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🏛 | What is the secret to winning the second straight victory of "Makoto Otake's disciple" called "Miracle Election Planner"?

Photo Mr. Zamamiya when he met Mr. Taro Yamamoto (left) in 2013. "I was involved in the election in a strange way, wearing sunglasses (laughs)."

What is the secret to winning the second straight victory of "Makoto Otake's disciple" called "miracle election planner"?

If you write the contents roughly
"For example, Nanao City has been merged and transferred repeatedly, so there are subtle temperature differences in what the mayor wants, depending on the area where voters live.

In October 2020, a "reversal drama" occurred in the election of the mayor of Nanao City, Ishikawa Prefecture, which is located in the center of the Noto Peninsula. 10 selections ... → Continue reading


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Nanao City

Nanao City(Repair) isHokuriku regionLocated in the western part ofCityso,IshikawaNoto districtIs the central municipality of.


Located in the central part of Noto PeninsulaToyama Bay,Nanao BayFacing the city areaNotojimaincluding.2004(Heisei16 years)May 10,Merger of municipalitiesBy the new city systemNanao CityWas launched. The origin of the name "Nanao" is said to be from the seven ridges (Kikuo, Kameo, Matsuo, Torao, Takeo, Umeo, Tatsuo) of the mountain where Nanao Castle was located (commonly known as Shiroyama).[1].


Located in the central part of Nanao Bay due to the mergerNotojima Town, Nanao West BayNakajima Town,Tazuruhama TownThe area is included in the city area and surrounds Nanao South Bay.The eastern part faces Toyama Bay, and the Sakiyama Peninsula, which extends northeast along the bay, is at the tip.KannonzakiFacing Noto Island.Wakura Onsen, Akaura Onsen,Akasaki OnsenThere are many hot springs.


Highest point
  • Mt. Zao (Mt. Akasaka) (507.5m)

■IshitoyamaThe altitude is higher, but the highest point (mountain peak) is next to it.Nakanoto TownBelong to.

  • Sakiyama Peninsula
  • 赤蔵山(179m)、伊掛山(252m)、石動山(564m)、蔵王山(赤坂山)(507.5m)、鞍馬山(60m)、国造山(63m)、後藤山(84m)、城山(300m)、天行寺山、風吹岳(354m)、別所岳(358m)、遍照岳、虫ヶ峰(296m)、四村塚山(196.8m)
  • Otani River, Otsu River, Kasashi River, Kawajiri River, Kawachi River, Kumaki River, Kumaguchi River, Kosaka River, Komaki River, Sakiyama River, Sakura River, Takaai River, Takada River, Torigoe River, Nishitani Uchi River, Daily River, Ninomiya River , Funao River, Mio River, Yawata River, Wakabayashi River
  • Nanao Bay, Toyama Bay
  • Akauragata, upper bank, Urushiya pond, shell pond, lower bank
  • Qingdao, Oshima, Oshima, Oshima, Karasujima, Kannonjima, Kuroshima, Kojima, Koshikijima, Kobejima, Sarushima, Shigejajima, Terashima, Tachigashima, Tanegashima, Kumajima, Kijima, Nakajima, Notojima, Buddha, Matsushima, Mizukoshi Island, Metz Island, Spiral Island, Yomeshima
Cape (nose)
  • Ipponki nose, Ueki nose, Ukiishi nose, Akizaki, Enoki nose, Ogi nose, Osugizaki, Otachizaki, Otomari nose, Kasaguri nose, Katsoozaki, Kamasaki, Kama nose, Kannonzaki, Gyosha nose, Kotani nose, Koizumizaki, Shirasaki, Joga nose, Niizaki, Sen nose, Sowaji nose, Taura nose, Take nose, Tachiga nose, Chojaga nose, Donoshita, Street nose, Toga nose, Toriga nose, Nagasaki, Nagashima, Tofusaki, Tofu cape, Fujiyoshi nose, Tattered nose, Maki nose, Matsuga nose, Matsu nose, Manzaki, Mizutari nose, Miyazaki, Yada Shindezaki, Yokosa nose, Yoshigaura nose, Yonogi nose, Bayzaki

Adjacent municipality


Administrative district

  • Sodegae
  • Gyo
  • Tokuda
  • Yadago
  • Higashiminato
  • Nishiminato
  • Ishizaki
  • Wakura
  • Southern drink
  • Kitaonomi
  • Sakiyama
  • Higher floor
  • end
  • Tatsuruhama
  • Akakura
  • Soma
  • Kanegasaki
  • West Bank
  • Natauchi
  • Kumaki
  • 中
  • Toyokawa
  • Kasashiho
  • Nozaki
  • Kunime
  • Mukita
  • Western part



ancientNoto countryNoto-gunNoto in the land ofKokufu,KokubunjiIt was the center of Noto Province, where is located.Going back further, it is the land governed by Noto Kunizo.Total length 52mThe Yada Takagimori tumulus (keyhole-shaped tumulus) and the 42-meter Yada Maruyama tumulus (keyhole-shaped tumulus) are said to be involved in the Noto burial mounds.On the opposite bank of Noto IslandEnki ceremony internal companyIt is rare in Iya Hibashi Shrine and in JapanGoguryeoHave a ceremony stone chamberSoso Ezo Cave TumulusThere is.

It became Kashima-gun in the Middle Ages.Noto during the Warring States periodMr. Hatakeyama Nanao Castle7th generation owner based inYoshitaka HatakeyamaIn the era, the magnificent "Hatayama culture" prospered under Nanao Castle and reached its heyday.

1577(Tensho5 years),Kenshin UesugiHatakeyama was destroyed by the invasion ofOda NobunagaServeMaeda ToshiieOccupied the entire Noto area.Some in the Edo periodHeavenExcept forMaeda OfKaga DomainBecame part of.


Transition of administrative district

Flow of Nanao city area after the Meiji era
Before 18891889/4/11889 - 19451945 - 19541954 - 20042004 -
Municipal system not enforcedKashima-gunNanaochoKashima-gunNanaochoNanao CityNanao CityNanao CityNanao City
Higashiminato VillageHigashiminato Village
Yatago VillageYatago Village
Tokuda VillageTokuda Village
Nishiminato VillageNishiminato Village
Ishizaki VillageIshizaki Village
Kitaonomi VillageKitaonomi VillageKashima-gunKitaonomi VillageNanao City
Minamionomi VillageMinamionomi VillageMinamionomi Village
Sakiyama VillageSakiyama VillageSakiyama Village
Takashina VillageTakashina VillageTakashina Village
Nakajima VillageNakajima VillageNakajima VillageNakajima TownKashima-gunNakajima Town
Kasashiho VillageKasashiho VillageKasashiho Village
Kumaki VillageKumaki VillageKumaki Village
Nishigishi VillageNishigishi VillageNishigishi Village
Hakui-gunNatauchi VillageHakui-gunNatauchi VillageNatauchi Village
Kashima-gunHigashijima VillageKashima-gunHigashijima VillageHigashijima VillageHigashijima VillageNotojima Town
Nakanoshima VillageNakanoshima VillageNakanoshima VillageNakanoshima Village
Nishijima VillageNishijima VillageNishijima VillageNishijima Village
Tazuruhama VillageWakuramachiTazuruhama TownTazuruhama TownTazuruhama TownTazuruhama Town
Akagura Village
Kanegasaki VillageKanegasaki VillageKanegasaki Village
Soma VillageSoma VillageSoma Village


  • 51,113 (2021(3nd year of Reiwa)May 1Current)
  • Man --24,297 Women --26,816[3]
The number of households
  • 21,944 households (as of January 2021, 3 (Reiwa 1))[3]
Population distribution of Nanao, Ishikawa, Japan.svg
Population distribution by age in Nanao City and the whole country (2005)Population distribution by age and gender in Nanao City (2005)
■Purple-Nanao City
■Green-All over Japan

Changes in the population of Nanao City (corresponding area)
Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsStatistics Bureau CensusThan



Former Mayor of Nanao City
Oka Keimaru1939(14)May 71939May 9Duties
11Toyokichi Shimizu1939May 91943(18)May 9
22Nagayasu MatsukawaMarch 1943, 18 (Showa 9)1946(21)May 10
33Ryoji Kamino1947(22)May 41951(26)May 4
41951May 51955(30)May 4
54Pengtaro Uesaka1955May 41959(34)May 4
65Kunitomo SotozoMarch 1959, 34 (Showa 4)1963(Showa 38) January 4
76MoriseiichiMarch 1963, 38 (Showa 4)1967(Showa 42) January 4
87Shigeharu AokiMarch 1967, 42 (Showa 4)1971(Showa 46) January 4
9March 1971, 46 (Showa 4)1975(Showa 50) January 4
108Tomonori MoritomoMarch 1975, 50 (Showa 4)1979(Showa 54) January 4
11March 1979, 54 (Showa 4)1983(Showa 58) January 4
12March 1983, 58 (Showa 4)1985(60)May 10Died during office
139Hiroshi Ishigaki1985May 111989(XNUMX)May 11
14October 1989, 111993(5) April 11
151993 (Heisei 5)/11/231997(9) April 11
161997 (Heisei 9)/11/232001(13) April 11
1710Bunpei Takemoto2001 (Heisei 13)/11/232004(16)May 9
Successive mayors
Noboru Tsujiguchi2004(16)May 102004May 11Mayor Duty Executor, Former Mayor Nakajima
11Bunpei Takemoto2004May 112008(20) April 11
22008 (Heisei 20)/11/72012(24) April 11
32Toyokazu Fushima2012 (Heisei 24)/11/72016(28) April 11
42016 (Heisei 28)/11/7January 2020, 2 (11nd year of Reiwa)
53Yoshitaka Chatani2020(2nd year of Reiwa)May 11Incumbent

municipal office

Mayoral election

Results of successive mayor elections
TimesElection execution dateVoter turnout
candidateNumber of votes obtained
11947(22)May 4Ryoji Kamino6,848
Kosaku Mitsui4,744
Kunitomo Sotozo3,448
21951(26)May 494.6Ryoji Kamino7,129
Kunitomo Sotozo6,596
Kosaku Mitsui6,313
31955(30)May 492.0Pengtaro Uesaka12,920
Masanori Kamino12,228
Shigeo Tamura269
41959(34)May 491.63Kunitomo Sotozo15,224
Pengtaro Uesaka11,080
51963(38)May 486.23Moriseiichi13,056
Hideo Haruki12,923
Toshio Yasoshima1,585
61967(42)May 488.37Shigeharu Aoki14,357
71971(46)May 494.64Shigeharu Aoki15,328
Hideo Haruki15,064
81975(50)May 494.10Tomonori Moritomo17,094
Shigeharu Aoki14,530
91979(54)May 4/Tomonori MoritomoNo votes
101983(58)May 493.81Tomonori Moritomo19,050
Hero Uesaka13,941
111985(60)May 1189.64Hiroshi Ishigaki15,579
Daine Otomatsu10,140
Noboru Kasashi6,158
121989(XNUMX)May 10/Hiroshi IshigakiNo votes
131993(5)May 10/Hiroshi IshigakiNo votes
141997(9)May 1063.17Hiroshi Ishigaki15,537
Kenzo Yamazaki5,047
Kiyonori Kurosaki2,897
152001(13)May 1078.92Bunpei Takemoto18,338
Hiroshi Ishigaki11,285
16 (1)2004(16)May 1178.12Bunpei Takemoto24,750
Yasuo Nakamura15,399
17 (2)2008(20)May 1071.30Bunpei Takemoto20,667
Kotaro Masaura14,289
18 (3)2012(24)May 1061.63Toyokazu Fushima16,763
Eiki Nishikawa6,201
Sakai Sukemitsu6,098
19 (4)2016(28)May 10/Toyokazu FushimaNo votes
20 (5)2020(Reiwa2 years)May 1063.44Yoshitaka Chatani11,574
Toyokazu Fushima10,762
Shio Moriyama5,301


In 2009, the deputy mayor was arrested on suspicion of bribery for receiving 100 million yen in cash from a contractor in connection with civil engineering work ordered by the city.[4].


Nanao City Assembly

  • Number of people: 18 people
  • Term: March 2017, 11-March 1, 2021[5]
  • Chair: Yoshihiko Kubo (Nadakai)[6]
  • Vice Chairman: Tomoyuki Yamazaki (Nadakai)
Parliamentary nameNumber of seatsRepresentative name
Nadakai7Tomoyuki Yamazaki, Yoshihiko Kubo, Tsutomu Sugiki, Takeshi Kakiuchi, Yoshimasa Obayashi, Takeo Katsura, Yuuo Imada
New government4Hidenobu Nishikawa, Masanori Tokuda, Yo Nagasaki, Yosuke Nakanishi
Abandoned7Kazuyoshi Yamazoe, Yoshinori Sato, Takao Kinoshita, Kazunori Isogai, Kazuyoshi Arakawa, Atsuko Ito, Chuichi Sugimoto

Ishikawa Prefectural Assembly

  • Constituency: Nanao City Constituency
  • Number of people: 2 people
  • Term: March 2019, 4-March 30, 2023
  • Voting Date: July 2019, 4
  • Number of voters on the day: 45,005
  • Voting rate: 58.80%
Candidate nameCommentageParty nameOld and newNumber of votes obtained
Shinichi ShimizuThis41Independent新9,704 vote
Kozo WadauchiThis71LDPNow9,561 vote
Masahiro Takahashidrop44LDPNow6,953 vote

House of Representatives

CommentCandidate nameageAffiliated partyOld and newNumber of votes obtainedrepeat
ThisShoji Nishida48LDP新80,416 vote○
RatioKazuya Kondo43Hope partyyuan78,306 vote○
Kota Suzuki36Japan Communist Party新5,212 vote

公共 機関


Police box (3)
  • Nanao station square police box
  • Mishima police box
  • Wakura police box
Residential police box (12)
  • Tokuda police box
  • Three-room police box
  • An office
  • Hanazono police box
  • Ishizaki police box
  • Soma police box
  • Tatsuruhama police box
  • West Bank Representative
  • Fujise police box
  • Nakajima Substation
  • Shiotsu station
  • Noto Island Representative Office


Fire department (2)
  • Nanao Fire Station
  • Wakura Fire Station
Detachment / Detachment (3)
  • Nakajima branch office
  • Notojima branch office
  • Nadaura Branch Office


Independent administrative agency
Medical Corporation

Water supply

Public water supply
  • Nanao City Water and Sewerage Division


Public sewerage (specific environmental conservation public sewerage)
  • Nanao processing area
  • Wakura processing area
  • Nagaura processing area
  • Nakajima processing area
  • Tatsuruhama processing area
  • Notojima processing area

Waste treatment

  • Nanao City Environment Division


Zip Code
  • 926-00 ・ 01 ・ 02 ・ 03 ・ 08 (former Nanao City, Notojima Town Area)
  • 929-21 ・ 22 (former Tatsuruhama Town / Nakajima Town area)
Post office (35)
  • Ishizaki Post Office
  • Iori Simple Post Office
  • Ikuromachi Post Office
  • Ushirobatake Post Office
  • Enome Post Office
  • Japan Post Post Office
  • Kanegasaki Post Office
  • Hokkaido University Post Office
  • Sakiyama Post Office
  • Sazanami Post Office
  • Tatsuruhama Post Office
  • Tokuda Post Office
  • Tokuda station square post office
  • Toyokawa Post Office
  • Nakajima Post Office
  • Nanao Post Office
  • Nanao Ota Post Office
  • Nanao Tsumugi Simple Post Office
  • Nanao Fujihashimachi Post Office
  • Nanao Fuchu Post Office
  • Nanao Matsumoto Post Office
  • Nanao Mani Post Office
  • Nanao Yada Post Office
  • Nanao Yata New Post Office
  • West Bank Post Office
  • Nishijima Post Office
  • Japan Post Post Office
  • Notojima Post Office
  • Higashijima Post Office
  • Mangyo Post Office
  • Japan Post Post Office
  • Minamigaoka Post Office
  • Mimuro Simple Post Office
  • Yawata Post Office
  • Wakura Onsen Post Office
Branch office
  • Kanazawa BranchPatriaInner branch office

National administrative agency



high school

Ishikawa Prefectural (5)
Private (1)

Junior high school

Nanao City (4)
* The numbers in parentheses are elementary schools in the school district.

primary school

Nanao City (10)
* The numbers in parentheses are the administrative districts within the school district.
  • Komaruyama Elementary School
    (Mikare, Nishiminato)
  • Sanno Elementary School
    (Sodegae, part of Yadago)
  • Tenjinyama Elementary School
  • Higashiminato Elementary School
    (Higashiminato, Kita-nomi, Sakiyama, Minami-nomi)
  • Ishizaki Elementary School
  • Wakura Elementary School
  • Asahi Elementary School
    (Tokuda, higher floor)
  • Tatsuruhama Elementary School
    (Hata, Tatsuruhama, Akakura, Soma, Kanegasaki)
  • Nakajima Elementary School
    (West Bank, Kumaki, Kumaki, Nakajima, Toyokawa, Kasashiho)
  • Notojima Elementary School
    (Nozaki, Kaname, Mukita, Western)

Special school

Ishikawa Prefectural (1)
  • Nanao Special Needs School

Vocational school

Private (3)

Junior college

Facilities other than school education

Sports Facilities

  • NGF Okui Golf School
  • Sports Gather 770
  • Nanao Korosa Ski Resort
  • Nanao City Health Promotion Center Athlon
  • Nanao City Shiroyama Athletics Stadium
  • Nanao City Shiroyama Swimming Pool
  • Nanao City Shiroyama Gymnasium
  • Nanao City Komaruyama Tennis Court
  • Nanao City Komaruyama Gate Ball Field
  • Nanao City Mt. Atagoyama Sumo Ground
  • Nanao City Futatsuda Athletic Field
  • Nanao City Budokan
  • Nanao City Minato Fureai Sports Center
  • Nanao City Tatsuruhama Gymnasium
  • Nanao City Tatsuruhama Tennis Court
  • Nanao City Tatsuruhama Indoor Gateball Field
  • Nanao City Tatsuruhama Multipurpose Ground
  • Nanao City Tatsuruhama Budokan
  • Nanao City Nakajima Gymnasium
  • Nanao City Nakajima Budojo
  • Nanao City Nakajima Baseball Stadium
  • Nanao City Nakajima Sumo Ground
  • Nanao City Nakajima Gathering Square
  • Nanao City Notojima Budokan Tateno
  • Nanao City B & G Marine Center
  • Nanao Shiroyama Athletic Park
  • Nanao Shiroyama Baseball Stadium
  • Nanao General Civic Gymnasium
  • Notojima Golf and Country Club
  • BIG-S Nanao
  • Minacle 70
  • Wakura Golf Club

Lifelong learning facility

Job training

Ishikawa Prefectural (1)

Driving school

Designated driving school (2)





General national road

The Kawaramachi intersection in the city is Route 159 (--end point,Kanazawa), Route 160 (--End point ・Takaoka), Route 249 (- Wajima City ――It is the starting point of the three national roads where (end point, Kanazawa City) gathers.[7].

Main local road

General prefectural road

Road Station


Bus company
Community bus
  • Marin
  • Yamabiko
  • Round 7
  • Nakajima Genki Bus
  • Tatsuruhama Community Bus
  • Notojima community bus
Bus terminal



Important port

Local port

  • Wakura Port
  • Hannoura Port

Fishing port

  • Iori fishing port (Iori, 1 species).
  • Ishizaki fishing port (Ishizaki, 2 species)
  • Unoura fishing port (Unoura, 1 species)
  • Emari fishing port (Enotomari, 1 species)
  • Kurosaki fishing port (Kurosaki, 1 species)
  • Sazanami fishing port
    • Kamisasami fishing port (Kami Sazanami, 1 species)
    • Shimosazanami Fishing Port (Sazanami, 2 species)
  • Higashihama fishing port (Tonohama, 1 species)
  • Hyakukai Fishing Port (Domi, 1 species)
  • Mimuro fishing port (Mimuro, 1 species)


  • Industrial population
    • Primary industry 6.0%
    • Secondary industry 25.3%
    • Tertiary industry 68.7%

(27 census)

Agriculture, forestry and fisheries

Fisheries processing industry


  • Vitec Farm Nanao Co., Ltd.


Manufacturing industry

Commercial / Other

Commercial facility



tv set



  • Mid-January-Wakura Onsen Winter Fireworks
  • Late March-Heikoku Festival (Oide Festival)
  • Sunday near April 4-Mibiki Shishimai
  • 4th Saturday of April-Sumiyoshi Taisha Festival
  • June 5-3- Qingdao Festival(Seihakusai)
  • Late March- Monterey Jazz Festival in Noto
  • Late July-Nagoshi Festival
  • First Saturday of July-Mutual City Festival
  • Third Saturday of July- Nanao Gion Festival(Nanao Gion Festival)
  • 7th Saturday of July-Shiotsu Kagari Fire Love Festival (Shiotsu Summer Festival)
  • January 7th and 19th- Nanao Port Festival(Noto Yosakoi Festival Will be held)
  • July 7-Mukaida Fire Festival (Koda no Hi Matsuri)
  • Early August-Wakura Onsen Summer Fireworks
  • Third Saturday of July- Ishizaki lantern festival(Issaki Hoto Sai)
  • August 8-Shingu no Uryosai
  • August 8-Himuro no Kamamatsuri
  • Early June- YOSAKOI SoranSea of ​​Japan and venue
  • 9rd Sunday of September-Nanao Castle Festival
  • September 9-Okuma Kabuto Festival
  • Early November-Nanao Autumn Big City (Otoki City)
  • Mid-December-Cormorant Festival




local specialty

Works set in Nanao City



Anime light novel


  • "Nanao City and Commerce and Industry Guide" (Nanao City, March 1952)
  • "History of Nanao City" (edited by the Nanao City History Compilation Expert Committee, 1968-1974)
  • "Detailed classification map of Nanao City and Kashima District" (Japan Geopolitical Association, May 1981)
  • "National Treasure, Shorin-zu byobu: 10th Anniversary of Opening, New Nanao City Birth Memorial" (Nanao Museum of Art, 2005)
  • "Noto Nanao Castle / Kaga Kanazawa Castle: Medieval Castle / Machi / Mura" (edited by Yoshihiro Senda and Toshifumi Yada, Shinjinbutsusha, March 2006,ISBN 4404032803)

Famous people

Before the Meiji era
Politics, bureaucracy, military personnel

City exchange

sister city

Goodwill city

Tourism exchange city


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈


  1. ^ Ishikawa Prefecture Noto Peninsula Tourist Information Noto Fragrance
  2. ^ Shinshu Nanao City History XNUMX Modern and Contemporary EditionNanao City Hall. (March 22, 3) 
  3. ^ a b Nanao City Population Movement
  4. ^ "Arrested former deputy mayor of Ishikawa / Nanao City on suspicion of bribery Convenient for civil engineering bidding?". Sankei News (Sankei Shimbun). (June 2015, 3). http://sankei.jp.msn.com/affairs/crime/090529/crm0905290010000-n1.htm 2015/8/20Browse. 
  5. ^ "List of expiration dates”. Ishikawa Prefectural Election Commission (February 2021, 2). 2021/3/14Browse.
  6. ^ “Anti-mayors maintain initiative” Nanao City Assembly Chairman Kubo, Vice Chairman Yamazaki. Hokoku newspaper (Hokkaido Shimbun). (January 2021, 2). https://news.yahoo.co.jp/articles/3263473577500a80132cdfb5109e154153441418 2021/2/10Browse. 
  7. ^ Kentaro Sato"Going to famous places on national roads / places where national roads start" "Mysterious national roads"Kodansha<Kodansha's New Book>, 2014, p. 43.ISBN 978-4-06-288282-8.

Related item

外部 リンク


Wiki Portal Physics
Writing request-Request for correction
physics -(image)
Wikiproject physics

temperature(Ondo,(British: temperature) Is an index showing the degree of heating and cooling.


The high and low temperatures of the two objectsThermal contact[Question](thermal [1]contact)EnergyIs defined by the direction in which it moves.That is, it can be said that temperature is an index indicating the direction in which energy moves naturally.Standardly, the temperature on the side where energy flows out due to contact is high, and the temperature on the side where energy flows in is low.If no energy transfer occurs when they are brought into contact, the temperatures of the two objects are equal.This state is called temperature equilibrium (thermal equilibrium).

Maxwell says that the temperature of the gas is分子It depends only on the mean value of the random translational kinetic energy of. However, he said that similar results for objects in the liquid or solid state have not yet been established.[XNUMX].. Recently, Igarashi has proposed a definition of temperature that holds for liquids and solids. According to it, if the intermolecular force is a function of only position, even if there is interaction in polyatomic molecule, the average value of translational kinetic energy of the molecule can be exactly obtained by using statistical mechanics. , The result is equivalent to Maxwell's velocity distribution law and is a function only of absolute temperature and mass[XNUMX], [XNUMX].. The following is a brief description of this result. It can be said that "temperature represents an average value of random translational kinetic energies of atoms and molecules." Dr. Harashima's text says that Maxwell's velocity distribution law for the velocity distribution of translational motion of gas molecules holds for not only gases but also liquids and solids.[5], But no mathematical proof is attached. Igarashi uses a thought experiment that the temperature is determined by the average value of the kinetic energy of the disorderly translational motion of the molecule, and rotational and vibrational motions in the molecule Have proved[6], [7].

Statistical mechanicsAccording tomaterialCompose分子Messy translational movement ofEnergyThe average value of can be obtained as Igarashi derived. The temperature thus determined matches the thermodynamic temperature.

Thermodynamic temperature OfZero point(0Kelvin) Isabsolute temperatureIt is called a state where the disordered translational motion of molecules is stopped. However, absolute zero is an extreme state, and a finite operation does not cause matter to reach absolute zero. Also,Quantum mechanicalIUncertaintyTherefore, the movement of the molecule does not stop even if it reaches absolute zero.However, the motion of the molecule at this time is not a messy translational motion.The motion of the molecule at this time is called quantum mechanical zero-point vibration (zero-point motion), and since it is not a messy motion, it does not contribute to entropy. Therefore, the entropy is zero at absolute zero, and the molecule is messy. The translational motion also stops and becomes zero.The temperature ismaterialCompose分子Messy translational movement ofAverage value of energyThat's why.

The temperature isChemical reactionHave a strong influence on. Also,Biology Each has its own, and can only survive in an environment with a very narrow temperature range.Chemical,BiologyInObservation,ExperimentThen, it is necessary to record the temperature as a basic condition, or adjusting the temperature is an important condition for establishing the experiment. Also, in biology and medicine, tissues and samplesRefrigeratedDoing so has the meaning of reducing the rate of chemical change by lowering the temperature.

Kinetic theory approach

In kinetic theory, Kelvin temperature is associated with the average value of kinetic energy per degree of freedom in temperature (heat) equilibrium.

Energy distribution lawAccording to (equipartition theorem), the kinetic energy per individual degree of freedom of the system is kBT/2 Becomes here, T Is the absolute temperature, kB Is the Boltzmann constant. In three-dimensional space, the translational degrees of freedom of particles are 3, so one monatomic gas particle is3kBT/2 Have the energy to become.

For example, gas oxygen molecules (O2) Has rotation (2 degrees of freedom) and vibration (1 degree of freedom) in addition to translation. The kinetic energy for each degree of freedom is kBT/2 However, the vibration mode is frozen quantum mechanically in the low temperature region including normal temperature, so the total energy per molecule is 5kBT/2 Becomes Also, in the high temperature region, it becomes a mode of vibration similar to a harmonic oscillator, and kinetic energy and potential energy almost equal to it are added, so the total energy per molecule is 7kBT/2 Becomes Each mode such as translation, rotation, and vibration is equally distributed under such a fixed constraint, and its unified measure (such as groundwater level) can be called temperature, but from the viewpoint of potential and periodicity, it is the most constrained. It is the translational energy of the gas that has less.

The temperature energy of a solid isDebye temperaturePer atom in the higher temperature range, 6kBT/2 Is approximated by (Duron-Petit's law), this is also because one of the atoms constitutes a harmonic oscillator with three degrees of freedom.

Not only does the law of energy distribution hold for dissimilar gas particles in a mixed gas, but this is also a result, and in fact, it is thought that there is an equalizing action that brings this result closer.The result of this equalization action on spatial inhomogeneity in an object is heat conduction, but even if it occupies the same space, the (for example, transparent) substance and the radiant field maintain different temperatures for a long time. In this case, each temperature should be considered separately (the temperature of radiation may not be defined in common sense in the first place).

Since temperature is a statistical entity, it requires a rather wide measurement range spatially and temporally, and in the case of gas, it requires time and space in which its particles collide multiple times. For example, modes of motion such as translation, rotation, and vibration of gas are considered to be sufficiently equalized (under the above-mentioned constraint) in such a space-time range. However, as Maxwell points out, the modes of motion such as molecular rotation and vibration are excited depending on the temperature, but it must be noted that they do not contribute to the temperature.[XNUMX].. So-called "adiabatic free expansion" is an exceptional transient phenomenon.

Definition of temperature

Although there were various definitions of temperature in history,International quantity systemInBasic quantityLocated inThermodynamic temperatureIs defined as temperature (heat)EquilibriumInternal energy of the system atU, Keeping the volume constantEntropy SIt is partially differentiated with.

(T= ∂ U/ ∂ S)v.. At present, the definition of temperature and entropy in the non-equilibrium state is in the process of development, as it may not be possible to define it in its original meaning.

Temperature is one of the physical quantities that is extremely difficult to measure.Since temperature is a statistical value, if the number of molecules is small, such as when measuring a low-density object or a very narrow range, the value will not be statistically stable and meaningless, and a very large number of molecules will be measured. It is impossible to observe the motion state one by one with the current technology, and it is due to the fact that indirect measurement is performed instead.

The temperature can be measured by measuring the electromagnetic waves radiated from the object to be measured, or by taking a long time to bring the measurement probe into contact with the object to be measured to bring it into a temperature (thermal) equilibrium state. There is a way to measure. Both methods have some measurement problems. However, recent high-speed temperature measuring devices have been able to measure objects with a size of several tens of micrometers and a measurement time of several milliseconds, and their effectiveness as one means of capturing physical phenomena has improved. There is.

History of temperature and thermometer

Although there is a myth that the first attempt to quantitatively express the degree of warmth and warmth of an object was made,Galileo GalileiIs believed to be. Galilei is airThermal expansionA device that can measure the temperature of an object using the property ofthermometerIt was created. Since the thermometer made by Galilei was affected by atmospheric pressure and so on, it was not enough to express the temperature quantitatively, but using the change in the property of the substance depending on the temperature in this way, the degree of cold and warm Attempts to quantitatively express the equation continued. The first time I tried to express temperature numerically with a graduated thermometerOle reamerIs. Roemer created a temperature scale where the boiling point of water was 60 degrees and the melting point of water was 7.5 degrees. To create the temperature scale, two defined fixed points are required in this way. Many unique temperature scales were created, but nowadaysAndels CelsiusCreated byCelsiusTemperature scale,Gabriel FahrenheitCreated byFahrenheitThe temperature scale is mainly used.

Once with temperatureheatThe distinction between the concepts was not made clear. The first time I noticed the difference between temperature and heatJoseph BlackIs believed to be. Black has iceMeltingIt was discovered that the temperature does not change even if it absorbs heat while doing (latent heat). We also conducted an experiment in which mercury and water of the same mass at different temperatures were mixed, and we found that the amount of water and mercury changed by a constant was always the same. this isHeat capacityThe constant multiplied by the temperature change corresponds to the heat capacity, and the amount that is always equal is the amount of heat that moves. These experiments established that temperature and heat are different concepts.

Then, in the 19th century, the construction of thermodynamics proceeded due to the demand for the development of efficient heat engines.Nicolas Leonard Sadie CarnotFound that the efficiency of a heat engine has an upper limit determined by the temperature difference between the heat source and the refrigerant. From thisSecond law of thermodynamicsThe research on According to the second law of thermodynamics, from the outsideworkUnless is done, heat energy will only transfer from a hot object to a cool object.

William Thomson TheCarnot cycleIt was shown that the temperature scale can be constructed from the heat energy flowing in and out of the heat source and the refrigerant. thisThermodynamic temperatureIt is called a scale. At thermodynamic temperature, one defined fixed point is the temperature at which the efficiency of the Carnot cycle is 1, which is -1°C on the Celsius scale. According to the second law of thermodynamics, infinite work is required to reach this temperature, and there is no lower temperature. Therefore, this temperatureabsolute temperatureAlso called. On the thermodynamic temperature scale, this absolute zero is the origin (0 K). The existence of the lower limit of temperature was before ThomsonCharles' LawTherefore, it was considered as the temperature at which the volume of any gas becomes zero.

Regarding the meaning of temperature at the atomic and molecular level,James Clark MaxwellIt became clear for the first time by the kinetic theory of gas molecules. The velocity distribution of the translational motion of gas molecules isMaxwell distributionTherefore, the shape of this distribution function istemperatureDepends on. Especially, the average value of translational kinetic energy of gas molecule is 3/2 kT(K:Boltzmann constant, T: thermodynamic temperature), which is proportional to temperature. That is, temperature is also a numerical value that represents the intensity of translational motion of molecules. For this reasonplasmaThe average kinetic energy of ions and electrons inside may be expressed as temperature (plasmaThis is because the ions and electrons inside have only translational degrees of freedom). At this time, it is usually expressed by the temperature T such that the average kinetic energy = kT.

Ludwig BoltzmannDeveloped this Maxwell ideaStatistical thermodynamicsWas built. Statistical thermodynamics extends this idea to all forms of energy. The higher the temperature, the larger the proportion of atoms and molecules having high energy, and the larger the average energy of atoms and molecules. Thus in statistical thermodynamics temperature is分子Is an index showing the manner of translational kinetic energy distribution of.

Quantum theoryOnce established, classical statistical thermodynamicsQuantum statisticsIt became clear that it was an approximation of. In classical theory, every particle at 0 K has the lowest energy state in which it has stopped moving, but in quantum theory, a particle has zero energy even at 0 K and is not in a stationary state. thisPhysical phenomenon TheZero point vibrationIt is called. Also,Bose particleThe energy distribution ofBose Einstein distribution,FermionsThe energy distribution ofFermi-Dirac distributionBecomes In fermions,Pauli exclusion principleTherefore, there is a particle with a large energy that corresponds to tens of thousands of K in classical theory even at absolute zero, but this is due to the fact that energy is regarded as temperature by substituting it in kT. And it doesn't mean the temperature of Makoto. It is important to keep in mind that the temperature分子It is the same as the classical statistics in that it is an index of the translational kinetic energy distribution of.

Temperature units and types

Temperature unit comparison
KelvinCelsius degreeFahrenheit degreeRankin degreeDreel degreeNewton degreeRheomure degreeRömer degree
absolute temperature0−273.15−459.670559.725−90.14−218.52−135.90
地球Minimum of surfacetemperature(※ 1)183.95−89.2−128.56331.11283.8−29.436−71.36−39.33
Fahrenheit OfFreezer255.37−17.780459.67176.67−5.87−14.22−1.83
Wed OfMelting point(Standard conditionunder)273.15032491.67150007.5
Average temperature on the surface of the earth2881559518.67127.54.951215.375
A humanAverage ofbody temperature309.9536.898.24557.9194.812.14429.4426.82
Maximum temperature on the earth's surface (*2)329.8556.7134.06593.7364.9518.71145.3637.268
WaterBoiling point(Under standard conditions)373.15100212671.670338060
TitaniumMelting point of1941166830343494−23525501334883
(I.e.Surface temperature58005526998010440−8140182344212909

International temperature scale (ITS-90)

International unit systemIn, the thermodynamic temperature is used for the temperature, and Kelvin is to be used as the unit. However, thermodynamic temperature is a temperature defined from the idealized system properties, so it is not easy to actually measure it. Therefore, as a temperature that is practically consistent with the thermodynamic temperature and is easy to measure,International temperature scale(Kokusai Ondo Mori, ITS, International Temperature Scale) is defined. The temperature scale currently in use was set in 1990.ITS-90It is called. The International Temperature Scale consists of a measuring instrument that defines the temperature of an area and a fixed point for calibrating it.[1].

Definition method

Definition fixed point

  • heliumVapor pressure point of: values ​​at 3 K-5 K used for calibration
  • Equilibrium hydrogen (Ortho hydrogen and para hydrogenIs in equilibrium)Three points: 13.8033 K
  • Equilibrium hydrogen vapor pressure points: Values ​​of 17.025 K-17.045 K and 20.26 K-20.28 K are defined.
  • Helium gas thermometer readings: 16.9 K-17.1 K and 20.2 K-20.4 K values ​​used for calibration
  • ネ オ ンTriple point: 24.5561 K
  • oxygenTriple point: 54.3584 K
  • ArgonTriple point: 83.8058 K
  • mercuryTriple point: 234.3156 K
  • Triple point of water: 273.16 K (another defined fixed point on the thermodynamic temperature scale)
  • galliumMelting point under standard atmospheric pressure (101 325 Pa): 302.9146 K
  • indiumFreezing point under standard atmospheric pressure: 429.7485 K
  • TinFreezing point under standard atmospheric pressure: 505.078 Kᐸ
  • zincFreezing point under standard atmospheric pressure: 692.677 K
  • aluminumFreezing point under standard atmospheric pressure: 933.473 K
  • SilverFreezing point under standard atmospheric pressure: 1234.93 K
  • FriFreezing point under standard atmospheric pressure: 1337.33 K
  • copperFreezing point under standard atmospheric pressure: 1357.77 K

Temperature measurement method

There are two types of measuring methods: the contact type, which measures directly by touching an object, and the non-contact type, which measures without touching.

The contact type includes expansion type, electric type, counting type, etc. The expansion type measures the pressure change of gas due to temperature change such as or, measures the length of liquid such as, and measures the deformation of solid.bimetalThere is a formula. The electric type uses the principle that the resistivity changes with temperature.thermocoupleSuch as using metal wire,Thermistor,diodeな どsemiconductorSome use. The method that can measure temperature changes as resonance frequency changes is classified as a counting type.liquid crystalCan also be contacted to measure temperature changes.

The non-contact type is divided into two types depending on the detection wavelength. One is the short wavelength of about 2µm-2µm.InfraredQuantum type with detection wavelength band. The other is for long wavelengths of about 8-14 μm.InfraredThermal type with the detection wavelength band. Each detection wavelength band depends on the atmosphereInfraredIn the wavelength band with a small attenuation of the quantum type, the quantum type uses InSb (), InAs (Indium arsenide) Etc., the thermal typeMicrobolometerI am using. As a typical non-contact type thermometer,InfraredThermographyThere is.

Sensible temperature

Human capitalThe temperature you feel is not decided only by the temperature,Wind,(I.e., Of surrounding objectsHeat radiationIs also affected. Taking these into consideration, the temperature expressed quantitativelySensible temperatureThat.

Temperature difference

Temperature difference(Hondosa) is literally twomaterialOf the temperature difference inthe amount OfdifferenceIn Although,1990Since the early days[Source required]JapanThen, the difference in enthusiasm, way of thinking and speculation among multiple parties for one thing or project,ValuesOf the differenceMetaphorIs sometimes expressed as "temperature difference".[2] This is a word that regards the thoughts and thoughts of each person concerned as hot and cold thoughts and compares the difference as the difference in physical temperature.


[How to use footnotes]


  1. PCRiedi, "Thermal Physics An introduction to thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and kinetic theory" 2nd Edition, Oxford University Press p.9, 2.1 First law of thermodynamics XNUMX Zeroth law and scale of temperature has the following description. "The most directly accessible thermal concept is not heat but rather temperature, the relative sensation of hot and cold."
  2. JC Maxwell World Famous Book 65 Contemporary Science I, Hideki Yukawa, Ken Inoue, Responsible Editor, Commentary, "Outline of Recent Molecular Science Focusing on Molecular Theory of Gas", pp1231-9, Original The Scientific Papers of James Clerk Maxwell Vol.2 (1965) Dover, pp.445-484
  3. Yasunori Igarashi "ᐸ(1/2)mvtr2ᐳ = (3/2)kT Does the relational expression of hold for liquids and solids? -From a consideration of the principle of temperature measurement-Proceedings of the Physical Society of Japan vol.69, No.2, p.240 (2014.9)
  4. Yasunori Igarashi "Velocity distribution in interacting polyatomic molecular groups-Molecular meaning of temperature" Vol.72, No.1, DVD version, Chemical Physics Subcommittee (017.3)
  5. Akira Harashima Basic Physics I Mechanics / Relativity / Thermal Science Academic Books 309 First Edition pp.310-XNUMX 
  6. Yasunori Igarashi "What is temperature?-The molecular meaning of temperature-" Proceedings of the Physical Society of Japan vol.66, No.1, p.443(2011.3)
  7. Yasunori Igarashi "Molecular Theoretical Structure of Temperature Concept and Verification Experiments" Proc.

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