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🙋 | Take a round horizon over the flames Student project raises funds (2)


Photo funding is being done at the crowdfunding site "CAMPFIRE" (Credit: Earth Light Project)

A student project raises funds to take a round horizon over the flames (2)

 
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If you choose one, you can get it cheaply, but it is unreliable if you want to shoot surely (readers may have experienced freezing smartphone cameras and apps), There was a problem with the law (Radio Law), so it was decided that it could not be used this time.
 

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Radio Act

Radio Act(Denpaho, Law No. 25 of 131)Radio waveBy ensuring fair and efficient use ofPublic welfareJapan (Article 1), with the aim of promotinglaw.

Constitution

  • Chapter 1 General Provisions (Article 1-Article 3)
  • Chapter 2 Radio station OflicenseEtc. (Article 4-Article 27-34)
  • Chapter 3 Wireless equipment(Article 28-Article 38)
  • Chapter 3-2 Of Specified Radio EquipmentCertification of conformity with technical standardsEtc. (Article 38-2 --Article 38-38)
  • Chapter 4 Wireless workers(Article 39-Article 51)
  • Chapter 5 Operation (Article 52-Article 70-6)
  • Chapter 6 Supervision (Article 71-Article 82)
  • Chapter 7 Oppositions and Proceedings (Article 83-Article 99)
  • Chapter 7-2 Radio Control Council (Article 99-2 --Article 99-14)
  • Chapter 8 Miscellaneous Provisions (Article 100-Article 104-5)
  • Chapter 9 Penalties (Article 105-Article 116)
  • Supplementary provisions
  • Appendix

Overview

In this law, Article 2 defines the terms "radio waves," "wireless telegraphy," "radiotelephones," "radio equipment," "radio stations," and "radio workers."

  1. "Radio waves" are XNUMX millionMHzRefers to electromagnetic waves with the following frequencies[1].
  2. "Wireless telegraphy" refers to communication equipment for sending or receiving codes using radio waves.
  3. "Radiotelephone" refers to communication equipment for sending or receiving voice or other sound using radio waves.
  4. "Radio equipment" refers to radio telegraphs, radio telephones and other electrical equipment for transmitting or receiving radio waves.
  5. "Radio station" means a radio equipment and a total of persons who operate the radio equipment. However, it does not include those intended only for reception.
  6. A "radio worker" is a person who operates or supervises radio equipment.Minister of Internal Affairs and Communications OflicenseThe one that received.

Although the wording existed before the enforcement of this law, this law is the first to be defined as a legal term.

Furthermore,Radio stationIn principle, a radio station license is required for this, and a radio operator is required to operate the radio equipment of the radio station.Wireless telegraphyThen, in principle, radio stations are bureaucrats (government officialNo qualification required as it is operated by[2]On the other hand, for private use, the facility permitRadio operatorHowever, under this law, those established by government agencies also require a wireless worker license.

  • Article 59 states, "You must not intercept or divulge the existence or content of wireless communication made to a specific party, or steal it. It is stipulated that "radio workers, radio station license holders, and other general public"Communication secret(confidentiality) Strictly adhere to ”.
    • If you violate this, Article 109 stipulates that you will be punished by imprisonment with work for not more than 1 year or a fine of not more than 50 yen.
    • In Article 109, Paragraph 2, the radio operatorInformation leakageIf you do, you will be punished with imprisonment for up to 2 years or a fine of up to 100 million yen.Severe punishmentThere are regulations.
    • Broadcast (anyone can receiveRadio broadcast,TV broadcast) Does not correspond to "specific opponent", so it is not subject to this restriction.
    • Others無線 LANOf the equipmentWEPDecrypt the key and without permissionInternet connectionTo "Wi-FiThere is a criminal trial in which it was disputed whether "free ride" violates Article 109 of the Radio Law.Tokyo District Court The2017(Heisei29 years)4/27"The WEP key is not transmitted and received as the content of wireless communication between the wireless LAN device and the terminal, and there is no room for the secret of wireless communication. Therefore, the use of the WEP key does not constitute a crime and is a crime. It does not become "[3][4],Tokyo District Public Prosecutor's OfficeWas not appealed, so he was virtually acquitted of the violation of Article 109, Paragraph 1 of the Radio Law.ただし、被告人は有罪とされた不正アクセス禁止法違反などについて判決内容が不服として控訴しているHowever, the accused has appealed the content of the judgment as dissatisfied with the guilty violation of the Unauthorized Computer Access Law.[5].

History

Until enactment

It was the Wireless Telegraph Law enacted in 1915 (Taisho 4) that regulated wireless communication before the Radio Law.

1946 year (Showa 21 year)GHQPrivate sector communications agency (CCS) is newly promulgatedThe Constitution of JapanHe demanded that the law be amended in line with the democratic law. In 1947 (Showa 22), the CCSFederal Communications CommissionHe also demanded that the committee administration follow the (FCC).Ministry of CommunicationsInitially tried to amend the Wireless Telegraph Law, but rather decided to enact a new law.

After that,Radio Act-Broadcasting law-Radio Control Committee Establishment LawAnd laterRadio wave three methodsThe bill was drafted in the form of. of timePrime MinisterYoshida ShigeruIt is,Administrative committeeAlthough it was negative, it can be said that it is the Japanese version of FCC in the end.CabinetIt was decided to set up a radio wave supervision committee independently of. In three years, the bill reached the ninth bill.

Meanwhile, on June 1949, 24 (Showa 6), the Ministry of CommunicationsMinistry of PostとMinistry of TelecommunicationsSeparated into, the radio wave supervision administration is the Ministry of TelecommunicationsOuter office OfRadio AgencyWas taken over by.

The Three Radio Laws came into effect on June 1950, 25, and the Radio Agency became the Directorate General of Radio Control, the secretariat of the Radio Control Committee.

Abolition of the Radio Control Committee and subsequent changes

1952(Showa27 years)4/28,Peace Treaty with JapanAfter Japan's sovereignty was restored7/31The Radio Control Committee was abolished, and the Directorate General of Radio ControlMinistry of PostIt became the radio wave control station of the internal station. After that, the Radio Control Bureau was reorganized in July 1984 (Showa 59).Telecommunications BureauIn January 2001 (Heisei 13),Reorganization of central ministriesByMinistry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsComprehensive Communication Infrastructure BureauIt became.

In April 1985 (Showa 60), the Local Radio Control Bureau was renamed the Local Telecommunications Control Bureau.

Delegation of authority


footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ That is, frequency 3Terahertz (THz)Hereinafter, it refers to an electromagnetic wave having a wavelength of 1 mm or more. According to the regulations of the Radio Law, infrared rays, visible rays, ultraviolet rays, etc. with higher frequenciesLight,radiationIs outside the scope of the Japanese Radio Law. In addition, it should be notedAviation lawThe restrictions on the use of electronic devices in aircraft defined in the above are not "operation restrictions on communication itself" but "operation restrictions to prevent interference with communication operations".
  2. ^ However,Communication Officer Training CenterThose who were educated in were engaged.
  3. ^ Yasushi Sakakibara (April 2017, 4). "Isn't the" free ride "of wireless LAN guilty? Ask an expert ". Nikkei Communication (Nikkei BP). https://tech.nikkeibp.co.jp/it/atcl/column/14/346926/042800957/ 2018/12/16Browse. 
  4. ^ Tokyo District Court Criminal Part 16 (April 2017, 4). “Violation of the law concerning prohibition of unauthorized access, fraud using computer, fraudulent creation and use of private electromagnetic records, use of electromagnetic records for fraudulent orders, accused of violation of the Radio Law (PDF)". Supreme Court. 2020/10/3Browse.
  5. ^ "Wireless LAN" free ride "not guilty confirmed Tokyo District Public Prosecutor's Office, without appeal". Sankei Shimbun (Sankei Shimbun). (November 2017, 5). https://www.sankei.com/affairs/news/170512/afr1705120002-n1.html 2018/12/16Browse. 

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