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Wearable computer

Wearable computer(British: wearable computer) Can be worn or wornComputerThat.Laptop,SmartphoneEtc. can simply be carriedComputerUnlike, it mainly refers to clothes or wristwatches that can be used while wearing them. Wearable device, Wearable terminals, wearables, sometimes called wearable products.There are various types such as wristwatch type, eyeglass type, ring type, shoe type, pocket type, and pendant type.ウェアラブルコンピュータを搭載した被服の事を「ウェアラブル○○」という言い方もあるClothes equipped with a wearable computer are sometimes called "wearable XX".[1].

A wearable computer is an old name that refers to a device that can be worn, and in recent years it has been called a wearable device.[2].

Overview

A terminal that can be worn and does not limit the daily life of the user and can process and communicate data only with that terminal is called a wearable product.[3]..Wearable devices consist of small and light devices腕 時 計I usually wear it likeGadgetFrom the one usingHead mounted displayA gadget that is not impossible to wear and go out like (HMD), orclothingWidely researched, including those that integrate computers into[4].

Ubiquitous computingIn, wearable computersEnd-userHas great significance as a terminal that is in direct contact with.A wristwatch-shaped computer,PDA, Small computers, accompanying communication devicesSensorKind (camera andGPS(Receiver, etc.) are specifically mentioned, but not limited to these, various shapes have been researched and proposed.However, there are many issues for practical use and popularization of HMDs, such as when they are worn outdoors and walked, they look strange.近年は、「眼球に直接埋め込まれ、脳に直結したディスプレイ」の実用化も議論されているIn recent years, the practical application of "a display that is directly embedded in the eyeball and directly connected to the brain" has been discussed.[5].

2010At that time, due to technical problems, the spread of wearable technology to the general public was sluggish.[6]..However, with the recent development of semiconductor technology, the spread of wireless communication technology, and the development of data management / analysis technology, the penetration rate of wearable devices has increased.ウェアラブルデバイスの出荷台数はThe number of wearable devices shipped2020It is estimated that there will be about 1160 million units in Japan and about 3 million units worldwide.[7].

Task

There are some challenges in realizing a wearable computer.

Hardware suitable for wearing
Head mounted displayMiniaturization andInput device, Low power consumptionCPUCan operate for a long time电源Development such as.Furthermore, since it is something that can be worn for a long time, it is necessary to design on that assumption.主にmainlyLow temperature burnsTo solve the fever problem so as not toskinThe part that comes into direct contact withSweat金属PartscorrosionMust not be designed[8].
Applied technology that makes sense to always wear a computer
Wearing a computer is not much different from carrying a small enough computer.It is necessary to have applied technology that makes the best use of the characteristics that are always acquired.There are three major proposals for use. 3つは利用者に対するOne is for usersreal timeThe second is to record the user's status, and the third is to link with an external computer.
Examples of real-time information provision to users include directions, memos about people by face image recognition, and peripheral information.
Examples of user status records include behavioral records,Health careSuch.
By linking with an external computerWork stationA system that switches the environment according to the user in front of you and monitors where and who is in the building.

A fiction work featuring a wearable computer

Manga anime
ゲーム
Special effects

Source

  1. ^ Underwear brandTriumphHas announced a bra with a built-in "Triumph Wearable Women's Power Up Bra" and a wearable device.However, the meaning of wearable means that it can be worn, and all bras are naturally wearable.[1]
  2. ^ "What is a wearable device? "Wearable device, wearable device": --IT Glossary Binary". www.sophia-it.com. 2019/8/22Browse.
  3. ^ https://ctech.ul.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/Wearable-Technology-products_ja.pdf p.3
  4. ^ "What is a wearable computer? --IT Glossary”(Japanese). IT glossary e-Words. 2019/8/20Browse.
  5. ^ Eye implants could replace smartphones in 10 years | Enterprise Innovation Japan
  6. ^ "What is a wearable computer? (Wearable computer): --IT Glossary Binary". www.sophia-it.com. 2019/8/22Browse.
  7. ^ "Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications | 28 White Paper on Information and Communications | Background of attention of wearable devices". www.soumu.go.jp. 2019/8/22Browse.
  8. ^ LG issues update for G Watch to stop corrosion in terminal pins

Related item

外部 リンク

Social distance expansion strategy

Social distance expansion strategy(Sharing school,English: social distancing) Is[Note 1],InfectionFor the purpose of stopping or slowing the spread ofMedicineDo not useinfectionSuppressionIs a means for.It is a measure to reduce the chances of people making close contact with each other by keeping a physical distance between them.[3][4]Includes keeping a certain distance from others (which distance is appropriate may vary from time to time and from country to country) and avoiding large group gatherings.[5][6] The purpose of social distance reduction is to reduce the likelihood of contact between infected and uninfected persons,sick OfContagion,Morbidity, And finallymortality rateIs to minimize[4].

JapaneseOther notation,Social distance strategy[7],Social distance strategy[8],Securing human contact distance[9],Secure social distance[10],KatakanaTranscription officialSocial distanceOr translatedMeasures to avoid crowds[11]and so on. In addition, it is a translation of the sociological term Social distance.Social stratification Distance / social disparity (social distance)Is originally a different concept[12].. It may be used in both Japanese and English as a word indicating a physical distance to a person without distinction.[13][14][15][16].. Also recognized as a translation of Social distancing[17].2019から2020OverEpidemic of new coronavirus infection (COVID-19)In the periodwho (WHO) is based on the concept that it is only physical distance that prevents infection and that one can maintain social ties through technology, instead of "social" distance. Proposed to use the term "physical" distance[3][18][19][20][21][22].

There isinfectionWhoinfectionBy reducing the possibility of making physical contact with people,Transmission routeIs restricted,mortality rateCan lead to a decrease in[3][4]..Good respiratory hygiene measures to increase social distance (MASKSwear,coughEtiquette, hand sanitizer in case of contact with respiratory secretions or contaminants)Hand washingUsed in combination with[23][24].

To slow down the spread of infectious diseases, and in particular to avoid overburdening the medical system,PandemicDuring (widespread epidemic), school closures, workplace closures,isolation,quarantine,(English editionBlockade by,(English editionMeasures to expand social distance such as cancellation of[4][25].

In modern times, there are some cases in which successful measures to increase social distance have been successful in the past epidemics of infectious diseases.The United States of America OfSt. LouisThen,1918Ininfluenza OfPandemic(Spanish cold) Was confirmed in the city, and the administrative authoritiesDedicated to pre-school and extra curricularClosed, closed rallies for large numbers, and implemented other interventions to increase social distance.St. Louis Ofmortality rateIt is,influenzaA large number of people will participate despite confirming the infection caseparadeAnd did not take measures to increase social distance even if more than two weeks passed after confirmation of the first infection case.PhiladelphiaFar below the mortality rate.[26]Measures to increase social distanceCoronavirus pandemic from 2019 to 2020It is also being implemented.

Social distancing measures are more effective when the infection spreads in one or more ways:[27].

On the other hand, mainly infectious diseasesFaeces route(Infection through water and food with poor hygiene)mosquitoOther insectsIntermediaryIf spread through, the effect will be smaller[28].

Disadvantages of measures to increase social distance include:孤独Feeling,ProductivityOf theHuman relationsThere is a decrease in benefits related to[29].

Rationale

EpidemiologyFrom the perspective of, the basic goals behind the social distance expansion strategy are:Effective number of reproductionsNoIs to reduce. This effective number of reproductions will beBasic reproduction numberThat is, the value should be equal to the average number of secondary infections from one patient in a population with equal probability that all members will be infected. Basic model of social distance expansion strategy [30] Out of the total populationOf people, the number of people to contact is usually 1If reduced toEffective number of reproductionsIs given by the following formula.[30]

For example, if 25% of the population reduces social contact to 50% of normal, the number of effective reproductionsIs the number of basic reproductionsOf 81%. At first glance it may not seem like much reduction, but it can make a significant contribution to delaying the exponential spread of disease.[31][32]

Effective number of reproductionsIf the value of can be kept below 1 for a sufficiently long period, containment of infectious diseases will be achieved and the number of infected persons will decrease.[32]

Definition

Center for Disease Control and Prevention The (CDC) describes the social distancing strategy as a series of "methods of reducing the frequency and proximity of person-to-person contact for the purpose of reducing the risk of spreading infectious diseases."[25].Coronavirus pandemic from 2019At times, the CDC defines social distancing strategies as "congregate settings." [33]Stay away from, avoid mass gatherings, and if possible keep a distance of about 6 feet (183 cm) or 2 meters (m) from others. "[5][6].

Before the above,2009 OfSwine fluDuring the epidemic ofwho (WHO) described the social distancing strategy as "keeping at least one arm away from others and minimizing the gathering of people."[23]..Social distance expansion strategies include good respiratory hygieneHand washingIs used in combination withPandemicIs considered to be the most viable strategy to reduce or delay[23].

Effect

The social distance expansion strategy is for coughing and sneezing.Splash infectionMost effective in the case of infectious diseases. It is also effective in cases of direct physical contact, including sexual contact, indirect physical contact, or airborne infection.[34].

However, the infection is mainly through contaminated water and food, or such as mosquitoes and other insects.IntermediarySocial distance expansion strategies are less effective when transmitted by[35].

The downside of this strategy is that不安-Depression-FrustrationOrStigmatizationIt can be mentioned that psychological and social problems such as[10].

Concrete example

If it is recognized that the illness circulates in society, people will choose to stay away from public places and others.(English editionMay be a trigger. When social distance expansion measures are implemented for the control of epidemics, they may bring benefits, but with economic costs. Research shows that measures must be applied immediately and rigorously in order for social distance expansion measures to work effectively.[39] Several social distance expansion measures have been implemented to curb the spread of infectious diseases[5][25][27].

Avoid physical contact

Keep a minimum of 6 feet (2 m) from each other and touch them directlyhug,gestureBy not doinginfluenza OfPandemic(Widespread fashion)2020 coronavirus pandemicThe risk of transmission of infectious diseases such as[5][40] It is also recommended in the workplace to maintain the above separation distance with personal hygiene precautions.[41] if possible,TeleworkMay be recommended.[24]

HandshakeTo sayTraditionVarious methods have been proposed as alternatives to. Align your palms with your palms, point your fingers upwards, and pull your hands toward your heart,Namaste OfgestureIs an alternative that does not involve physical contact.British coronavirus epidemics in 2020SometimesPrince CharlesUsed this gesture to greet guests at the reception,who (WHO)Tedros Adanom GebreyesosThe secretary generalイ ス ラ エ ル OfBenjamin NetanyahuThe prime ministerNamaste OfgestureIt is recommended to use.[42] Other alternatives for handshaking include shaking hands,(English edition(HawaiiUsed in,thumb小指Fold the three fingers to fold the rest)(I.e.Used in part ofpalmThere is a gesture that puts on the heart part.[42]

School closure

Closing schools could delay the spread of infectious diseases,Mathematical modelIndicated by.However, the effect also depends on how much the student has contact with others outside of school.Often one of the parents will have to take a break from work, which may require an extension of the school closure period.These factors can cause social and economic turmoil.[44][45]

Workplace closure

AmericaBased on data fromMathematical model,simulationAccording to the results of the study, if 10% of workplaces affected by infectious diseases are closed, the overall transmission rate of infectious diseases is about 11.9%, and the peak period of the number of infected people can be delayed only slightly. Is suggested.On the other hand, if 33% of workplaces affected by the infection are closed, the transmission rate of the infection will be reduced to 4.9% and the peak number of infected people will be delayed by one week.[46][47] Workplace closures include the closure of “non-essential” business and social services (“non-essential” services mean establishments/organizations that do not maintain the main function of the community. so,(English edition[48]Is an antonym of).[49]

Cancellation of large groups

(English editionTo cancel theSportsEvent ofmovies-musicalPerformances etc. are included[50]..Evidence suggesting that mass gatherings increase the potential for transmission of infectious diseases is not conclusive[51]..Some kind of mass gatheringinfluenzaIs associated with an increased risk of transmission ofPandemicAt times, it suggests that new seeds of new virus populations may be sown in the area and cause transmission to the community.Case evidence(AnecdoteThere is informal evidence in the form of or wind.1918 Ofinfluenza OfPandemic(Spanish coldAt timesAmerica OfPhiladelphia[52][53]andDuffel Bag[54]Was held inMilitary paradeWas infected withSailorIt is possible that the spread of the infectious disease was caused by a mixture of ordinary citizens. Combining the regulation of large-scale gatherings with the intervention of other social distance expansion measures may help reduce the spread of infectious diseases.[55] [56]

Travel restrictions

Border restrictions or restrictions on domestic travel are not expected to delay the spread of infectious diseases for more than two to three weeks unless implemented with a coverage rate of 99%.[57] 空港AtscreeningThe inspection isカナダ[58]andAmerica [59]Occurred in2003 OfSARS(Severe acute respiratory syndrome)OutbreakIn (Outbreak),ウ イ ル スIt was found that there is no effect in preventing the spread ofオーストリアOttoman EmpireAt the border betweenGland plagueIs infected byオーストリアTo prevent inflow to the side1770から1870Strict border control was carried out up to and is said to have been effective. Since border controls were setオーストリアThis is because there was never a large-scale epidemic outbreak in the territory.Ottoman EmpireOn the side19st centuryUntil the latter half, he continued to suffer from the spread of infectious diseases.[60][61]

2020Published in MarchNortheastern UniversityIn the study ofChugokuThe limitation of travel between and is only possible when efforts are made to reduce infections at the community and individual level and combined with those efforts.COVID-19Slows the rate of expansion. [...] Travel restrictions are not a sufficient measure unless implemented in conjunction with increasing social distance.[62]By this research,WuhanTravel bans in Japan have reduced the spread of infectious diseases abroad by about 80%, ChugokuIt was revealed that the spread of infectious diseases to other areas of the mainland was only delayed by 3 to 5 days. There are many reasons why travel restrictions have not been effective.COVID-19This is because the infected person does not show symptoms in the early stage of infection.[63]

Shield from infection

The way individuals shield themselves from infections is to limit face-to-face contact, work over the phone or online, avoid public places, and reduce unnecessary business trips. ,and so on[64][65][66].

quarantine

2003ToSingaporeOccurred inSARS OfOutbreakIn order to prevent the spread of infectious diseases, about 8,000 people at homequarantineIs required, and for the other 4,300 peoplesymptomI was asked to do a self-examination and check the health department every day. After allSARSOnly 58 people were diagnosed with the disease, but public health officials were satisfied that the method helped prevent further spread of the disease.[67] 2009 OfTexas OfinfluenzaIn the epidemic, the voluntary self-isolation of the population may have helped reduce the transmission of infectious diseases.[68]..Studies have shown that quarantine has negative psychological effects, both short-term and long-term.[29].

Blockade by protection line

1995,Zaire(CurrentEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu)ofKikuwitAtEbola OutbreakIn order not to cause(English editionWas used.[69][70][71] Mobutu Sese Seco The presidentKikuwitThe town of軍隊Surrounded by and interrupted all flights entering the town.KikuwitIn the town ofwho(WHO) andZaireFurther medical team(English editionSet upMedicalMeasures area andburialArea from the general publicisolationAnd succeeded in containing the infectious disease.[72]

Preventive isolation

1918 Ofinfluenza OfPandemic(Spanish coldFashion)ColoradoThe town ofGunnisonSelf-quarantined the entire town for two months to prevent the influx of infectious diseases.highwayTobarricadeWas installed and train passengers arriving in town were quarantined for five days. As a result of preventive isolation, Gunnison has beeninfluenzaThe number of deaths due to[73] Other municipalities have adopted similar measures.[74]

Other

Other measures includePublic transportStop or limit driving[75], Sports facilities (localPool, Youth club,gymnasium) Closed[76][77][78][79] Securing clean areas, reducing opportunities to meet other people, self-defense to avoid crowds, etc.

Johns Hopkins UniversityBruce Y. Lee of Bloomberg School of Public Health lists[80]. (Some may overlap with the above)

  1. Do not leave home as much as possible
  2. 6フ ィ ー トOr 2 mDo not approach within
  3. Don't stick your body
  4. room,elevatorAmong them, keep a distance
  5. Handshake-hug-sillaginoidDo not (like JapanesebowFind alternative methods)
  6. Avoid work, school, movie theaters, sporting events (switch to work from home, distance learning, internet viewing, etc.)
  7. Go to grocery store and laundromat in free time
  8. rush hourAvoid (Avoid crowded trains)
  9. ペ ン・ Push button ・door knobDo not touch anything that many people may have touched. If you touch it, wash your hands immediately. Carry a pen. Use a clean paper towel to touch the doorknob.
  10. Meetings / Meetings /Happy hour OfbarAvoid Gather in small groups only with people who can be sure that they are not infected.

Disadvantage

There is concern that increasing social distance may have a negative impact on participants' mental health.[81]..By participating in social distance expansion measuresstress,不安,DepressionNoパ ニ ッ クBut especially alreadyAnxiety disorder,Obsessive-compulsive disorder,ParanoiaCan be caused by individuals in mental states such as[82]..By the mass media,PandemicWidespread coverage of and its economic spillover and the hardships that result from them can create anxiety.In addition to the psychological stress of being separated from others, changes in the daily environment and uncertainty about the future can also increase stress.[83].

How to use words

The word "social distance", which is the English word for social distance, has been around since 1830.class,PeopleIt is used to refer to the sense of distance that occurs between people who differSocial scienceWas widely used as a term[16][84].. "Social distancing" was also widely used in social science literature from the late 1950s to the 2010s to refer to such distance-taking actions.[85].. On the other hand, in social terms, "social distance", which means the physical distance to be opened to humans, has been used since 1935.[84].. However, after 2019New coronavirus infectionDue to the epidemic, "social distancing" and "social distance" and the noun "social distance" are widely used in the sense of distance to humans to prevent infectious diseases. In the moonMerriam-WebsterThe meanings of these nouns were registered in the web version of the English dictionary[16][86][87].

On the other hand, with regard to using the word "social", people can use technology to interact with each other even if they refrain from contacting each other face-to-face to prevent infectious diseases. I'm not asking for socializing and keeping away from others[88]Therefore, there is criticism.whoProposes a more desirable "physical distance" which means physical distance[3][18][19][20].

Advertising by companies

As social distance is called for,CompanyCarried out an advertising campaign to spread this habit.

Advertising with company logo

McDonald's(BrazilCorporation),Coca Cola,Audi,Volkswagen,ZARAFor example, the logo with a high degree of recognition has been modified and opened with a space between the characters to make it public. Visually appealing the concept and significance of social distance[89].. Even in Japanese companiesau,Nippon Cultural Broadcasting, Inc.,東洋 経 済 オ ン ラ イ ン,sharpAnd others called for social distance with a gap in the company logo and account name.[90].

Advertising as a precursor to social distance

Hakata Tonkotsu Ramen Restaurant "Ichiran』The taste concentration system was sold by Ichiran himself as the original social distance after the outbreak of the corona wreck, and attracted attention from various media.Subsequently, Ichiran systematized the method of hygiene measures in connection with the taste concentration system and released it as the Ichiran model (ICHIRAN MODEL).[91].. Ichiran was relaunched by changing store owners1993At the Nanokawa store that opened in, we started to prepare partition boards between seats in response to a request from female customers that it was difficult to enter alone.Corona17 years before the outbreak2003On August 8, the patent for the "Taste Concentration System" was obtained (for details of the patent, see "JP 8-2005"). The practice of social distance in Ichiran has been calculated for almost 063009 years since the Nanogawa store.

note

  1. ^ The Japanese notation is2009 pandemic influenza pandemicAt the timeNational Institute of Infectious DiseasesAdopted one of the notations by the Center for Infectious Diseases[2].

Source

  1. ^ "These simulations show how to flatten the coronavirus growth curve" (English). The Washington Post (September 2020, 3). 2020/3/29Browse.
  2. ^ Nobuhiko Okabe, Kiyoshu Taniguchi, Keita Morikane, Tomimasa Sunagawa, Tamano Matsui, Yoshinori Yasui.Response to new influenza". Infectious Disease Information Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases. Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. 2020/3/20Browse.
  3. ^ a b c d "COVID-19". World Health Organization (September 2020, 3). 2020/3/29Browse.
  4. ^ a b c d Carolyn Y. Johnson (March 2020, 3). “Social distancing could buy US valuable time against coronavirus". Washington Post. 2020/3/11Browse.
  5. ^ a b c d "What is social distancing and how can it slow the spread of COVID-19?" (English). The hub(April 2020, 3). 2020/3/29Browse.
  6. ^ a b "Risk Assessment and Management" (English). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (September 2020, 3). 2020/3/29Browse.
  7. ^ "Q & A about influenza pandemic Q17”. National Institute of Infectious Diseases Infectious Disease Information Center. 2020/3/20Browse.
  8. ^ "Q & A about influenza pandemic Q10”. National Institute of Infectious Diseases Infectious Disease Information Center. 2020/3/20Browse.
  9. ^ "Business Continuity Plan for the International Pharmaceutical Industry". Japan Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association. p. 8 (August 2007, 4). 2020/3/20Browse.
  10. ^ a b "If you are asked to "keep your distance": Keeping Your Distance to Stay Safe”. Japan Psychological Association. 2020/3/27Browse.
  11. ^ "Temporary change in consular contact services". Embassy of Japan in Indonesia (September 2020, 3). 2020/3/20Browse.
  12. ^ "What is Social Distanceing? Attention word in corona: Asahi Shimbun Digital”(Japanese). Asahi Shimbun digital. 2020/4/30Browse.
  13. ^ "What is "Social Distance"? The recommendation of social distancing to snuggle up close”(Japanese). ITmedia NEWS. 2020/4/30Browse.
  14. ^ Buder, Emily. “How Humanity Unites in Social Distance-The Atlantic" (English). www.theatlantic.com. 2020/5/13Browse.
  15. ^ "Airlines Struggle to Balance Scheduling Fewer Flights With More Travelers Seeking Social Distance" (English). T. 2020/5/13Browse.
  16. ^ a b c "Definition of SOCIAL DISTANCE" (English). www.merriam-webster.com. 2020/5/13Browse.
  17. ^ Japan Broadcasting Corporation. “"Social Distanceing" for infection prevention". NHK News. 2020/4/30Browse.
  18. ^ a b "Social distancing is out, physical distancing is in--here's how to do it". (April 2020, 3). 2020/3/29Browse.
  19. ^ a b "It's Officially Time to Stop Using The Phrase'Social Distancing'". science alert (Futurism / The Byte) (September 2020, 3). 2020/3/29Browse. [1]
  20. ^ a b Kumar, Satyendra (28 March 2020). Corona Virus Outbreak: Keep Physical Distancing, Not Social Distancing. Rochester, NY. SSRN 3568435. 
  21. ^ "Die Wirkung von Sprache in Krisenzeiten"[The effect of language in times of crisis] (German). (March 2020, 3). 2020/3/27Browse. (NB. Regula Venske is president of the.)
  22. ^ "What is the background behind the birth of "Three Secrets"? -Professor Oshitani, Tohoku University (Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare Cluster Countermeasures Group) | Medical Restoration-Medical column at m3.com”(Japanese). www.m3.com. 2020/5/15Browse.
  23. ^ a b c "Pandemic influenza prevention and mitigation in low resource communities". World Health Organization (September 2009, 5). 2020/3/29Browse.
  24. ^ a b "Guidance on social distancing for everyone in the UK" (English). GOV.UK. 2020/3/29Browse.
  25. ^ a b c "Ethical guidelines in Pandemic Influenza--Recommendations of the Ethics Subcommittee of the Advisory Committee to the Director, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (September 2007, 2). 2020/3/23Browse. (12 pages)
  26. ^ “Chapter 6.3.3. Response and Containment: Lessons from the 1918 Pandemic Can Help Communities Today” (English). Pandemic Influenza: Emergency Planning and Community Preparedness. CRC Press(1 August 2008). Pp. 123–133 [133]. ISBN 978-1-4200-6088-1. https://books.google.com/books?id=t13C_eWhOX4C&pg=PA133 
  27. ^ a b "Information About Social Distancing". www.cidrap.umn.edu. Public Health Department: (2017). 2020/3/17Browse.
  28. ^ "Interim Pre-Pandemic Planning Guidance: Community Strategy for Pandemic Influenza Mitigation in the United States—Early, Targeted, Layered Use of Nonpharmaceutical Interventions". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (June 2007). 2020/3/29Browse.
  29. ^ a b “The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence” (English). The Lancet 395 (10227): 912–920. (14 March 2020). two:10.1016 / S0140-6736 (20) 30460-8. ISSN 0140-6736. PMC: 7158942. PMID 32112714. https://www.thelancet.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0140-6736%2820%2930460-8 2020/3/20Browse.. 
  30. ^ a b Modeling to Inform Infectious Disease Control. CRC Press(2015). P. 104. ISBN 978-1-49873107-2 
  31. ^ Jonathan M Read, Jessica RE Bridgen, Derek AT Cummings, Antonia Ho, Chris P Jewell (28 January 2020). Novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV: early estimation of epidemiological parameters and epidemic predictions. two:10.1101/2020.01.23.20018549. https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.01.23.20018549v2 2020/4/20Browse.. 
  32. ^ a b "Ending coronavirus lockdowns will be a dangerous process of trial and error”(English). Science (April 2020, 4). 2020/4/20Browse.
  33. ^ An environment where many people meet, get together, and share the same space for a certain period of time. Examples include prisons, detention centers, shelters, workplaces, schools, day care centers, day care centers, welfare facilities for the elderly, social clubs, etc.
  34. ^ "Information about Social Distancing" Santa Clara County Public Health Department.
  35. ^ "Interim Pre-Pandemic Planning Guidance: Community Strategy for Pandemic Influenza Mitigation in the United States—Early, Targeted, Layered Use of Nonpharmaceutical Interventions"  American Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, February 2007.
  36. ^ "The three phases of Covid-19—and how we can make it manageable". (September 2020, 3). 2020/3/9Browse.
  37. ^ "After'Flatten the Curve', we must now'Stop the Spread'. Here's what that means". (September 2020, 3). 2020/3/13Browse.
  38. ^ “How will country-based mitigation measures influence the course of the COVID-19 epidemic?” (English). The Lancet 395 (10228): 931–934. (9 March 2020). two:10.1016 / S0140-6736 (20) 30567-5. ISSN 0140-6736. PMC: 7158572. PMID 32164834. https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(20)30567-5/abstract 2020/3/28Browse"A key issue for epidemiologists is that policy makers have key policy goals for mitigating the effects of infectious diseases, such as minimizing morbidity and associated mortality, and disrupting medical services. Avoiding rapid expansion, controlling the economic impact to manageable levels, flattening the epidemiological curve of infectious diseases that awaits the development and mass production of vaccines and the subsequent start of drug treatment with antiviral agents. To support the decision. " 
  39. ^ “Controlling epidemic spread by social distancing: Do it well or not at all”. 12 (1): 679. (2012). two:10.1186 / 1471-2458-12-679. PMC: 3563464. PMID 22905965. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3563464/. 
  40. ^ "Guidance on Preparing Workplaces for an Influenza Pandemic". . . 2020/3/18Browse. [2]
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  42. ^ a b "Joined palms, hands on hearts, Vulcan salutes: Saying hello in a no-handshake era" (English). Los Angeles Times (September 2020, 3). 2020/3/18Browse.
  43. ^ "2009 Press Releases”. (June 2009, 12). 2009/12/24Browse.
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