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🙋 | READYFOR and Nagasaki University form a business alliance Give Ukrainian students a place to continue learning

Photo Nagasaki University | A place to continue learning for Ukrainian students who have lost their place of learning

READYFOR and Nagasaki University form a business alliance Give Ukrainian students a place to continue learning

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In this project, we will solicit donations until July 40 (Wednesday) with the goal of raising 3,400 million yen by crowdfunding out of the total cost of 1,000 million yen for accepting about 7 Ukrainian refugee students. ..

READYFOR stock that operates Japan's first and largest crowdfunding service "READYFOR" ... → Continue reading

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    Total cost 3,400 million yen


    Donation[1](Kifu,British: donationIsmoney,propertyTo public works, public interest, welfare, religious facilities, etc.GratisTo provide in.


    disasterAt the time of disaster, it will be sent to the affected areasDonation-Donation(GienkinIs also one of the donations.EconomyAtwelfareIt is also an important economic activity that bears a part of the cost related to.

    In addition, Educational institution(Dedicated to pre-school and extra curricular,Museum,libraryEtc.) orMedical institutionTo donate toDonation(KizoTo donate to religious facilitiesDonation(KishinIt may also be called.

    Donations are made by donators, who donate money and property to the target institutions and facilities free of charge, based on their own will. Many of the donations arePublic works,Public interest institution, Welfare institution,Medical institution,Educational institution, Religious facilities, etc.

    These businesses, institutions and facilities play a public and public interest social role, but do not have a stable source of income, so donations are a major factor.Source of incomeOften In many parts of the world, donations play a part in welfare and occupy an important position in society.

    How to donate

    There are several ways to donate. Donors can donate directly to beneficiaries, but often between the donor and the beneficiary.IntermediaryPerson (CharityEtc.) intervenes. If there is an intermediary, the question arises as to whether the donation will be made according to the donor's intention. In Japan, it is generally considered that a trust relationship occurs between the donor and the intermediary. Another thing to keep in mind when there is an intermediary is that part of the money or property donated may be used for the expenses of the intermediary. Except for some intermediaries, not all donations are delivered to the beneficiaries.

    There are also donation activities such as fund-raising.Presided over by Japan's Central Community Chest of JapanRed feather community chestIs one example. In addition, there is also a donation method of purchasing cheap products. Japanese as an exampleTuberculosis prevention societyTo implementAmerican Lung AssociationThere is exercise.

    You can donate 1 yen by clicking on the internet,Click donationThere is also. When the user clicks once, the sponsor pays 1 yen instead of the userNGO,UNICEFDonate to etc. The user's contribution is 0 yen.

    As mentioned above, there are various ways to donate, but the donorFree willThe emphasis is on donating based on. However, in realityResidents' association,Neighborhood associationIn some cases, they are forced to donate by collecting money, which is a problem in some cases.20078/24ToOsaka High CourtDecided to collect various donations in addition to the residents' association feeShigaKoka CityIt is a judgment that it is illegal to force donations to the residents' association.

    Target of donation

    There are various businesses, institutions, and facilities operated by donations, but most of them are organizations with public and public interest social purposes. There are institutions that aim to donate themselves, such as the central community chest society mentioned above. Donations are often made for welfare purposes,Dedicated to pre-school and extra curricular,Temple-Shrine-(I.e.It is not uncommon for donations to be made for the purpose of operations such as. For example,The United States of AmericaThen.UniversityA large amount of donations have been collected from graduates and are the main source of financial resources for university management. Also,Kingdom of ThailandThen by private donationprimary schoolThere are a large number of cases where such as are established and operated.

    In addition, some organizations aim to operate purely by donations in order to achieve some purpose. If funding is received from a company or the like, there is a concern that free activities will be hindered, so we are trying to secure free activities by donating from unknown people who agree with the purpose. Part ofFree softwareHas adopted this method. In addition, the user takes the form of a license to donate to the developer.Donation wearThere is also software called.

    Cultural differences

    From a global perspective, the degree of penetration of donations into society also varies greatly depending on the country / region.2000頃の状況を見ると、アメリカでは年間2000億ドル(約20数兆円)を超える個人寄付が行われているのに対し、日本では個人寄付では約4874億円(寄付白書2011)となっており、法人寄付も約5467億円となっている(国税庁税務統計2009年度分)。政府の家計調査によると、世帯当たりアメリカは約17万円、日本は概ね約3000円前後(平成23年は震災の影響があり、1世帯当たりの平均寄付金額は6,551円で、平成22年は3,789円)と寄付金額に大きな格差が見られる(ただし、政府家計調査では、宗教活動への寄付と教育分野への寄付が含まれていないため過小評価されている点に留意が必要)こうした格差は、宗教観・社会意識・税制の違いなどがあげられることが多い(寄付税制については、2011年6月に大幅な改正があり、国際的に比較しても優れた寄付税制が成立した)。

    These disparities are due to differences in religious views, social consciousness, and tax systems.[2]It is believed to be due to. In addition, the income disparity and asset disparity in the United States are larger than in Japan.Small governmentDue to the lack of public welfare such as the medical insurance system due to the orientation, the importance of redistribution of income by the private sector is also a factor, but compared to Japan and other countries, for example.Gini coefficientIs very high and there is almost no redistribution. In addition to the United States, someWesternCountries andIslamic countries, Thailand, etc.believerDonations play a very important role in social activities in many countries / regions.

    Donations and taxes

    Since donations are made free of charge, donations are pure from the perspective of the recipient.incomeBecomes Income is usually taxable, but many countries and regions recommend donation activities, so donations to specific groups and institutions are exempt from taxation and are subject to tax deduction. The criteria for selecting a specific organization / institution differ depending on the country / region, but in many cases, an organization / institution with a public or charitable purpose is selected. Through donations to these groups and institutionstax evasion-Tax avoidanceOften strict standards are set to prevent this from happening. Also, in many countries / regions to prevent political corruption政治家-Political partyDonation to (Political contribution) Is strictly regulated. Donations by politicians are also severely restricted in Japan.

    However, some politicians donated to the local branch of their political party, and the branch that received the donation was the politician.Money management groupIn the case of receiving an income tax refund by donating in the form of a return to2013becomeKansaiIt has become a problem since it was discovered one after another.[3][4][5][6][7].. Although there are strong calls for legislation, the national tax authorities and related parties say that it is "difficult to point out illegal activities."[8].

    Japanese donation tax system

    When an individual spends the following specific donations,Final returnBy doingDonation deduction(Income deduction) is allowed. Annual total amount of specific donations (Gross income amountUp to 40% of)-2 yen will be deducted.[9]

    Regarding donations paid by corporations, donations to the national and local governments and designated donations are all deductible, but other than that, only the deduction limit according to the capital, etc. and income of the corporation is deductible. .. In addition, when donating to the "town, people, work creation donation utilization project" of the Regional Revitalization Law between April 2016 (Heisei 28) and March 4 (Reiwa 2020) There is a recognized "corporate version of hometown tax payment" (tax credit).

    Brief history

    Donations and religions

    OnceMainland ChinaIn the idea that the harvest is something that a person keeps from heaven, and even the king is not allowed to use the thing for a rush at his own will.Tendou Thought)was there.

    The history of donationsReligiousHas a very strong connection with. Religious activity itself生産It is necessary to raise the cost for religious activities in some way because it does not involve. As a result, most religions have collected donations from their followers. In many cases, these donations (though they were called donations or donations in Japan) were primarily perceived as being dedicated to God or Buddha.

    Most religions also encourage donations to help the poor. thisIslamThen SadakaZakatIt is called (system abandonment),BuddhismThen.FarewellThat.キ リ ス ト 教But gift donations are widespread, but gift donations are semi-universal in these other religions. As seen above, in the pre-modern world, donations were carried out with a very strong religious background.

    As the gap between rich and poor became more pronounced in Western countries in the modern era, various charities based on the Christian spirit (Charity) Was carried out and came to play a part in social welfare. Donations were also carried out as a part of charity and are now positioned as part of welfare. Among Western countries, the United States andUnited KingdomFor example, the spirit of self-help is strong, and private donations flourished without relying on the government,NordicIn countries and the like, the social consciousness that the government is responsible for welfare was relatively strong, and private donations were not as popular as in the United Kingdom. The difference here is whether the burden on the welfare sector is borne by the private donation or by the government. In addition, at the end of the year fund raising activity ``Social potDoSalvation ArmyIs also a Christian church that originated in England.

    Japanese donation culture

    Ritual systemFor a long time in Japan,To the chief who is the agent ofFirst panicle, There was a custom of dedicating harvests and products as an initial fee[11].. The chiefYamato Imperial CourtWas the chief executive of the ritual afterEmperorAfter the ritual system, it will be a form of paying the first fee toGrandfatherIt changed to the tone. As a result of the tax reform of the 10th century, the name of donation to God disappeared and it was unified as a local tax, but after that, "TopTo the Shinto buddha called[11].

    Nara periodSince that time, Buddhist monks have become private because of public works such as water use, flood control and bridge/road construction.donationCollect donations calledPromotionWas held (the list of volunteers was "subscription list)).中 世Was in the time of self-help, but among the peopleYoritomokoMutual assistance has begun. This was mutual aid, which had the same function as donations, where money was saved in groups and provided to the poor in order.The early modern periodEven after entering, the tradition of mutual assistance was inherited.

    Also, in the Middle Ages, a "moral idea" was born that "rich people are and must be morally excellent".Virtuous personThe millionaires, who were called, were expected to return wealth to society[12].. Wealth donated by virtuous people is referred to as profitable and luciferous money, but in some cases it was made up of real goods such as rice. Money is mainly sent to temples and shrinesFarewellWas donated asKamakura PeriodAfter thatfamineIt has come to be used for more secular purposes such as relief of.

    Edo PeriodOsaka's Osaka (Osaka) had a virtue of the spirit of "storing Kitanou and using it cleanly." For that reason, it is said that the XNUMX Bridge in Osaka was made with donations from the townspeople. In a nutshell, the meaning of "store and use cleanly" means that accounts for commercial sales are separate from accounts for public spending. In other words, it is a merchant's virtue to save money to the point where it is said that commercial sales are wasteful, and to save capital by thriftyly saving money, but if you leave business, you, as a person, for the sake of the world and for people. Is a value that it is a virtue to do as much as possible.

    Such a spiritMeijiAfter that, the public facilities, museums, and elementary schools of Nakanoshima Public Hall were donated by citizens. But,Second World WarThen, when Osaka returned to Ashite and the center of commerce moved to Tokyo, such a spirit became “not lower” in Tokyo, which is an extension of Edo culture, which is a consumer city of “government center”. Did not spread.

    When the Meiji era changed the social structure drastically, donations became popular instead of mutual assistance. Before World War II,Royal family,ChaebolDonations were responsible for a large part of the welfare, such as 30% of the total donation, but when the welfare state came to be ideal after the war, there was a sense that the government is responsible for welfare. It has spread and the relative status of donations has declined. Still1995 OfGreat Hanshin-Awaji EarthquakeAt the time of the disaster, many contributions were made to the unprecedented disaster situation, but it took time to grasp the overall picture of the victims, as the principle of fair distribution to the victims It took a year and a half. (Disaster donations are first pooled in the "Judgment Distribution Committee" consisting of the Red Cross and the Central Community Chest of Japan, and the amount of payment per person is decided and delivered. The total donation has doubled from the previous year).2000From around that time, the reconstruction of society through loose solidarity began to be sought after in various parts of Japan. Supporting such movementNPOContributions have been receiving attention from the point of view of delivering to people who need realistic donations.

    2003IsNorio OgaSonyHonorary Chairman (at that time) paid 16 billion yen for retirement benefitsNaganoKaruizawaI tried to donate all toGift taxDue to problems such asKaruizawa Oga HallThere was a situation in which we had no choice but to take the form of granting the town to the town after construction and completion.[13].. This case is a typical example of a gift tax hindering donations in Japan.

    2010Since December, comicsTiger maskIn the name of a fictional character such as Naoto DateOrphanageDonate toTiger mask exerciseIs happening, but it is pointed out that donation that reveals a characteristic like Western countries is contradicted as "a trade name", and a culture of embarrassment that virtue is to secretly do charity at the root. As long as the roots are not improved, this movement is a temporary festival.trendSome point out that it ends with.

    On March 2020, 3, the government, in accordance with the provisions of Article 13 of the Constitution of Japan, to submit to the Diet to allow the emperor to donate up to 1 million yen to social welfare projects following the throne of the emperor. The resolution was decided by the Cabinet[14][15]..This resolution was unanimously passed at the plenary session of the House of Representatives on March 3.[16]And passed unanimously at the House of Councilors plenary session on March 3.[17]And the Diet voted. On April 2020, 4, the Imperial Household Agency announced that the Emperor himself would donate a total of 6 million yen to two organizations for social welfare projects on the throne of the Emperor.[18].

    Donations and donations

    "Gien" isMeijiMade in the eraJapanese-made ChineseIs. "Justice" means doing the right thing, or doing our best for the public. "Kai" means throwing away. In other words, "donation money" means money discarded for the public in order to do the right thing (equivalent to Islam). Post-warNational language reformAnd "Kai"KanjiSince it was not adopted by the company, it was written as "Golden money". At present, the expression "money donation" is found in most media, but this is a substitute notation defined by the Shimbun Association's own standard.Natsume Sosekiof"I am a catThere is a scene in which a cat laughs at Mr. Bishaya, who says, "I can take the righteousness," saying, "It's something weird."As a statutory notation, it was enacted after the Act on Prohibition of Seizure of Donations Related to the Great East Japan Earthquake (Act No. 23 of August 8, 30).Law Concerning Prohibition of Seizure of DonationsThen, it is written as "donation".

    Confusion between fundraising and donations

    The original meaning of "donation" is to literally solicit donations and donations, and the flow of money is exactly the opposite of "donation", but in recent years the word "donation" has been misused to mean "donation". Cases are increasing.[19] [20][21]

    Form of donation/donation

    Donation box

    JapanFor example, "Ashinaga Scholarship Society""Green donation""Blue feather donation"Such,Street fundraiserThere is.

    "Red feather community chestThen, following the Akikan donation box1994Has developed an assembly type donation box[22].

    Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euIs included in the title "Ayumi's BoxThere are 5 renewal of the donation box, and the one from 2007 is the 6th generation.

    other,Convenience storeThere is also a form to install it in a store (such as in front of the cash register)[23].Seven-ElevenIn the case of, a green fund is usually used, and when a serious disaster occurs, the sticker on the box is replaced and a donation fund raising activity for that is carried out for a certain period.[24].

    The larger the amount of donation, the more difficult it is to collect the amount of money.Coin calculatorIn the era when is not popular,Coin holderIt was said that it was done manually using a (coin counter) etc.[25](Sometimes I still do so[26]).

    Regular automatic transfers from credit cards and various financial institutions

    There is also a system for making periodic donations, which allows you to automatically send money every month so that you can conveniently make donations.


    Doraemon donation(TV Asahi has been implemented since 1999) is a system that allows you to donate automatically through carrier payments by three major mobile phone companies.[27].

    With a donation function (such as soft drinks)vending machineAlso[28][29].

    FamilyMartThen the in-store terminalFami portWe also realized the method of paying at the cash register after specifying the donation at[23].


    [How to use footnotes]
    1. ^ The original script isDonationThere is a myth that “donation” is a shorthand notation, but “attachment” has the meaning of “giving” and “giving” and is consistent with the meaning of donation. “Tsuke” originally meant embankment, but was later mixed with “tsuke”[Source required].. In the law and the text of the law, "donation of donation" and "Donation actThere are many things written in the word "donation" such as the term "."
    2. ^ As mentioned above, donations are tax exempt in many countries, and in the United States, tax exemptions are not only taxable, but service for citizens and the general public is respected, and at the same time, asset owners and companies that do not make donations are thorough. Exposed to criticism.
    3. ^ Kadoma City Council, Osaka: Tax refund of 4640 million yen through "detour donation", through the LDP Branch Mainichi Newspaper March 2013, 4
    4. ^ By-pass donation, including members of the House of Representatives in Wakayama and Nara[Broken link] Yomiuri Shimbun May 2013, 4
    5. ^ Tax refund by detour donation, two LDP Kyoto City council members Yomiuri Shimbun May 2013, 4
    6. ^ Detour donation, LDP Osaka postponed investigation...Chairman refund found Yomiuri Shimbun May 2013, 4
    7. ^ The Meiji Restoration/Hyogo representative also made a detour donation... Yomiuri Shimbun May 2013, 4
    8. ^ Refunds, in the interest of politicians... Detour donations, discovered one after another Yomiuri Shimbun May 2013, 4
    9. ^ When you have donatedNational Tax Agency
    10. ^ No.1266 When donating to a public interest incorporated association (National Tax Agency website)
    11. ^ a b Sakurai 2011, pp. 15–25.
    12. ^ Sakurai 2011, pp. 11–12, 39–54.
    13. ^ Mr. Oga, Sony's retirement allowance of 16 billion yen Government and tax system shaken by donation,Nikkei BP,20037/15, Viewed on December 2012, 6
    14. ^ Reiwa March 2, 3 (Friday) Regular Cabinet Meeting Prime Minister's Office HP
    15. ^ "The Emperor's donation of up to 1 million yen is possible" Cabinet decision-Mainichi Shimbun "(July 2020, 4). https://mainichi.jp/articles/20200313/k00/00m/040/059000c 
    16. ^ "Article 201 of the Constitution Resolution 1st Diet XNUMX Resolution under Article XNUMX of the Constitution of Japan". House of Representatives. 2021/7/7Browse.
    17. ^ "201st Diet March 2020, 3 Voting Results Schedule 31st Resolution by the provisions of Article XNUMX of the Constitution of Japan (sent to the House of Representatives)". House of Councilors (September 2021, 4). 2021/7/7Browse.
    18. ^ "Your Majesty donates to two welfare organizations: Asahi Shimbun Digital"(July 2020, 4). https://www.asahi.com/articles/DA3S14432336.html 
    19. ^ NHK's official website reports that "We are soliciting donations" for the reconstruction of Shurijo Castle.
    20. ^ The president of DMM, who was carrying out matching gifts, suggested that he personally add donations to Mr. Hiroyuki's offer to donate beyond the upper limit.
    21. ^ TV Asahi reports that YouTuber HIKAKIN donated 1000 million yen to Corona medical institution "HIKAKIN raised 1000 million yen"
    22. ^ Red feather community chest --About red feather --Statistics / history --History of community chest
    23. ^ a b [Convenience store new life] Donations that can be easily done at stores --ZAKZAK 2013.12.17
    24. ^ Donation fund-raising activities | Seven-Eleven Memorial Foundation
    25. ^ Red feather donation Miyazaki column January 2004
    26. ^ Hokkaido UNICEF Association (Japan Committee for UNICEF Agreement Regional Organization): Road Association Back Number
    27. ^ Doraemon Fundraising | TV Asahi Welfare Culture Corporation
    28. ^ Red feather community chest Kanagawa community chest basic information
    29. ^ Green feather vending machine | Introduction of vending machine | DyDo DRINCO


    Related item

    Donation mechanism
    Social system


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