "Hometown tax payment Kochi/Nahanri-cho section manager arrest”. Tokyo Shimbun (March 2020, 3). 2020/3/3Browse.[Broken link]
- ^ "False documents submitted to Kochi Nahari Town, country for hometown tax payment”. Kyodo News (August 2020, 5). 2020/5/10Browse.
- ^ Resident woman "The town is broken" Gift bubble Kirisan ... Donation XNUMX billion yen turned around, business closed one after anotherYomiuri Shimbun June 2021, 3
- ^ "Bribery over 9000 million yen Furusato tax payment Corruption, investigation closed-Kochi District Prosecutor”. Jiji Press (August 2020, 8). 2020/8/14Browse.
- ^ "Posted on May 2016, 5 "What if the people of Tokyo are about to get angry..."". Tohashi Hashishita・ Official account on Twitter (May 2016, 5). 2018/8/13Browse.
- ^ "Governor Masuzoe Political Fund Problem (Masuzo Chiji Seiji Kindai)". Koto bankAsahi Shimbun. 2018/8/13Browse.
- ^ Yoshihiro Uemura (June 2016, 6). "Does the Masuzoe effect increase hometown taxes?". Political mountain 2018/8/22Browse.
- ^ "Weekly Bunshun May 2016, 5th, 5 Golden Week Oversized Issue". Weekly Bunshun WEB. "Weekly Bunshun" back number. 文藝 春秋. 2018/8/13Browse.
- ^ a b Proposal for reimbursement of expenses for the "hometown taxpayer" benefit" Proposal Kamimine Town Council". West Japan Newspaper(July 2016, 12) 2018/9/15Browse.
- ^ a b “Oldness and tax payments cover “cost compensation” More than 40 protests”. Mainichi Newspapers(July 2016, 12) 2018/9/15Browse. "Member-only paid articles ... From the public part"
- ^ "Members' allowance improvement by oldness and tax payment is "NO!" 80 complaints rushed → withdrawn Saga/Kamiminecho assembly". Sankei Shimbun(July 2016, 12) 2018/9/15Browse. "All 2 pages (→2nd page)"
- ^ "Hometown tax payment, light and shadow (bottom) "Hidden national burden" tens of billions of yen? Benefits are centered on high-income earners”. Nihon Keizai Shimbun(July 2017, 1) 2018/9/15Browse. "Member-only articles ... from the public part"
- ^ "Forgery of Ogi City's section manager, forgery, or obtain the resident's card of the city tourism association officer without permission". Saga newspaper(July 2017, 10) 2018/9/22Browse.
- ^ Municipal Tax Division, Autonomous Tax Bureau (2016-06-14) (PDF). Current status survey results regarding hometown tax payment (Report). Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. P. 4 2018/9/22Browse. "Page number notation excludes cover page"
- ^ a b c “Withdrawing from the antenna shop in Ogi, a base in Fukuoka City in 1 year and 3 months”. Saga newspaper(July 2018, 4) 2018/9/22Browse.
- ^ "Ogasawara City Tourist Association, which is delayed due to hometown tax payment". Saga newspaper(July 2017, 11) 2018/9/22Browse.
- ^ “Document counterfeiting, section-based Ogi city, 4 persons including former section chief disposed”. Saga newspaper(July 2017, 11) 2018/9/22Browse.
- ^ "[Crafting] Former manager of Ogi City's scandal "Bamboo lantern" succeeded and increased?". Saga newspaper(July 2017, 12) 2018/9/22Browse.
- ^ "Disciplinary action of city staff". Ogi City Council, Saga Prefecture Yoichi Matsunami BlogYoichi Matsunami (Member of Ogi City, Saga Prefecture) (November 2017, 11). 2018/9/22Browse.
- ^ Hometown tax return gift "Play with top Go players", the country "waited" ... The venue outside the city is regarded as a problem Yomiuri Shimbun May 2021, 9
- ^ Asahi Shimbun February 2017, 2 21 pages of morning edition
- ^ "Hometown tax payment, Tokyo leaves”(Japanese). Nikkei newspaper electronic version. 2019/5/24Browse.
- ^ "Mayor Oyama" Reviewing gifts for early return "XNUMX cities and towns excluding hometown tax payment town, to participate in the system". Tokyo Newspaper(July 2020, 7) 2020/9/7Browse.
- ^ "Furusato tax payment "exclusion is a surprise" Izumisano City, Osaka, on top of Amazon Gift Certificates”(Japanese). ITmedia NEWS. 2019/5/24Browse.
- ^ "XNUMX municipalities such as Koya town, excluding oldness and tax payment Mayor Takano "sorry"”(Japanese). WBS Wakayama Broadcasting News (September 2019, 5). 2019/5/24Browse.
- ^ RKB Mainichi Broadcasting. “RKB News | Miyaki Town Hometown Tax Excludes". 2019/5/24Browse.
- ^ "Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Notification No. XNUMX”. Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (May 2019, 5). 2019/5/24Browse.
- ^ "Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, 43 municipalities oldness and tax allowance "improvement of return goods" XNUMX municipalities are excluded”(Japanese). Mainichi Newspapers (September 2019, 9). 2019/10/3Browse.
- ^ “The country excludes Nahari Town from the hometown tax payment for the first time”. Kochi newspaper(July 2020, 7) 2020/9/7Browse.
- ^ a b c d "Izumisano loses to the country in the oldness and tax payment lawsuit”. Diamond Online. P. 1. 2020/3/4Browse.
- ^ a b "Izumisano loses to the country in the oldness and tax payment lawsuit”. Diamond Online. P. 2. 2020/3/4Browse.
- ^ “Izumisano City appeals to oldness and tax payment lawsuit against high court decision”. Nihon Keizai Shimbun(July 2020, 2) 2020/3/4Browse.
- ^ "Furusato tax payment lawsuit, Izumisano city wins reversal, Supreme Court decision". Nihon Keizai Shimbun(July 2020, 6) 2020/6/30Browse.
- ^ "Urban municipality "I did so much that way"... Izumisano-shi wins a complaint". Yongo Shimbun Online(July 2020, 7) 2020/7/1Browse.
- ^ "The government is fighting with Izumisano City. Allocation tax reduction proceedings begin-Osaka District Court". Newsletter(July 2020, 9) 2020/9/8Browse.
- ^ Great East Japan Earthquake: Hometown tax payments to the three affected prefectures exceeded 3 billion yen, 400 times the total donation of the system in the previous year Archived August 2011, 5, at the Wayback Machine.-Kanaroko (Kanagawa Shimbun, May 2011, 5, viewed on the same day)
- ^ a b c A large amount of money to be paid by Karuizawa Town “Furusato tax payment” to the affected areas Archived August 2012, 6, at the Wayback Machine.-Shinano Mainichi Newspaper (May 2012, 5, viewed June 29, 6)
- ^ a b c Masakazu Fujisawa (May 2012, 5). "Hometown tax payment: Karuizawa Town, even though I have not received townsman tax... 4700 million yen refund to disaster area donation 7 million yen will be deducted / Nagano". Yahoo! News. Mainichi Newspapers 2018/8/21Browse. ※ CurrentlyInternet archiveRemains in
- ^ Hiroo Ogawa (Freelance Writer) (May 2017, 5). “What will happen for 10 years since the establishment? Hometown tax payment Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications has begun to respond to the “reward item” problem”. THE PAGE Tokyo 2018/8/21Browse. "All 2 pages (→1nd page)"
- ^ "Usage of oldness and tax payment, most concerned about "disaster support"". Nihon Keizai Shimbun(July 2017, 9) 2018/8/21Browse.
- ^ "List of disaster support". Hometown tax payment site "Satofuru". 2018/8/21Browse.
- ^ "Disaster support through oldness and tax payment". Hometown tax payment site [Hometown Choice]. 2018/8/21Browse.
- ^ "Hometown tax payment Furunabi disaster support". Furusato tax payment site [Furunavi]. 2019/6/19Browse.
- ^ "Hometown tax payments on behalf of the stricken area, acting on behalf of XNUMX local governments”. Asahi Shimbun (created on May 2018, 7). 2019/10/16Browse.
- ^ "Boryokudan-gumi office, using oldness and tax payment to remove Hyogo”. Kobe Shimbun (January 2018, 1). 2018/3/10Browse.
- ^ "Prefectural tax relations”. Prefectural Tax Division, Autonomous Tax Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (April 2019, 4). 2020/3/19Browse.
- ^ Corporate hometown tax payment portal site (Cabinet Office Regional Revitalization Promotion Office)
- ^ "Trust bank, full-scale development of corporate version hometown tax payment business”. PR TIMES (November 2020, 1). 2020/3/18Browse.
- ^ "The current state and challenges of "enterprise oldness and tax payments" as told by the new trust bank president who announced full-scale entry"." @DIME at Dime "(January 2020, 1). 2020/3/18Browse.
- ^ "RCF x corporate version oldness and tax payment”. General Incorporated Association RCF. 2020/3/18Browse.
- ^ "river”. River. 2020/3/18Browse.
- ^ "cultive river Corporate Edition Hometown Tax Payment Channel”. River. 2020/3/18Browse.
- ^ ""Hometown Connect"”. JTB. 2020/3/18Browse.
- ^ "About corporate version hometown tax payment (temporary staffing type)”. Prime Minister's Office (August 2020, 10). 2020/11/10Browse.
- ^ "Corporate version hometown tax payment, tax burden reduction even in temporary staffing”. Nihon Keizai Shimbun (July 2020, 7). 2020/8/6Browse.
- ^ "Established tax payment for the hometown of personnel tax preferential treatment for dispatching employees locally”. Jiji Press (June 2020, 7). 2020/8/6Browse.
- ^ "Human resources version Hometown tax payment to be established Government adjustment Coordination of employees to local areas, corporate tax reduction by dispatching government office”. Mainichi Newspapers (April 2020, 7). 2020/8/6Browse.
- ^ "Expansion and extension of corporate hometown tax payments". Cabinet Office. 2020/3/20Browse.
- ^ "Q&A sixth edition about town, person, work wound straight contribution utilization business". Cabinet Office. 2020/3/20Browse.
- Oldness and creation business -From 1988 to 1989Takeshita Cabinet Bubble economyPolicy implemented during.It was delivered to all municipalities by 1 million yen.
- Local creation - Second Abe administrationThe policies listed in.
- Regional brands/One Village One Product Movement
- Market economy/Competition principle
- Local disparity/Depopulation
- 1% support system
- Donation deduction/Donation/Crowdfunding
- Hometown tax payment portal site -Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications
- Furusato choice - Trust bank
- Furunabi - I mobile
- Isetan Mitsukoshi oldness and tax payment - Isetan Mitsukoshi
- Hometown pallet - TokyuGroup hometown tax payment
- JRE MALL Furusato Tax Payment- JR East
- Oldness and tax payment information center -Fukui Prefecture *Posted information such as system outline and system utilization in each local government.
- Corporate version hometown tax payment site "River"
Crowdfunding(English: crowdfunding) Is群衆(crowd)WhenFunding(FUND) Is a coined word.It means that a small amount of money from a large number of people will provide financial resources and cooperation to other people and organizations.In modern timesインターネットOften done via... Also called social funding, In JapaneseClafanMay be abbreviated as.
Cloud computing (cloud computing)cloudSome people confuse it with "cloud" and mistakenly describe it as "cloud funding", but it should be correct.crowd-"(Of the crowd).
CrowdfundingDisaster prevention,Citizen journalism,フ ァ ンbyArtistsSupport ofSocial/political movement,VentureInvestment in companies ,movies ,Free softwareDevelopment, invention development, scientific research It is used to invest in a wide range of fields, including loans to individuals, business companies, and projects.
It is also attracting attention as a method of raising funds for companies by soliciting shares from many investors. This form of crowdfunding is[Annotation 1] Recently, as there is a direct reference toThe United States of AmericaAttracted attention from policy makers.. The JOBS Act is waiting to be implemented,en: Mosaic Inc.Mixed models, such as, make use of existing securities legislation that qualifies licensed civilians to invest directly in clean energy projects as part of the crowd.
In addition, crowd funding isCrowdsourcingConcept[Annotation 2] Has its origin.Crowdfunding Is an application of this concept of raising money from many people through small donations to fund a particular project or venture.. Models necessarily involve diverse stakeholders.. These include people and organizations that propose ideas and projects to be funded, as well as the "crowd" who support the proposals. Crowdfunding consists of an organization (“platform”) that brings together the project leader and the “crowd”.
Generally, a large amount of money is required to develop a product or hold an event, but in crowdfunding, an unspecified number of people are invited to provide a relatively small amount of money via the Internet, and the project is executed when a certain amount is collected. By doing so, it becomes possible to reduce the risk of financing. The development of social media has made it easier for individuals to launch and announce projects, and in response, crowdfunding funding is becoming active. In the United StatesKickstarterIs famous.
Sports funding specialized in the sports field has evolved into a form that refers to a wide range of support from corporate matching, media matching, and second career measures, in addition to financing from unspecified majority.
Crowdfunding has several origins and a long history.
EuropeIn, books have been published in a manner similar to crowdfunding since centuries ago.[Annotation 3]..With the authorInfomationWhen we develop a project to publish some kind of book,AdsI let people know and made them apply in the form of purchase reservations and subscriptions.When it turns out that the number of applications has reached a sufficient number and there are enough purchasers to recover the cost of publishing, full-scale writing, proofreading, and printing of the book will proceed and actually It will be published.Strictly speaking, the book subscription method at that time was slightly different from modern crowdfunding.In the book pre-purchase method centuries ago, the actual flow of money was due to the fact that the actual book was delivered to the prospective purchaser.Even so, there is an aspect that the pre-order purchase of books has gathered the purchasers necessary for the authors and publishers to proceed with the business of "publishing books"..
1884 years,Statue of libertyProduction Committee America has run out of money for the pedestal of the statue. Newspaper publisherJoseph PulitzerIs his own newspaper "New York World』, Encouraged the American public to donate money to the pedestal.Pulitzer raised $ 6 in six months.Approximately 10 people made many donations of less than $ 12 for this..
1997 British rock groupMarillionFans underwent a US tour and raised $6 in donations through a fan-hosted internet campaign.. The idea was designed and run by the fans, regardless of the band, but Marillion has since used it as a way to fund the recording and marketing of his albums from 2001 to the present. It has been very successful.en: Anoraknophobia ,Marbles,en: Happiness Is the Road.
For companies headquartered in the United Statesen: ArtistShare (2000/2001) was considered the first crowdfunding site for music and lateren: Pledgie (2006),en: Sellaband (2006),en: IndieGoGo (2008),Kickstarter (2009),en: Appsplit (2010),en: Microventures Sites such as (2010) followed.
LockBand-Electric Eel ShockHas taken full advantage of crowdfunding and became one of the first bands to keep up with important recording deals in advance. As an unsigned band in 2004, he raised £ 100 from 100 fans (Samurai 1) and offered them a whole life guest list instead... Two years later, they became the fastest band to collect 5 budgets at Sella Bannd.. They internationally licensed this album internationally in their native Japan.
A freelance writer/director in the film industryen: Mark Tapio KinesIs the first work that was unfinished in 1997 at that time "Foreign CorrespondentsLaunched the website. Around early 1997, he received over $ 25 over the internet from at least 12 fans and funded him to complete the film... lateren: Franny ArmstrongIs her feature filmen: Age of StupidMade a donation system for.. She raised £ 2004 million in the five years from 2009 to 5 (opening date).. In December 2004, French entrepreneurs and producersBenjamin PommeraudとGuillaume colbocIs their short science fiction movie "Demain la Veille (wait for tomorrow)Internet donation campaign for the masses to raise money Started. Within three weeks they raised $3 and were able to make a movie.
In 2012, TIME published an article describing and evaluating the best crowdfunding platforms in the world..
In 2012, the crowdfunding market was estimated to be 2 billion dollars, double the size of the previous year, with the investment in video games in particular showing significant growth. The investment amount in the video game field at Kickstarter has reached more than 28 times compared to 2011. With game softwareStar CitizenIs about $620 million, on game consolesOUYARaised about $860 million and became a hot topic.
- There is no financial returnDonation type'
- With a financial returnInvestment type'
- Support by purchasing some rights and goods provided by the projectPurchase type'
in Japan,Fund settlement law,Financial Instruments and Exchange ActDue to restrictions on remittance and investment among individuals due to factors such as the above, the number of companies of purchase-type crowdfunding is the largest and the number of companies is high. On the other hand, the investment type (Social lending(Also said to be) is a small number of companies (in Japan, the second category of the Financial Instruments and Exchange Act)Financial instruments businessRegistration required), taking in investors' demand for financial returns, and has a track record of over 300 billion yen in Japan.
Status in Japan
(#historyAs explained in the section, the book publishing business in Europe and the United States was often done by a method similar to crowdfunding.)Meiji 30sThe second half of the publisherMaruzenBut"Encyclopedia BritannicaStarted a project to publish the 35th edition (composed of XNUMX volumes), and accepted by the "reservation application fee" method (use the money by having people pay the "reservation application fee" in advance) Print and distribute the book, thenMonthly installmentI announced the sales method of collecting money at, accepted the application, and put it into practice.
in Japan,First Abe CabinetIn line with the policy formulated in 1), measures to utilize crowdfunding as one of the means to “strengthen the supply of risk money” will be raised, and regulations will be relaxed.Financial Instruments and Exchange ActThe amendment such as was approved by the Diet on May 2014, 26..
Status of self-regulatory organizations
Voluntary restrictions on crowdfunding operations are as follows.
- The stock type isJapan Securities Dealers Association(Rules for stock investment type crowdfunding business)
- The fund type is the Second Class Financial Instruments Business Association (Rules for electronic application type electronic offering handling business, etc.)
- No purchase type, donation type, loan type (as of the end of July 2016)
Major crowdfunding sites in Japan
- The number one crowdfunding platform in Japan. A long-established service in Japan that was founded in 1 at about the same time as READYFOR.We handle a wide range of projects in all genres, including manufacturing, food, and culture. "Light a small fire"The OVERDRIVE final work "MUSICA!" development project" (as of March 1), which recorded the domestic purchase type procurement amount No. 2019 under the slogan "," Beppu City's "Yu-Senchi", by Tanita Co., Ltd. We deal with a wide range of projects from companies such as "Twin Stick Project" to challenges by students and individuals.Kazuma IiriWill be the representative. The fee is 17%.
- A community-specific crowdfunding platform.CAMPFIRE, Inc. took over the business from Searchfield, Inc. in 2018 and operates it.
- GleeA fan community platform that is run by and specializes in the entertainment field. Based on SNS, in addition to crowdfunding, various functions required for fan businesses such as subscription-based monthly billing and newsletters are provided free of charge as a platform. The fee is 10%.
- Japan's first crowdfunding service launched on March 2011, 3. Based on the vision of "creating a world where everyone can realize what they want to do," it is operated as a service that connects "people who need funds to do what they want to do" and "people who sympathize and support" through the Internet. There is.The success rate of financing for published projects is 29% (as of October 75), which is very high compared to the industry average of 2018%. In June 10, received the "Excellence Award (SPRING Award)" at the Japan Service Awards sponsored by the Service Industry Productivity Council.In May 30, he received the "Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry Award (Female Entrepreneur Award)" at the 2016th Japan Venture Awards.The representative is Haruka Mera.The fee is 6%.
- It is a sports-specific crowdfunding service operated by a corporation for the purpose of supporting teams, athletes, and sports. Founded in March 2016.GLOBIS Graduate School of ManagementStudents and graduates enrolled inMBA-Master of Business Administration-Born from (holder)Most of the members are MBA holdersIt has become a company.
- With a strong feeling for sports and athletes, "Don't stand on the starting line before you start.Change the society where you cannot challengeBased on the philosophy, we aim to create an environment where athletes who challenge their dreams can have equal opportunities.Then all the members were listedCredoUnder the plan, development and operation specializing in sports.The features of the service are (1) generous support, (2) media development (free creation of column articles / in partnership with Yahoo! News, SmartNews, etc.), and (3) commissions from 10%.
- cyber-agentgroup. There are many projects of genres such as manufacturing and restaurants. Listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange Mothers Market on December 2019, 12. 11% commission.
- Founded in 2013Academist Co., Ltd.Japan's first crowdfunding service specializing in academic financing. It is operated as a service that conveys the appeal of research and researchers with the mission of "researchers go, we connect" and "realize an open academic industry and contribute to the creation of a future society." ing.The success rate of financing public projects is about 20%, well above the industry standard.The fee is 3% (of which XNUMX% is the settlement fee).
- Fine cloud
- Crowdfunding platform for beginners operated by Kokusai Resources Co., Ltd.
- Asahi ShimbunA crowdfunding platform operated by.
- Motion Gallery
- A platform with strengths in the creative field.The fee is 10%, which is the lowest in the industry. "Happy hourAnd 'カ メ ラ ラ 止 め る！We are working on crowdfunding of movies that have become a hot topic, such as "Mini Theater Aid Fund" which recently collected 3 million yen and 3000 million yen.Troupe four seasonsKnown for the project. Received the 2015 Good Design Award.
- Oita Godo ShimbunBut,Oita Bank,Music SecuritiesA crowdfunding platform operated in cooperation with.
- La porno
- ECloud (Stock type)
- FUNDINNO(Stock type)
- CAMPFIRE Angels(Stock type)
- CrowdBank(Lending type)
- maned(Lending type)
- SBI Social Lending(Lending type)
- CAMPFIRE OWNERS (loan type)
- Sakura social lending (loan type)
- Security(Fund type)
- CREAL(Fund type)
Related laws and tax systems
Of the investment types, the loan type and fund type areAnonymous unionSince the investment act by the company falls under the category of “collective investment scheme interests”, which is a type of securities that is subject to the Financial Instruments and Exchange Act, it is necessary to register the Type II Financial Instruments and Exchange Business under the Gold Commercial Law, as mentioned above. Being supervised by the Gold Commercial Code. Anonymous partnership investment is accountingliabilitiesHowever, under certain conditions, financial institutions evaluate it as equity debt...Loan type is even moreMoney Lending Business Law OfMoney lending businessRegistration is required.The stock type isFinancial Instruments and Exchange ActFirst-class financial instruments business registration or first-class small-amount electronic recruitment handling company registration is required.
The donation type and the purchase type are not regulated by the Gold and Commercial Law, but the donation type has a taxation problem that corporations can only be deducted up to a certain amount and deductions cannot be received for individuals. The purchase type is mainly because the general consumer is the provider of funds,Defect liabilityOccurs,Specified Commercial Transaction Law,Freebie display methodIt is subject to the Consumer Relations Law and depends on the price of the products offered. It causes the same tax problem as the donation type.
- ^ A bill that allows small investors to solicit widespread investment with less restrictions.
- ^ A rough concept that individuals reach their goals by collecting and using small contributions from many people.
- ^ To explain the situation to Japanese readers at that time, it was still said that "publishing a book" centuries ago.LetterpressEach character by hand with a machineTypeAssembled, put the paper into the printing machine one by one,Buttoya apple press(pressIn an era when the handles of printing machines such as) were manually rotated to print one by one, "publishing a book" was a "business" of a certain scale, and one book was published. It takes a lot of effort and a lot of money to do it, and when a writer or a publisher prints a book without checking the intentions of the readers of the world in advance, it takes a lot of effort and cost to write, calibrate, and print. After printing, it turns out that there are quite a few people trying to buy the book, and publishers and authors can't recover the costs of writing and publishing, just making a few such misunderstandings. , There was a risk of bankruptcy or bankruptcy with stock.As a result, a mechanism has been created to avoid or mitigate that risk.
- ^ Ordanini, Andrea; Fisk, Raymond P .; Miceli, Lucia; Pizzetti, Marta; Parasuraman, A. (2011). “Crowd-funding: transforming customers into investors through innovative service platforms”. Journal of Service Management 22 (4): 443–470. two:10.1108/09564231111155079. ISSN 1757-5818 . (Or here too Scribd document)
- ^ "What IS Crowdfunding And How Does IT Benefit The Economy”(May 2012, 11). 2012/12/6Browse.
- ^ "What is crowdfunding? "Social funding" (crowd funding):-IT glossary binary". 2012/12/6Browse.
- ^ "Pavegen, which generates electricity when people walk, won over 3 million yen with Kurafan". 2019/7/18Browse., "86g waterproof and shockproof. Canon carabiner camera, Kurafan start!". 2019/7/18Browse.
- ^ "Welcome to The Crowdfunding Wiki!”. Michael Sullivan and pbworks consensus group. 2012/8/12Browse.
- ^ "Crowd funding: An emerging trend in Bollywood". 2012/8/12Browse.
- ^ "Crowdfunding as the future of science funding? | The Science Exchange Blog”. Blog.scienceexchange.com (May 2012, 5). 2012/8/19Browse.
- ^ "Inside the JOBS Act: Equity Crowdfunding". 2012/11/6Browse.
- ^ "Crowd funding and ICO list”. Icotokennews. 2017/8/12Browse.
- ^ "Crowfunding in a Canadian Context”(Accessed February 7, 2013). 2013/5/28Browse.
- ^ "Crowdfunding: Transforming Customers Into Investors Through Innovative Service Platforms”(Accessed February 7, 2013). 2013/5/28Browse.
- ^ BBC The Statue of Liberty and America's crowdfunding pioneer
- ^ "Joseph Pulitzer”(May 2013, 2). 2013/2/28Browse.
- ^ "The Marillion story and what we can all learn from it". 2013/2/28Browse.
- ^ "guitartabsexplorer.com". 2013/2/28Browse.
- ^ “BBC article, May 11, 2001” 2013/2/28Browse.
- ^ "OHM Review". 2013/2/28Browse.
- ^ "Calling the faithful for Album 15". 2013/2/28Browse.
- ^ "Wharton". 2013/2/28Browse.
- ^ "Inc.com". 2013/2/28Browse.
- ^ "Drownedinsound.com "Wanna Go VIP? Electric Eel Shock'll show you the way...", Dec 2nd, 2004". 2013/2/28Browse.
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- ^ Kate Bulkley (November 2012, 11). “funding models for film making | Sheffield Doc / Fest 2010 | guardian.co.uk”. Guardian. 2012/12/13Browse.
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- Collective intelligence
- Japan Cloud Securities
- Sports funding
- Social lending
- Virtual currency
- Throwing money