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communication(British: communication) Means social lifeA humanDone betweenPerception,感情,思考Transmission of[1]..Or simply (BiologyNa)AnimalBetween individuals,gesture,voice,smellBy etc.情报Transmission of[1].dictionaryAs a literal meaning,A humanTransmission of perceptions, emotions, and thoughts between[1][2], Etc. are defined.

EnglishThe etymology of "communication" is Latin"Munitare" is added to "communis" derived from "comm" and "unio".


The word "communication" is used in a wide variety of ways.In general, "communication" is not considered to be sufficiently established if only the transmission of information occurs, and between human beings, <<willCommunication, andHeart,FeelingSome of them supplement the explanation that communication was established only when "communication" was performed or "understanding each other" occurred.[Note 1].

What is included in communication is quite widespread.infantStarting from the stageexpressionIt includes non-verbal ones that use gestures and gestures, as well as linguistic ones that are gradually learned as we get older.

It is very important to read non-verbal things and understand the other person.Mothers can only properly feed and change diapers when they understand that the baby expresses nonverbally, such as facial expressions, movements, and crying.Without nonverbal communication, even infants cannot be provided with the right things.Even in communication between adults, communication will not be successful if you cannot feel the slight changes in the facial expressions of the other person in front of you and the slight changes in the pitch of your voice.

PeopleLearningAbility to doImitationThe ability to do so, and in general, increased language skills in adolescence, adolescence, and adulthood, imitating various expressions used by others for communication and using them as their own. I also imitate linguistic expressions everyday and make them my own.Origin of languageThere are various theories, but one theory is also considered to be "for the purpose of communicating with others", and anything that calls for others using language can be called communication.挨 拶Also会話AlsospeechAlso, all is communication using language.

Communication is basically carried out from ancient times by people facing each other and listening directly to the other person's voice or looking directly at the other person's face, but since ancient timesletterIt is also widely practiced to communicate with people in remote areas.Also, from around the 19th century, telegraph andTelIt became possible to communicate with people in remote areas using electrical technology. To communicate with people in remote places, not face to facecommunicationSay.

From the 20th centuryRadio broadcast,TV broadcastThere is also one-way communication with a large number of people using.Communicate with an unspecified number of peopleMass communicationSay.News reportAlso"Mass communicationIs a part of. From the 1990sインターネットCommunication using is becoming popular. RecentTwitter,FacebookSuch asSocial MediaThe transmission and reception of personal information and the expression of opinions using are communication, whether bidirectional or one-way, one-to-one or one-to-many.It is also communication to just press the "Like" button and convey only the praise and approval to the other party. 

Academically, it is used in a broad sense apart from general usage,symbolBetween some separated events involving the movement of some factor such asInteractionThis process is sometimes called communication.

Type and classification

There are various taxonomies.

For one thing, whether it's done with non-verbal elements or with language Non-verbal communication /  There is a way to classify[Source required].

Non-verbal communicationIt is,ボ デ ィ ー ラ ン ゲ ー ジ / Sign It can also be subdivided into.

One is to focus on the physical distance, face-to-face communication / remote communication (Telecommunication).

There is also a method of dividing into one-to-one communication/one-to-many communication based on the number of people. Even one-to-many ones, especially those against an unspecified majorityMass communicationSay.

AnimalUsed for general communicationSensory organIt can also be classified into voice communication / visual communication / olfactory communication. There are the following.

In recent research,plantIt is becoming more and more understood that plants also emit trace substances to communicate with each other.

Psychological interpretation

In terms of communication from the point of view of sending and responding, when a reaction (response) occurs in another individual in response to an action (outgoing) of one individual, it means that communication has been established between the two.[3].. The function of communication behavior is not limited to the transmission of information,共 感, Also includes a wide range of control of the behavior of the other party[3].

The establishment of communication is not limited to the fact that appropriate outgoing actions have been taken for that purpose,signal-媒体It also depends on whether or not you have a more accurate understanding after receiving your attention. There is a complementary relationship in interpreting symbolscontext(Non-verbal context) andCodes(Linguistic promise) and is referenced[4].. When the message cannot be deciphered only by referring to the defined code (for example, the child's communication), the context is referred and the estimation by the recipient is added.[Note 2].

The types of information received or conveyed by communication are:感情,Will,思考,knowledgeAnd so on. As a medium to receive or conveyword,expression,gesture,鳴 き 声,secretionmaterial(PheromoneEtc.) are used. Animal medium[Note 3]When comparing the human medium withBody movements,expression,PheromoneIn addition to the common medium with animals such as)言语There is a difference.

Communication often results in some kind of homogeneity and commonality as a result of its interaction.[Note 4].. Especially in the case of human beings, in addition to working by notifying others of their state of mind, the information received from others canHeartRead the status of共 感Also includes doing (understanding others)[Note 5].

Relationship and communication

Communication and language

Dog,catAlthough they communicate like dogs and cats, they cannot make detailed relationships like humans do. "FellowshipIn other words, human beings can be so intimate that there is a word of close friendship that will not regret even if they are decapitated.

Hidetoshi KatoThe reason is that human beings can use "words".[5], Because they can understand each other, have empathy, and empathize with each other.[6]And.According to Kato共 感Is the process by which a state that is very similar to the state that occurs inside one person occurs inside another person.[7]..For example, when someone hears the word "painful", the following process occurs inside the person who hears it.[7].. The listener imagines a state similar to the state of the body expressed by the word "painful" in line with his own experience.The listener does not usually feel pain in that area, but he knows what the physical condition he is trying to describe by the word "painful" is.[7]..Empathy also often occurs in the physiological dimension.[7]..For example, in an intimate relationship, pain is not only experienced imaginatively, but may also be experienced as actual physiological pain.[7]..Also, when the heart rate rises due to the behavior of a character in fiction, the audience (reader) can be said to replace himself with that character, so humans have the ability to "become the other person". That there is[7].

Kato analyzes the movement of the human mind while reading a novel about empathy using words, and states that it is a strange act that makes me happy and sad about the clogging of ink stains.[8]..From this, it is said that human beings "have the ability to swim in the world of symbols as a shorthand notation of the real world".[8][Note 6].

Humans move by symbols.And humans can sympathize with each other using symbols.Kato calls the process of empathy communication[9].共 感According to Kato, the more people are squeezed, the deeper their relationships become.Human relationsSays that is the accumulation of communication[10]..He also said that it is almost impossible to imagine a human relationship that would be established without exchanging symbols with each other.letter,A date,Talking,ConferenceRegardless of the relationship, human relationships are established through the exchange of symbols and words, and it is said that "speaking words" is a basic condition of human relationships.[10].

Nonverbal Communication (NVC)

When humans communicate, they use words to convey each other's feelings and intentions.EyeIs more like a mouth than a word, as the saying goes,expression,Sight, Gestures may play a more important role.

On a daily basis, humans use multiple nonverbal cues to communicate messages with each other.This is called nonverbal communication (NVC).[11].. This non-verbal communication may be used consciously or unconsciously.[11].

Humans carry out non-verbal communication by facial expression, complexion, gaze, gesture, hand gesture, body posture, physical distance from the other party, etc.[12].

Understanding others: interpersonal communication and intra-individual communication

It is difficult for humans to understand each other no matter how many words they use.Hidetoshi KatoExplains this because "dialogue is happening inside humans."[13]..Inside one person is "another self."In other words, it is "another person who has been taken in". Communication that seems to be progressing between two people is actually communication within one person.Kato describes this communication within humans as "individual communication. Intrapersonal communication", and distinguished from "Interpersonal communication"[14]..Kato is a one-person social relationship (""" as an example of poor communication within an individual.Authoritarianism"Society)[15]..One-man is called a person who does not have "understanding" ability because he does not have "another self".[15].

Gender differences in communication

(Translated from English) Men and women have very different ways of communicating with people.For example, women are said to describe themselves more often than men.Women are more likely than men to elaborate on their personality and to deepen their trust while talking intimately with them.Generally speaking, women place more importance on communication than men.

Traditionally, men have communicated with men and women have communicated with women, but the methods are different.Men are said to be close to other men because of their common interests, but women are said to be close to other women based on mutual support.However, it is a common factor that both men and women become close to the opposite sex.Common factors are proximity, acceptance, effort, communication, common interests,愛情, Novelty, etc.

Situations are important when deciding how to communicate with others.It is important to understand what kind of communication is appropriate for individual relationships.It is extremely important to understand how intimacy and affection are conveyed, especially in a given situation.For example, men tend to keep competition in mind, even in close relationships, and avoid mentioning their weaknesses and vulnerabilities.Men are said to be reluctant to talk about their personal or emotional matters when communicating with others.It is said that men often work side by side with their friends to communicate their friendship by exchanging friendships and communicating their friendship, as when watching sports on TV.

Women, on the other hand, tend not to care about describing their weaknesses and vulnerabilities.In fact, women are often said to develop friendships when stating it.Women feel close to their friends, and for women, friends provide personal growth by providing mutual non-criticism, supportive relationships, self-esteem relationships, legitimate relationships, and comfort. It is said that women value the value of their friends.It is said that women often communicate face-to-face with each other, such as when they have lunch together.

Communicating with friends of the opposite sex is often found to be difficult.This is because the expressions used by men and women in friendships are often fundamentally different.Men associate physical contact with sexual desire more than women.Also, men are more likely to seek sex in heterosexual relationships than women.This makes communication between the opposite sex very difficult.In order to overcome these difficulties, it is necessary for both parties to openly discuss how to communicate with men and women.

Communication and gender culture

The existence of a culture of communication means that there is a standard way of communicating with each other in a group of people.Communication culture can be divided into men's and women's. Julia T. Wood states in a study that "how communication is important in the cultural definition of being male and being female."[16]..A culture of communication between men and women is first formed and maintained by interaction with other cultures.Through communication with others, we learn what our culture commands our sexuality to do. It is widely believed that "gender is the source of difference. Gender defines how people engage and communicate with others," but in fact, sex plays an important role. Wood says it's doing[16]..All cultures can be divided into male and female cultures.Men's and women's cultures differ in the way they communicate and in how they interact with others.It is said that the reasons and ways of communicating are completely different between male and female cultures.Other communication cultures includeAmerican from africaThings ofSenior citizensThings ofNative AmericansThings ofゲ イMen's,lesbianWomen'shandicappedThere are things like that, Wood says.[16].

Gender differences in communication style

Professor Deborah Tannen explained the differences between men and women in the mode of communication as follows:[17].. Tannen believed that men engage with other men in a variety of situations, whereas women engage with other women in a coordinated manner.for example,

  • Men tend to speak in public situations. Women tend to speak in private situations.
  • Women often speak face-to-face and make eye contact. Men often turn their eyes and speak.
  • Men jump from topic to topic, but women spend some time on one topic.
  • When listening to people's stories, women often say "yes" or "yes", but men often listen silently.
  • Women often express support and support, while men often argue.

And so on.

However, it is difficult to make this claim as a general theory based on gender, and it can be said that individual differences and cultural background can be a major factor.

On the other hand, some studies show that men and women generally communicate in the same way. Suzette Haden Elgin et al. Criticized that "Professor Tanen's work applies only to women in a particular culture and in a particular economic situation," and it is generally believed that women speak much more words than men. But he said it wasn't true.But,Cultural anthropologyPerson orEthnologyEspecially in their researchColorRegarding, it is certainly observed that women have much more expressions than men and use them with each other.[Source required][By whom?]

In fact, there is no denying that there are some gender differences or characteristics in communication. Professor Julia T. Wood explains how the differences between male and female culture influence communication.[16].. The difference between the two cultures began in childhood. Maltz and Broker research[18] Says that children's play serves to socialize children and bring in male and female culture. For example, a girl's play game develops personal relationships, but there are no set rules or goals. Boys, on the other hand, often play competitive team sports with different goals and strategies. This difference in childhood is due to the way women communicateRulesIt will be an opportunity for girls to learn.She states that women's methods of communication are quite different from those of men.

Just as the Western style of communication is not always done in Asian culture, the male style of communication is not necessarily done in women's culture. The reverse is also the same. Wood explains how men and women can communicate well with the opposite sex and makes six recommendations:

  1. Let's stop giving good and bad evaluation to the other party.
    You must stop saying bad things about the other person without understanding what is happening and how you can get mutual understanding when the conversation with the opposite sex goes wrong.
  2. Let's justify it for different modes of communication.
    Women value relationships and emotions, but they do not indicate that they are willing to respect the way men compete in communication. Similarly, men attach importance to work outcomes, but do not indicate that they are not willing to respect the way women communicate, showing compassion for others. Professor Wood states that it is inappropriate to employ either method, male or female, for heterosexual communication. Everyone must admit that men and women have different goals, different priorities and different criteria.
  3. Give them clues to translate.
    Following the recommendations in the previous section, you will understand that men and women have different modes of communication. In addition, you will come up with what you want to help others translate. This is very important. This is because I cannot automatically understand a communication method that is not in my sex culture without help.
  4. Look for translation clues.
    Mutual interactions between the opposite sex can be improved by looking for translational clues and reacting correctly. Improving interaction interactively can improve reactions from people from different cultures.
  5. Develop your communication skills.
    By learning the communication method of the other person, you can not only know about the other person's culture, but also about your own culture. You can improve your communication skills by learning and growing openly and incorporating what is important to your culture. According to Professor Wood, men can learn a lot from women's cultures about how they can help friends. Similarly, women can learn a lot from the male culture about how to get closer while doing something.
  6. Professor Wood repeats the sixth recommendation, "Let's stop evaluating others for good or evil."
    This is a particularly important recommendation. Because valuing is part of the Western culture of "valuing others and defending our position". Sex culture is busy assessing one's sex culture and defending one's own, and does not have effective heterosexual communication. It is the first and last important principle of not evaluating other people as good or bad in effective communication between different cultures.

Management communication

Management communication is positioned as one of the management resources such as "people, goods, money, information". In the centerMarketing communicationThere is. ConventionalMarketing mixOne of 4P,promotionOn behalf ofMarketing mix Of4C"Communication" has been attracting attention as one of them. Also,Integrated marketing communication(BMI) Is also positioned as a communication in marketing[19].

Advances in mass communication and communication technology

News (Chinese),tv set,radio,インターネットSuch asMass mediaThroughMassesConvey a large amount of information toMass communicationIs also a type of communication, as can be seen from the fact that the word communication is included. However, while other communication is more or less interactive, the reaction from the general public, who is the recipient of the information, to the mass media, which is the sender of the information, is very weak, and the mass who is the sender is almost the same. It is characterized by having a strong tendency of one-sided communication from the media to the general public as the recipient. With the spread of the Internet, this unidirectionality has somewhat diminished in Internet media, but this tendency has not changed in conventional mass media.

Mass communication like thisnotesStarted,TextMarkeddocumentsIt started when I was left behind. Until then by writing会話This is because it is now possible to store communications that had to be done, and it has become possible to transmit information to people in remote areas and in the far future generations. InitiallyClay plate,papyrusWas recorded in the early 2nd centuryBack Han OfCai Lun paperWith the development of, it became easier. Paper orparchmentWith recording media such asink,イ ン クBased on writing materials such asPrintPublicationStarted, these are15st centuryToJohannes Gutenberg LetterpressAfter inventing art, it expanded rapidly and had a great impact in various fields such as society and culture.[20].

Letterpress printing is a newspapermagazineHowever, it has not yet gained immediacy.19st centuryBy the progress of enteringTelegraph,TelImmediate remote communication means were developed, but this developed as a one-to-one communication means rather than mass communication.1894/Is based on this technologyWireless communicationIs born and not connected by linesShipAlthough it became possible to communicate instantly even in extremely remote areas, it also developed towards a one-on-one communication method. Mass communication again developed greatly in the 1920s based on wireless communication technology.radioIt was when the broadcast started. With the development of this radio, mass communication gains immediacy, and unlike publication media, it can easily cross borders, and it is possible to deliver information to people who can not read because it is voice media. It was In the latter half of the 20th century, the development of television enabled mass communication to transmit not only audio but also video to people, and played an even greater role. On the other hand, radio was in the mid-1950sTrannyThe development ofPower InputIt became possible to carry it anywhere with the improvement of[21].1990 eraWith the spread of the Internet in the latter half, it will be possible for many general citizens other than the mass media to send information to the general public.Mobile phoneWith the advent of, the communication between individuals has also been released from the line, making it possible to stay in touch no matter where you are.

Animal communication

BiologyIn the area of, the information between individuals when the behavior and voice of an individual animal influence the behavior of other individuals of the same or different species and it is advantageous to the individual who sent those signals. It is said that such communication is called "communication" in the sense that it was transmitted.[22].

Animal communication is common to species but not fixed, and changes flexibly depending on the situation of the originator. Communication signals are exchanged not only between the same species but also between different species.

When communication signals are exchanged, it means that both sides are benefiting from the exchange. There is intense debate about how different species, especially conflicting predators and prey, benefit from communication.

Communication game

There are games that make the most of communication.


  • Kojien Fifth edition 1998
  • Hidetoshi Kato "Human Relations: Understanding and Misunderstanding" Chuokoron-sha <Chuko Shinsho>, 1966. 
  • Masaomi Takahashi et al. "Psychology and Clinical Relationships" Kitaooji Shobo, 1995. 
  • Iwanami Biology Dictionary Fourth Edition 1996
  • Agasa Christmas "Soroku-chan in the library", 2007.
  • Fukunaga Hideo"High-level information technology and modern civilization: over the decline in "participation""Tadao Umesao・Supervised "Civilization of the Earth Age", Kyoto Press, 2008


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ At Digital Daijisen, the following explanatory text is added together as a [supplementary] to call your attention.
    ""Communication" is used not only to convey information, to communicate and to communicate, but also to communicate and communicate. “Taking parenthood” means that the parent does not talk to the child unilaterally, but the parent and child understand each other, and when “there is no husband and wife”, the conversation cannot be established or the relationship is uncomfortable. I will say. (Source: Digital Daijisen)
  2. ^ Brain scienceThen, the left cerebral hemisphere, which is mainly responsible for linguistic understanding, was injuredWernicke aphasiaPeople do not understand the meaning of what is said,How Nonverbal understanding of what was said (and thus感情Understanding) shows a better understanding than people without disabilities. It is believed that this is due to the fact that the right cerebral hemisphere is primarily responsible for nonverbal understanding.
  3. ^ EthologyThen, the specific signal that influences the other party's instinctive behavior is "Releaser"Or "provocation stimulus" and functions as a means of communication. PJB Slater (1994) "Introduction to Zoological Behavior" Iwanami Shoten.
  4. ^ The term Communication originally comes from the Latin word communicatio and means "sharing."
  5. ^ Difficult for others to understandautismChildren are told that there is an ice bar in the potato chips tube, but other children should answer that the tube contains potato chips. I can't guess (Sally Anne ChallengeSee also)
  6. ^ What is the sign here? As defined by C. Morris, "a stimulus that causes a reaction as if an object does not exist in front of the eye, but it does exist." That is ("Understanding and Misunderstanding of Human Relations" p.71)


  1. ^ a b c Kojien Fifth edition pp.1004-1005 Communication
  2. ^ Digital Daijisen
  3. ^ a b "psychology"University of Tokyo Press ISBN 4130120417
  4. ^ Yoshihiko Ikegami et al. “Invitation to Cultural Semiotics” Yuhikaku 1983 ISBN 464102345X
  5. ^ Hidetoshi Kato 1966, p. 64.
  6. ^ Hidetoshi Kato 1966, p. 65.
  7. ^ a b c d e f Hidetoshi Kato 1966, p. 66.
  8. ^ a b Hidetoshi Kato 1966, p. 71.
  9. ^ Hidetoshi Kato 1966, p. 74.
  10. ^ a b Hidetoshi Kato 1966, p. 76.
  11. ^ a b Masaomi Takahashi 1995, p. 22.
  12. ^ Masaomi Takahashi 1995, p. 25-27.
  13. ^ Hidetoshi Kato 1966, p. 82.
  14. ^ Hidetoshi Kato 1966, p. 83.
  15. ^ a b Hidetoshi Kato 1966, p. 85.
  16. ^ a b c d Wood, JT (1998). Gender Communication, and Culture. In Samovar, LA, & Porter, RE, Intercultural communication: A reader. Stamford, CT: Wadsworth.
  17. ^ Tannen, Deborah (1990) Sex, Lies and Conversation; Why Is It So Hard for Men and Women to Talk to Each Other? The Washington Post, June 24, 1990
  18. ^ Maltz, D., & Borker, R. (1982). A cultural approach to male-female miscommunication. In J. Gumperz (Ed.), Language and social identity (pp. 196-216). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  19. ^ Yuka Mizuno・Toshiyuki Senoo・Yuuki Ibuki"AdsCommunication Research Handbook” Yuhikaku 2015
  20. ^ Taketoshi Yamamoto, edited by Taketoshi Yamamoto, "Newspapers, Magazines, Publishing Series, Modern Media and Journalism 5" p.153,Minerva Shobo, November 2005, 11 First edition, first edition issued
  21. ^ Hiroshi Kashiwagi"Cultural magazine of daily necessities" p.149,Iwanami Shoten, June 1999, 6 21st printing
  22. ^ "Iwanami Biology Dictionary 481th Edition" p.XNUMX [Communication]

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