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Toyota production system"Kanban"(Just-in-time production system), was developed with a view to using it at automobile parts factories and distribution centers. But,Error detection correctionHas a high ability ofOpen SourceFrom that,Toyota OfSupply chainIt started to walk alone out of the range, and is now widely used not only in Japan but also in the world. For example, at the time of invention, in the private sectorインターネットandSmartphoneWas not popular, but using themQR paymentIs currently a majorElectronic paymentFrom the inventionQuarter centuryAfterFintechIt is one of the technologies that support.
In Japan, TV stations present their QR code on the broadcast screen and are their own media.TV broadcastA method of inviting to the Internet of a medium different from the one described above, or a method of inviting to the Internet by presenting a QR code on a paper medium such as a magazine is often seen, and it is often used to combine the old and new media with the Internet. ..
In the days when there was no QR code, parts werebarcodeIt was managed by. However, because I had to read about 10 barcodes side by side for parts management, the work efficiency was very poor, and the workers at the site complained that they were "tired". I want you to create a code that can contain more information than the code. " To respond to this, Masahiro Hara, who belonged to the Denso Wave (Denso at the time of development) development department, started developing new code in 1992..
Hara was hitting in-house during the lunch breakGoTipsIn addition, the development goal is not only to increase the amount of information in the code but also to "read accurately and quickly", and to ensure that it will be used in automobile-related factories where oil and other dirt can get dirty Completed in 2 after two years of development.
Barcodes have information only in the horizontal direction, while QR codes have information in the vertical and horizontal directions. Therefore, the amount of information that can be stored is large, and not only numbers but also multilingual data such as alphabets and kanji can be stored. Also, although it is not recommended, if the color is such that the shade can be distinguished,ColorIt is possible to read even with the attached.
There are two types of QR codes, model 1 which was first made and model 2 which corresponds to the increase in size.The size is 1x21 of version 21cellFrom version 40 to 177 x 177 cells, it is decided in 4 cell increments.
The three square cutout symbols (position detection pattern, finder pattern) are characteristic. In addition, timing patterns such as the 3th column and the 7th row, and small square alignment patterns (model 7 only) inserted everywhere are fixed, and codes are recorded in other parts.
Currently sold in JapanMobile phone with camera・ Most smartphones support reading QR codes.Also,GoogleFor mobile phonesOSIsAndroidBut one-dimensional and two-dimensional barcode processing library "zxing"[Note 2] Open SourceIt is offered as. zxing reads Android QR codeAppsOf course, it is also used in the QR code reading function of other OS apps and business devices.Also,iOS From 11th, the function to read barcodes and XNUMXD codes has been added to AVFoundation.iPhone,iPadHowever, it supports reading QR codes as standard.
|Number only||Up to 7,089 characters|
|Alphanumeric (US-ASCII)||Up to 4,296 characters|
|Binary (8bit）||Up to 2,953Part-Time Job|
|Kanji/Kana (Shift_JIS)||Up to 1,817 characters|
The maximum capacity is the value when the version is maximum (40) and the error correction level is minimum (L).
1997In October, it became a standard,1998In 3 monthJEIDAstandard,1999In 1 monthJISJIS X 0510, and more2000In 6 monthISOIt became the standard ISO/IEC 18004. The popularity has been limited to Japan until recently, but also abroad such as the United Kingdom.QRpediaThe range is widespread such as the use of. Also Denso WaveSingaporeIs expanding to Southeast Asia.
Denso Wave, the patent owner, decided to open the patent first to spread the QR code., Against standardized technologypatent rightDeclare not to exercise[Note 3].. In addition, in recent years, some of the QR codes have characters and images embedded in them, but most of these are simply those with characters or images placed on top of the QR code. Does not comply with the QR code standard, so the code may not be read normally depending on the error correction level of the QR code and the performance of the reading device. For this reason, DENSO WAVE says that a code that does not comply with the standard cannot be called a "QR code."Says that patent rights may be exercised for the use of nonstandard codes.
- Related patents
- Patent No. 2938338 "two-dimensional code" (Applicant:Nippon Denso-Toyota Central Research Institute (Extinction of rights due to expiration of term)
- U.S. Pat. No. 5726435, "Opticaly readable two-dimensional code and method and apparatus using the same"
- Patent No. 2867904 "2D code reader" (Right extinguished due to expiration of lifetime)
- US Patent No. 5691527 "Two dimensional code reading apparatus" (US version expires upon expiration of term)
- Japanese Patent No. 3716527 "2D code reading method" (Right extinguished due to expiration of life)
- Patent No. 3726395 "2D code and reading method of 2D code" (Right extinguished due to expiration of lifetime)
- Japanese Patent No. 3996520 "Optical information printing medium, optical information reading device and information processing device"
- U.S. Pat. No. 7032823, "Two-dimensional code, methods and relating for generating, displaying and reading the same" (American version expires)
- Patent No. 2938338 "two-dimensional code" (Applicant:Nippon Denso-Toyota Central Research Institute (Extinction of rights due to expiration of term)
- Auto parts production
- At the beginning of development, it was used in the field of automobile parts production, and after that, it became widely used for production, transportation, storage, sales of various products.
- Mobile phone
- Mobile phoneFor the first time, the first QR code supported was the J-PHONE (currentlySoftbank mobile)ofJ-SH09Is. CurrentlyMobile phone with cameraMost of the terminals are compatible with QR codes, and you can capture the code with the built-in camera and recognize the information content of the QR code.
- Specific applications includeAds,MapPrint media such aswebThere is detailed information on the screenWebsite,Mobile terminalWebsite forURLThe QR code that records the information is displayed to facilitate access to these sites, and the QR code that stores personal data is displayed.Business cardTo facilitate registration of the address book of the mobile phone. Also,online shoppingIt is beginning to be used for payments, etc.
- Airline ticket
- AirlinesANAAnd its group airlines,2007May 12ThanSKiP serviceTo callMagnetic ticketHas been completely abolished, and it has become the first Japanese airline company to completely shift to the method of using a QR code with information entered in place of a conventional airline ticket. As of 2019AppleCompanySmartphoneIsiPhoneApplication ofWalletIt can be used as a boarding pass by adding a boarding pass at. On the other hand, globally, the airline bar code boarding pass standard (BCBP)PDF417Is widely used.
- Horse racing
- As of 2018,Japan Central Horse Racing (JRA) and major local horse races (Minami Kanto, Nagoya, Hyogo, etc.), some boat races, the latest model voting tickets to be sold at bicycle race booths (Fujitsu FrontechMade andJapanese vendor netMade) has been using a QR code (JRA introduced in the Kansai region from the fall of 2001). It is also used in combination with the magnetic type in some local horse races.
- Compared to conventional magnetic voting tickets,Magnetic materialEliminates the need to use paper, reducing paper manufacturing costsRecyclingHas become easier (used magnetic tickets must be disposed of as industrial waste). Further, the issuing machine can also print the machine-readable information with the print head, and can omit parts of the magnetic recording head. JRA's I-PAT methodTelephone votingThe QR code included in the printed out copy of the betting ticket actually purchased at is, unlike the ticket issued at the sales counter, just a "decoration" that contains the URL of the JRA site.
- Currently, the QR code is also used in "Smappy Voting" where you can buy betting tickets without the need for a mark card with the same operation as I-PAT.
- Admission ticket
- Hokkaido Nippon-Ham Fighters,Tohoku Rakuten Golden Eagles,Hokkaido Consadole Sapporo(Sapporo DomeOnly) home stadium match,Tokyo Disney Resort,Tokyo International Film FestivalSo, we have introduced a ticketless entry system using a QR code. If you make an online reservation on the official website of the team, the QR code will be sent to your mobile phone.
- By trainOkinawa city monorail,Kitakyushu High Speed RailBut,Automatic ticket gateIn line with the update of, the conventional magnetic ticket was abolished and the ordinary ticket was converted into a QR code. On the busJR Bus KantoThe company has implemented ticket gates using QR codes on some routes of highway buses that operate jointly with the company, and has omitted ticket collection. Not only domestic but also overseas payment methods can be used to target inbound demand from visitorsSometimes (example is a taxi, but in a broad sense it is a ticket). Cost reduction of automatic ticket gates (Dedicated ticket gates can be made after the spread of IC cards, and there are also entrances and exits that have only dedicated ticket gates. The IC card also has a deposit for card types other than smartphones, but the product itself is expensive.. It also requires maintenance of past usage data. ),Magnetic ticketItself is expensiveTherefore, some companies have begun proof experiments.. Corresponding ticket gates have already been installed and operated in JR East (currently IC ticket gates).
- In the world,Korea Railway Corporation,KLIA Express,Taiwan Railway Management Bureau,Taiwan High Speed Rail,China Railway Company,Hong Kong MTR(Direct bus to the castle) Etc. have adopted the QR code for the ticket. Also, like the JR Bus Kanto,Korean highway busHowever, the ticket gate by QR code has been introduced.
- prepaid card
- Commenced from June 2016Book card NEXTWas introduced in.
- The QR code itself is easy to duplicate, so when using it with voting tickets, train tickets, and prepaid cards, the QR code is printed on a special line that can be recognized only by the terminal or vending machine.
- Settlement service
- MoreQR/Bar code paymentSee.
- Alipay(Supporting treasure)WeChat PayQR code payment services such as (with WeChat) are becoming popular mainly in the Chinese market. Since payment fees and introduction costs are low and deposits are fast, the existingCredit card,Electronic moneyBefore payment spread,ChugokuPayment service inDe facto standardBecame.
- There are two major methods for QR code payments: a "static code" in which the consumer scans and pays the QR code presented by the store, and a "dynamic code" in which the consumer scans and pays the QR code presented by the consumer. Broadly divided. The former is used in stores and stalls with a small number of products, and the content of the QR code is the URL of the payment service with an arbitrary ID added.[Note 4]Often From April 2018, 4, a daily limit has been set.
- In Japan, Alipay, WeChat Pay andUnionPay QR code paymentStarted to enter Japan,Origami Pay,LINE Pay,Rakuten Pay,d payment,Amazon Pay,PayPayThere are also personal payments (Dutch treatAnd services used for buying and selling at flea markets, etc.) have also appeared.
- Population management
- ChineseXinjiang Uygur Autonomous RegionThen,2017からpopulationQR code is installed in every house under the control ofhuman rightsNGO OfHuman Rights WatchHas been criticized by.
- Handwriting elimination tool
- The QR code was originally developed as a factory productivity improvement tool, but in recent years it has also contributed to productivity improvement in the clerical field as a labor-saving tool for eliminating handwriting work and re-entry work of stamped records on a PC. doing. For example, a QR code associated with a person is used for attendance and attendance records, and a QR code associated with a product is used for rented item management. Behind that, the environment around personal computers has been improved in recent years, such as the fact that the QR code information read by the reader and the reading time can be imported into spreadsheet software, and variable printing of QR codes is easy with label creation software. I have
- URL-format isURL.. Does not escape.
- Bookmark-for i-mode.
- contact info
- MECARD format (for i-mode) --Comma-separated items may be described together without being separated by commas..
- MEMORY format (au・ For SoftBank) --You can also use * # --P (pause function) for phone numbers.
- Calendar event
- Phone Number
- Coordinates-Set a negative value when specifying south latitude and east longitude.
- Wi-Fi connection settings
Micro QR code
11 × 11 cells-17 × 17 cells, a small version of the QR code. There is only one cutout symbol. The amount of data is 1-5 digits in the case of numbers, which is about the same as conventional barcodes, but it can be printed in an area of 35-10/100 compared with the same number of digits.
Micro QR code is2004In November, it was standardized as JIS X 11.
The iQR code is a new QR code standard developed by DENSO, and more information can be expressed in the same space as the QR code. The big difference from the visually visible QR code is that it is now possible to generate rectangular codes instead of square codes.
- Amount of information
- In addition to being able to make a rectangle, the amount of information has increased, and the number of cells has increased accordingly. With the conventional QR code, assuming the number mode, even the maximum size (177 x 177 cells) could only record about 7000 characters of information, but the iQR code (422 x 422 cells) can store up to about 40000 characters. You can record. Further, if the size is the same as that of the conventional QR code, a large amount of information can be stored, and if the amount of information is the same, the size can be reduced. It has become easier to replace existing one-dimensional barcodes and to print on cylindrical objects, which were considered difficult to print.
- Error correction
- With the QR code, the error correction level was 7 levels of L (15%), M (25%), Q (30%), H (4%), and a new level S (50%) was added, It is possible to restore up to 50%.
QR code terms
In the latest (revised November 2004, 11) JIS standard (JIS X 20) "Compliance condition", new use orOpen systemQR code depending on the applicationsymbolModel 1 of has a deprecated symbol format. Therefore, here we describe model 2 of the QR code symbol.
- QR codesymbolThe smallest unit cell that makes up the.moduleThe size of is determined by the model number,データ1 bit corresponds to 1 module.
- Model number (Version)
- The size of the symbol, expressed as a number from 1 to 40. The smallest is 1 × 21 modules of “Model 21”, and the largest is 40 × 177 modules of “Model 177”.
- Error Correction Level
- The ratio of error correction words to data words that are added to correct unreadable or erroneous modules so that the QR code can be read correctly even if it is dirty. There are 5 levels below.
- Level L-approximately 7% of code words can be restored
- Level M-About 15% of code words can be restored
- Level Q-About 25% of code words can be restored
- Level H-Approximately 30% of code words can be restored
- Level S-Approximately 50% of code words can be restored
- Indicates the display method of the character string defined in the QR code. Commonly usedmodeIs a mixed mode that combines four of numeric data mode, alphanumeric data mode, 8-bit byte data mode, and kanji data mode.
- Mode Indicator
- A 4-bit identifier that indicates in which mode the next data string is encoded
- Character Count Indicator
- A bit string that defines the length of the data string in the mode
- Mask Pattern Reference
- An identifier of the bits used for the masking pattern applied to the symbol.
- Processing to make the QR code easier to read.MASKSEight types of processing patterns are prepared. Among them, a mask is adopted that makes the number of bright modules and dark modules the most uniform and suppresses the generation of patterns that hinder high-speed image processing. The mask processing uses the bit pattern of the coding area and the mask processing pattern.XOR (exclusive OR)To do.
- Code Word
- Data that actually contains the data you want to read with a QR code.
- Error Correction Word
- An extra bit is added to correct the unreadable or misread module so that the data word can be read correctly even if the QR code is dirty. The error correction word is created by calculating from the data word.
- Pad Code Word
- A tentative codeword that does not indicate data used to fill empty codeword positions. Used when the number of code words is less than the capacity of the symbol.
- Padding Bit
- データbitA nonzero bit of data that is used to fill empty positions in the last codeword after the end-of-column pattern.
- Remainder Bit
- A nonzero bit of data used to fill an empty position in the symbol coding area after the last symbol character, if the coding area is not divisible by an 8-bit symbol character.
- Remainder Code Word
- A padding codeword used to fill empty codeword positions to complete a symbol when the total number of data and error correction codewords does not fill the capacity of the symbol.
- A bit string that represents the end of data. It is used at the end of the data and becomes a bit string of 0000.
- ^ The target products are classified as "Physical and chemical machinery, measuring machinery, distribution or control machinery, batteries, electromagnetic measuring instruments, electric wires and cables, photographic machinery, movie machinery, optical machinery, glasses, Processed glass (excluding those for construction), telecommunications machinery, electronic applied machinery and equipment and their parts, rockets, rotary transformers, phase adjusters, electric irons, electric hair curlers, electric wax polishers, electric cleaning Machines, electric buzzers, fireboats, magnetic cores, resistance wires, electrodes, projection films, slide films, mounts for slide films, recorded video discs and video tapes "
- ^ GitHub --zxing / zxing: ZXing ("Zebra Crossing") barcode scanning library for Java, Android
- ^ However, the patents mentioned below have expired at the end of January 2017.
- ^ https://pay.example.com/123456789 のような形式。
- ^ a b [Five senses travelogue] QR code / information condensed Japanese technology "Hokkaido Shimbun』Sunday morning edition reprint October 2021, 1 17-1 pages
- ^ "Yomiuri Shimbun』November 2020, 11 11 pages published article
- ^ Trademark Bulletin 4075066 -J-PlatPat
- ^ a b c “The hint was “go” during the break... “QR code” development secret story “The reason why the patent was opened” revealed by the creator. News One (Tokai TV broadcasting). (November 2019, 11) 2019th of February 11Browse.
- ^ I asked the creator of the NHK business special feature "QR code"[Broken link]2019th of February 5
- ^ JIS X 0510:2004 7.3.8. 0510 (c) in JIS X 2018:6.2.
- ^ Full widthContains alphanumeric characters (double-byte characters)Half-width katakana Does not include (single-byte characters).
- ^ "QR Code Deployment in Asia: Denso Develops Markets Outside Japan". Nna.ASIA(November 2010, 12). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2011, 6. 2011th of February 2Browse.
- ^ "QR code reading trouble". QRCode.com.As of August 2010, 5オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2010th of February 4Browse.
- ^ About FAQs and QR code -QRCode.com
- ^ News-20-year-old "QR Code", development team wins first European inventor award from Japan ITpro, June 2014, 6
- ^ Patent 2938338 -J-PlatPat
- ^ US5726435A-Optically readable two-dimensional code and method and apparatus using the same-Google Patents
- ^ Patent 2867904 -J-PlatPat
- ^ US5691527A-Two dimensional code reading apparatus-Google Patents
- ^ Patent 3716527 -J-PlatPat
- ^ Patent No. 3726395 -J-PlatPat
- ^ Patent 3996520 -J-PlatPat
- ^ US7032823B2-Two-dimensional code, methods and converting for generating, displaying and reading the same-Google Patents
- ^ “QR codes on China's train tickets may leak personal information”. Want China Times. オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2013, 12. 2013th of February 3Browse.
- ^ "What's New: QR Code Payment You can now pay with 9 brands | Matsue Ichibata Kotsu". www.ichibata.co.jp. 2020th of February 4Browse.
- ^ a b "Japan IC Card System Utilization Promotion Council | IC Card Q & A". www.jicsap.com. 2020th of February 4Browse.
- ^ a b "Magnetic tickets are expensive! QR code proof experiment that railroad starts one after another". Diamond Online. 2020th of February 4Browse.
- ^ "Image gallery | QR code payment Will railroads where IC cards become popular spread? The key is the cloud of the Suica system”(Japanese). Vehicle news. 2020th of February 4Browse.
- ^ "What is the difference between “dynamic” and “static” QR code payments in China? Some confusion with "upper limit of 4 yuan a day" from April". AFP (September 2018, 3). 2018th of February 3Browse.
- ^ "China to manage Uighur with "QR code"". Newsweek(July 2018, 9) 2019th of February 1Browse.
- ^ "Services / Functions Let's make i-mode contents: common items"NTT DOCOMO" NTT DOCOMO
- ^ "Services / Functions Let's make i-mode contents: Bookmark registration function"NTT DOCOMO" NTT DOCOMO
- ^ "Services / Functions Let's make i-mode contents: Phonebook registration function"NTT DOCOMO" NTT DOCOMO
- ^ "Technical Information Bar CodeAddress book batch input function"Au" KDDI
- ^ "Services / Functions Let's make i-mode contents: mail link function"NTT DOCOMO" NTT DOCOMO
- ^ "Technical Information Bar Code Address book batch input function"Au" KDDI
- ^ "Specifications for reading QR code Version 1.0Vodafone KK, April 2003, 4
- ^ "Technical Information Bar Code Phone to function"Au" KDDI
- ^ Patent No. 5057560 "Program, information storage medium, two-dimensional code, printed matter, two-dimensional code image, two-dimensional code image display control method, two-dimensional code generation system" -J-PlatPat
- Official Website
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- Online dictionary