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🏛 | Niigata Peace Movement Center, Citizens' Union @ Niigata, XNUMX opposition parties in front of Niigata Station


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Niigata Peace Movement Center, Citizens' Union @ Niigata, XNUMX opposition parties in front of Niigata Station

 
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The self-government is trying to push forward with constitutional reforms that many voters do not want.
 

State of communal street declaration Niigata Peace Movement Center, Citizens' Union @ Niigata and XNUMX parties (Constitutional Democratic Party, Japanese Communist Party ... → Continue reading

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Constitutional amendment

Constitutional amendment(Kenpo,UK: Constitutional amendment) IsGrammarShown inConstitutionupperGovernment,組織To modify, add or delete etc.For shortAmendmentAlso called (Kaiken).

JapaneseConstitutionThen, the meaning of the norm will be changed or amended without changing the enactment of the new constitution or the text of the constitution.Changes in the constitution[1]Is distinguished from.

Overview

Constitutional revision procedure

Constitutional amendment[2][3]To determine the appropriate procedure forrevolution,Coup d'etatThe purpose is to prevent illegal changes in the constitution.Important if there is an appropriate revision procedurePolitical systemBecause all changes can be legally done in the form of constitutional amendments.[4].. Changes in the constitution that do not follow the constitutional revision procedures, for example,revolution,Coup d'etatIs illegal and unacceptable. However, the history of each country shows that such prohibition is not always followed in fact.[5].

Regarding the actual difficulty of the revision,Rigid constitutionThat is, the amendment is not always difficult in fact. Even with the same rigid constitution, the Meiji Constitution has not been amended once for more than fifty years, but the Swiss Constitution and many American constitutions are often amended. On the contrary, in the case of the British Constitution, which can be said to be one of the flexible constitutions, it cannot always be said that the amendment is easy. How to fill the gap, whether the provisions of the Constitution are detailed or concise, what kind of norms the government and the public are conscious of, and whether political and social changes cause a severe separation between the Constitution and the actual constitution. It depends on how you think about the role of interpretation and operation, and whether there is enough political power to implement the revision.[6].

About the limit of constitutional revision

It is believed that the position regarding the limit of constitutional amendment will change depending on whether the constitutional amendment right is regarded as having the right to amend the constitution or whether the constitutional amendment right and the right to amend the constitution are equivalent.[7].

  • Limit theory
AnyConstitutionAlso has its basic principle, and it cannot be amended to change the basic principle.Germany-FranceSuch,human rightsIn some cases, the constitution itself bans constitutional amendments to some of the articles relating to governmental institutions. If the constitution is amended to change the basic principle and it is actually accepted and accepted by the people as a constitution, it cannot be said that it is invalid, and the constitution is abolished.Establishment of new constitutionI think that there was[8].
  • Limitless theory
The feature of the limitless theory is that the law and the constitution are about history, and they are expected to be revised according to the development of history. Therefore, the revision of the Constitution is limitless as long as it is procedurally flawless, and no distinction should be made in the provisions of the Constitution, and it is meaningless to do so. Even if the basic principle is modified or fundamentally changed, it must be approved as an amendment of the Constitution as long as it corresponds to the development of history. Justify the limitless theory that objectively views the law as a historical product[9].

Meaning and effect of constitutional revision

The constitutional amendment (here, the amendment of the Constitutional Code) is, depending on its nature, as follows: Is whatConstitution of practical meaningIt is said that the effect of changing[10].

  1. In cases where rules such as standards and procedures are set, such as the reform of the governing body and the term of office of Diet members,Constitution of practical meaningIs said to be easy to revise.
    In other words, changes in the wording of the Constitution are likely to be reflected in the actual operation of the state and the interpretation of laws and regulations, including the Constitution.
  2. In the field of human rights, we must implement relevant laws and regulations, etc.Constitution of practical meaningIt is said that the effect of revising is difficult to obtain.
    For example, even if "○○ rights" such as manners and attitudes are added to the Constitution, if rules for implementing the details are not established, it will affect the actual operation of the nation and the interpretation of laws and regulations including the Constitution. It may not reach.

Broad constitutional revision

Political scientistSatoshi MatoriThe professor (Kyoto University) pointed out that the change of the fundamental political system is the revision of the constitution of the substantial meaning, because the constitution of the substantial meaning is the rules that define the essential basic political system. doing[11].. It should be noted that the statement regarding basic human rights also points out that it does not mean much from the perspective of political analysis, and that it is not practical to deny basic human rights in developed countries.[11].. From this, the election system (method of deciding seats, constituencies, voting method, election cycle), consular system (change between presidential system, semi-presidency system, parliamentary cabinet system, authority given to the consular secretary, etc.) Change, change in authority between politicians and bureaucrats, etc.)Substantial amendment to the constitutionTo advocatePolitical reform from the 1990s to the 2000sIs analyzed as a constitutional revision in Japan[11].. Given that there are various situations regarding the constitution and its amendments internationally, the perspective of capturing constitutional amendments in this way would be useful in making international comparisons and time series comparisons of constitutional amendments.[11].

Professor of the 1930s in the United StatesNew Deal PolicyAnd the 1960sCivil rights movementArguing that these outcomes were “informal constitutional revisions” that did not undergo formal constitutional revision procedures even after the fruition of the establishment of the law, and emphasized the form of formal constitutional revisions.Voting Rights Act (1965)Criticizes the judgment that some of the[12].. In Ackermann, there is no distinction between the right to amend the constitution and the right to establish the constitution, and there is no limit to the judgment of the people in "constitutional politics".[13].

Revision procedures in each constitution

Asia

Republic of China (Taiwan)

Republic of China ConstitutionAmendment is approved by the following procedure[14].

  1. Legislative committeeInitiatives by more than a quarter of the total
  2. Voting by more than three-quarters of all legislative members and more than three-fourths of the attending members
  3. Held a referendum after a half-year public notice and approved by a majority of the voters

Japan

The Constitution of JapanIt is,Article 96 of the Constitution of JapanStipulates the revision procedure.

  1. 国会Initiative
  2. PeopleApproval of
  3. Emperor OfAnnounce
Diet initiative
Diet lawIt is specified in 68-2 of Article 6.
Proposal of the original bill for amendment requires the approval of 100 members of the House of Representatives or 50 members of the House of Representatives.
In order to bring the amendment motion into the agenda at a meeting of the House of Representatives requires the approval of 100 members of the House of Representatives or 50 members of the House of Representatives.
Proposals for parliamentary amendments are made with the support of more than two-thirds of all members of each House.
The following are detailed issues regarding the constitutional interpretation.
  • There is no disagreement in the theory that the members of the Diet have the right to propose a constitutional amendment to the Diet. Under the legislation, the right to propose a constitutional amendment to the DietCabinet,PeopleThere is also a view that it can be given to.
  • The quorum for deliberation requires at least two-thirds of all members. This is because even if all are in agreement, this much attendance is necessary.
  • The meaning of the total number of lawmakers is that there is a theory that it is a legal constant and that it is the total number of lawmakers.
  • The votes of both Houses are equal.
National approval
If the Diet decides, the bill will be put into a referendum, and approval will be by majority. For voting rulesLaw Concerning Procedures for Amending the Constitution of Japanby.
  • By law, if the number of votes in favor exceeds one half of the total number of votes (the number of votes in favor and the number in opposition), then there is public approval (half of the voters). is not).
Promulgation of the Emperor
ReferendumOnce approved, the revised Constitution will be promulgated by the Emperor in the name of the people.

American states

The United States of America

United States ConstitutionIs so-calledRigid constitutionIs. When the constitution is amended, the text up to that point is left as it is and amended by adding it as a constitutional amendment. Amended by Article 5 of the United States Constitution.

  1. CongressProposes amendments to this constitution when it finds necessary by two-thirds of both Houses, or convenes a constitutional conference for amendment when two-thirds of the legislature demands it. I have to do it.
  2. In any case, the amendment is, in any sense, part of this Constitution when it is approved by the three-quarters legislature of the whole state, or when approved by the Constitutional Assembly in the three-quarters state. Have effect. Which approval method to take can be proposed by Congress.
  3. Provided, however, that the amendments made before XNUMX may not change the provisions of Article XNUMX, paragraph XNUMX, paragraph XNUMX and paragraph XNUMX. Neither state will be deprived of equal voting in the Senate without that consent.

To date, only federal amendments have been made to date. For 1 is the only exceptionAmended Article 21All are approved by the Parliament, except for the 21st Amendment which was approved by the Constitutional Councils of each state.

In the United States, each state also has its own constitution.

メキシコ

メキシコAmendments to the current Constitution of[15].

  1. The constitutional amendment is submitted as a co-sponsor by the president, one senator and one member of the House of Representatives, or the president and one state council.
  2. DeliberationCongressEach is held in both hospitals (in any order). Both houses have a vote of more than two thirds.
  3. After that, it is sent to each state legislature. The amendment is approved with the approval of 51% of the state legislatures, ie 16 state legislatures.

Europe

The United Kingdom

The United KingdomIt is,Precedent,Customary law,lawAmong them, the constitution that defines the character of the nation is the constitutionUnwritten constitutionIt is a nation. Thus, the substantive Constitution in Britain is legally modified by the law established in the usual legal process.

Germany

Federal Law of the Federal Republic of GermanyThe amendment (which is treated as the constitution in Germany) is carried out as follows. However,Democracy fightingBased on this, we do not allow revisions that would lead to democratic destruction (Chapter 1, "Basic Rights").

  • Initiated with "more than two-thirds of the federal parliament" and "more than two-thirds of the votes of the House of Councilors"
  • Congress, With the U.S. House of Representatives decisionPresidentCan be amended with approval.
  • No referendum will take place.

originallyWest GermanyIt was created as a law equivalent to the Constitution ofGermany reunifiedIf the Constitution, which was enacted under the free will of the German people, came into force, there is a provision that the basic law will lose its effect. However, the basic law continues to be enforced after the reunification.

France

French Republic ConstitutionThe amendment procedure of is prescribed in Article 89 of the French Constitution, and the outline is as follows.

  1. The government or parliament proposes a constitutional amendment.
  2. The constitutional amendment is passed in both houses by the majority.
  3. The amendment will be approved by more than three-fifths of the joint meetings of the two houses (only in the case of government proposal) or by a majority of valid votes in the referendum.

Based on Article 11 of the French Constitution, it has been amended by the following procedure.

  1. The president proposes a constitutional amendment.
  2. The amendment is approved with a majority vote in the referendum.

Article 11 of the Constitution of the French Republic states that a bill concerning the organization of public power can be passed by the above procedure without passing through the parliament. The constitution is also included in the law. Therefore, in the past, a constitutional amendment was made by the above method, assuming that a constitutional amendment (changed the presidential election method from indirect election to direct election) was included in the bill concerning the organization of public authority.SenateIs unconstitutional regarding constitutional amendments not based on Article 89 of the ConstitutionConstitutional courtHowever, the Constitutional Court found that the law passed by the referendum did not have the power to judge outside the scope of the examination, and it was confirmed that the Constitution would be amended under Article 11 of the Constitution.

Status of revisions in each constitution

Looking at the constitutional amendments in the six countries of the United States, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, and Australia since 1945, there are many amendments concerning the governing body and local autonomy (changes in central and local authority, etc.), and amendments concerning human rights, There are also revisions to the constitutional revision procedure[16].. In the case of amendments, such regulations relating to political institutions such as the governing body, local autonomy, human rights, etc. are often taken up, but it may be provided by law.GovernmentWhen abolishing matters that do not lead to changes in[17]There is also.

In the following, revisions promulgated on the same date are counted once unless otherwise noted.

Asia

South Korea

Republic of Korea ConstitutionHas been revised nine times, especially in five of those South KoreaThe revision was made to a great extent to change the national system. The current constitution isSixth Republic ConstitutionCalled.

Japan

1947ToImperial Japanese ConstitutionChange toThe Constitution of JapanWas enforced.Since then, it has never been revised until March 2021.

American states

The United States of America

United States ConstitutionIt is,1788The oldest in the world that came into effect inWritten Constitution.Basic human rightsWas not initially mentioned,1791Enforced in DecemberAmended Article 1からAmended Article 10(Bill of Rights). 2003 times as of 18[18], Amended and supplemented 27 articles.

メキシコ

メキシコOf the 1910Mexican RevolutionIn 1917, it has been amended frequently, and by November 2002, it was amended 11 times, for a total of 119 articles.[19].

Europe

イタリア

Italian Republic ConstitutionIs 2003 times as of 13[18]The constitution is being revised.

スイス

Swiss Federal ConstitutionHas been revised six times by March 1999 after a full revision in 2003[20][18]Has been revised.

The 1874 Constitution has been partially revised 1999 times by the time of the full revision in 140.[21].

デンマーク

Danish ConstitutionWas established in 1849 and then in 1953Bicameral systemからUnicameral systemThe fourth revision of the Constitution, which has moved to

Germany

Federal Law of the Federal Republic of GermanyIt is,Second World WarIt was later enacted and has undergone 63 constitutional amendments (as of November 2019, 11). 9 times a lot,Federal systemThe basic law stipulates the distribution of powers between the federal and state states, and the need for revision of the constitution every time it is reviewed is one of the reasons for increasing the number of revisions.[22][16].. Also, in Japan, the contents stipulated at the legal level are also stipulated in the Basic Law, and the number of revisions to the Basic Law is increasing[22][16].

In addition,Coalition governmentIt is not uncommon, and the number of active political transactions among political parties has increased.conservativesOpposes in return for acknowledging increased state empowermentLeftBut,Environment,Animal protectionIt has been said that compromises such as having the rules added to the constitutional amendment as a set have often been made (Humboldt University, Professor Christoph Mellers (Public Law)). "The basic law is so easy to revise that it's taken into account even less important things. (Constitutional) It's not what it should be," he said.[22].

リトアニア

リトアニアThe Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania has been amended 1992 times since it was enacted in 10. However, since 1996, the sevenReferendumAll of them were "rejection" that did not reach the majority, or "failure" when the voting rate did not meet the criteria. In Lithuania, in addition to the criterion of "a majority is supported", conditions such as "voting rate of 50% or more" and "absolute voting rate of 50% or more" are stipulated in detail for each revised item. For this situation,public opinionIt is also pointed out that the understanding of is not catching up. The country's chairman of the Central Election Commission, Laura Matillo Shiitete, said during a referendum.AdsExplaining that there was no habit of putting out, and in the past voting, there was little advertising activity with both the pros and cons. There is a cap of 110 million euros (about 1 million yen) in advertising costs, and Chairman Matillo Syitete said, "It has been done in a state where the general public cannot understand (details of contents)".[22].

Literature information

footnote

  1. ^ Heihachiro Yamashita, "Changes in the constitutionReport of Aichi Institute of Technology, 1981, No. 16, p.37-42
  2. ^ Constitutional amendment(ShogakukanDigital Daijisen)
  3. ^ Constitutional revision (SanseidoDaijirin Third edition)
  4. ^ Toshiyoshi Miyazawa"Constitution Lecture"Iwanami Shoten〈Iwanami Shinsho>, June 1967, 6 (original work April 1, 1967), second edition, p. 4.ISBN 9784004100348.2009/5/30Browse.
  5. ^ Constitutional Lecture (Toshiyoshi Miyazawa) p215
  6. ^ Constitution (3rd edition) (Masami Ito) Pp18-19
  7. ^ Constitution 5th Edition (Kasuo Hasebe) pp34-35 ISBN 978-4-88384-168-4
  8. ^ Difference between "Revision of the Constitution" and "Enactment of the New Constitution" (Hokkaido Constitution Research Institute HP)
  9. ^ Constitution Lecture (Katsumi Ueda) p288
  10. ^ "Constitutional revision" for constitutional studiesKeigo Komamura(Keio University) ("Constitutional Amendments" Comparative Politics, Keigo Komamura, Satoshi Machitori, pp19-38)
  11. ^ a b c d "Constitutional revision" from the viewpoint of political scienceSatoshi Matori(Kyoto University) ("Constitutional Amendments" Comparative Politics, Keigo Komamura, Satoshi Machitori, pp2-18)
  12. ^ Positioning of the Civil Rights Movement in the Dual Theory of DemocracyIppei Oe, Associate Professor, Tokai University
  13. ^ "Constitutional revision" for constitutional studiesKeigo Komamura(Keio University) ("Comparative Politics of Constitutional Amendment", Keigo Komamura, Satoshi Machitori) pp31-32
  14. ^ Taiwan's XNUMXth constitutional revision and constitutional reformKunihiko Morohashi August 2005
  15. ^ "House of Representatives USA, Canada and MexicoHouse of Representatives United States, Canada and Mexico Constitutional Research Council February 2003, 2 pages
  16. ^ a b c "Postwar constitutional amendments in foreign countries [5th edition]Norio Yamaoka/Atsuhiko Ida National Diet Library ISSUE BRIEF NUMBER 932(JAN.10.2017)
  17. ^ Example: Swiss constitution old article 25-2 (prohibition of killing animals without anesthesia before bleeding), German basic law 20a Protection of animals
  18. ^ a b c "Number of constitutional revisions in foreign countries (attached to the last page of the basic materials regarding the revision procedure as a rigid constitution)The National Diet Library March 2003, 3
  19. ^ "House of Representatives USA, Canada and MexicoHouse of Representatives United States, Canada and Mexico Constitutional Research Council February 2003, 2 pages
  20. ^ Even revisions adopted on the same day are counted as multiple times if they are adopted as separate ones.
  21. ^ "House of Representatives Constitutional Research Council Report"Representative of the Constitutional Survey of European Countries, House of Representatives, November 2000, page 11
  22. ^ a b c d (Thinking about the Constitution) Amendment Japan is behind? Asahi ShimbunJanuary 2019, 10, morning edition

Related item

Coalition government

Coalition government(Renritsuseiken) is more than onePolitical partyでadministrationTo be in charge of.AlsoCabinetIs made up of multiple political partiesCoalition cabinetSay (Cabinet).However,First Hashimoto CabinetThe organization is likeLDPAlone,External cooperationIn the form ofSocial Democratic Party,New partyA pattern in which a political party like this joins a coalition government is also conceivable.Therefore, the organization is independent, but it cooperates outside the cabinet.Ruling partyIf there isNews (Chinese)And so onCoalition governmentIt may be distinguished by saying.In many casesParliamentary Cabinet SystemIn a country that takesParliamentAlone withinmajorityIt is established when you cannot control.AlsoPolitical party system Two-party systemIf it is, it is difficult to establish because one political party often controls the majority alone.Multi-party systemIf it is, it is easy to establish because it is often less than the majority of a single political party.

Coalition governments of each country

The United Kingdom

2010 British General ElectionAtConservative partyとLDPSimultaneously[1][2].


ベルギー

On December 2011, 12, six political parties formed a coalition.10st partyNew Flames AllianceDo not participate in the simultaneous[3].


Germany

Proportional representationIn countries that have adopted, even large political parties often cannot get a majority, for example.The Federal Republic of GermanyThe post-war cabinets are all coalition governments.

KiesingerAdministration and the firstMerkelWhen two major political parties, which are usually in a competitive relationship, form a coalition government for some reason, such as the administration,Grand coalition".

The German coalition government is called by a parallel name of the symbol colors of each political party. The symbol colors of the five major political parties areGerman Christian Democratic Union / Christian Social Alliance Is black,LDPIs yellow,German Social Democratic PartyIs red,Alliance 90 / The Greens PartyIs green,Left PartyIs red (purple red).2009 Federal ElectionAs a result, the ruling party was reorganized from the previous "black-red" left and right grand coalition to the center-right "black-yellow" coalition.

Lebanon

LebanonThen.Third Harry LeePrime Minister serves as party leaderFuture movementA coalition government of pro-US anti-Syrian parties such as is currently in power.Rafique Harry LeeBy anti-Syrian opposition after the assassination of former prime ministersCedar revolutionThe administration was reversed and a grand coalition was formed.AgainstHezbollah,AmaruThe pro-Syrian faction of the opposition is aiming to seize power.

Japan

in Japan,Prewar,Post-war turmoil,1955(Showa30 years)MaintenanceでLDPMany coalition governments were seen until the establishment of.Since then, the LDP's sole administration has continued for a long time.So-called55 yearsThe first coalition government was born after that1983With the Liberal Democratic Party (58)New freedom clubIt is a coalition with.1979Immediately after the general election of the House of Representatives (54)2st Ohira CabinetAt the time of inaugurationHakuchu DietIn the end, he sought to form a cabinet coalition with the New Liberal Club, but in the end it was closed due to the opposition within the ruling party and the line conflict within the New Liberal Club.

But,1986(Showa 61)Disguised as deadbyDouble electionThe Liberal Democratic Party is absolutely in the publicMany stableAfter securing and merging the coalition partner's New Liberal Club, the LDP's sole administration continued for a while.Also,1989(HeiseiFirst year)15rd House of Councilors ordinary electionSo, even if the Liberal Democratic Party combined the non-elected seats, it did not reach the majority and suffered a big defeat, but initially the opposition party, especiallyKomeitoとDemocratic PartyMake a compromise withPrivate sector routeHe maintained the Liberal Democratic Party's sole administration.

The situation changed completely8 party coalitionBecame1993(5)Hosokawa CabinetAfter that.Since then, some political parties have won a single majority or an absolutely stable majority in the House of Representatives, but no political party has a single majority in the House of Councilors, and the situation of having to form a coalition has become chronic.

As a result,2005The so-calledPostal electionsLiberal Democratic Party gets a large number of absolutely stable seats in the House of RepresentativesKomeitoOr2009(21) Big winDemocratic PartyAlso,Futenma base relocation problemAnd in budgetingSocial DemocratsとNew National PartyThere was a scene where he got stuck before his claim, and the minority parties also came to have a certain voice.

In addition, the fate of the administration was often influenced by the administration of the proceedings over the processing of important matters in the House of Councilors, and some people had a relatively strong presence and influence in the House of Councilors.Liberal Democratic PartyMikio AokiAnd DemocraticAzuma KoshiishiIs the representative.

2020(2nd year of Reiwa) As of September 9thJapanRegimeLDP,KomeitobySelf-public coalition.

Successive coalition governments since 1955
Conservative coalition government
2st Nakasone CabinetLDP-New freedom club
Non-LDP and non-communist coalition government
Hosokawa CabinetJapan New Party-Japanese Socialist Party-New Party-Komeito-Democratic Party-New party-Social Democratic Union-Democratic Reform Party
Haneda CabinetJapan Renewal Party, Komeito, Japan New Party,Liberal party・ Democratic Socialist Party ・ Social Democratic Federation ・Reform meeting
In-house coalition
Murayama CabinetJapan Socialist Party, Liberal Democratic Party, New Party Sakigake (Under Secretary of StateonlyFree Union)
First Hashimoto CabinetLDP·Social Democrats・ New Party Sakigake
Self-reliant coalition government
Obuchi First Remodeling CabinetLDP·Liberal party
Self-public coalition government
Obuchi First Remodeling CabinetLiberal Democratic Party, Liberal Democratic Party, Komeito PartyReform club)
Self-public insurance coalition administration
Second Mori Cabinet
Second Mori Cabinet
Liberal Democratic Party, Komei Party,Conservative party・ (Deputy Secretary of State onlyReform club(Up to the first))
1st Koizumi CabinetLiberal Democratic Party, Komei Party,Conservative New Party
First self-public coalition administration
2st Koizumi Cabinet
3st Koizumi Cabinet
Liberal Democratic Party / Komeito
First Abe CabinetLiberal Democratic Party / Komeito
Fukuda Yasuo CabinetLiberal Democratic Party / Komeito
Aso CabinetLiberal Democratic Party / Komeito
Minsha United Nations Administration
Yukio Hatoyama CabinetDemocratic Party・ Social Democratic Party ・New National Party
Civil union government
Yukio Hatoyama CabinetDemocratic Party / People's New Party
Naoto Kan CabinetDemocratic Party / People's New Party
Noda CabinetDemocratic Party / People's New Party
Second self-public coalition administration
First Abe Cabinet
First Abe Cabinet
First Abe Cabinet
Liberal Democratic Party / Komeito
Yoshihide Suga CabinetLiberal Democratic Party / Komeito

Process until the formation of a system

In most cases, two or more parties form a coalition, in which no party alone can control the majority.At this time, the first party often formed a coalition with other parties,administrationIs established.Regarding what kind of combination of political parties will form a coalition in such casespoliticsMuch research has been done in.

The most classic theory isWilliam RikerWas built by.In the rider's model, simultaneous formation is regarded as a zero-sum game (zero sum game, a game in which the total gain of participants is 0).Here, the political party as an actor acts rationally, that is, its own interests.utilityas well as the PreferenceSuppose you act to maximize.In that case, the political parties will act to maximize the share of the gains from the coalition, specifically the acquisition of the post of the administration as much as possible.On the other hand, political parties as actors share their gains with others in order to take power.Therefore, the smaller the number of parties to share the gain, the better, and the smaller the number of political parties participating in the coalition, the better.In other words, from these assumptions, Riker showed that even if any party is missing, it is most likely that a coalition of political parties that divides the majority will be established.Such a combination,Minimum Victory AllianceThat is.Here, I will set a simple example and try to explain it.

  1. Party A: 270
  2. Party B: 230
  3. Party C: 60
  4. Party D: 40

The total number of seats here is 600, and the majority is 301.Naturally, it is assumed to be a simultaneous formation game under the parliamentary cabinet system.Party A, the first party, has 1 seats and has not reached the majority, and must form a coalition to establish a government.If a coalition is formed with another political party here, the majority will be reached, so it is desirable for A to form a coalition with two political parties from the viewpoint of gain.However, if you form a coalition with a political party with a large number of seats, such as Party B, the share will decrease.By forming a coalition with Party D, which has the fewest seats, it is possible to maximize the share, although it is only 270, which is more than half.On the other hand, it is rational for other political parties to join the administration and give a share.In such a case, Party A orders the preference relationship from the options in the order of coalition with Party D> coalition with Party C> coalition with Party B.Therefore, first of all, the coalition with the D partyNegotiationI hope. For the B, C, and D parties, a two-party coalition is preferable to a three-party coalition in order to maximize their own gains, so the coalition with the A party is most desirable.Therefore, the minimum victory alliance between Party A and Party D is established.

By the way, in particular, the B party can be interpreted differently. If Party B forms a coalition with Party C and Party D, Party B will be able to obtain the post of prime minister, and since it is the first party in the coalition government, it will be able to obtain a lot of gains.If Party B evaluates this gain higher than the gain in the case of a two-party coalition with Party A, Party B wants a three-party coalition.However, from the perspective of their own gains, Party C and Party D prefer a two-party coalition with A to a three-party coalition proposed by Party B.Therefore, even in this case, the minimum victory alliance between Party A and Party D is established.

Also, in many countries, the first party is in charge of the administration.CustomOrRulesHas been established.In this case, parties B, C, and D cannot negotiate independently.Therefore, there are only options to agree in negotiations and join the administration and not to participate in the administration.All parties choose to join the administration if these two options are available.As a result, the minimum victory alliance of the A party and the D party will be established.

Riker wrote this theoryThe Theory of Political Coalitions(1962).This isGame theoryIs one of the first works to apply to political science.Because game theorystrategyThis is because it is a useful means for analyzing the situation.A strategic situation refers to a situation in which there are multiple actors, and the selection / action of one actor affects the selection and gain of another actor.If a political party is an actor, the process of establishing a government corresponds to this strategic situation.

It was the inheritance and development of the theory of the Riker's Minimum Victory Alliance.Robert AxelrodIt is an analysis of.Axelrod, like Riker, assumes the rationality of the political party, but from the perspective of maximizing the share.policyI added a target element.This is because the policy itself is an expression of political party preference.In other words, political parties set up specific policies and gain profits and utilities by implementing them.Therefore, Axelrod said that a system of equations such as the post that can maximize both the share of the system and the realization of the policy will be derived as a result.More precisely, it can be obtained from a combination of shares such as posts and the degree of policy realization.gainIt is a framework that enables maximization of.thisMinimum Victory AllianceThat is.Specifically, it is a coalition of large and small political parties that has a seating capacity closer to the majority, such as the minimum victory alliance.However, this is also a combination that reduces the policy differences between the two parties that form a coalition at the same time.

Even in the formation of a coalition government that is actually seen, it can be said that the minimum victory alliance in a broad sense, including the minimum consolidated victory alliance as seen in the above theory, is almost established.But rarelyスイス OfMagic formulalikeGrand coalitionThere is a coalition of large political parties that are said to be, and in that case, the policy differences of the political parties that make up the coalition are large.For example2005 OfBundestag electionAs a result ofGermanyThen the grand coalitionMerkelThe administration was born.First, I will show the result of this election here.

Parliamentary nameSeats after re-electionSeats before re-electionIncrease or decrease
■Christian Democratic Union-Christian Social Alliance (CDU / CSU)226248-22%
■Social Democrats (SPD)222251-29%
■LDP (FDP)6147+14
■Left Party542+52
■Alliance 90 / The Greens Party (Grüne)4751-4
Total610599

First, according to the theory of the minimum victory alliance in a broad senseadministrationLet's predict the process of establishment.The CDU / CSU, which became the first party, first seeks a coalition with the FDP, which has the least policy difference, but the total number of seats is 1, which is less than the majority of both parties.Next, Alliance 287 / The Greens Party, and the Left PartyprotocolWill be done.However, the policy difference between Alliance 90 / The Greens and the Left is greater than the policy difference with SPDs.Therefore, it is naturally expected that it will be difficult to form a coalition with one of the two parties.In fact, the CDU / CSU went into coalition talks with the FDP, which was predicted to be a coalition before the election, and the Greens.But mainly with the CDU and FDP and Alliance 90 / The GreensEconomic policyThe gap above was large and this was unsuccessful.In the end, the environment for establishing the minimum victory alliance in a broad sense, that is, the minimum consolidated victory alliance, was not established, and a grand coalition was established.But first, the search for a three-party coalition of CDU, FDP, and Alliance 90 / The Greens indicates that the parties will act rationally and seek the smallest Victory Alliance first.This indicates that a minimum Victory Alliance (Minimum Victory Alliance) is desirable for political parties and that they will make every effort to form a Minimum Victory Alliance.From this, it can be said that the theory of the minimum victory alliance in a broad sense is valid.

On the other hand, when adopting a proportional representation system,Political allianceThere are cases in which the election is held.in this caseCenter rightとCenter leftOften divided into two major coalitions.Also, if one party alliance exceeds the seats of another party or party alliance, this party alliance will form a coalition as it is.For exampleイタリア,スウェーデンIs a typical example.In Sweden2006In the general electionModerate party-Central party-Liberal party-Christian Democratic PartyThe four-party coalition of right-wing parties, "Union for Sweden," won 349 seats, which is the majority of the 178 seats, and a four-party coalition government was born.However, the moderate party with the largest number of seats in the "Union for Sweden" has 97 seats, which is the first party.Social Democratic Labor PartyIt is the second party, less than (130 seats).In other words, it is very different from the normal simultaneous formation pattern in which the first party plays a central role in forming a coalition after the election results are finalized.Rather, here is a political alliance, that is, a "coalition for Sweden" and a center-left social democracy.Green party-Left PartyEach of the political alliance is considered a monolithic unit, a single actor in the process of regime.In this sense, this case does not take the typical process of establishing a coalition government, even though it is a coalition government.Two-party systemIt can be said that it is close to the process of establishing a single government in which the framework of the administration is decided as it is as a result of the election as seen in the case of.

Coalition government policy process

footnote

  1. ^ "The first change of government in 13 years in the UK, the birth of a coalition government of the Conservative Party and the Liberal Democratic Party“Reuters” May 2010, 5.2021/4/2Browse.
  2. ^ "British general election of 2010 | United Kingdom" (English). Encyclopedia Britannica. 2021/4/2Browse.
  3. ^ “Belgium is finally inaugurated as a provisional government for a year and a half”(November 2011, 12). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2011, 12.. https://web.archive.org/web/20111218034618/http://www.asahi.com/international/update/1212/TKY201112120374.html 2011/12/12Browse. 

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