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🏛 | Corona expansion "Situation where strong measures must be taken"


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Corona expansion "Situation where strong measures must be taken"

 
If you write the contents roughly
Due to the spread of food and drink related infections, the prefecture has announced that it will conduct a free PCR test for restaurant employees in the Matsuyama district of Naha city over the next two weeks.
 

After the prefecture's own state of emergency was lifted, Governor Tamaki said, "Life ... → Continue reading

 Ryukyu Broadcasting

Ryukyu Broadcasting is a radio/TV broadcasting station in Okinawa.
We send various news rooted in the region such as Okinawa's politics, economy, and lifestyle.


Wikipedia related words

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Naha

Naha(Nahashi,Okinawan: Nafa, Nafa[3]) IsOkinawa OfOkinawa main islandLocated in the southCity.. Okinawa PrefecturePrefectural office locationAnd the largest city,Core city,Central cityIs specified in.

Overview

Okinawa PrefecturePolitics-Economy-cultureIs the center ofInternational airportIsNaha AirportAnd connect with the outlying prefectures and remote islandsNaha PortIt also plays a role as a gateway to Okinawa Prefecture. At the prefectural capital, the only JR line does not pass.

areaIs all of JapanCity of prefectural officeThe smallest of theThe population density TheCapital AreaKinki areaOrdinance city OfAdministrative districtExcluding, it is the highest in the whole country. In addition, Naha Airport occupies more than 8% of the city area, among whichSDFincluding. Other than thisUS Army in Japan OfFacility,Naha PortConsidering the facilities for private use, the area available for actual urban activities is limited. Furthermore, at Naha AirportRestricted surfaceDue to theSkyscraper,High-rise apartmentCan't build[4].. Skyscrapers have begun to be built in the northern area such as the new city center of Naha, which is centered on Omoromachi, where there is no impact from aviation regulations, and as part of the redevelopment project, in the Makishi and Asato areas of the old city.

UrbanizationAlong withBed townIs becoming more popular, with Naha as the central cityNaha metropolitan areaHas a population of about 78 (Urban employment area - 2005). Even in today's rural population decline, there is a significant increase in population in Naha City and the local governments surrounding Naha City, and the city employment area population as of December 2015 was approximately 12 (86.1%). Inflowing population *As a result of the 10 census, the population inflowing from Chatan town to the metropolitan area exceeded the population inflowing to Okinawa city metropolitan area, so the urban area expanded to Chatan town.) Furthermore, centered on Naha cityOkinawa Central and South Central AreaHas a population of approximately 482km2(Government-designated city OfKitakyushuThe population is approximately 121.2 (almost the same as) (estimated population as of December 2021, 2).Hiroshima cityIs almost the same) and is one of the most populated areas in the country.

City centerKuniba River(Manko), and spread over a flat area surrounded by the Asato River, and most of the major facilities in Naha City and Okinawa Prefecture are located there. In recent years, due to the complete return of the U.S. military Makiminato residential area in 1987,Naha ShintoshinAs the development progresses, part of the corporate headquarters, which was located in the central area, has been relocated, making it a new center.

In addition, almost all the hilly areas around the center are urbanized (mainlyResidential areas) And show a three-dimensional cityscape from the height of the original topography. At one timeRyukyu KingdomWas also the capital of the timesShuriDistrict is 100 above sea levelmIt is located on a hill, and depending on the location, it is possible to see the entire Naha city.

In terms of tourism,International street, In the Shuri district on the hill in the eastern part of the cityShuri Castle(The Royal Government of the Ryukyu Kingdom.200012Toworld Heritage-Gusuku and related heritage groups of Ryukyu KingdomHowever, in recent years,US Army in JapanThe site of a residential area is being developed as Naha Shintoshin,200412Largest in the world and the only large airport outside JapanDuty-free shopIsDFS Galleria OkinawaOpened. Although facing the East China Sea, facilities such as Naha Airport and Naha Port occupy most of the coastline,Beach The1991Started in serviceBeach on the waves(Artificial beach) Only. As a specialty productTsuboya ware,Awamoriand so on.

In 2006Core cityIn response to the abolition of the area requirement, which is one of the designated requirements, the city was aiming to move to a core city.[5][6][7]. And2012May 10Made inCabinetDesignates Naha City as a core cityCabinet OrderIt was determined[8][9][10] Later,2013May 4Moved to the 42nd core city in Japan[11].

Origin of city name

The origin of the word "Naha" comes from "Nafa", which represents a fishing ground.[12].. This origin is also on the site of Naha city,Inami FuyuIt is introduced as a theory advocated by. In addition, if Naha is expressed in the original notation (old font)GaijiTo hitNahaThen.Kanji for personal nameAre using. Originally, "Na" penetrates the two horizontal lines on the left side to the right of the vertical line, and "Ha" has a single line at the bottom of the west ()become[13].

Geography

位置

Okinawa main islandLocated on the west coast of the south,East China SeaFacing.The central part of the city is almost flat, and the surrounding area is surrounded by small hills, extending the city from east to west.Kuniba RiverThe Asato River flows into the East China Sea.Tomigusuku CityOn the city boundary withManko TheRamsar ConventionRegistered in.

terrain

River

Main river

な ど

Lake

mainTidal flat

climate

averagetemperatureAbout 23 degrees a yearPrecipitation amountIs 2000mmOver and humidSubtropicalSex climate (Köppen climate classificationThen,Warm and humid climate(Cfa)) is shown. Even in winter, it is extremely rare that the minimum temperature falls below 10 degrees,Oceanic climateBecause of this, there are many days when the maximum temperature in midsummer exceeds 30 degrees (midsummer day), but it exceeds 35℃ (Extremely hot day) Is rarely observed (the highest extreme temperature is 2001°C observed on August 8, 9, the lowest in the record of prefectures nationwide as of April 35.6. By the way, the highest NohaYamagataIs).

Naha City Climate
Month123456789101112Years
Highest temperature record ° C (° F27.0
(80.6)
27.1
(80.8)
28.2
(82.8)
30.6
(87.1)
32.0
(89.6)
34.3
(93.7)
35.5
(95.9)
35.6
(96.1)
34.6
(94.3)
33.0
(91.4)
31.6
(88.9)
29.4
(84.9)
35.6
(96.1)
Average maximum temperature ° C (° F19.5
(67.1)
19.8
(67.6)
21.7
(71.1)
24.1
(75.4)
26.7
(80.1)
29.4
(84.9)
31.8
(89.2)
31.5
(88.7)
30.4
(86.7)
27.9
(82.2)
24.6
(76.3)
21.2
(70.2)
25.7
(78.3)
Average daily temperature ° C (° F17.0
(62.6)
17.1
(62.8)
18.9
(66)
21.4
(70.5)
24.0
(75.2)
26.8
(80.2)
28.9
(84)
28.7
(83.7)
27.6
(81.7)
25.2
(77.4)
22.1
(71.8)
18.7
(65.7)
23.1
(73.6)
Average minimum temperature ° C (° F14.6
(58.3)
14.8
(58.6)
16.5
(61.7)
19.0
(66.2)
21.8
(71.2)
24.8
(76.6)
26.8
(80.2)
26.6
(79.9)
25.5
(77.9)
23.1
(73.6)
19.9
(67.8)
16.3
(61.3)
20.8
(69.4)
Minimum temperature record ° C (° F6.1
(43)
4.9
(40.8)
6.3
(43.3)
8.7
(47.7)
11.0
(51.8)
14.8
(58.6)
20.8
(69.4)
20.7
(69.3)
17.0
(62.6)
14.8
(58.6)
8.6
(47.5)
6.8
(44.2)
4.9
(40.8)
Precipitation amount mm (inch)107.0
(4.213)
119.7
(4.713)
161.4
(6.354)
165.7
(6.524)
231.6
(9.118)
247.2
(9.732)
141.4
(5.567)
240.5
(9.469)
260.5
(10.256)
152.9
(6.02)
110.2
(4.339)
102.8
(4.047)
2,040.8
(80.346)
Average days of precipitation (≥1.0 mm)10.510.211.810.511.510.68.811.811.28.38.58.1121.8
(I.e.67707376798378787671696674
Average monthlyDaylight hours94.287.1108.3123.8145.8163.6238.8215.0188.9169.6123.0115.61,774
Source 1: Science chronology
Source 2:Japanese Meteorological Agency (Average value: 1981-2010, extreme value: 1888-present)[14][15]


Climate of Ajimine (elevation 3m)
Month123456789101112Years
Highest temperature record ° C (° F27.6
(81.7)
26.7
(80.1)
27.8
(82)
29.0
(84.2)
31.0
(87.8)
32.6
(90.7)
34.6
(94.3)
35.0
(95)
33.8
(92.8)
32.8
(91)
30.7
(87.3)
29.0
(84.2)
35.0
(95)
Average maximum temperature ° C (° F20.2
(68.4)
21.2
(70.2)
22.2
(72)
24.6
(76.3)
27.3
(81.1)
29.6
(85.3)
32.1
(89.8)
32.2
(90)
31.4
(88.5)
29.0
(84.2)
25.7
(78.3)
22.0
(71.6)
26.5
(79.7)
Average daily temperature ° C (° F17.5
(63.5)
18.3
(64.9)
19.2
(66.6)
21.7
(71.1)
24.5
(76.1)
27.0
(80.6)
29.5
(85.1)
29.4
(84.9)
28.5
(83.3)
26.0
(78.8)
23.0
(73.4)
19.3
(66.7)
23.7
(74.7)
Average minimum temperature ° C (° F15.2
(59.4)
15.9
(60.6)
16.8
(62.2)
19.2
(66.6)
22.3
(72.1)
24.9
(76.8)
27.3
(81.1)
27.1
(80.8)
26.2
(79.2)
23.8
(74.8)
20.8
(69.4)
16.9
(62.4)
21.4
(70.5)
Minimum temperature record ° C (° F5.8
(42.4)
10.0
(50)
9.0
(48.2)
14.0
(57.2)
16.2
(61.2)
19.9
(67.8)
21.4
(70.5)
23.4
(74.1)
21.9
(71.4)
18.9
(66)
14.4
(57.9)
10.0
(50)
5.8
(42.4)
Precipitation amount mm (inch)85.3
(3.358)
100.3
(3.949)
109.9
(4.327)
135.9
(5.35)
188.7
(7.429)
355.6
(14)
102.7
(4.043)
195.4
(7.693)
181.7
(7.154)
148.9
(5.862)
102.1
(4.02)
101.9
(4.012)
1,808.3
(71.193)
Average days of precipitation (≥1.0 mm)11.59.911.09.311.512.87.812.811.58.99.57.9124.1
Source 1: Science chronology
Source 2:Japanese Meteorological Agency (Average value: 1981-2010, extreme value: 1888-present)[16][17]

Region

In some areas in Naha CityAct on Residential Displaybased onHouse displayIs being implemented[18].

In addition to the city hall main office, there are three branch offices in each of the former municipalities before the merger of the two cities and one village in 1954 and 1957, the Naha City Hall Mawarashi Branch, Doshuri Branch, and the Oroku Branch. Basically, Naha city can be divided into 2 areas, but after the development of the new city of Naha, it can be divided into 1 areas including the area.

  • Main Office-Most of the area was Naha City before 1954. Then the area is expanded by landfill.
  • Masakazu-After the war, irregular residential land conversion (Sprawl phenomenon) Advanced.
  • Shuri-Since the merger with Naha City, there was a strong desire of the local residents to leave the name of the old capital, Shuri, so the name of the town in this area is still named "Shuri".
  • Oroku-almost everywhereLand readjustmentIs progressing and is being maintained as a residential area. It is said that the area is also popular as a place of relocation for migrants from outside the prefecture.
Main office jurisdiction
Town nameTown name readingInstallation dateHouse display dateTown name just before the display of the residenceRemarks
AkebonoXNUMX to XNUMX chomeAkebonodate1991th of February 2All of Akebono 1-3
Asahi TowndateNot implemented
wordAjadateNot implemented
XNUMX and XNUMX chomeAja1999th of February 101999th of February 10Part of each of Anzai, Tenma, and Inari
wordAmekuFlutterdateNot implemented
AmekuXNUMX and XNUMX chomeFlutter1999th of February 101999th of February 10Part of each of Anzai, Tenma, and Inari
IzumizakiXNUMX and XNUMX chomeIzumizakiDate (XNUMX)1990th of February 1All of Izumizaki 1
November 2011, 11 (14)November 2011, 11 (partial)All in front of character XNUMX and part of character side
Not implemented (other than above)
wordUenoyadateNot implemented
XNUMX chomeUenoya1999th of February 101999th of February 10Character Tenkyu, character Kaminoya, part of each night 1 and 2
OhnoyamachodateNot implemented
OmoromachiXNUMX to XNUMX chomeOmoromachi1999th of February 101999th of February 10Azato, Aza, Amanaku, Kaminoya, Makai, Mikari, Part of night 1
KumeXNUMX and XNUMX chomeKumedate1984th of February 9All of Kume 1-2
KumojiXNUMX to XNUMX chomeClouddate1983th of February 10All of Kumoji 1-3
XNUMX, XNUMX chomeKohagura1983th of February 101983th of February 10Part of each of Kojikura and Kokuba
XNUMX to XNUMX chomeSobeSeptember 1981, 9 (14/XNUMX)1981th of February 9Part of each of the character Sobetsu, the character Nichuzen, the character Yogi, and the character Kohazo
A streetXNUMX to XNUMX chome(I.e.date1985th of February 11All of Tsuji 1-3
XNUMX to XNUMX chomeTsubogawadatedate
TsuboyaXNUMX chomeVase1979th of February 111979th of February 11Tsuboyamachi, character Yogi, each part of character Hikawa
XNUMX to XNUMX chomeTomaridateNot implemented
Dragonflydate1985th of February 11The whole of Tondo town
XNUMX to XNUMX chomeWestdate1985th of February 11West 1-3 each
Higashimachidate1985th of February 11All of Higashimachi
XNUMX and XNUMX chomeHikawa1981th of February 91981th of February 9All of the Hihikawa and each part of the character side and character
XNUMX to XNUMX chomeMaejimadate1986th of February 11Maejima 1 to 3
MakishiXNUMX to XNUMX chomeMakishi1979th of February 111979th of February 11Makishicho 1, character Matsuo, each part of Tsuboyacho
XNUMX and XNUMX chome(I.e.1979th of February 111979th of February 11Makishicho 1, character Matsuo, character Hikawa, character XNUMX
MatsuyamaXNUMX and XNUMX chomeMatsuyamadate1988th of February 10All of Matsuyama 1 and 2
XNUMX to XNUMX chomeMinato Towndate1991th of February 11All 1 to 4 in port town
wordMikarudateNot implemented
XNUMX to XNUMX chomeMikaru1999th of February 101999th of February 10Part of each of Furushima, Makai, Anza, and Meikari
I did itdate1991th of February 11Part of each of Yamashita Town and Kakihana Town 2
XNUMX to XNUMX chomeyouthdate1986th of February 11All of Wakasa 1-3
OysterdateNot implemented
XNUMX to XNUMX chomeOysterdateNot implemented
XNUMX to XNUMX chomeSumiyoshichodateNot implemented
MasashiBranch office
Town nameTown name readingInstallation dateHouse display dateTown name just before the display of the residenceRemarks
XNUMX and XNUMX chomeKohaguraNovember 1983, 10 (11)1983th of February 10A part of Kojinami
November 2013, 11 (25)2013th of February 11All of Kojira and each part of Kohazo 2
TsuboyaXNUMX-chomeVase1979th of February 111979th of February 11Each part of Tsuboyamachi and Kyoromiya
wordYogidateNot implemented
XNUMX and XNUMX chomeYogiNovember 1981, 9 (14)1981th of February 9Part of the character
November 1996, 9 (17)1996th of February 9Uyogi, each part of Sobe 2
wordAsatoAsatodateNot implemented
AsatoXNUMX to XNUMX chomeAsatoSeptember 1979, 11 (26/XNUMX)1979th of February 11Part of each of Asato and Makishicho 2
November 1995, 11 (three)1995th of February 11Part of Asari
wordUmaUemadateNot implemented
UmaXNUMX chomeUema1988th of February 101988th of February 10Part of the character gap
wordNational marketKokubadateNot implemented
wordShikinadateNot implemented
XNUMX to XNUMX chomeShikina1986th of February 111986th of February 11Part of each of the literacy name, Gyoromiya, Gagetagawa, and Gyomachi
wordAvenueHow is itdateNot implemented
wordMakoto NakaiNakaimadateNot implemented
XNUMX and XNUMX chome(I.e.1979th of February 111979th of February 11Part of each of Kyoromiya, Kokuba, and Kagema
XNUMX to XNUMX chomeHantagawaSeptember 1982, 9 (20-XNUMX)1982th of February 9Character Shitagawa, character Matsukawa, character true ground, each part of Shurikinjocho 3/4
November 1986, 11 (five)1986th of February 11Part of the character history, literacy name, and character ground
wordFurujimadateNot implemented
XNUMX and XNUMX chomeFurujima1999th of February 5Not implementedTown name lot number implementation area
wordMajijidateNot implemented
wordMakabidateNot implemented
XNUMX to XNUMX chomeMakabi2014th of February 3November 2014, 3 (partial)Part of each of Kajikaji, Daido, Furushima, and Matsukawa
XNUMX and XNUMX chomeMatsushimaNovember 2013, 8 (5)November 2013, 8 (partial)Part of Furushima Island
Not implemented (other than above)Town name lot number implementation area
November 2014, 3 (1)November 2014, 3 (partial)Each part of character Makai, character Furushima, character Matsukawa
Not implemented (other than above)Town name lot number implementation area
wordMatsugawadateNot implemented
XNUMX to XNUMX chomeMatsugawa1982th of February 91982th of February 9Part of each of Matsukawa, Daido, Shigetagawa, and Shuri Samukawacho 1
MiharaXNUMX to XNUMX chomeMihara1980th of February 91980th of February 9Each part of Tsuboyamachi, Daido, and Shigetagawa
wordPalaceMore thandateNot implemented
PalaceXNUMX to XNUMX chomeMore than1980th of February 91980th of February 9Part of the character temple
ShuriBranch office
Town nameTown name readingInstallation dateHouse display dateTown name just before the display of the residenceRemarks
XNUMX to XNUMX chomeShuri AkachodateNot implemented
XNUMX and XNUMX chomeShuria AkahirachodateNot implemented
ShureidateNot implemented
XNUMX to XNUMX chomeShurinishi NechodateNot implemented
XNUMX to XNUMX chomeShurio OnachodateNot implemented
XNUMX and XNUMX chomeShuri OnakachodateNot implemented
XNUMX to XNUMX chomeShurikinjochodateNot implemented
XNUMX to XNUMX chomeShurigobochodateNot implemented
XNUMX and XNUMX chomeShukubawachodateNot implemented
XNUMX to XNUMX chomeShurisaki YamachodateNot implemented
XNUMX and XNUMX chomeShurisawa KawachodateNot implemented
Shuri Sueyoshi TownXNUMX to XNUMX chomeShuri Sue YoshichoDate (XNUMX to XNUMX)Not implemented
May 1999, 5 (four)Not implementedTown name lot number implementation area
XNUMX and XNUMX chomeShurai RachodateNot implemented
XNUMX to XNUMX chomeShuri TerrachoudateNot implemented
XNUMX to XNUMX chomeShuritou no KurachodateNot implemented
XNUMX and XNUMX chomeShurubaru butterflydateNot implemented
XNUMX to XNUMX chomeShutori TorichodateNot implemented
XNUMX and XNUMX chomeShurimawachodateNot implemented
XNUMX to XNUMX chomeShuri YamagawadateNot implemented
OrokuBranch office
Town nameTown name readingInstallation dateHouse display dateTown name just before the display of the residenceRemarks
wordAkanedateNot implemented
XNUMX and XNUMX chomeAkane1997th of February 9Not implementedTown name lot number implementation area
wordSpeakdateNot implemented
XNUMX to XNUMX chomeSpeakSeptember 1984, 9 (25-XNUMX)1984th of February 9Part of each of Uehara, Tawara, Akamine, Oroku, and Takara
May 2011, 5 (23-XNUMX)2011th of February 5Part of Uehara
wordOrokudateNot implemented
XNUMX to XNUMX chomeOrokuDate (XNUMX)1987th of February 11All of Oroku 1
Date (XNUMX-XNUMX)Not implementedTown name lot number implementation area
wordBent downdateNot implemented
Todaydate1987th of February 11All of Kagamihara Town
wordGushidateNot implemented
XNUMX to XNUMX chomeGushi1995th of February 11995th of February 1All of Gushi 1 and some of Gushi 2 and 3, character Goshi, character Takara
wordTakaraBecausedateNot implemented
TakaraXNUMX to XNUMX chomeBecauseSeptember 1985, 11 (5/XNUMX)1985th of February 11Each part of character Takara, character Uehara
November 1985, 11 (three)1991th of February 11All of Kora 3 and part of each of Kojira and Uehara
wordFlapdateNot implemented
XNUMX to XNUMX chomeFlapdateNot implementedTown name lot number implementation area
wordHorsedateNot implemented
wordMiyagiMiyagusukudateNot implemented
MiyagiXNUMX chomeMiyagusuku1995th of February 11995th of February 1All of Miyagi 1 and each part of character Miyagi, character Gushi, character Takara
wordAshminedateNot implemented
wordOmineOminedateNot implemented
XNUMX to XNUMX chomeKanagusukudateNot implementedTown name lot number implementation area

population

Demography47201.svg
Population distribution by age in Naha and Japan (2005)Population Distribution by Age and Gender in Naha City (2005)
Purple-Naha
Green-All over Japan
Blue-male
Red-female

Changes in the population of (the area equivalent to) Naha
Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsStatistics Bureau CensusThan

Adjacent municipality

Okinawa

History

Ancient times-early modern times

Ryukyu Kingdom era

NahaKuniba RiverAt the port of Kawaguchi, with the port of Tomari (tomari, now part of Naha city) at the mouth of the Asato River, since ancient timesRyukyu Kingdom Ofcapital-ShuriAs a trading port ofEast Asia,Southeast AsiaWhole areaRelay tradeIt has prospered as a base.

Naha was once an island scattered around the mouth of the Kuniba River and Asato River, and one of the floating islands wasShozo KingA small harbor had been maintained by. 1451(Jingtai2 years),King Kim Fu King LightfromBookletTo welcome the messengerPocket machineToLong rainbowCalled "1km It was connected to the Asato River side of the main island of Okinawa by constructing a dike that stretches over.The development as a port began with the improvement of land transportation, and an urban area called Naha Shimachi (west, east, Wakasa, Izumizaki) was formed.

nearKume VillageIn China nowFujian Province"Thirty-six surnames of Min people" from areas such asKume XNUMX last name), a descendant of these XNUMX surnames, has been engaged in the work of supporting Ryukyu trade and diplomacy, such as envoys, interpreters, and shipbuilding.

またPiratesIn order to protect against attacks such as, a castle wall was built on an island off the coast of Naha Port to create a bank road, and a defensive battery "" (Miegusuku) "" was built north and south of Naha Port at the mouth of the Kokuba River.(English edition"(Yarazamori Gusuku) was completed.At the same time, a trading warehouse called is built on the central island of Naha Port.In addition, urban areas and ports have expanded to Kakinohana on the south side, which is the opposite bank of Naha Port. (The south bank of Naha PortWorld War IIBecame a vacant lot,Naha Army PortHas become. )

The famous spots in Naha, such as Kume Village, Chohijitsutsumi, and Mie Castle, are hailed by the Chinese as "Kyuyo Hakkei".Katsushika Hokusai OfUkiyo-e"Ryukyu Eight Views,” Naha, which was an island, is connected to the main island at the end of the Ryukyu Kingdom by the accumulation of sediment.

Modern-WWII

Ryukyu disposal

Even after modern times, it prospered as a material accumulation area and a commercial city in Okinawa Prefecture, and the sea was reclaimed and Naha became completely continuous.But,1944May 10 OfTen and ten air raidsStarting from April 1945Battle of OkinawaDue to this, the city area was completely destroyed.

Meiji
Taisho
Showa

modern

After World War II

After the war, the former Naha city center was placed under the control of the U.S. Army and 1MilesNo access was allowed within the area, and many of the residents were relocated to camps in the northern part of the prefecture. To eliminate the lack of daily supplies,1945November, Naha CityTsuboyaThe people involved in the local ceramic industry were first allowed to return home, and 103 craftsmen entered the city. In December, 12 tilers from the Makishi area entered the city. Subsequently, families and relatives moved to the area, and uninhabited residents inhabited Naha one after another, and the new prefectural road (currentInternational street) One after another, villages were born,Black marketAlso spontaneously expanded.

Under these circumstances,TakaraichiNegotiated directly with the US Army on the land along the new prefectural road where the US Army's material collection point was located (currently Tenbusu Naha)1948Around January, the movie theater "Ernie PileThe "International Theater" was opened. After that, the surrounding area developed rapidly as a commercial area, and the new prefectural road became known as "a miracle mile" as an "international street."

Showa
  • 1945 (Showa 20) November-Enter the pottery industry's predecessor's corps into Tsuboya in the name of industrial recovery.
  • 1946(21)May 1 -The Tsuboya Ward Office in the Itoman area is established, and reconstruction is in full swing. After that, the central institutions such as the private government moved to Naha.
  • 1947(22)3 -Residents are allowed daytime traffic. After that, Aozora City started to stand around Kainan, which is close to Tsuboya.[21].
  • 1949(24)May 12 -US military official announced that "Naha will be the capital of Okinawa."
  • 1950(25)May 8 -ShimajiriMinato VillageIncorporated.
  • 1954(29)May 9 - Shuri CityAnd ShimajiriOroku VillageIncorporated.
  • 1956(Showa 31)- LegislatureThe Capital Construction Law was enacted in and the maintenance of the Ryukyu government and the capital of Okinawa is started.
  • 1957(32)May 12 - Mawashi CityIncorporated.
  • 1965(40)May 9 -Establish city flag[1].
  • 1972(47)May 5 - Okinawa returnByReturn to mainland.. The behavior of the SDF member's family, such as refusal of the resident's card, was violated and became a problem.
  • 1975(50)May 4 - Nakagami-gunNishihara TownPart of is incorporated.
Heisei

Administration

Chief

Incumbent mayor

Successive chiefs

Mayor of Naha
According to "Naha City Assembly History Vol. 1 History Edition"[26].
  • Election
  • Public election (ward appointment system)
    • Kiire Holiday: May 1908, 5-July 15, 1911
    • Shigenori Toma: April 1911, 9-April 16, 1919
    • Masanori Yamashiro: November 1919, 11-May 9, 1921
Mayor of Naha
periodNameInaugurationRetirement date
Mayor deputyYamashiro Masami1921 (Taisho 10th year)051921 (Taisho 10th year)09
1Shigeshin Toma1921 (Taisho 10th year)091923 (Taisho 12th year)09
2Foot of justiceAugust 1923 (Taisho 12)1925 (Taisho 14th year)07
3KishimotoAugust 1925 (Taisho 14)1928 (Showa03 years)02
4Komine Kokei1928 (Showa03 years)031931 (Showa06 years)07
51931 (Showa06 years)081935 year (Showa 10 year)08
6Norimitsu Kaneshiro1935 year (Showa 10 year)081939 year (Showa 14 year)08
7Shigego Toma1939 year (Showa 14 year)09December, 1941 (Showa 16)
8Sakiyama Tsu morning1941 year (Showa 16 year)0121942 year (Showa 17 year)07
9Toyama Tojun1942 year (Showa 17 year)07不詳
Temporary mayorKaneshima Kageyoshi1945 year (Showa 20 year)041945 year (Showa 20 year)07
War dead
10Shigego Toma1946 year (Showa 21 year)041946 year (Showa 21 year)06
11Hirohito Higashionna1946 year (Showa 21 year)071948 year (Showa 23 year)02
12Tamami Nakamoto1948 year (Showa 23 year)03December, 1949 (Showa 24)
Mayor deputyKataka YoshitakaDecember, 1949 (Showa 24) December, 1949 (Showa 24)
13Takuma ShigenminDecember, 1949 (Showa 24) 1952 year (Showa 27 year)02
141952 year (Showa 27 year)031953 year (Showa 28 year)09
Die
15Shigego TomaDecember, 1953 (Showa 28) December, 1956 (Showa 31)
16Ginjiro Incho1957 year (Showa 32 year)01December, 1957 (Showa 32)
Temporary mayorSeiji ToeDecember, 1957 (Showa 32) 1958 year (Showa 33 year)01
17Saichi Kenji1958 year (Showa 33 year)011962 year (Showa 37 year)01
18-19Saimei Junji1962 year (Showa 37 year)01December, 1968 (Showa 43)
20-23Ryomatsu TairaDecember, 1968 (Showa 43) December, 1984 (Showa 59)
24-27Yasuharu ShindomariDecember, 1984 (Showa 59) May 2000
28-31Oshi NagashiMay 2000May 2014
32-33Mikiko JoumaMay 2014Incumbent

Citizen opinion submission system

When drafting city plans and ordinances that have a wide impact on the lives of citizens, we have established a system that publicizes the purpose and content of these plans to the citizens of Naha, and solicits opinions widely. The results are also published.

conventionallyPublic commentWhat has been tried as is, has been reworked, has been the current system from 2005 (17).[27]

Administrative division

39.98 km of city area2In contrast, the population density is 7,876/km2(As of July 2021, 4)Tokyo Special Ward(15,522 people/km2, As of June 2021, 4),Osaka(12,228 people/km2, As of June 2021, 4),横 浜 市(8,588 people/km2, As of June 2020, 9), the fourth highest.

The area is the smallest in all prefectures of Japan (TokyoThe metropolitan area ofTokyo 23 WardWhen considering the whole area[28].. ).

Merger of municipalities

So-calledGreat Heisei mergerInHaebaru TownAnd the surrounding remote islandsTokashiki Village-Zamami village-Aguni Village-Tonaki village-Minamidaito Village-Kitadaito VillageThe voluntary council was established and examined under the framework of[29] Was frustrated and the council disbanded on November 2003, 15.[30].. In addition, none of the above towns and villages chose to merge in the Great Heisei merger.

Showa

Parliament

City council

  • Chair: Toru Kaneshiro
  • Vice Chairman: Shigeharu Koken
  • Constant number: 40 people
  • Term: August 2013, 25 (August 8, 4)-August 2017, 29 (Heisei 8)
Parliamentary nameNumber of seatsAffiliated party
Komeito7Komeito
Shinpukai7Independent[31]
Company citizen net6Social Democrats-Okinawa Society Mass Party
Japan Communist Party5Japan Communist Party
LDP4LDP
Hiyakachi Naha/Independent Party3Independent
Independent society2Independent
Independent3Independent

Prefectural assembly

Okinawa Prefectural Assembly (Naha City, Southern Islands Election District)
  • Constant number: 11 people
  • Term of office: June 2020, 2 (Reiwa 6 years) to June 10, 2024 (Reiwa 6 years)
Representative nameParliamentary nameRemarks
Takeharu OnagaTida NetNo party membership
Uehara chapterKomeito
Yoshitoyo ArakakiOkinawa LDP
Tomoko KiyuunaTida NetParty membershipConstitutional Democratic Party
Mizuki HigaJapan Communist Party
Osamu TokujiJapan Communist Party
Morio TomaIndependent society
Kyoko HigaOkinawa PeaceParty membershipOkinawa Society Mass Party
Kei Shiro NishimeiOkinawa LDP
Tsuguyuki SakiyamaOkinawa PeaceParty membershipSocial Democrats
Ieji NakamuraLDP

House of Representatives

ConstituencyRepresentative nameParty nameNumber of winsRemarks
Second ward of Okinawa prefecture(Naha City,ShimajiriPart of)Masamine AkamineJapan Communist Party7Constituency
Konosuke KunibaLDP3Proportional revival
Mikiro ShimojiIndependent6Proportional revival

National agency

The administrative agencies of the countries located in the city are listed below.[32].

National Personnel Authority

Cabinet Office

National Police Agency

Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications

Ministry of Justice

Prosecutor's office
Public Security Intelligence Agency
Immigration Control Agency

Ministry of Foreign Affairs

  • Okinawa office

Ministry of Finance

National Tax Agency

Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare

Ministry of Agriculture

Forestry Agency
  • Kyushu Agriculture and Forestry Administration Bureau Okinawa Agriculture and Forestry Administration

Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry

Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism

Japanese Meteorological Agency
Japan Coast Guard

Ministry of the Environment

Ministry of Defense

SDF

Facility

Policemen

Headquarters
Police station
Driver's license examination siteExisted in the city,2011May 1ToTomigusuku CityMove toOkinawa Prefectural Police Driver's License CenterIt became.

Fire

Headquarters

Medical

The Okinawa Prefectural Naha Hospital that was in Yogi was newly established in Haebaru TownOkinawa Prefectural Nanbu Medical Center/Child Medical CenterThe Izumizaki Hospital, which was located in Izumizaki, was relocated to Kaminoya (Naha Shintoshin) as an Omoromachi Medical Center. In 2009, the Okinawa Kyodo Hospital was relocated from Shintamabashi, Tomigusuku to Kohazo, Naha, and Ohama Daiichi Hospital was moved from Asato to Tenku. In July 2010, the Okinawa Red Cross Hospital was relocated from Kohazo to the site of Okinawa Prefectural Naha Hospital.

Main hospital
  • Naha City Hospital(2-31-1 Furushima)
  • Japanese Red Cross Society Okinawa Red Cross Hospital(1-3-1 Yogi)
  • Specific medical corporationReed Meeting Oribu Hospital (4-356 Shuriishimine Town)
  • Medical CorporationTenninkai Tenkudai Hospital (Tenkyu 1123)
  • Medical corporation Rokujukai Oroku Hospital (Kokuroku 547-1)
  • Medical corporation corporation renjinkai Tasaki Hospital (character Matsukawa 319)
  • Medical corporation Shinseikai Seibumon Hospital (5-22 Higashimachi)
  • Medical corporation Omotokai Ohama Daiichi Hospital (Tenkyu 1000)
  • Medical corporation Jujinkai Okinawa Central Hospital (Yogi 1-26-6)
  • Medical corporation Shoankai Omoromachi Medical Center (1-3-1 Kaminoya)
  • Medical corporation Yoshinkai Daido Chuo Hospital (1-1-37 Asato), Medical Plaza Daido Chuo (123), Daido Rehabilitation Hospital (1-468-59 Asato)
  • Medical corporation Hagoromokai Nakamoto Hospital (1-22-1 Furushima)
  • OkinawaMedical co-op Okinawa cooperative hospital(Furuhazo 4-10-55)
  • Medical corporation Kabirakai Kabira Hospital (Furuhazo 3-5-25)
welfare facility
  • Social welfare corporationOkinawa Prefectural Council of Social Welfare Okinawa Prefectural General Welfare Center (4-373-1, Shuriishiminecho)
  • Social Welfare Corporation Naha City Council of Social Welfare Naha City General Welfare Center (3-5-4 Kaneshiro)
Health facility
  • Naha Public Health Center

Post

There are three post offices in the city.

  • Naha Central Post Office
    • Part of the central government office, the Oroku area, the Mawarashi area, and the outlying remote islands (Kerama-Aguni-DaitoEach island).
    • 郵便番号は900-00xx、901-01xx(小禄)、901-3xxx(市外の本島周辺離島)(大口事業者は900-85xx、900-86xx、900-87xx、901-019x、901-3x9x)(901-01はもともと小禄郵便局が集配業務を行い管轄していたが、1997And collected at the Naha Central Post Office. In addition, just before privatization in 2007, it became responsible for collecting and delivering remote islands around the main island of Okinawa such as Kerama, Aguni and Daito islands).
  • Naha East Post Office
    • The jurisdiction is the Mawarashi area (excluding some). The postal code is 902-00xx (for large businesses 902-85xx, 902-86xx, 902-87xx).
  • Shurikita Post Office
    • The jurisdiction is the Shuri area. The postal code is 903-08xx (903-85xx, 903-86xx, 903-87xx for large businesses).

Non-delivery post office

  • Makabi Post Office
  • Akebono Post Office
  • Anxia Post Office
  • Naha Shintoshin Post Office
  • Tomari Post Office
  • Makishi Post Office
  • Kainan Post Office
  • Naha Kumoji Post Office
  • Miebashi Post Office
  • Okinawa Prefectural Office Post Office
  • Furuhazo Post Office
  • Naha Kume Post Office
  • Higashimachi Post Office
  • Simple post office in Naha Airport (temporarily closed)
  • Oroku Kagamihara Post Office
  • Oroku Izumihara Post Office
  • Oroku Maehara Post Office
  • Oroku Post Office
  • Oroku Uehara Post Office
  • Oroku Kinjo Post Office
  • Naha Mihara Post Office
  • Daido Post Office
  • Mawashi post office
  • One day bridge post office
  • Naha Kamima Post Office
  • Naha Kokuba Post Office
  • Yogi Post Office
  • Naha Nagata Post Office
  • Sueyoshi Shuri Post Office
  • Shuri Daimyo Post Office
  • Shuri Post Office
  • Shuri Shiraya Post Office
  • Shuri warehouse post office
  • Shuriyama River Post Office
  • Shuri Samukawa Post Office

library

Meeting facility

park

Exercise facility

Main exercise facility
The old facility was dismantled due to deterioration,2010The new stadium was completed. Also,2011The Ouyama Park centering on this baseball fieldYomiuri GiantsSecondaryCamping groundDecided to use as.

Foreign relations

Sister cities/partner cities

With 3 cities in Japan and XNUMX cities abroadSister cityHave concluded each[33].

Domestic

sister city

Overseas

sister city
Partner city

Foreign diplomatic missions, etc.

Consulate

Consulate General

Military facility

Dedicated facility

Shared use facility

Economy

Tertiary industry

tourismSince the number of business establishments is high,Tertiary industryThe ratio of the number of establishments is very high at about 93.3%,Agriculture:-Fishery:Such asPrimary industryIs significantly less. Also by industryRetail trade(26.3%), food and lodging (20.7%),real estate business(11.9%) andService industryStands out[34]..Also in the cityNaha AirportAs a result, many business travelers and tourists visit Naha. DowntownInternational streetIn the past, there were many stores for local people, but due to the increase in tourists, the number of souvenir shops for tourists has increased, and now it is always crowded with tourists.

Commercial

Main commercial facilities

Financial institution

Headquartered company

Many head offices exist because of good public transportation and the center of politics and culture, but it is difficult to obtain a large land, and the land price is higher than the surrounding municipalities. The head office is often located in the suburbs (outside Naha city).

Companies based

Telecommunications

Mass media

Newspaper company

Local newspaper
With NahaNational newspaper

Asahi Shimbun,Mainichi Newspapers-Yomiuri ShimbunSuch asNational newspaperDue to transportation conditions, the morning edition is delivered in the afternoon together with the evening edition the day before. As a result, there are no direct sales such as station sales in Okinawa as well as in Naha City. The newsletter about where security news is sent each time, the national newspapers are "Naha Branch" and "Naha Directorate" (Asahi Shimbun) Has been established.

Incidentally,2008May 11Than,Nihon Keizai Shimbun Ryukyu ShinposhaStarted consignment printing (first in Japan). Both morning and evening editions have started delivery at the same time as local newspapers (2008May 6Nihon Keizai ShimbunFrom the morning newspaper).

Broadcaster

TV broadcast
Radio broadcast

Life base

life line

electricity

1972When returning to JapanRyukyu Electric Power CorporationからOkinawa Electric PowerAfter that, Okinawa Electric Power has been supplied throughout the prefecture including Naha City. As for the form of power generation, it is difficult to use hydropower or nuclear power as the regional characteristics of Okinawa Prefecture, so most ofThermal power generationDepends on[35].

gas

1960SinceOkinawa gasIn the cityCity GasIs being supplied. The number of households supplied as of the end of March 2015 was approximately 3.[36].. The supply area covers almost the entire area of ​​Naha City[37].

Water and sewerage

Water supply

Water supply was before the warGinowan CityI was supplying water using the spring water ofBattle of OkinawaMany of the facilities were destroyed in the1954After the return of the Tomari water purification plant in March[38].. The main water sourceOkinawa main islandNorth,Do my bestOf the area calleddamIt has become.

2009Current,Okinawa Prefecture Enterprise BureauTotally dependent on supply from[39].. During the U.S. military era, the U.S. military sometimes supplied tap water.[40].. It should be noted that water supply restrictions due to drought are often implemented, and the most prominent example is1989The degree is 3 days from March 6 to 31, and the next1990From April 4st to 1th, there were 26 days of water supply every other day for 26 hours. However1993No water cut due to drought[41].

The maximum daily water supply as of the end of 2009 is 159,810m.3Has become[42].. By the way, the biggest users areJapan Air Self-Defense ForceIt's Naha base[43].

Sewer

The sewage system was started1969From[44]As of the end of 2011, the sewerage coverage rate was 89.1%[45].. Although there are pump facilities at various locations, it is finally processed at the Naha Purification Center (Mizukurin Naha) in the west of Naha City, Okinawa Prefecture.[46]Is released. Maximum daily throughput is approximately 1m3In Although[47], Naha City Business Plan[48] Then, in fiscal 2009, the maximum was 1m per day.3Has become[49].

Telegraph

Before returning to the cityArea codeWas 08 (the neighboring Tomigusuku and Haebaru villages had the same area code), and there were five 2-digit city area codes 5-8 and 5 (the phone number in Naha city at that time was Most omitted the 1 area code). In 08, the year before the return, the number was increased by one digit to the first two digits in the area code so far (1971-1 is 2 with a 2 on the head 4-3, 32 is 34, 5 is changed to 55 respectively). Upon returning, the area code was changed to 8, and the city code of more than half of the area was changed in several years (68 in the western part of the city, 0988-60 in Oroku and 57-59 in the northeastern part of the city such as Shuri). ). And in December 84, the area code is the current098Was changed to "8", which was the end of the area code until now, and became a three-digit number as the beginning of the area code. In the 3 era, there were only Naha city and neighboring Urasoe city, Haebaru town, Tomigusuku village, but after 0988, the whole south central area of ​​Okinawa main island south of Onna village and Ginoza village and surrounding remote islands (Kumejima and Keira (Ima Islands and Aguni Islands) also have the same area code, and most of Okinawa has become this area code area (Unit charge areaBecause it is the same Naha MA). When introducing the telephone numbers of these areas, including Naha City, for Okinawa Prefecture, the area code 098 is often omitted (also omitted for television and radio). On the contrary, in the north main island north of Nago City outside the area and the Sakishima Islands, the area code is 0980, so the place where the phone number is written as "0980-xx-yyyy" is wrongly "098-0xx-yyyy" Sometimes it is written.

The city code in Naha City started from 3 after it was converted to 8 digits, but from the latter half of the 1990s, the city code starting from 941 such as "951" and "9" has also appeared (Itoman City and Minami In the southern part of the main island, such as the city of the castle, it started from 9, but the city code starting from 8 came out).

Hygiene treatment

  • Naha City/Haebaru Town Environmental Facility Association (There is a waste treatment facility in Shinkawa, Haebaru Town, which is adjacent to the city)

Education

If there is no special mentionPublic school.

University/Junior college

high school

Junior high school

primary school

From April 2014, 4, Kumoji Elementary School and Maejima Elementary School will be integrated into "Naha Elementary School".

  • Naha City Tenki Elementary School
  • Kainan Elementary School
  • Kakihana Elementary School
  • Naha City Oroku Elementary School
  • Naha City Kora Elementary School
  • Naha City Uehara Elementary School
  • Naha City Matsushima Elementary School
  • Naha City Kozo Elementary School
  • Naha City Kamima Elementary School
  • Naha City Daimyo Elementary School
  • Naha City Ishimine Elementary School
  • Nakai Makoto Elementary School
  • Naha City Kaneshiro Elementary School
  • Akebono Elementary School
  • Naha City Orokunan Elementary School
  • Naha City Machi Elementary School
  • Naha City Satsuki Elementary School
  • Naha City Meikari Elementary School

The only increase in school lunch costs in the prefecture. While there are "local governments that make school lunch free" and "local governments that have a subsidy system with their own budget," Naha City has decided to raise the cost of lunch from April 2016.There is a maximum difference of about 4 yen per year from free local governments, and junior high schools in Naha City have the highest school lunch costs in the prefecture.[50].

Transportation

In the central city, after the warSprawl phenomenonDue to the disorderly urbanization of the roads, the width of most roads is 12m or less,Traffic jamIs waking up. Especially,International streetAnd othersHighwayThere are almost no roads that complement the function of, or there are many sections with a narrow width,International streetAnd other main streets are overloaded.

To solve these traffic jamsOkinawa city monorail lineYui Rail was opened. In the central city areaParking LotOne of the challenges is the small size of the, and improvements are urgently needed.

It is a key point for transportation outside Okinawa and is one of the leading international airports in Japan.Naha AirportAnd the routes to and from the prefecture are concentratedNaha PortThere is.

Air route

空港

Train

Taisho era TheOkinawa prefectural railway OfYonabaru Line,Kadena Line,Itoman LineOkinawa Electric OfTramRuns in the city,Itoman carriage orbitI was also in the city,ShowaWhen entering, the Okinawa Electric tram and Itoman Wagon Orbit were lost due to the competition with the bus, and the remaining Okinawa Prefectural Railway also stopped operating at the end of World War II. It was destroyed in the subsequent Battle of Okinawa, and was not laid again in Okinawa under US military control after the war,2003(15)May 8Is the first commercial railroad after the warOkinawa city monorail line(Yui Rail) opened and returned to OkinawaOrbitTraffic is back. Although there are no ordinary railway lines in Naha City and Okinawa Prefecture, the Yui Rail is attracting attention as a trump card for eliminating traffic congestion. Yui Rail2019(First year of Reiwa)May 10ToUrasoe City OfTedako Urani StationWas extended to Naha cityIshimine StationOpened.

It is the most populous city for which ordinary rail lines do not pass. The only JR line does not run among the prefectural capitals. More than 30 peoplespecial areaAnd in the city, there are no JR stations and the JR line itself does not pass, in addition to Naha city, TokyoSetagaya-Nerima-ku, Aichi PrefectureToyota City, OsakaToyonaka CityThere is.

Okinawa city monorail

The nearest station to the city hall is the prefectural office.The nearest station in the northern part of Naha city isKyoutsuka Station(Urasoe City).

bus

Transit Bus

The Okinawa City Monorail Line runs through Naha CityUrasoe CityOnly inside, to places where the monorail does not pass in Naha city, or to Naha city and outside Naha city in the main islandPublic transportAs a monorailbusIs being used.Bus traffic is very heavy, especially in the city center. According to 1997International streetThere are 1-1,500 buses passing around the day,Traffic jamIt is also one of the causes.

All route buses are operated by private companies, and mainlyRyukyu Bus Transportation-Okinawa bus-Naha bus-Toyo Bus4 companies will operate.

  • City Line-Routes that operate only in Naha city. Most of the routes are operated by Naha Bus (some routes are operated by Okinawa Bus).
  • City Line-A line connecting Naha City and Naha City. All of the above four companies will operate. Bus lines connect to all municipalities in the main island south of Nago City.
  • Express Bus-111 highway bus connecting Naha City and Nago City, 117 Express Bus and Yanbaru Express Bus connecting Naha City and Motobu Peninsula, and there are several routes operated by other companies.
  • Naha Airport Limousine Bus -A limousine bus that connects Naha Airport/Naha Bus Terminal to resort hotels in the central and northern parts of the main island.

道路

highway

Naha tollgate TheShimajiriHaebaru TownExists in.

National road

Prefectural road

Main local road
General prefectural road


Bicycle path

Route

Port

Tourism

world Heritage

200012Toworld Heritage"Gusuku and related heritage groups of Ryukyu KingdomOf the nine historic sites registered as ", there are four listed below in Naha city:[33].

Sights and historic sites

Castle
Temple
Shrine
Mausoleum
Main historical sites

Nearby Tourist Spots

The street that connects to Kokusai Dori. ExBlack marketIs a large spontaneously formedarcadeIt's a city.
Ryukyu KingHouse-related materials (National treasure) Has been saved.

Culture/Specialty

Festivals and events

Specialty/Special product

Orchestra

Sports

Boys

baseball
サ ッ カ ー
boxing

woman

サ ッ カ ー

Origin-related celebrities

Academia

Music

Entertainment

art

athlete

announcer

NHK
RBC Ryukyu Broadcasting
OTV Okinawa TV broadcasting
QAB Ryukyu Asahi Broadcasting
  • None
FM Okinawa
Radio Okinawa
Other

Public relations / public hearing

General public relations activities of the city are conducted by the secretary public relations section[54].

As the main public relations media, the public relations paper "Nahashi citizen's friends" (issued once a month, distributed to all households), radio program "Naha citizen's time" (half a year in each year,Ryukyu BroadcastingandRadio Okinawa, Broadcast once a week for 1 minutes),webMedia (Distributing information on the official site “Nana Municipal Government NAVI” and fields and facilities registered by the usere-mail magazine"Information pack, e-mail," etc.Visually impairedFor recording tape versionBrailleA version is also produced[55].

"Naha City Song" (written by Kasui Ando and composed by Nagara Miyara), which is also played in "Naha Citizen's Time",Second World WarEstablished before. The exact date of enactment is unknown due to the war disaster, but according to the city, it may be around 1929 (Showa 4). The songs and scores can be downloaded from the city website.[56]

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

footnote

Source

  1. ^ a b Naha city flag
  2. ^ "City symbol and charter”. Naha City. 2011th of February 9Browse.
  3. ^ "Shuri/Naha dialect voice database". University of the Ryukyus Okinawa Language Research Center. 2012th of February 4Browse. -Originally refers to Shuri City, Mawarashi City, and former Naha City before the merger with Oroku Village.
  4. ^ Restricted surface area map of Naha Airport(Osaka Civil Aviation Bureau, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism)
  5. ^ "Requesting cooperation from Okinawa Prefecture regarding the transition to the core city”. Naha City Mayor's Office Web Branch Office (April 2010, 4). 2012th of February 4Browse.
  6. ^ "Core city transition preparation room”. Naha City. 2012th of February 4Browse.
  7. ^ "Introduction of core cities". Core City Mayors' Association. 2012th of February 4Browse.
  8. ^ "Outline of Press Conference by Minister of Internal Affairs and Communications Mr. Taroko" (Press release), Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, (March 2012, 10), http://www.soumu.go.jp/menu_news/kaiken/01koho01_02000100.html 2012th of February 10Browse. 
  9. ^ "Naha city, core city government will make cabinet decision from April 4, next year". Ryukyu Shimpo (September 2012, 10). 2012th of February 10Browse.
  10. ^ "Turn Naha into a core city = government". Current affairs dot com (September 2012, 10). 2012th of February 10Browse.
  11. ^ "Naha City moved to the core city on April 25, 4.". Core City Mayors' Association (September 2013, 4). 2013th of February 4Browse.
  12. ^ Broadcast on July 1998, 7Haunting! Ad street paradiseThan
  13. ^ Published July 61, 7Kadokawa Shoten"Okinawa Place Name Dictionary", Item 739
  14. ^ "Normal value (value for each year/month)”. Japan Meteorological Agency. 2021th of February 2Browse.
  15. ^ "Value of 1st to 10th in observation history (value throughout the year)”. Japan Meteorological Agency. 2021th of February 2Browse.
  16. ^ "Normal value (value for each year/month)”. Japan Meteorological Agency. 2012th of February 8Browse.
  17. ^ "Value of 1st to 10th in observation history (value throughout the year)”. Japan Meteorological Agency. 2012th of February 8Browse.
  18. ^ "Address book (old and new)”(Japanese). www.city.naha.okinawa.jp. 2019th of February 9Browse.
  19. ^ Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Public Corporation, Undersea Line Construction Office, "A 1971-Year History of the Undersea Line," Telecommunications Association 200, p.
  20. ^ Illustrations Chapters of municipalities in Japan p239
  21. ^ "Continued: Days of that era revived in post-war Japanese colors taken by the GHQ photographer" (published by Archives Publishing, July 2007, 7), page 20.
  22. ^ "The Naha City Hall Main Government Office was temporarily relocated to the temporary government office on Thursday, September 21, 9.”. Naha City (September 2009, 9). 2012th of February 4Browse.
  23. ^ "Naha City New Government Building Construction”. Naha City (September 2010, 7). 2012th of February 4Browse.
  24. ^ "Baseball boy's dream ride Okinawa Cellular Stadium completed”. Ryukyu Shimpo (March 2010, 4). 2012th of February 4Browse.
  25. ^ "The core city, Naha, is born Mayor Onaga "Prefecture's leap forward" 42nd city nationwide”. Ryukyu Shimpo (March 2013, 4). 2013th of February 4Browse.
  26. ^ Naha City Assembly Secretariat Assembly History Edition 2011, Pages 30-64.
  27. ^ Citizen opinion submission system -Naha City (viewed May 2013, 5)
  28. ^ Since Tokyo's special wards are basic municipalities with the same authority as municipalities, the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Office actually exists.Shinjuku wardThere is also a view that only the metropolitan area is the location. In this case, the area of ​​Shinjuku is smaller than that of Naha, so Naha is second.
  29. ^ Haebaru-cho 3 options (PDF) (Public information July 2003 issue)-Haebaru-cho (read May 15, 7)
  30. ^ About the process of dissolution of Naha City/Haebaru Town/Southern Remote Island Village Merger Voluntary Council -Naha City (Updated June 2004, 6, viewed May 22, 2013)
  31. ^ Opposition to the relocation of Futenma base to Henoko
  32. ^ Organization of national administrative bodies as of October 27, 10-Cabinet Personnel Bureau
  33. ^ a b "2012 edition of Naha City Handbook (PDF)”. Naha City. 2013th of February 2Browse.
  34. ^ 2012 edition Naha City Statistical Report
  35. ^ Make electricity -Okinawa Electric Power
  36. ^ Okinawa Gas Co., Ltd. Greetings
  37. ^ City gas/LP gas supply area
  38. ^ Naha City Waterworks and Sewerage Bureau Planning and Management Division “Outline of Waterworks and Sewerage Bureau Business” p.29 By the way, the water supply penetration rate was only 13% at this point (p.21).
  39. ^ "Outline of Waterworks and Sewerage Bureau Business" p.15, p.22, etc. Many of the various water supply facilities in the city are facilities unique to the city (p.50-p.55).
  40. ^ "Outline of Water and Sewerage Bureau Business" p.21
  41. ^ ``Outline of Water and Sewerage Bureau Business'' p.21-p.24
  42. ^ "Outline of Water and Sewerage Bureau Business" p.29
  43. ^ "Outline of Water and Sewerage Bureau Business" p.45
  44. ^ "Outline of Water and Sewerage Bureau Business" p.156
  45. ^ "Outline of Water and Sewerage Bureau Business" p.112
  46. ^ This is not a processing facility unique to Naha City.
  47. ^ Okinawa Prefecture Civil Engineering Department Sewer Management Office
  48. ^ "Outline of Water and Sewerage Bureau Business" p.138
  49. ^ Up to 239,586m per hour3.
  50. ^ "School lunch fee, up to 5 yen difference per year Survey of municipalities in this paper". Ryukyu Shimpo (September 2016, 3). 2016th of February 4Browse.
  51. ^ a b c "This person too? Actresses from Okinawa Gacky, Manami Higa, Yukie Nakama ... there are many more!". Ryukyu Shimpo(November 2019, 4). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2019, 11.. https://web.archive.org/web/20191130030352/https://ryukyushimpo.jp/news/entry-909622.html 2021th of February 3Browse. 
  52. ^ "[The villain of the chest-kyun drama is from Okinawa-Issei Kakazu, the reason why a boy who likes Yui Rail has returned to the entertainment world-]". Ryukyu Shimpo(November 2018, 6). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2021, 3.. https://web.archive.org/web/20210311110650/https://ryukyushimpo.jp/style/article/entry-738435.html 2021th of February 3Browse. 
  53. ^ "Refill II" Seibu 30Mt. Kuraiyama River XNUMX% XNUMX Nikkan Sports November 2013, 11 From paper
  54. ^ Secretary Public Relations Division -Naha City (viewed May 2013, 5)
  55. ^ Naha municipal administration NAVI -Naha City (viewed May 2013, 5)
  56. ^ City song -Naha City (viewed May 2013, 5)

References

Related item

外部 リンク

Polymerase chain reaction

Polymerase chain reaction(Polymerase Rensa Hanno,English: polymerase chain reaction) IsDNAA reaction or technique that amplifies a specific region of a sample by millions to billions of times. Take the initials in EnglishPCR method, Or simplyPCRIt is also called "Polymerase Chain Reaction" in English.

DNA polymeraseと 呼 ば れ る酵素Utilizing the function of, any cycle through a series of temperature changesgeneArea orgenomeCopy spaceExponentialTarget (Mouse arithmeticThe objective is to amplify from a small sample of DNA to a sufficient amount to study its details.[1][2][3].Medical,Molecular biology,Forensic medicineIt is a useful technology that is widely used in fields such asCarrie MarisInvented by (Kary Mullis)[4][5],Nobel PrizeWas awarded.

Since the PCR method was established,Sequencing, Experiments such as gene mutation induction become possible,Molecular genetics,Physiology,TaxonomyIn addition to being utilized in research fields such as, analysis of ancient DNA samples,Forensic medicine,Paternity testUsed inDNA typingIdentification of infectious agentsInfectionTechnology development related to diagnosis (Nucleic acid amplification test), etc. have advanced dramatically. Also, from the PCR methodReverse transcription polymerase chain reaction,Real-time PCR,DNA sequencingEtc. are derived and developed. Therefore, today the PCR methodBiology,Medical scienceIt is the basis of gene analysis in a wide range of fields including[6][7].

principle

The PCR method operates by a series of thermal cycles of raising and lowering the temperature of a DNA solution containing a mixture of reagents. In the repeated cycle of heating and cooling of this DNA sample, dissociation of double-stranded DNA, binding of primer,酵素Three reactions, DNA synthesis by reaction, proceed, and finally a large amount of DNA fragments in a specific region are replicated.

In the PCR method, in addition to the DNA sample to be amplified (template), a large amount ofPrimer(In the target DNA regionComplementaryShort single-stranded DNA with sequence (Oligonucleotide)) and free, a component of DNAnucleotideAndPolymeraseIs a type ofDNA synthase(DNA polymerase) ThreereagentTo use.

  1. The first step is to heat the double-stranded DNA of the DNA double helix at high temperature.DegenerationAnd physically separate into single-stranded DNA. The temperature at which denaturation occurs depends on the base composition and length (number of bases) of DNA, and generally longer DNA requires higher temperature.
  2. Next, the solution containing the single-stranded DNA is cooled, and the primer is bound to the complementary sequence site of the single-stranded DNA to partially form the double strand (annealing). When the cooling is rapid, it is difficult for long DNAs to recombine into double strands, but short DNA fragments (Oligonucleotide) Takes advantage of the fact that they can be easily combined. As a result, a primer is bound to a part of the target long single-stranded DNA. By keeping the primer overwhelmingly more than the DNA, the tendency of the DNA and the primer to bind becomes more predominant than the tendency of the DNA and the DNA to bind.
  3. Next, heat the solution slightly to remove this double-stranded DNA site.templateAsDNA polymeraseBy making the primer act as a starting point and releasenucleotideDNA that is complementary to the single-stranded part酵素Are synthesized. After the DNA is synthesized, the temperature is raised again to return to the first step, and this cycle is repeated from the first DNA denaturation to promote the amplification. As the PCR reaction progresses, the generated DNA itself is used as a template for replication, and the original DNA template isExponentialIs amplified toChain reactionAdvances.

As described above, the PCR method utilizes the difference in the rate of denaturation and annealing depending on the DNA chain length to repeat DNA synthesis simply by repeatedly raising and lowering the temperature of the reaction solution, and amplifying a partial region of any DNA. Is.

If the DNA polymerase used is heat-sensitive, the polymerase will denature along with the DNA at the high temperature of the denaturation step,DeactivationResulting in. Therefore, when the PCR method was first developed, DNA polymerase was added as an enzyme every time DNA was denatured, which was time-consuming and expensive.[8].. Currently,Thermus aquaticusTo sayThermophileIs a thermostable DNA polymerase derived fromTaq polymeraseBy using such as, it is possible to continuously proceed the reaction without adding an enzyme in the middle.

procedure

ready

The nucleotide sequences at both ends of the DNA region to be amplified are determined, and corresponding primers are artificially synthesized. At this time, the primer is a complementary sequence that binds to the 2'side of each strand of the double-stranded DNA to be amplified, and usually has about 3 bases. They are often custom made in the lab or can be purchased from a commercial biochemical supplier.

Reaction solution preparation

Amplification target DNA, primer, DNA polymerase and DNA synthesis material (Substrate)Deoxynucleotide triphosphate (dNTP), And a buffer solution to create an optimal salt concentration environment in which the enzyme works, and a PCR device (Thermal cycler). For the buffer solution included in the distributed PCR reagent kit,BivalentCationIs often included[9].NormallymagnesiumIon (Mg2+), but PCR-mediated DNA mutagenesis is highmanganeseIon (Mn2+) Can also be used to increase the error rate during DNA synthesis.[10].Taq In the case of DNA polymerase,As a monovalent cationpotassiumIon (K+) May be included[11].. In some casesAmmonium sulfateMay be added.Ammonium ion(NH4+) Has the effect of destabilizing the weak hydrogen bond between the mismatched primer and the template base pair, and can increase the specificity.[11].

PCR cycle

  1. 94 reaction solution° CHeat to about 30 seconds to 1 minute to keep double-stranded DNA into single strands (Fig. 2).
  2. 60° CRapidly cool to a certain degree (slightly different depending on the primer) andPrimerAnneal (Fig. ②).
  3. No separation of primersDNA polymeraseReheat to the optimum temperature range for the activity of. Depending on the experimental purpose, its temperature is 60-72° CIt is set to a degree. This temperature is usually maintained for 1 to 2 minutes depending on the length of time required for DNA synthesis and the length of amplification (Fig. XNUMX).
  4. Up to this point is one cycle, and by repeating the steps from ① to ③, a specific DNA fragment is amplified.

When the PCR treatment is repeated n times, 1 double-stranded DNAn-Amplify 2n times.However, since the maximum of 2 cycles is usually performed, the term of XNUMXn is approximately negligible.If the number of cycles is further increased, the DNA polymerase loses its activity over time and reagents such as dNTPs and primers are consumed, so that the reaction is limited and the series of reactions is finally stopped.

Points to remember

The success or failure of this reaction depends on the base sequences of the DNA to be amplified and the primer, each set temperature and time during the cycle, and the like. If they are inappropriate, they may amplify irrelevant DNA sequences or may show no amplification. In addition, there is a possibility that mutation will occur during the synthesis process, so it is necessary to check the nucleotide sequence of the product depending on the purpose of use.

Application of PCR

Amplification and quantification of DNA

PCR is a technique for dramatically amplifying a region of target DNA, and even a very small amount of DNA sample may be analyzed by passing through PCR. This proves that only trace amounts of DNA are availableForensic medicineIt is especially important in such fields.Or, for example, tens of thousands of years agoAncient DNAPCR is also effective for analysis of[12].

Quantitative PCR(Also called real-time PCR, or simply qPCR.RT-PCRNote that the amount of a specific DNA sequence present in a sample can also be estimated by[13].. this is,Gene expressionIt is used for purposes such as quantitatively determining levels. In quantitative PCR, the abundance of the target DNA region that originally existed is quantified by measuring the concentration of the PCR product that is amplified during the PCR cycle in real time during the PCR cycle process. can do. There are two major methods, one is non-specifically retained between the duplexes.fluorescenceAnother method is to use a dye, and the other method is to use a probe to which a fluorescent label is added in advance and which encodes a specific sequence. In the latter method, fluorescence can be detected only when the probe and its complementary DNA are hybridized.

Combined real-time PCR and reverse transcriptionRT-qPCR(Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction), the method calledRNAIt is possible to quantify. In this technique, mRNA is the firstcDNAAnd the cDNA is quantified by qPCR. This method is often used to detect genes related to genetic diseases such as cancer and to measure expression levels.[14].

Application to biological research

PCRMolecular biology,GeneticsIt has been applied to various research fields including.

  • PCR can be used to selectively amplify and isolate specific DNA regions in the genome. Such use of PCR isSouthern blotting,Northern blottingIs widely used for the production of such hybridization probes and for DNA cloning that requires a large amount of DNA fragments derived from a specific DNA region.
  • PCRDNA sequenceIs often important in doing.. By various PCR, for example, a gene sequence or a DNA region to be analyzed can be extracted from a completely unknown genome and amplified.
  • PCRClassic experiments such as DNA cloningIt is often used in the process. For example, it is used when inserting a specific genomic region from a large genome into a vector. It can also be used to analyze or amplify DNA fragments already inserted in the vector. By partially changing the PCR protocol,mutationCan be artificially induced.
  • PCR is often used for research on ancient DNA. Most of such ancient DNA has been decomposed by ultraviolet rays and hydrolysis, and there is often only a trace amount of double-stranded DNA, so it is possible to analyze only by applying amplification by PCR. .. As an example of research that actually used PCR,NeanderthalsThe bone, 4 years oldMammothFrozen tissue ofEgypt OfmummyThere is a brain, etc.ロシアemperorAnd British KingRichard IIIIs being identified[12].. In some cases, it may be possible to restore the original DNA sequence to some extent by applying PCR amplification even to a DNA sample that has been considerably degraded.
  • Gene expressionPCR is also used to study the pattern. You can analyze body tissues and individual cells at various time-series stages to see which genes were activated/deactivated,Quantitative PCRCan also be used to quantify the actual expression level in detail.
  • PCRGenetic linkageIs also used for research. For example,Amplifies several loci from individual sperm simultaneously,MeiosisAfterChromosome crossoverStudies have been reported[15].. In this study, rare rare crossover events between very close loci were directly observed by analyzing thousands of sperm. Similarly, aberrant deletions, insertions, translocations, or inversions can be analyzed.
  • PCR can be used to induce site-directed mutagenesis of any gene or genomic region. By investigating these mutants, it is possible to elucidate, for example, the function of the protein, or to proceed with research for altering or improving the function of the protein.

Prenatal diagnosis

Whether a PCR is a carrier of a particular inheritance before the child is born, or actuallysickTest whether you are affected byPrenatal diagnosisCan be used for[16].Prenatal examinationDNA sample forAmniocentesisbyChorionic villus sampling, Or can be obtained by analysis of a very small amount of fetal cells circulating in the mother's bloodstream. PCR analysisPre-implantation diagnosisIs also essential and can test mutations in individual cells of the developing embryo.

Organ transplant tissue typing

PCROrgan transplantationEssential toOrganizational typingIt can also be used as a highly sensitive test.Blood TypeA proposal to replace the traditional antibody-based test with a PCR-based test against was also made in 2008[17].

Cancer genetic analysis

Many forms of cancer are associated with various types of cancer development.gene(Oncogene) ArrayWith variations, PCR technology could be used to analyze this mutation to tailor treatment strategies to patients. PCR alsoleukemia,LymphomaSuch asMalignantEnables early diagnosis of disease. It is being developed in the field of cancer research, and PCR is now routinely used. It has been reported that direct PCR assay of genomic DNA samples can detect translocation-specific malignant cells at least 10,000 times more sensitive than other methods[18].. PCR also allows the isolation and amplification of tumor suppressors. For example, it is possible to quantify single cells using quantitative PCR and analyze the abundance and combination of DNA, mRNA, and protein.[19].

Diagnosis of infectious disease

PCR aids in sensitive and rapid diagnosis of infectious diseases caused by bacteria and viruses[20].. In PCR,Mycobacteria ,Anaerobic bacteria, ま た はTissue cultureAssayAnimal modelfromウ イ ル スIt is also possible to quickly identify microorganisms that cannot be cultured or microorganisms that grow slowly. In addition, PCR diagnosis can distinguish between non-pathogenic strains and pathogenic strains by not only detecting infectious pathogens but also determining whether the bacterium has a specific gene[20][21].. On the other hand, various defects have been reported (Later).

  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Is a difficult target to discover and eradicate. The initial diagnosis of infection is the virus circulating in the bloodstream.antibodyHowever, the antibody does not appear until weeks after infection, the maternal antibody masks the infection of the newborn, and the amount of antibody does not change when treated with an HIV therapeutic agent. was there. Therefore, a high-sensitivity PCR method that can detect only one viral genome from over 50,000 cellular DNA samples was developed.[22].. This method enables early detection of infectious diseases, virus testing of donated blood, rapid infection testing of newborns, and quantification of antiviral treatment effects.
  • tuberculosis OfSome disease-causing microbes such as these are known to be difficult to sample from patients and grow slowly in the laboratory,cultureA lot of time and effort was spent in the base diagnosis. Tests by PCR can detect disease-causing microorganisms in samples, and from genetic analysisAntibiotic resistanceIt is possible to detect the presence or absence, etc., which may lead to the setting of an effective treatment policy and the evaluation of the treatment effect.
  • 家畜orwildThrough a group of animalsdiseaseBiology Diffusion and emergence of new toxic subtypes can be monitored by PCR testing.
  • By using a primer specific to the target sequence of viral DNA, viral DNA can be detected by PCR and also used for DNA sequencing. Due to the high sensitivity of PCR, virus detection may be possible immediately after infection and before the onset of disease[23].. Early detection may give the physician a significant lead time for treatment. The viral load contained within the patient can also be quantified by PCR-based DNA quantification techniques.
  • Social Services LizardIs caused by a bacterium called B. pertussis. This bacterium is characterized by a serious acute respiratory tract infection affecting a wide variety of animals and humans, leading to the death of many young children.Communicate and LizardBinds to cell receptors by two dimers and plays a role in cell immunityT lymphocyteIs a protein toxin that reacts with[24].. Since the sequence in the pertussis toxin gene can be detected by PCR, pertussis can be diagnosed very efficiently compared to the culture method.[25].

Application to forensics

PCR-basedDNA typing(Fingerprinting)Forensic medicineWidely applied in the field.

  • DNA typing is世界It is a technology that can uniquely distinguish one person from the entire population. Applying this technology, a small amount of DNA sampleCrime sceneIn some cases, suspects can be identified by collecting, analyzing, and comparing prisoners. A simpler method of use is to quickly exclude suspects during criminal investigations. Alternatively, test crime evidence decades ago to confirm the perpetration of convicted people, orImmunityIt also leads to doing.
  • Forensic DNA typing (forensic DNA typing) is an effective way to identify or exclude suspected crimes from the analysis of evidence found at crime scenes. The human genome has many repeat regions found within gene sequences or in noncoding regions of the genome. Specifically, up to 40% of human DNA is known to be repetitive[26].. There are two types of these repetitive non-coding regions in the genome, one called variable length tandem repeat (VNTR), which is 2-10 base pairs long, while the other is short tandem repeat (STR). It is called a repeat section of 100-2 base pairs. Then, PCR amplification can be performed using the primers flanking each repeat region. A statistically high probability of uniquely identifying each individual can be obtained by examining the size distribution of several STR fragments obtained from each individual.[26].. Furthermore, the complete sequence of the human genome has already been determined, and since this sequence information can be easily accessed from the NCBI website, various applications have been made. For example, the FBI has compiled a set of DNA marker sites used for identification, which are called the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) DNA database.[26].. This database can be used to statistically determine the probability that a DNA sample will match. PCR is a very powerful and important analytical tool for forensic DNA typing because it requires very small amounts of target DNA for analysis. For example,Hair follicleHuman hair to which is attached contains enough DNA, if any, to perform the analysis. Similarly, severalspermA skin sample from under the fingernails, or a small amountbloodCan provide enough DNA for definitive analysis[26].
  • On the other hand, on the contrary, due to the format with low discriminationDNA fingerprintingIt is,Paternity testIs utilized for.. In this case, the subject, such as the body of an unidentified human, is compared to the DNA of the expected relatives, ie parents, siblings, children, etc. To identify the biological parents of the adopted (kidnapped) child,NewbornOf the actual biological father ofConfirm (Or excluded) is also used.
  • AmelogeninGene-based PCR enables real-time male and female sex determination from forensic bone samples. This allows you to determine the sex of ancient specimens and suspected criminals.[27].

PCR technical limitations

PCR has many advantages: the principle and the actual work are very simple, the results can be obtained quickly, and they are very sensitive.Quantitative PCR(qPCR, quantitative PCR) also has the advantage of being able to quantify the targeted DNA region.On the other hand, PCR is also known to have various technical restrictions and limitations.

One of the technical limitations of PCR is that it requires a priori knowledge of the sequence of the target region in order to generate primers that allow selective amplification.[28]..That is, the PCR practitioner usually needs to know the sequence information before and after the target DNA region in advance so that the primer and the template bind properly.Therefore, in principle, it is impossible to perform PCR on a target whose sequence information is completely unknown.Also, like any other enzyme, DNA polymerase itself is prone to errors during DNA synthesis and may mutate the sequence of the PCR amplification product produced.[29].. Furthermore, since PCR can amplify even a small amount of DNA, amplification may occur based on erroneously mixed DNA, resulting in ambiguous or erroneous results.

Many techniques and procedures have been developed to avoid these problems and optimize PCR conditions.[30][31].. For example, in order to minimize the possibility that the sample will be contaminated by the contamination of foreign DNA, by using separate rooms for each step of reagent preparation and PCR processing/analysis, they can be spatially separated. Separation is effective[32]..In addition, it is effective to always use disposable new tubes and pipette tips with filters to operate samples and reagents, thoroughly clean the workbench and equipment, and always work in a clean space.[33].. Reconsidering primer design and investigating the types of buffers and polymerase enzymes is also important in improving the yield of PCR products and avoiding the formation of spurious products. To the buffer systemFormamideAddition of reagents such as may increase PCR specificity and yield[34].. Computer simulation of theoretical PCR results (Electronic PCR) has also been developed to support primer design.[35].

Characteristics of PCR in diagnosis of infectious diseases

PCR is a very powerful and practical research tool, and indeed, in many infectious diseases, the etiology sequencing has been elucidated using PCR. This method is knownウ イ ル スIt also helps identify unknown viruses and contributes greatly to understanding the disease itself. If the procedure can be further simplified and a highly sensitive detection system can be developed, PCR will becomeClinical examinationIt is believed that it will take an important position in the room[36].. However, the use of PCR in the diagnosis of infectious diseases has been pointed out to have various disadvantages as well as advantages.

利 点

  • Human capital OfgenomeOnly specific DNA fragments (hundreds to thousands of base pairs) can be selectively amplified from a sample containing a long DNA molecule such as (30 billion base pairs).[1].
  • The purpose can be achieved with a very small amount of DNA.
  • Amplification reaction can be completed in a short time[2]..The time required for amplification is as short as 2 hours or less.
  • Testing is possible by using primers specific for each pathogen while keeping the equipment (PCR machine) used in common.[2].
  • Even if the pathogen is dead (even if it loses its infectivity), it can be amplified if the target nucleic acid is preserved, and even dangerous pathogens can be inactivated before testing.[2].
  • Sensitivity can be increased by using Nested PCR, real-time PCR, etc.[2].

Disadvantage

  • When biomaterials such as organs and tissues are used as samples, the detection rate differs depending on the sampling site and pretreatment of the material, and even if the result is negative, the presence of pathogens in the living body cannot always be denied.[2].
  • There is a limit to the amplification of nucleic acid due to the decrease in reaction efficiency due to generation of reaction inhibitors, etc., and the result will be negative if the nucleic acid cannot be amplified to a detectable amount. Cannot deny the existence of pathogens[2].
  • Testing of biomaterials such as blood and feces may be affected by the inhibitory substances in the test materials, so purification work is required, but it is not said to be complete.[2].. In addition, the storage condition of test materials, the number of freeze-thaw cycles, and the methods and conditions for nucleic acid purification can have a large impact on test efficiency and test results.[2].
  • Contamination from positive controls during testing, contamination from previous tests and experiments, and contamination of reagents with nucleic acids can lead to false positives (contamination)[2].

History and background

With Kjell KleppeH. Gobind KhoranaEt al. used an enzyme assay with primers and a short DNA template.vitroIn 1971Journal of Molecular BiologyFirst published in (Molecular Biology Journal)[37].. This was to explain the basic principle of PCR, but it did not receive much attention at that time, and the invention of the polymerase chain reaction was generally found in 1983.Mullis penaltiesIs considered to be due to[38].

When Mullis developed PCR in 1983, heCaliforniaEmeryvilleSo the firstBiotechnologyA company that is one of the companies (Cetus Corporation) Was working. Mullis said, "One night,Pacific coast highwayWhile driving in the car, I came up with the idea of ​​PCR."[39].. When he was thinking about a new method to analyze changes (mutations) in DNA, he tried to amplify a partial region of nucleic acid by repeating the DNA synthesis reaction using the already known oligonucleotide and DNA polymerase at that time. Came up with[39].

Mullis named this method "polymerase-catalyzed chain reaction",Nature,ScienceI submitted it as a paper to a famous scientific journal such as, but it was not published. On the other hand, the PCR method itself was made by a colleague of Cetus.Sickle cell diseaseIt was applied to a rapid diagnostic method for inherited diseases. It was reported as "Enzymatic amplification of beta-globin genomic sequences and restriction site analysis for diagnosis of sickle cell anemia" in Science magazine, and it attracted the attention of scientists around the world before the original paper.[5].. Finally in 1987, Mullis's paper Methods in Enzymology Published as "Specific synthesis of DNA in vitro via a polymerase-catalyzed chain reaction."[40].. Later MullisScientific Americanso,"PCR can start with a single molecule of genetic material DNA and produce 1,000 billion similar molecules in the afternoon. The reaction is easy to perform. It requires a test tube, some simple reagents, and a heat source. It is only"[41].. DNA fingerprinting in 1988Paternity testFirst used in[42].

In recognition of this achievement, Mullis worked with his colleagues at Cetus in 7, seven years after demonstrating PCR technology.Nobel Prize in ChemistryWon[43].. In addition, “Enzymatic Amplification of β-globin Genomic Sequences and Restriction Site Analysis for Diagnosis of Sickle Cell Anemia” by RK Saiki and HA Erlich in 1985 (“Enzymatic amplification of β-globin genomic sequence for diagnosis of sickle cell anemia”). And restriction site analysis'')American Chemical SocietyReceived Chemistry Breakthrough Award in the History of Chemistry category[44][45].. However, some controversy remains regarding the contributions of other scientists to Mullis' work and whether he was the only inventor of the PCR principle, as described below.

PCR was initiallyE. coli5'-3' exonuclease activity was removed by subtilisin treatment of DNA polymerase IKlenow FragmentMost of them used to cause a reaction. However, this enzymecopyThis enzyme had to be added manually after each thermal cycle because it could not withstand the high temperatures required to separate post-cycling DNA double helices and deactivate the DNA polymerase.[46].. As a result, the initial steps of DNA replication were very inefficient and time consuming, requiring large amounts of DNA polymerase and continuous treatment throughout the process. The Cetus research group lives in a high temperature environment (hot spring) of 50 to 80°C to solve this drawback.Thermophilic bacteriumIsThermus aquaticus[47]As a thermostable DNA polymeraseTaq polymeraseWas purified and the PCR method using this was published in Science magazine in 1976.[6].T. aquaticusDNA polymerase isolated from ° C (194 ° F) Stable at high temperature, and maintains activity even after DNA denaturation[48]Eliminates the need to add new DNA polymerase after each cycle[49].. This has opened the way to the simplification and automation of PCR reactions, and has led to the development of a widely applicable method.

In this way, the Cetus Group (including initially Maris) played a large role in the application and development of the PCR method.

However, it was Carey Maris who first conceived this method and showed direction, so MarisNobel Prize in ChemistryWas awarded in 1993. PCR technologyMullis penalties PatentWas acquired and was assigned to work in 1983 when Mullis invented the technology.TaqThe polymerase enzyme is also patent protected.DupontThere were several well-known lawsuits related to this technology, including the unsuccessful lawsuits filed. Swiss pharmaceutical companyEf Hoffman La RochePurchased a patent right in 1992, but the patent right now expires[50].

PCR types and application methods

Conventional PCR
Normal PCR that repeats the reaction for 1 to 25 cycles with one set of primers[2].
Real-time polymerase chain reaction (Real-Time PCR,Real-time PCR
A method of drawing an amplification curve in real time by emitting light from a nucleic acid fragment and detecting it using a dedicated optical instrument.It is used when quantitative rather than qualitative is required.[2].
Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR,Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction
A method in which RNA is converted to cDNA by reverse transcriptase and then PCR is performed.[2].
Nested polymerase chain reaction(Nested PCR)
A method in which the PCR product amplified by PCR is used as a template for the next reaction and another PCR is repeated using another primer pair.[2].
Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (Multiplex PCR,Multiplex PCR
A method to simultaneously perform PCR reactions for multiple target nucleic acids (DNA) in a single reaction tube[2].
Amplified fragment length polymorphism(AFLP)
A method in which genomic DNA containing target nucleic acid (DNA) is cleaved with a restriction enzyme, a short double-stranded DNA (adapter) is bound to the cleaved end, and PCR is performed using its complementary primer.[2].
Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP method
A method based on a completely different principle from conventional PCR[2][51].

References

  1. ^ a b PCR (polymerase chain reaction)National Cancer CenterCancer Information Service Glossary
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q "Precautions when using PCR in disease diagnosis”. Agricultural Research Organization. 2020th of February 3Browse.
  3. ^ Garibyan, Lilit; Avashia, Nidhi (2013-03-01). “Polymerase Chain Reaction”. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 133 (3): 1–4. two:10.1038 / jid.2013.1. PMC: 4102308. PMID 23399825. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4102308/. 
  4. ^ Mullis, Kary B. (1998). Dancing naked in the mind field (1st ed ed.). New York: Pantheon Books. ISBN 0-679-44255-3. OCLC 38081821. https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/38081821 
  5. ^ a b Saiki, R .; Scharf, S .; Faloona, F .; Mullis, K .; Horn, G .; Erlich, H .; Arnheim, N. (1985). “Enzymatic amplification of beta-globin genomic sequences and restriction site analysis for diagnosis of sickle cell anemia ”. Science 230 (4732): 1350–1354. two:10.1126 / science.2999980. PMID 2999980. 
  6. ^ a b Saiki, R .; Gelfand, D .; Stoffel, S .; Scharf, S .; Higuchi, R .; Horn, G .; Mullis, K .; Erlich, H. (1988). DNA with a thermostable DNA polymerase ”. Science 239 (4839): 487–491. bibcode1988 Sci ... 239 ..487S. two:10.1126 / science.2448875. PMID 2448875. 
  7. ^ "Opinion and PCR test toward the realization of the basic policy for new type coronavirus infection control”February 2020, 2 New Coronavirus Infectious Diseases Control Experts Meeting, Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare
  8. ^ “Determining Annealing Temperatures for Polymerase Chain Reaction”. The American Biology Teacher 74 (4): 256–260. (2012). two:10.1525 / abt.2012.74.4.9. 
  9. ^ "Takara Bio: PCR Experiment Guide". 2020th of February 3Browse.
  10. ^ Pavlov, AR; Pavlova, NV; Kozyavkin, SA; Slesarev, AI (2004). “Recent developments in the optimization of thermostable DNA polymerases for efficient applications ☆”. Trends in Biotechnology 22 (5): 253–260. two:10.1016 / j.tibtech.2004.02.011. PMID 15109812. 
  11. ^ a b "Thermo Fisher: Six Factors to Consider in PCR Setup". 2020th of February 3Browse.
  12. ^ a b "Chemical Synthesis, Sequencing, and Amplification of DNA (class notes on MBB / BIO 343)”. Arizona State University. As of October 1997, 10オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2007th of February 10Browse.
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