Governor Maruyama, who said that the Olympic torch relay was canceled, went to Tokyo and made a direct interview. The reaction of the central government ministries was ... (Shimane, Tokyo)
If you write the contents roughly
On the other hand, he reiterated that the torch relay cannot be held unless infection control is improved.
Governor Maruyama of Shimane Prefecture came to Tokyo today in response to statements such as "against the Olympics" and "considering canceling the torch relay."Central government ministries ... → Continue reading
San-in Central TV
This is an account of "San'in Chuo Television Broadcasting" (Fuji Television affiliate) news. We will send you the latest news from Shimane and Tottori prefectures.
Wikipedia related words
If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.
Olympic torch(Maybe because of the Olympicsalone: Olympischer Fackellauf,British: Olympic Flame,Buddha: Flamme olympique) IsInternational Olympic CommitteeUnder the authority ofGreece OfOlympiaTo be lit upTueIsOlympic OfSymbolBut also.
During the Olympic GamesMain stadiumContinue to be lit up.Its origin isAncient greeceGoing back in timeGreek mythologyAppear inPrometheus ZeusIn commemoration of stealing the fire from the source and telling it to humankindAncient olympicIt was lit during the holding period of.The torch1928 Amsterdam OlympicsSince it was reintroduced inModern olympicContinues to be part of.
Fire and torch relay
The torch is GreekOlympiaFired at the ruins using the sun,Delivered to the Olympic venue by the torchbearer.
Traditionally, the ancient Olympics were held months before the opening ceremony of the Olympics.Peloponnese PeninsulaIn OlympiaHellerIt is being lit at the site of the temple.To the torch torch, a concave mirror that concentrates the sun's rays on one point,FurnaceGoddessHestiaEleven shrine maidens (played by an actress) who worship the torch are lit by holding a torch.
The torch is then transported by the torch relay to the host city of the Olympic Games.Not only athletes and celebrities but also ordinary people participate in the torchbearer.It is customary for the first runner of the torchbearer to be a Greek person and the second runner to be a person from the host country.2020 Tokyo OlympicsTorchbearer becomes the first runner2016 Rio de Janeiro OlympicsShooting Women's 25m Gold Medalist, To the second runner2004 Athens OlympicsWomen's Marathon Gold MedalistMizuki NoguchiHowever, the first runner has been a man so far, and Koracaki will be the first woman to serve as the first runner..
On the day of the opening ceremony, the torch relay will be ignited at the torch stand installed at the stadium, which is the main venue for the competition.
In the past, it was common for the final runner to move the fire from the torch to the torch rather than running toward the torch on the stairs, but in recent years there have been various things such as archery arrows, ski jumpers, and fireworks installed in the stadium. The taste is becoming more elaborate.In many cases, the final runner or ignition "gimmick" is kept secret until the last moment and is generally served by a well-known athlete in the host country.It is considered a great honor to light the torch.Through the lighting of this torch, the Games will be opened, and will continue to be lit during the Olympic Games and will be turned off at the end of the closing ceremony.
All the fuel for the torch relay of the past modern Olympics until the 2014 Games,propane gasAlso known as.2021At the Tokyo Olympic and Paralympic torch relay, the torch stand and some sectionsFukushimaMade inHydrogen fuelWas used.
Ancient timesGreekFor him, the fire was sacred, believed to have been stolen by Prometheus from the gods.Because of this, the fireOlympiaIt is found in many temples of.The fire continued to burn at the Hestia altar in Olympia.During the Olympic GamesZeusThe temple of Zeus' wife Hera was lit and praised Zeus.The torch in the modern Olympics is lit at the place where the temple of Heller was once built.
Modern olympicThen, the torch was not seen until 1928. NetherlandsArchitect'sJan Wils 1928 Amsterdam OlympicsIn doing so, he incorporated the idea of incorporating a tower into the design of the Olympic Stadium and keeping the fire burning.In recognition of this, Vils has won a gold medal in the building category. 1928May 7, Amsterdam Electricity Bureau staff locallyKLMThe first torch was lit on the so-called "Marathon Tower", known as the ashtray.The idea of the torch received a lot of attention and was adopted as a symbol of the Olympic Games.
1936 Berlin OlympicsThen,GermanyA sports official and sports scientist invented the torch relay.The idea of transporting the torch fired in Greece to Berlin isGermanic peopleThat is the successor to Greece, the origin of European civilization.HitlerIt was also suitable for the idea of.With Greece (Konstantin Kondylis) as the first runner, more than 3,000 runners set the torch from OlympiaBerlinCarried to.Was a German track and field athleteFritz Schilgen(Fritz Schilgen) was the final runner and lit the torch at the stadium.The torch relay has also become part of the Olympics.
1948 London OlympicsThen.English ChannelThe ship was used for the first time to cross1952 Helsinki OlympicsThen the plane was used for the first time.1956 Melbourne OlympicsIn the case of, it is the host countryAustraliaSeverequarantineBecause ofEquestrianThe competition was held in isolation and the equestrian competition was heldStockholmThe torch was carried on a horse to.
In addition, elaborate production is used each time1968 Mexico City OlympicsThen the torch crossed the Atlantic Ocean, but I used a ship to move it, and the route wasColumbusI followed the route to the Americas as it was.As a notable means of transportation1976 Montreal OlympicsAt that time, the torch is electronicpulseThere was an attempt to convert to.This pulseAthensからsatelliteViaカナダDeliver tolaserA ray of light reignited.As another means of transportation,Native american OfCanoe,camel,ConcordeCan also be mentioned.
2004 Athens OlympicsAt that time, the first 78-day global torch relay took place.The torch traveled a distance of 11,300 km by the hands of approximately 78,000 people, the first of whichAfricaとLatin AmericaVisiting the past Olympic host cities2004I'm back in Athens, the venue for the Olympic Games.
2008 Beijing OlympicsThen, via 135 cities in the world, the highest peak in the world at an altitude of 8848 mEverestThe summit通過did.But,アルゼンチン-America-France-The United Kingdom-Australia-India-Japan- South KoreaIn various countries around the world, such asTibetDue to the effects of protests against the crackdown, there were a number of countries that extinguished the torch three times and changed the planned route.Also,Nagano cityIn Japan where the torch relay was held inZenkoji TempleHas canceled the use as a starting point, and the official sponsors Lenovo Japan, Samsung Japan, and Coca-Cola Japan have canceled the advertisement posting (all three companies are not due to the Tibetan problem) and there is confusion. occured.Detail is2008 Beijing Olympic Torch RelaySee.
2009XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,International Olympic CommitteeThe (IOC) has decided to abolish the global torch relay by holding the torch relay for the upcoming Olympics only in the host country, following the failure of the Beijing Olympic torch relay to operate smoothly.
At the 2020 Tokyo Olympics, relays will be held in 47 prefectures nationwide in sections of 2-3 km, and in other sections the torch will be carried in the form of carrying the torch by car...The mileage per person at the relay was set to 1m, and it was required to run in about 200 minutes.Special costumes are prepared and it is planned to run with the accompanying car..For this reason, the number of runners who needed more than 1964 at the 10 Tokyo Olympics has decreased significantly to about 1...The torch when transporting by car is not disclosed, and the route has not been announced in advance..
Winter OlympicsIn, the first torch relay was held1952 Oslo Olympicswas.The place where the first torch relay was fired was not OlympiaノルウェーA pioneer of ski sports inIt was a fireplace in my house.1960と1994The torch was also lit there.
1998 Nagano OlympicsThen, the design of the relay torch was bad, and especially when it was tilted forward, the trouble that the torch was extinguished by the running wind occurred frequently.It was pointed out that there was a lack of prior testing, such as fuel dripping when tilted vertically or slightly backward so that the fire would not go out, causing burns.
2014 Sochi OlympicsThen the torch is the first icebreaker in historyNorth poleWas carried to. Also,Soyuz TMA-11MBy the torchInternational Space StationTwo Russian astronauts took a torch and took a spacewalk, and the first ever torch relay in outer space was held..
The final torchbearer of all time
For many years, it has been a tradition for famous athletes and former athletes to be the final runners.Another famous final torchbearer is a French star soccer playerMichel Platini(1992), Boxing Heavyweight ChampionMohammed Ali(1996), Aboriginal track and field athleteKathy Freeman(2000) and others.
Other lesser-known figures have ignited the torch, which symbolizes the Olympic ideals.Served as a torchbearer at the Tokyo OlympicsYoshinori Sakai TheAtomic bomb dropped on HiroshimaWas done1945May 8,Hiroshima(Miyoshi City), SakaiSecond World WarIt symbolized the later reconstruction of Japan.1976 Montreal OlympicsSo two teenagers (one from a French-speaking region and one from an English-speaking region) symbolized Canada's harmony.2012 London OlympicsThen, seven teenage players nominated as "young people who will lead the next generation" by the famous British players in the past symbolized the future of England.
Below is a list of the final torchbearers of all time who ignited the torch at the stadium.
- 1936 Berlin Olympics - Fritz Schilgen(Athletics.)
- 1948 London Olympics - John Mark(Athletics.)
- 1952 Helsinki Olympics - Pavo Nurmi(Medium-distance runningWinner of nine gold medals from 1920 to 1928. )
- 1956 Melbourne Olympics - Ron Clark(Long-distance runner, won bronze medal in 1964), (Stockholm venue, participated in the 1964 Olympics.)
- 1960 Rome Olympics - Giancarlo Peris(Greek, track and field player.)
- 1964 Tokyo Olympics - Yoshinori Sakai(Athletics,The day of the atomic bombingBorn in Hiroshima. )
- 1968 Mexico City Olympics - Enriqueta Basilio(Sprinter, the first female final torchbearer.)
- 1972 Munich Olympics -(Middle-distance runner.)
- 1976 Montreal Olympics -, (Two teenagers)
- 1980 Moscow Olympics - Sergei Belov(Basketball player,Munich Olympics4 medal holders including the gold medal. )
- 1984 Los Angeles Olympics - Rafer Johnson(decathlonplayer,Melbourne OlympicsSilver medalist,Rome OlympicsGold medalist. )
- 1988 Seoul Olympics - Sun Tei(Berlin olympicMarathon gold medalist) relayed to three young track and field athletes, Chung Sunman, Kim Wontak, and Sohn Mi-Chung.
- 1992 Barcelona Olympics -(Archer, Paralympic participants.)
- 1996 Atlanta Olympics - Mohammed Ali(boxer,Rome OlympicsGold medalist. )
- 2000 Sydney Olympics - Kathy Freeman(Athletics, 400m running gold medalist.)
- 2004 Athens Olympics - Nikolaos Kakla Manakis(Windsurfer,Atlanta OlympicsGold medalist, silver medalist at the 2004 Athens Olympics. )
- 2008 Beijing Olympics - Li Ning(Gymnastics,Los Angeles OlympicsGold medalist. )
- 2012 London Olympics -Seven teenagers such as (boat) and (land) (each has been nominated by a famous British player in the past as a "young man who will lead the next generation")
- 2016 Rio de Janeiro Olympics - Vanderlei de Lima(Marathon, Athens Olympic bronze medalist.)
- 1952 Oslo Olympics - Eigil Nansen(Polar explorerFridtjof NansenIs the grandson of. )
- 1956 Cortina d'Ampezzo Olympics -(A speed skater who participated in the 1948, 1952, and 1956 Olympics. During the torch relay on skates, he stumbled on the TV cable but did not extinguish the torch.)
- 1960 Squaw Valley Olympics -(Oslo OlympicsSpeed skating 500m gold medalist at. )
- 1964 Innsbruck Olympics -(Former alpine skier participated in the 1956 Olympics.)
- 1968 Grenoble Olympics - Alain Calmat(Former figure skater, 1964 Olympic silver medalist.)
- 1972 Sapporo Olympics --Hideki Takada (Speed skater, student.)
- 1976 Innsbruck Olympics - Christl Haas(1964 OlympicsDownhillMedalist), (Same year,LugeDoubles medalist. )
- 1980 Lake Placid Olympics -(Arizona psychiatrist, voted.)
- 1984 Sarajevo Olympics - Sanda Duvlavcic(Figure skater, 1980, 1984 Olympic participants.)
- 1988 Calgary Olympics -(Figure skater, 12 year old student.)
- 1992 Albertville Olympics - Michel Platini(Soccer player, participated in the 1976 Olympics), Francois Cyril Grange (soccer player, 1976 years old at the time of 8)
- 1994 Lillehammer Olympics - Hakon MagnusCrown Prince (both father and grandfather participate in the Olympics)
- 1998 Nagano Olympics - Ito Midori(Figure skater,Albertville OlympicsSilver medalist. )
- 2002 Salt Lake City Olympics -1980Lake Placid OlympicsGold medalAmerican Ice Hockey Team
- 2006 Turin Olympics - Stefania Belmondo(Cross country,Salt Lake OlympicsGold medalist. )
- 2010 Vancouver Olympics - Wayne Gretzky(Ice hockey,1998 Nagano Olympicsrepresentative,2002 Salt Lake City OlympicsGeneral Director, "The Great One")
- 2014 Sochi Olympics - Vladislav Tretiak(Ice hockey,1972 Sapporo Olympics,Innsbruck Olympics,1984 Sarajevo OlympicsGold medalist. ),Irina Rodnina(Figure skater, Sapporo Olympics, Innsbruck Olympics, Sarajevo Olympic gold medalist.)
- 2018 Pyeongchang Olympics - Jin Yaner(Figure skating,2010 Vancouver OlympicsGold medalist. )
Ignition to the torch stand
The reason why the torch attracts public attention is that the ignition of the torch is the climax of the opening ceremony.On the other hand, there are criticisms about the tendency to escalate with each round, as the "device" of ignition becomes complicated due to the show-up, which causes cost increase and trouble.
- 1992 Barcelona OlympicsThen,Paralympic OfarcheryAthletes ignited a fire arrow at the torch stand at the edge of the stadium.
- 1994 Lillehammer OlympicsThe ski jumper brought the torch to the stadium.
- 1998 Nagano OlympicsThen, it became a topic how to ignite the torch stand outside the opening ceremony hall.TwelveIto, who wore a costume with the motif of, climbed up at the elevator in the venue, approached the torch stand and set it on fire.
- 2000At the Sydney Olympics, Freeman himself entered the pond and circulated around the torch to ignite and the fire broke out.
- 2002At the Salt Lake City Tournament, everyone took a torch and lit the torch.
- 2004At the Athens Olympic Games, the torch was ignited to bow.
- 2006At the Turin tournament, Belmond himself stood and ignited in front of the tunnel-shaped arch.A fire ran through the entire stadium and lit the torch.
- 2008At the Beijing tournament, Li-Ning, who tied a wire rope, sprinted on a large screen stretched around the top of the stand, igniting an iron pipe directly under the torch stand.
- 2010At the Vancouver tournament, four stanchions extended from the ground and four runners were scheduled to ignite at the same time, but due to a mechanical failure, one did not rise and three ignited.However, at the closing ceremony, the clown connected the plug and pulled it up with this happening in the wrong direction, and it could not be ignited at the opening ceremony.Catriona Le May DawnIs igniting..In addition, the torch stand outside the venue was also ignited at this competition.
- 2012At the London Olympic Games in London, long rods were laid out radially in the center of the stadium, igniting 204 torches, the same number as the number of participating countries that became like colored flowers.Then the torch stood up automatically, and everything stood up vertically to form one huge torch stand.
- 2014At the Sochi tournament, a torch stand was set up at the medal plaza outside the opening ceremony venue, and when the ignition stand under the torch stand was ignited, the flame rose up the torch stand and the torch was lit.The audience was informed of the ignition by fireworks because they could not see the torch.
- 2016At the Rio de Janeiro Games, a torch stand for the opening and closing ceremony was set up inside the stadium, and a torch stand for lighting the torch was set up outdoors during the tournament.At the opening ceremony, a small torch stand like a sphere was ignited, and the rising torch stand became a shining sun together with an object that imaged the sun behind, and the production was made to shine light on the venue.
- 2018At the Pyeongchang Games, when an object with the image of ice under the torch was ignited, a ring-shaped rod extended and the torch just above was lit.
- 2020At the Tokyo competition, the torch stand for the opening and closing ceremony and the competition period will be installed inside and outside the stadium, respectively.
The torch stand and its stanchions are often unique and bold in design, and these are also related to how they are ignited during the opening ceremony. 1992Barcelona OlympicThen, a fire arrow to light the fire heads for the torch standarcheryWas released from. 1996Atlanta OlympicsSo the torch stand was like an artistic scroll adorned with red and gold.Paralympics of the same yearThen, a mountaineer with a paralyzed body climbed a rope hanging from the torch stand and ignited it.
The International Olympic Committee (IOC) has stipulated in its guidelines that the torch stand should be "installed in a place visible to all spectators in the stadium" and "installed so that it can be seen by people outside the stadium during the period". However, there have been exceptions in recent years. 2012London OlympicsThen, after ignition, it was moved to the front of the spectator seats of the stadium, and it was invisible from the outside..
Torch stand of the 1964 Tokyo Olympics
According to the Games Organizing Committee, the condition was that "the delivery time is 3 months and the production cost is 20 yen."It is said that it would take at least eight months to make a similar product, and the cost was one twentieth of the market price, so it was rejected by all major companies.The Organizing Committee was at that timeKawaguchi citylongMotoyoshi OhnoIn response, he requested the production of a torch stand in time for the Asian Games.OhnocastingNominated a master craftsman of making.However, Mannosuke retired from the front line, and Koichi Suzuki, the eldest son of Mannosuke, declined this request, saying that it was "not worth it", but Mannosuke said, "I will do this. Don't think about the profits and losses of your work, "he said.
Mannosuke, who started the production of the torch stand, invited his third son to complete the mold two months later, but an explosion occurred during the hot water bathing work, and Mannosuke died eight days later due to this shock and overwork...However, since the delivery date was less than one month, Bungo made a second torch stand without sleep and worked for two weeks with the cooperation of his brother and the surrounding craftsmen who were taught by Mannosuke. After that, I managed to make it on time,National StadiumIt was installed on the upper part of the stand on the south side of.Bungo says, "If I failed, I was going to get hungry and die."
Since this torch stand belongs to the Tokyo Asian Games, the idea of building a new torch stand came up at the Tokyo Olympics.However, I heard the story of Suzuki father and sonIchiro KonoAt the discretion of the Minister in charge of the Olympics, it was officially adopted as the Olympic torch stand and was relocated to the upper part of the back stand that was added during the expansion work for the Olympics.
The torch stand is 2.1m high, has a maximum diameter of 2.1m, and weighs about 4 tons...Designed and designed by four people, including the designer of the National Stadium, the 4 horizontal lines represent the number of participating countries / regions at the Tokyo Asian Games, and the wave pattern represents the Pacific Ocean.
This torch stand was engraved by Bungo with the characters "Suzuman", which refers to the name of his father, Mannosuke, as the creator's name, and was left until the National Stadium was dismantled.After dismantlingNational StadiumDuring rebuildingGreat East Japan EarthquakeIt will be rented out to the disaster areas. In 2015MiyagiIshinomakiWas lent to Ishinomaki City General Sports Park..The torch stand was exhibited in Ishinomaki City until March 2019, after which it was rented to Iwate and Fukushima prefectures and toured in both prefectures...Then, I returned to Kawaguchi City, where it was manufactured, from October 10th to March 6th, 2020.Kawaguchi StationEast Exit Kawaguchi Station East Exit Public Square (Cupo-laExhibited at (Plaza)..After the exhibition was over, repairs such as replacing the combustion equipment were carried out at a factory in Kanagawa Prefecture, and then it was moved to the front of the east gate of the New National Stadium on June 6 (initially scheduled for April 9). ..The public release is scheduled for July or later.
In addition, Mannosuke's torch stand was also repaired, and in 2004, in Kawaguchi City.Aokicho ParkIt is located in
What is a bonfire?TorchThat is.
At the National Sports Festival, it is decided that the venue will have its own fire, and just before the event, the fire will be collected and ignited at the opening ceremony.Also,National disabled sports meetThe same applies to.
At the National Health and Welfare Festival, fire is lit at the general opening ceremony hall, a bonfire relay is held on the spot, and the bonfire stand is ignited by three generations of runners (from the 17th Gunma Tournament).
The exception isNational high school general physical education meetKumamotoConvention2001A bonfire was ignited throughout the New Century.
As a general rule, two bonfire runners climb the stairs and ignite on the spot as the ignition method of the bonfire stand.1998 OfKanagawa Tournament(Yokohama International Stadium), The bonfire was ignited by eight people for the first time in history, and it was attached to the bonfire stand with the momentum from the white smoke transmitted through the fuse.
- ^ What kind of person is the dictator Hitler? ?? … Yoichi Masuzoe “Hitler's Identity”: Sports Hochi
- ^ "Torch relay first runner, first woman". Asahi Shimbun DIGITALAsahi Shimbun (February 2020, 2). 2020/2/7Browse.
- ^ Ishinomaki to the world's first biogas torch Tokyo Olympics successful experiment -Nikkan Sports, August 2016, 3
- ^ "[https://www.eneos.co.jp/newsrelease/20200124_01_1090046.pdf About ENEOS hydrogen fuel supply to the torch stand at the Tokyo 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games-ENEOS hydrogen is also used for the torch relay torch! ～] ”. JXTG Energy Co., Ltd. (January 2020, 1). 2021/3/25Browse.
- ^ Hideaki Yamamoto (August 2012, 8). “A town that declined the torch relay "I don't need the expensive Olympics"". Asahi Shimbun digital. 2016/8/15Browse.
- ^ Sebastian Smith (July 2012, 7). “Torch relay suspended due to riot Rio Olympics". AFPBB News. 2016/8/15Browse.
- ^ a b c d Join the torch relay!
- ^ Official announcement of arrival at the North Pole of the torch Sochi Olympics Organizing Committee
- ^ Sochi "Torch" Swim with Russian aviators in outer space
- ^ The pillars of the torch stand, finally directing the complete failure asahi.com August 2010, 3
- ^ No place for the new national "Torch stand" The architect of Plan B doubts "unnatural" --Infoseek News (Nikkan Gendai / March 2016, 3)
- ^ New National Stadium: JSC, torch stand also "goal" examination first meeting --Mainichi Shimbun, March 2016, 3 Tokyo morning edition
- ^ Takahito Tamura "Polishing the torch stand, inheriting heritage A heartwarming story by inviting the Olympics"Sports Relay Column" 47NEWS, November 2009, 11[Broken link]
- ^ Mina Takagi "The torch stand that inherits the craftsmanship and heart <Part XNUMX>"Sports Excellence" Episode 44, Japan Top League Alliance
- ^ Mina Takagi "The torch stand that inherits the craftsmanship and heart <Part XNUMX>"Sports Excellence" Episode 45, Japan Top League Alliance
- ^ a b c "For the first time in 61 years, a commemorative ceremony was held in Kawaguchi City, Saitama Prefecture, where the Tokyo Olympic torch stand returned home.". Sports Nippon(July 2019, 10) 2019/10/7Browse.
- ^ The Olympic torch stand in the disaster area, "becomes a symbol of reconstruction" Miyagi / Ishinomaki Sankei Shimbun Read April 2015, 6
- ^ "Welcome back, exhibited at Kawaguchi, the place where the torch stand was manufactured in 1964, Tokyo". Tokyo Newspaper(July 2019, 10) 2019/10/7Browse.
- 2004 Athens Olympic Torch Relay
- 2008 Beijing Olympic Torch Relay
- 2020 Tokyo Olympic Torch Relay
- Olympics oath(Player oath / referee oath)
- International Olympic Committee
- Olympic charter
- 1956 Melbourne Olympic Torch Relay Incident
- The Olympic flame and the torch relay (1MB PDF)- International Olympic Committee(Retrieved September 2018, 5)
- The Olympic Fire from Morgedal - Wayback machine(Archive on July 2017, 7) (Three Winter Olympic Games Holy Fires at Sondre Norheim's Birthplace)
- IOC-International Olympic Committee (English) (French)
- JOC-Japanese Olympic Committee
- with the BBC, In pictures (24 March 2008, 13:09 GMT): Olympic flame ceremony(Greek Temple of Hera - HellerMade in a templeBeijing OlympicsA group photo of the torch fire ceremony.The caption is in English)
- Olympic Games Torches Quick View(Images and explanations of all torches used at the Summer Olympics, viewed May 2018, 5)
Infection control(Kansenkanri), or medical epidemiology,Medical facilityWithininfectionRefers to efforts aimed at preventing epidemics, with an emphasis on practiceEpidemiologyIs a field.public healthActivities and infection control/medical epidemiology have a lot in common, the former is aimed at society as a whole, while the latter generally deals with problems limited to a specific medical institution (group). Also known as "infection control activities," "infection prevention and management activities," and "infection control activities."Infection control teamIt is counted as one of the basic medical safety management systems of hospitals as an activity that many occupations in the facility work together.
Infection control can be roughly divided into two.
- Preventive activity
- Trend measures
- Investigation activities and countermeasures (eg outbreak countermeasures) that are targeted at outbreaks that have occurred or are suspected to have occurred in a specific medical institution.
Infection control in medical institutions
Surveillance refers to grasping the occurrence status of infectious diseases on a daily basis. To facilitate comparison between facilities and regions,Bloodstream infection-Urinary-tract infection-Nosocomial pneumoniaThe criteria of the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (NNIS) are used to define the main nosocomial infections such as.
actually,Infection control teamPersonnelPatient chartInvestigate orpatientData is collected by directly observing and determining the presence or absence of symptoms and signs peculiar to infectious diseases. Bacterial laboratory data from the bacteriological laboratory is also an important source of information. In recent years, automation of bacterial laboratory data andElectronic medical recordAutomation is increasing the automation of data extraction, enabling staff to spend more time collecting clinical data. Nosocomial infectionAbout 1/3 of these are preventableInfection surveillance and prevention activities are becoming increasingly important by hospital staff. According to the CDC Nosocomial Infection Control Project (SENIC), by focusing on infection surveillance and prevention activities, the incidence rate of nosocomial infections could be reduced by about 32%.
Preventing the spread of infection
Standard precautions centered on hand washing
Vienna OfSemmelweiss(1847) AndDuffel Bag OfOliver W. Holmes(1843), the unique research published byNosocomial infectionRelated to.Center for Disease Control and PreventionIn response, the (CDC) reported that "the most important way to prevent the spread of pathogens was effective hand washing"..
Handwashing is compulsory at most medical institutions, and in the United States it is not simply a matter of common sense, but is also compulsory by various local and local governments. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards in the United StatesRequires employers to have hand-washing equipment available at all times, and wash their hands and other skin with soap and water or run mucous membranes under running water if they come into contact with blood or other potentially infectious substances. We are asking you to guarantee that you can wash.
In Japan, “National University Hospital Hospital Infection Control Guidelines” by the National University Hospital Infection Control CouncilAnd other guidelines were formulated in 2002.
- It is recommended to wash your hands and wear gloves before and after touching the patient's blood, body fluids, secretions, excretions, damaged skin and mucous membranes regardless of known infections. Depending on the procedure, masks, goggles, face shields, and gowns are also used.
- Calls for the prohibition of recaps to avoid punctures and cuts due to needles, scalpels and other sharp instruments, proper placement of medical waste containers for safe disposal immediately after use, and the adoption of needles with safety devices. ..
- When environmental surfaces such as floors and walls are contaminated, wear gloves and wipe with a paper towel and disinfectant. Store contaminated linen properly until cleaning to prevent contamination of the environment.
- Patients who may be contaminated with blood should be kept in a private room.
In addition, if the causative pathogen is known, it is unique to each.Transmission routeTake appropriate quarantine precautions accordingly.
Air (spray nucleus) infection isolation
- Healthcare workersN95 maskWear.
- In the patient's individual room environment, operating room, bronchoscopy room, and respiratory function testing room, forced more than 1 times per hourventilationKeeps negative pressure.To the outside of the hospitalHEPAExhaust through a filter.If structurally impossible, use a portable air purifier with a built-in HEPA filter and ventilate 12 times.
- Wear a surgical mask when passing through public areas to transfer patients, or wear an exhalation filter during endotracheal intubation.
Isolation of droplet infection
- A surgical mask is worn for activities within a radius of 1 m from the patient.
- When separating individual rooms and groups, beds are placed 2m apart.
- Wear a surgical mask when passing through public areas to transfer patients.
Contact infection isolation
- Wash hands and wear gloves before and after contact with the patient and contaminated surfaces.
- Wear gowns where there is potential for full body contact with the patient or contaminated surfaces.
- Medical equipment used in private rooms should be dedicated as much as possible.
The contact surface of the patient's room and common areas touched by the patient's hands is cleaned by daily wiping. Clean walls and floors that are not touched once a day. In areas where MRSA, VRE, and Clostridium difficile carriers come into contact, daily sterilization is performed by wiping with a quaternary ammonium salt or alcohol. Of reusable medical equipmentdisinfection-SterilizationThe method must be selected according to each possible pathogen.
Personal protective equipment
(Personal protective equipment, PPE) is clothing and equipment worn by medical personnel to protect themselves from danger. What is the danger in the medical field?Viral hepatitis,HIVBlood, saliva, and other body fluids that may contain pathogens such asaerosolExposure to. Personal protective equipment aims to prevent exposure by creating a physical barrier between those infectious agents and health care workers.
In the United States, OSHA standards require health workers to wear protective equipment to protect themselves from bloodborne pathogens when their exposure to blood and other infectious agents is adequately predicted.
Protective equipment: hats, shoe covers, face shields (for mouth-to-mouth breathing)MASKS-goggles・There are types such as. Which combination and how to use is usually determined by the rules set for each medical institution. Most instruments are completelydisinfection-SterilizationConsidering the high cost of doing so, it is designed to be disposable. OSHA standards require that protective equipment be immediately removed and disinfected or disposed of upon leaving a site exposed to infectious agents.
Vaccination of medical staff
Healthcare workers who may be exposed to infectious diseases during work should:vaccineCan be used to protect yourself from infection. Usually usedHepatitis B-influenza-Mixed three(Measles/varicella/rubella)New three kinds of mixture(Diphtheria/Tetanus/Pertussis)Meningococcus-Shingles virusWith vaccines such as these, medical staff and emergency personnel are vaccinated according to facility rules, recommendations, occupations, and individual wishes.In general, the preventive effect of vaccines is not perfect, but side effects are also seen, so vaccination decisions should be made based on sufficient information.
Survey during an epidemic
When infection monitoring finds that the incidence of infections is higher than normal, the infection control team will investigate to determine (1) whether it is a real epidemic or (2) a false epidemic due to contamination of the bacterial testing process. Or (3) determine whether the normal incidence just happened to rise randomly. If it is (1), it will be necessary to investigate the factor that triggered the fashion and eliminate it in order to stop the fashion. It is usually due to lack of correct procedures, but sometimes other factors such as construction work are involved.
Infection control and medical epidemiology training system
There are several educational systems to acquire infection control. The occupational background is often nurses, sometimes clinical laboratory technicians (especially clinical microbiology), and doctors (usually infectious disease physicians). Training courses specialized in infection control and medical epidemiology are offered by the following professional organizations: Those who want to be involved in infection control as a doctor often go through clinical training in the department of infectious diseases.
In the United States,CBIC) Examines the professional background and work experience of health care workers, checks the level of knowledge through standardized departmental examinations, and then licenses infection control personnel. Two years of activity experience is required for application, and renewal of qualification is required every five years.
In the United States, CDC and the American Society for Medical Epidemiology (SHEA) have jointly conducted hospital epidemiology (infection control in hospitals).Our Courses Is held every year, and there is also a course from the Association of Infectious Control Practitioners (APIC).
Infection Control Team and Infection Control Committee
- The infection control team is the actual work force in a medical institution, and the infection control committee is in charge of managing the infection control team (Fig. 1).
Infection control profession
- Infectious disease specialist
- Infection control doctor(ICD)
- Infection control nurse(Infectious disease control nurse) (ICN)
- Infection control pharmacist(ICPH)
- Infection control certified clinical microbiological technologist(ICMT)
- (Type XNUMX/Type XNUMX)
- Medical environment manager
- ^ Weinstein et al
- ^ CDC Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health-Care Settings
- ^ CDC General information on Hand Hygiene
- ^ OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens Regulations 1910.1030
- ^ Guidelines for Nosocomial Infection Control at National University Hospitals (pdf 5.2MB)
- ^ OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens Regulations 1910.1030 (d) (2) (i)
- ^ OSHA 1910.1030 (d) (3) (vii)
- ^ CDC Vaccine Site
- ^ Norihito Sato, Akari Watanabe, Susumu Kokoguchi, Kazuhiro Fukui “Infection Control Professional Qualification and Organizational Awareness Survey on Dental Clinical Trainees” INFECTION CONTROL (Medica publishing), Vol.16 (6), p.97,2007, XNUMX.
- Infection control
- Infection/Epidemic/Zoonosis/Infection control clothing/quarantine
- Nosocomial infection/Community infection(Ichii infection)
- Japan Society for Environmental Infections/Japanese Society of Infectious Diseases/Japanese Society for Oral Infections
- Public health/Epidemiology/Pharmacy
- Medical science/Dentistry/Pharmacy/Veterinary medicine/Bacteriology(Oral bacteriology)/Virology/Myciology/Microbiology
- Infection control doctor(Infection control doctor)
- Infection control team/Infection Control Committee
- American Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC)/National Institute of Infectious Diseases
- Biosafety level
- Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, APIC Is a group of infection control activists led by nurses and medical technicians.
- The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America, SHEAIs mainly conducted by doctors and doctoral level epidemiologists.