Photo Prime Minister Suga speaking at a joint press conference after the Japan-US summit meeting = April XNUMX, White House in Washington (joint)
Was it necessary to have a "face-to-face summit meeting" in the event of a corona disaster?
If you write the contents roughly
Prime Minister Suga may have neutralized the very existence of the "Prime Minister."
Prime Minister Yoshihide Suga and US President Joe Biden held their first summit meeting on the XNUMXth.In a joint statement, Taiwan was mentioned for the first time in about half a century ... → Continue reading
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Yoshihide Suga Cabinet
Inauguration date: September 2020, 9
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Prime Minister(I don't really care,British: Prime Minister) IsJapan OfCabinet OfChiefBarrelSecretary of State.civilianIsMember of ParliamentWas appointed, andStatusas well as the Authority TheThe Constitution of Japan,Cabinet ActIt is stipulated in.
The Prime MinisterAdministrative powerBelongs toCabinet OfChiefso(Article 66 of the Constitution(Section 1),Head of the three powersIs one of the othersSecretary of StateDismissed (Article 68 of the Constitution), On behalf of the Cabinet国会Submit a bill to the general state affairs and外交Report the relationship,Administrative departmentsCommand and supervise (Article 72 of the Constitution).
Parliamentary Cabinet SystemByMember of ParliamentFrom inside国会Voting (Prime Minister Nomination Election/ Nominated by (Nomination of Prime Minister)Article 67 of the Constitution), based on thisEmperorIs formalNational actAppoints Prime Minister as (Article 6 of the Constitution）.
Furthermore, the Prime MinistercivilianMust be (Article 66(2) of the Constitution),SDF OfHighest command and supervisionHave (Self Defense Force Act).Cabinet OfficeAnd moreAdministrative organizationNo longChief MinisterHowever, these institutions are under the direct jurisdiction of the Prime Minister..
Also the currentThe Constitution of JapanInHead of JapanThere is no written text about who is the head of state of Japan, and there is a constitutional debate about who is the head of state.But the majority of theories areTreatyRight to concludeDiplomatic missionHas the authority to handle diplomatic relations in addition to the right of appointment and dismissalCabinetOrAdministrative power OfChiefThe Prime Minister, who represents the Cabinet, is positioned as the head of state.In addition, in international practiceEmperorIs treated as the head of state.
The Prime Minister is also a member of the Cabinet, but in the Constitution of Japan, the Prime Minister is referred to as the Cabinet.Chief".The Prime Minister is superior to other Ministers of State, leads the Cabinet, and represents the Cabinet to the outside world.In addition, it has the authority to direct and supervise each administrative department..
Constitutionally,Dissolution of the House of RepresentativesThe authority to decideCabinetAlthough it is interpreted as belonging to, in effect, the Prime Minister, who is the head of the Cabinet, has the authority...Therefore, the Prime MinisterCabinet"We have decided to dissolve the House of Representatives this time, so we would like to ask for the approval of the Ministers of State." In the Cabinet forSecretary of State OfsignatureMust be collected.But,Article 68, Paragraph 2 of the Constitution"The Prime Minister voluntarily becomes the Minister of StaterecallThe Prime Minister can dismiss the Minister of State at his discretion at any time and for any reason...Therefore, if the Minister of State refuses to sign a cabinet meeting to dissolve the House of Representatives, the Prime Minister will dismiss the minister.recallAnd by having him serve concurrently or by having another minister serve concurrentlyCabinet decisionIt can be performed.
Even if all ministers oppose the dissolution, the Prime Minister can make a cabinet decision on the dissolution even if all ministers are dismissed or concurrently serve.One-person cabinet).Therefore, if the Prime Minister decides to dissolve, there is no way to prevent it.DissolutionConstitution Article 7 No. 3Of the emperor based onNational actAlthough it is done asArticle 4, Paragraph 1 of the ConstitutionSince the Emperor is stipulated that he has no authority over national affairs, the right to dissolve belongs to the Cabinet, and in fact, the Prime Minister, who is the head of the Cabinet, holds the right to dissolve.Therefore,Dissolution of ShichijoWill be dissolved when the Prime Minister decides that it is necessary to ask the people for their trust.DiscretionaryInterpreted as having the right to decide to dissolve based on..Most dissolutionConstitution Article 7 No. 3TheIncorporationThen, it is carried out under the initiative of the Cabinet.When the Cabinet proposes this depends on the will of the Prime Minister...For this reason, the right to dissolve is said to be "the exclusive right of the Prime Minister" and "the treasure sword of the prime minister's ancestor.".
- Cabinet Secretariat(Cabinet ActArticle 24)- Chief Cabinet SecretaryAdminister the affairs (Cabinet Law, Article 13, paragraph 3).
- Cabinet Legal Affairs Bureau(Cabinet Legislation Bureau Establishment LawArticle 7)- Cabinet Legal Affairs BureauAdminister the affairs (Cabinet Legislative Bureau Establishment Law, Article 2, paragraph 2).
- Cabinet Office(Cabinet Office Establishment LawArticle 6 paragraph 2)-As an assistantMinister for Special Missions, Cabinet OfficeCan be placed (Cabinet Office Establishment Act Article 9 paragraph 1). The Cabinet Secretary organizes the affairs of the Cabinet Office with the help of the Prime Minister and supervises the required affairs (Article 8 Paragraph 1 of the same law).
- Reconstruction Agency(Reconstruction Agency establishment lawArticle 6 paragraph 2)-As an assistantMinister of ReconstructionPut (Article 8 paragraph 3 of the same law).Great East Japan EarthquakeTemporary measures after receiving.
- Various "meetings", "headquarters", etc. installed in the cabinet (for example,National Security Council).
Head of state status and its discussion
Internal cure,外交On behalf of the country throughAdministrative powerThere are various definitions, such as the state institution that is in control of the state, or the one that has the power of substantial national governance but is in the position of head in the state.Who qualifies as head of state is a matter of national law, but usuallyMonarchyThen.monarch,RepublicThen.PresidentIs this.The old constitution is clearEmperorWas the head of state.Under the current constitution, there is a theoretical dispute as to who should be regarded as the head of state, and there are theories that the emperor is the emperor, the prime minister is the prime minister, and there is no such thing. Be.
According to Kazuo NaganoNational democratic rightBelow, he is the head of a national institution that is qualified to represent the state, and is also domestically constant.ControlThere is a strong opinion among scholars that the prime minister with the authority to exercise should be the head of state..Nobuyoshi AbeAccording to the head of state, the most important requirement is to represent the state to foreign countries.authorityIt is supposed to be.However, in diplomatic relations, the emperor only allows formal and ceremonial acts in the constitution.Therefore, the head of state of Japan has the authority to conclude treaties, exempt from diplomatic missions, and handle diplomatic relations, and has the qualification of foreign representative as a national institution.CabinetOr the prime minister is the majority theory...Furthermore, there is a view that the emperor and the prime minister share the roles of head of state..
On the other hand, there is a theory that it is sufficient for the head of state to have the authority to ceremonially represent the nation externally, and that a person in the position of a symbol of the nation has a head of state character. Is considered.In addition, the emperor is treated as the head of state in international practice... April 1973, 48 (Showa 4)71th DietHouse of Representatives Cabinet CommitteeInMinister of Foreign AffairsMasayoshi Ohira"I don't think there is a country that welcomes the Prime Minister as the head of state of Japan.".
The main powers of the Prime Minister prescribed by the Constitution of Japan and other laws and regulations are as follows.
Constitution, Cabinet Act, etc.
- The right to dissolve the House of Representatives is the exclusive matter of the Prime Minister, and the temporary deputy does not have the right to dissolve..
- The right of appointment and dismissal of the Minister of State is an exclusive matter of the Prime Minister, and the temporary deputy does not have the right of appointment and dismissal..
- Agree to prosecution of the Secretary of State while in office (Article 75 of the Constitution).
- Submit a bill to the Diet on behalf of the Cabinet (Article 72 of the Constitution).
- On behalf of the Cabinet外交Report the relationship to the Diet (Article 72 of the Constitution).
- Conduct and supervise each administrative department on behalf of the Cabinet (Article 72 of the Constitution).
- Co-sign laws and ordinances (Article 74 of the Constitution, Both authority and obligation. There is no so-called veto right).
- CabinetPreside over (Article 4 of the Cabinet Act2).
- Initiate basic policies and other matters related to the important policies of the Cabinet in the Cabinet Meeting (Cabinet Law, Article 4, paragraph 2).
- Designate an acting representative of the Prime Minister and the Chief Minister of State (Article 9 of the Cabinet Act,10 article).
- Wait for the Cabinet to discontinue the disposition or order of each administrative department (Article 8 of the Cabinet Act, "Cancellation right").
- Imperial meetingConvene this as the chair of (Imperial rule29, 33).
- 裁判 所Object to the suspension of administrative sanctions, etc.Administrative Case Litigation Law Article 27).
- ChargesWho canEmperor,Queen,Empress Dowager,Queen MotherorEmperorWhen it is, file a complaint on behalf of these persons (Criminal lawArticle 232 paragraph 2).
Police Law, Self Defense Force Law, etc.
- Such as a major disaster or mayhemEmergencyAt that time, an evacuation notice was issued (Police lawArticle 71), temporarilyPolicemenControl (Article 72).
- On behalf of the Cabinet,SDF OfHighest command and supervisionHave (Self Defense Force ActArticle 7).
- In the event of an armed attack, order the SDF to dispatch (SDF Law Article 76,Defense dispatch)).
- Indirect aggressionOr, in the event of other emergencies, if the general police force is unable to maintain security, order the SDF to dispatch (SDF Law Article 78, “By Order”).Public order)).
- When there is a dispatch order to the Self-Defense Forces due to defense dispatch or security dispatch, if it is deemed necessary,Japan Coast GuardTo be under that control (Article 80 of the Self-Defense Forces Act).
- In the event of an armed attack, etc., as the head of the “Headquarters Countermeasures Headquarters” established in the Cabinet, make a comprehensive coordination on the countermeasures taken by the relevant administrative agencies, local governments, and designated public institutions (Armed Attack Situation Peace Assurance ActArticle 14).
- Issue an alarm when it is recognized that there is an urgent need to protect the lives, bodies or property of the people from armed attacks (Civil protection lawArticle 44).
- In the event that an emergency disaster occurs and the disaster is anomalous and catastrophic that should have a significant impact on the country's economy and public welfare, the Cabinet will issue a declaration of a disaster emergency (Disaster Countermeasures Basic LawArticle 105).
- Minister of DefenseApprove anti-piracy actions against and report to the Diet (Act on Punishment of Piracy and Response to PiracyArticle 7).
- Japanese Meteorological AgencyFrom the SecretaryEarthquake predictionWhen you receive a report of information,EarthquakeWhen it is recognized that there is an urgent need to implement disaster prevention first aid measures, the Cabinet will discussDeclaration of cautionTo emit (Large-scale Earthquake Countermeasures ActArticle 9).
- HXNUMXNXNUMX influenzaな ど[Annotation 2]When it is found that a situation has occurred in Japan and that its nationwide and rapid spread has had a tremendous impact on the people's lives and the national economy, or that there is a risk of it, and that a situation that meets the requirements specified by a Cabinet Order has occurred.Pandemic influenza etc.To issue, and to report to that effect and the relevant matters to the Diet (New influenza measures special measures lawArticle 32).
- Central Labor CommitteeAppointment of public interest committee of (Labor union lawArticle 19-3 (2)).
- Designation of public utilities under the Labor Relations Adjustment Act (Labor Relations Adjustment ActArticle 8 paragraph 2).
- Emergency adjustment right under the Labor Relations Adjustment Act (Article 35-2 of the Labor Relations Adjustment Act).
- Order for measures under the Premium Labeling Act (Freebie display methodArticle 6).
- Statistical methodNational accountsCreate (Statistical methodArticle 6 paragraph 1).
- Appointment of members of the Statistical Committee/temporary members (Article 47 of the Statistics Act).
- Central Election CommissionAppointment/Dismissal of Committee (Public office election lawArticle 5 2).
- Deposit insurance mechanismApproval for investment in (Article 51, Paragraph 2 of the Enterprise Turnaround Initiative Corporation of Japan).
- Central Persons with Disabilities Policy Promotion CouncilAppointment of committee members (Basic Law for Persons with DisabilitiesArticle 25).
- Japan Broadcasting CorporationAppointment of members of the Management Committee (Broadcasting lawArticle 16 paragraph 1).
- Designation of disaster prevention business, etc. by the Act on Special Measures for Controlling Disasters in Typhoon-Zero Areas (Articles 2 and 3 of the Act on Special Measures for Preventing Disasters in Typhoon-Zero Areas).
In addition, the Cabinet Office and itsOuter office(Financial Services Agency,Consumer Affairs AgencyEtc.) and the chief minister of the headquarters, etc. In particular, there are many licensing rights related to the Financial Services Agency, which is one of the external offices of the Cabinet Office (Banking law,Money Lending Business Law,Financial Instruments and Exchange ActSuch).
1991UntilAgency delegationDo not obeyPrefectural governorHad the authority to dismiss after undergoing judicial procedures (Local government lawOld Article 146).2001, The prime minister's initiative in the cabinet was legislated (revised Article 4 of the Cabinet Act), and the command and supervision authority for each ministry was strengthened.
Inauguration / retirement
Nomination and appointment
The Prime MinisterJapanese ParliamentarianFrom thePrime Minister Nomination Election.. This is also nominated (also known as the head team nomination) (Article 67, Paragraph 1 of the Constitution). The qualification requirements for nomination areMember of ParliamentTo becivilianIs to be.
Nomination electionHouse of RepresentativesとHouse of CouncilorsIf the nominations of both houses are in conflict with each other,House of CouncilsWill be held, but if a draft is not obtained by the Council of both Houses, the nomination by the House of Representatives will be decided by the Diet (Superiority of the House of Representatives). In the past, there have been cases where a council of both houses was held, but there have been no cases where a draft was obtained. In addition, although there is no actual case, if the House of Councilors does not make a nomination within 10 days after the nomination of the House of Representatives, the nomination by the House of Representatives will be decided by the Diet (same as above).
Therefore, in effect,House of RepresentativesAccording to the intention of the majority of the powers, the prime minister is appointed.
- Member of Parliament
- The Prime Minister shall be appointed from among the members of the Diet (Article 67, Paragraph 1 of the Constitution).
- Under the Japanese constitutionParliamentary Cabinet SystemHas adoptedHouse of RepresentativesConfidence must always be secured. Therefore, the Prime Minister has the largest power in the House of Representatives.Political party OfParty leader, ま た はCoalitionOne of the heads of the political parties forming the party is appointed. Since the prime minister's requirement at the time of nomination of the leaders is stipulated as "member of the Diet",House of CouncilorsAny member may be used, but all Prime Ministers who took office after the enforcement of the Constitution of Japan were elected from the members of the House of Representatives. Although not specified by law, being a member of the Diet is both an election requirement and an employment requirement... HoweverDissolution of the House of RepresentativesEven if you lose a member of the House of Representatives due to the expiration of the term of officeHouse of Representatives general electionRemain in the position until the later convocation of the Diet. There is no case where the incumbent Prime Minister has been defeated in the lower house election.[Annotation 3]..Even if the Prime Minister loses his current position in the House of Representatives election, he will remain in the position of Prime Minister until he resigns at the time of the first convocation of the Diet after the election (so-called).Execution Cabinet).
- Other prime ministersSecretary of StateMust be a civilian (Article 66, Paragraph 2 of the Constitution）[Annotation 4][Annotation 5].
- There have been cases where former military officers and soldiers had experience as Prime Minister and Secretary of State.Although there is no case where a person from the Self-Defense Forces became Prime Minister, a retired officer of the SDF served as the Secretary of State. There is an example.
Immediate result of nominationChairman of the House of Representatives Execution CabinetViaEmperorTo play.. In the precedent, the chair of the House of Representatives separately reports the nomination process directly to the Emperor at the Imperial Palace. The Emperor appoints the Prime Minister based on the appointment of the Diet (Article 6, Paragraph 1 of the Constitution).
Inauguration ceremonyThe chairpersons of both houses attend the meeting, and after the Emperor verbally tells the new prime minister that he will be appointed, if the prime minister changes, the prime minister of the executive cabinet will hand over the secretary to the new prime minister. If the Prime Minister is reappointed, the Secretary of State for the Execution of Cabinet Hands over the official journal.
There is no article in the Constitution of Japan that directly stipulates the term of office of the Prime Minister.
According to the constitution, when the Diet is first convened after the general election of the House of Representatives, the Cabinet must resign.Therefore, one term of the Prime Minister is It will not be longer than four years at the time when the first assembly is called after the election.[Annotation 6](Article 70 of the Constitution). Article 57 of the Public Offices Election Act stipulatesDeferred votingEven if this is done, it does not affect the number of days limit stipulated by the Constitution, so the effect of this cannot be expected. fundamentallyDeferred votingIs a provision for deferral at a particular polling place[Annotation 7]Because it is.
If the delay in voting in the general election of members of the House of Representatives delays the convocation of the Diet, of course, this provision does not prohibit re-election in the newly convened Diet, and institutionally as a member of the Diet. As long as he continues to be nominated by the head of the Diet, he can continue to be the Prime Minister.
However, usually the Prime MinisterRuling partyParty leaderHowever, if the party's internal rules impose re-election restrictions on the party leader, the term of office may be the de facto upper limit of the term of office.
Retirement and proxy
- "In the House of RepresentativesCabinet no confidence resolutionIs approved, orCabinet confidence resolutionIf rejected within 10 daysDisband the House of Representatives[Annotation 8]When not doing" (Article 69 of the Constitution), or "when there is a lack of prime minister" or "when there is a congressional meeting for the first time after the general election of members of the House of Representatives" (Article 70 of the Constitution) Must resign from the Cabinet.
- The above is mandatory, and other than this, the Prime Minister can resign arbitrarily (resigned from the Cabinet). If the Prime Minister is lacking or resigns, the Cabinet must immediately notify both Houses..
In addition, when "the Prime Minister has an accident" or "when the Prime Minister is missing", the Minister of State designated in advance will act as a temporary deputy for the Prime Minister (Article 9 of the Cabinet Law). Details will be described later.
In most cases under the Constitution of Japan, the Prime Minister retires and at the same time the party leader of his own party resigns or retires when his term expires.[Annotation 9].
- After the resignation of the Cabinet, until the new Prime Minister is appointed, the Cabinet after resigning will continue to execute duties (Article 71 of the ConstitutionTherefore, the Prime Minister after resigning from the Cabinet will continue to execute his duties.
- Therefore, similarly, even if the Cabinet led by the temporary deputy prime minister resigns, the temporary deputy prime minister will continue to carry out his duties until the new prime minister is appointed.Therefore, to be precise, the resignation date of the Prime Minister is the day when he resigned from the Cabinet (Cabinet resignation).Cabinet decisionThe day the new Prime Minister was appointed.
Duty agency / assistant
There is a temporary deputy prime minister acting on behalf of the prime minister. This is not a regular position, and in the event of an accident with the Prime Minister, five pre-designated Ministers of State will take office in order. The one with the highest temporary substitute appointment rankingChief Cabinet SecretaryWhen you are a Minister of State other thanDeputy Prime MinisterCalled.
An example of a temporary representative placed indefinitely until the resignation of the Cabinet is:2st Ohira Cabinet OfMasayoshi ItoHowever, he took office as a temporary representative based on prior appointment after the death of the Prime Minister and immediately resigned from the Cabinet,Ishibashi Cabinet OfShinsuke KishiとObuchi Cabinet OfMikio AokiHowever, there is an example in which he took office as a temporary representative immediately after being appointed by the prime minister who was hospitalized and resigned from the Cabinet. There are many cases in which the temporary agency acted for the job only during the Prime Minister's trip.
There is an assistant to the Prime Minister as an assistant to the Prime Minister. OrganizationallyCabinet SecretariatAlthough it belongs to, it reports directly to the Prime Minister in terms of duties. In addition, there are Special Advisors to the Cabinet, Special Advisor to the Cabinet, and Secretary to the Prime Minister, who support the execution of duties and the administration of the Prime Minister.
After the Meiji Restoration
Meiji RestorationAfter that, initiallyPledge of the Five ArticlesIn accordance with the policy of "Wide conference, the public decision, two-way decision,"Prime Minister SystemHas been done by But,Nara periodThis political regime that continued from the beginning was not only suitable for the new era and old-fashioned, but also for the institutional aspect,CondolenceWhat to doMinister-Left minister-Right ministerAnd is "commanded" by thisCouncilAnd each ministryLordIs not responsible forMinisterAlthough he was extremely busy, the responsibilities of the left and right ministers were unclear, which was a roundabout and inefficient task.
1880(Meiji 13) From aroundCouncilIto HirobumiBegan to advocate this "Presidential" reform,MaintenanceRight minister of the factionIwakuraRepulsed. Hirofumi Ito at the time did not have the political power to oppose the heavy duty Iwakura Gumi (Political change of the XNUMXth year of MeijibyOhte ShigenobuThe expulsion was promoted by Gumi Iwakura moving through the palace, and Hirofumi Ito could have become the "second Okuma" due to a collision with Gumi Iwakura. Therefore, Hirofumi Ito withdrew this proposal once1882(15th year of Meiji) From MarchDaiji Ito,Saionji public aspirationTraveled to Europe withGerman Empire,Austria-Hungary Empire,The United KingdomIncluding the constitution inConstitutional systemThe skeleton of a “government equivalent to civilized countries” will be concretely constructed from this time. Hirofumi Ito, who returned to Japan after the death of Tomomi Iwakura, sought to advance the implementation of a political system concept in line with the constitutional system studied in Germany.
On the other hand, the same conservative minister, Prime Minister Iwakura,Minami SanjoResponded with a personnel reform proposal to assign Hirofumi Ito to the right minister. However, Hirofumi Ito politely declined this and insteadKiyotaka KurodaHowever, this time the "reform battle" ended in a draw, as the conservatives slumped into Kiyotaka Kuroda, who is now in a turmoil. After that, Hirofumi Ito and others were not afraid of this.CabinetI proposed a system and said, "If it becomes a monarchy constitutional government, the monarchy monarchy must be on the legislative. Therefore, a constitution should be established and both sides of the legislative administration should be juxtaposed (the legislative government, As I said in the lexicon of Hirofumi Ito, he said, "I have no choice but to do what I want and act as a human body."ModernOfCabinet systemWhen confronted with the conservatives, there was no opposite name, and Hirofumi Ito's intention passed.
Prime Minister No. 69 and Cabinet Office
1885On December 18, (12th year of Meiji), "Prime ministers"No. XNUMX" was issued, "Politics""Minister"on behalf"Cabinet"And the Prime Minister" were established, and the Cabinet system started here. In the "Cabinet" organizationMinister MiyauchiIs clearly not included,MiyanakaThe distinction between "(the court)" and "Fuchu (the government)" was stipulated, and the basis for a system in which each minister of affairs bears the administrative responsibility was born. Was enacted at the same timeCabinet authorityIn the above, the "Prime Minister" was given "Power of each minister, the leader of Toshite's mission, the direction of the government, and the direction of the major government. It was being done.
1889(Meiji 22)Imperial Japanese ConstitutionHowever, the Act does not specify direct provisions for the "Cabinet" and "Prime Minister", and in Article 55 of the same law, "Ministers of State Ha It was only specified. At the same time,Cabinet authorityWas established in the form of amendingCabinet systemIn the above, "the prime minister c. the heads of each minister's head, Toshite, to confirm the mission, maintain the unity of administrative departments" (Article 2), and its authority was weakened.
As for authority, the "Prime Minister" is said to be a "principal minister among his peers," who praises the Emperor, and the "Cabinet" was positioned as an organization for consultation and unification of the ministers. The Prime Minister has the governor-general of each department and has the instrumental performance right (the right to ask the Emperor to approve and the authority to declare the Emperor's approval) and the recommendation right to the Minister of State (to the Emperor) Although he had the authority to request an appointment), once a disagreement occurs within the cabinet, the Prime Minister cannot dismiss the ministers without the dismissal right of each minister, and he is only encouraged to persuade or resign. If this failsCabinet resignationI had no choice but to do it. As a caseTojo CabinetThe cause of the total resignation of theShinsuke KishiRefused to resign, andFirst Konoe CabinetIt is,Minister of Foreign Affairs OfYousuke MatsuokaI had no choice but to use the means of total resignation in order to quit. In addition, it was stipulated from the beginning of the Showa era until the end of the war in the Meiji period.Minister of the Military Active military systemDue to this, the Cabinet was restricted by the military. Especially when the Cabinet does not follow its will,Minister of ArmyAnd did not recommend a replacement,Second Saionji Cabinet-US CabinetCollapsed,Issei UgakiWas blocked from the Cabinet.
Regarding appointment and dismissal, the Prime Minister is appointed by the Emperor as well as the Ministers of State (Big life drop), the selection method was not stipulated by law. From the early Meiji period to the early Showa periodVeteranWas appointed based on the recommendation byTaishoFrom the endShowaEarly on,Taisho democracyIs based on party politics byHouse of RepresentativesWas nominated and appointed the first party leader in (Constitutional road). After that, from the beginning of the Showa era until the end of the war, theShigeomi meetingHas been appointed by the recommendation.
Constitution of Japan and Cabinet Law
1946(21)May 11ToThe Constitution of JapanWas promulgated,66 articleFor the first time, "the Cabinet shall, as provided for by law, organize this with the Prime Minister, who is its prime minister, and other Ministers of State."ConstitutionSpecified in. With this, the next1947(22)May 1In the Cabinet Act enacted in April XNUMX, "The Prime Minister will direct and supervise each administrative department based on the policy decided during the Cabinet meeting" (6 article), etc., its authority was strengthened.
If there is a disagreement within the cabinet, the Prime Minister under the Constitution of Japan may dismiss and pass on his/her opinion. In addition, even if the Minister suddenly resigns for any reason, the Prime Minister may arbitrarily appoint his successor. This striking exampleRight to dissolve the House of RepresentativesIs. Under the constitution, the dissolution of the House of Representatives is to be done by the Emperor with the advice and approval of the Cabinet (Article 7 No. 3), which means that “the right of dissolution belongs to the Cabinet” and “cannot be dissolved without a cabinet decision”, but it is generally understood that “the right of dissolution is the exclusive right of the Prime Minister”. Even if there is a minister who opposes the dissolution and refuses to sign the cabinet, the prime minister can dismiss the minister and concurrently sign the cabinet.[Annotation 10].. Even if all ministers object, the prime minister can decide to disband by dismissing and concurrently serving as all ministers (One-person cabinet). Therefore, if the Prime Minister decides to disband, there is no law to prevent it. Thus, the effect of voluntary dismissal on ministers is extremely large.
Since the inception of the Cabinet System, the abbreviation for the Prime Minister has generally been "Prime ministerIs often used, but in addition to this,Prime Minister"Or"prime ministerThe abbreviation and common name are also used...Also known as "Prime ministerIs sometimes used.
The official English notation is "Prime MinisterIt is. This English translation had been used informally as the English translation of "Principal Minister" before the introduction of the Cabinet System. However, the English translation of "Prime Minister" did not mean this word from the beginning, and it used to be "Minister President of State"("country'sMinister-president) ”Meaning) was also used in the German translation..
Treatment of Minami Sanjo
In the transition to the Cabinet System, the concern for everyone was who became the first Prime Minister. The consensus of the eyes is that with the name of Taiji Minoru, who was the head of the government despite being a prime ministerToshimichi OkuboAfter his death, Hirofumi Ito was the de facto prime minister who built up the Cabinet system by encouraging the Meiji government. But SanjoFujiwara KitaIn the Kanain style,Seika familyIs one ofSanjo familyNoble of being bornidentity,DukeIs. On the other hand, Ito is a poor farmer,samuraiAlso became維新I'm from a low rank just beforePiagetHowever, the difference was clear. At the meeting in the palace that decided the first Prime Minister to replace the Prime MinisterJun Inoue”The future Prime MinisterRed Telegram (Foreign Telegram)You must be able to read it.” Yamamoto Ariho agreed, “Isn't there any other than Mr. Ito?”, and there is no word to return the conservatives' support for Sanjo. 、It was decided easily with this. The biggest factor in deciding the first Prime Minister was Ito's "English ability".
With the appointment of Prime Minister Ito, SanjoMinisterAs a palace, as an aide of the emperorEmperor MeijiWill be "Tsuyo Sasuke". However, the minister was originally created to treat Sanjo.Honorary positionSo, in fact, raise him upstairsLadderIt was like removing the. On the other hand, I once served SanjoMisaki Ozaki(Senate) Suggested that he should strongly protest against Sanjo, but he urged Ozaki to do such a contempt on the contrary, saying that it is for the future of the nation and not my own problem... However, whether Emperor Meiji was sorry for this treatment, 1889 (Meiji 22)May 10Second generation Prime Minister Kiyotaka KurodaTreaty revisionWhen he resigned as the Prime Minister taking responsibility for the political turmoil over the Empire, the Emperor accepted only Kuroda's resignation and rejected everything else, leaving Sanjo to serve concurrently as Prime Minister. This is not a "temporary concurrent appointment" but merely a "concurrent appointment", and the Emperor will be the next Yamagata YuhoGreat life of the CabinetIt was only two months after that, and we consider that there was one separate cabinet during this period, and call it the "Sanjo Provisional Cabinet." Nevertheless, Minami Sanjo is not to be counted as successive Prime Minister.
There is no case where the incumbent Prime Minister lost the election.Middle-election systemMost of the current incumbent prime ministers were elected to the first place, but onlyYasuhiro NakasoneOnly in 1983 and 1986 are the second place elected in the two lower house elections (the first place isFukuda Yoshio).
As an example of a person who has experience with the Prime Minister being defeated in the national election, Satoshi Katayama (1949, 1963)Ishibashi Tozan(1963) andToshiki Kaifu(2009) is an example. Also,Naoto Kan(2012/2014)Small districtLost inProportional revivalI'm winning.Hosokawa GokiIn 2014 after retiring from politicsTokyo Governor ElectionI ran for, but lost.
The Prime Minister must be elected from the members of the Diet. In theory of law, he can be appointed from the age of 25 when he gets the right to vote for members of the House of Representatives. Legally, any member of the Diet may be nominated, regardless of which House of Representatives they belong to, but political experience is often emphasized, and the probability that a 1st-year member of the Diet will be appointed Is extremely small (Hosokawa GohiWas elected prime minister in the House of Representatives once in 1993, but before taking office he was a member of the House of Councilors.KumamotoGovernorHad experience. In addition, Shigeru Yoshida was appointed prime minister in the House of Representatives once elected in 1948, and had prior experience as a member of the House of Representatives and the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Prime Minister).
The youngest Japanese prime minister to hold the record is 1885, the first Hirobumi Ito (then 44 years old), who is still unbroken. The oldest inauguration record1945 OfKantaro Suzuki(77 years old at that time), the oldest tenure record is Shigenobu Okuma (78 years old at that time). As the youngest after the war,2006Is Shinzo Abe (52 years old at the time). The post-war oldest inauguration record isKijuro ShimeharaHowever, within the scope of the new constitution, it is 73 years and 72 months of Ishibashi Tanzan.
Education / educational background
There are no particular rules regarding educational background.
The early Prime Ministers were each youngEducation method of the Edo period (late Tokugawa period)I was educated and raised in France, but the first Prime Minister with an education in modern education was in France.Sorbonne UniversityToStudy abroadIt is Saionji Kinmochi.
If you simply classify and aggregate the list of successive prime ministers,old systemOf the timesTokyo Imperial UniversityIt means that there are many "originals".New systemThose who have graduated from the University of Tokyo since thenFaculty of EngineeringOnly Yukio Hatoyama, who graduated from the Department of Counting Engineering.Hatoyama is also the first Prime Minister from a new national and public university (note that the most important educational background is the final academic background, and Yukio Hatoyama's final educational background is rather.Stanford UniversityCompleted the doctoral course at the Graduate School of Engineering).At private universities (the ones that produce two or more prime ministers)Waseda University,Keio University,Meiji UniversitySuch. (Especially at Waseda UniversityWaseda University Oral SocietyThere is a speech circle that is sometimes regarded as "one of the gateways for politicians", and five people have been appointed as Prime Minister from 1956 to 2000. )
Kakuei Tanaka has a background of studying at a vocational school (in a delicate position), and the "final academic background in the school system" isHigher elementary schoolGraduation[Annotation 11], I dared to make it my own appealing point.In addition, Sosuke Uno is an old systemKobe University of Commerce(CurrentKobe University), but two months laterStudent campAnd after the warSiberian detentionThe only student in Heisei, who dropped out without returning to schoolBachelor OfBachelor of ScienceIt became the prime minister who does not have.
Even after retiring from the Prime Minister, if he / she wishes, about one personSecurity policeIt is customary for the (SP) to protect the former Prime Minister himself.However, unlike the incumbent Prime Minister, who basically cannot refuse SP protection, it is possible to terminate SP protection at the will of the former Prime Minister himself..
Imperial Japanese ConstitutionBelow, the retired former Prime MinisterVeteranOr as a senior vassalShigeomi meetingI was able to be involved in the appointment of the Prime Minister (recommendation to the Emperor).
Under the Constitution of Japan, a person who once retired from the Prime Minister subsequentlySecretary of StateIn addition to Shigeru Yoshida and Shinzo Abe, who were reappointed as Prime Ministers,Kiichi Miyazawa(Obuchi Cabinet-Minister of Finance in Mori Cabinet → Minister of Finance) ・Ryutaro Hashimoto(Minister in charge of Okinawa and Northern Measures in the Mori Cabinet, etc.) ・Taro AsoThe three members (the second Abe Cabinet-the Minister of Finance in the Suga Cabinet, etc.) have been in the cabinet as ministers under the other Prime Ministers after the resignation of the Prime Minister.Also,Toshiki Kaifu(Budding partyParty leader) ・Takeshi Haneda(Democratic PartySecretary-General)[Annotation 12]-Yoshihiko Noda(Democratic PartyThe three members (secretary-general) have held important positions in the first opposition party after the resignation of the Prime Minister.[Annotation 13].
In addition, although he does not ostensibly take important positions,Kakuei Tanaka(Also known as the Dark General)Noboru TakeshitaSome people, like this, have a large faction and remain influential in politics even after the resignation of the prime minister.
For those who have experience of the Prime MinisterhonorAbout, depending on your tenureRank TheFirst place,Second placeorSecond place,Order etc.Medal TheGreat Order of Chrysanthemum,Grand Order Chrysanthemum flower emblemorPaulownia flower emblem(OldIsamu Hiragi Kirihana Great Ribbon) Of one of theKeizo ObuchiIs the grand prize of the Kikuhana Great Ribbon). However, it may be forgotten due to refusal or scandal (eg: Kakuei Tanaka...Scandal,Kiichi Miyazawa… Decline).
- The power of the Prime Minister decreases as the Cabinet is remodeled, and rises as it is dissolved.
- Eisaku Satoword of.
- When trying to reshuffle the cabinet, the elbow iron of other factionsMinisterial illnessAs many members of parliament gather in the prime minister, it becomes difficult to respond and the power of the prime minister is reduced. On the other hand, when the House of Representatives disbanded, many members of the House of Representatives sought to get the approval of their party from the Prime Minister and returned to the local constituencies to win the House of Representatives election to preserve political life and win the House of Representatives election If they are re-elected by nomination, the power of the Prime Minister will rise because the administration base will increase.
- Single-year singer disposable for two years
- Noboru Takeshitaword of.
- At first, the prime minister will be sick of newness when he takes office, but thenexpiration dateIt is a word that has been criticized by society when it expires, and it is ridiculed that the prime minister can be replaced after a term of office of about two years. In addition, this word isTriangle daifukuIt has been used since Takeshita was a mid-sized representative in those days.
- The enemy of the prime minister is not only in the front but also in the back if it is at the side, at the top, at an angle, and inside
- Junichiro Koizumiword of.
- Even though the Prime Minister is the most notable and most powerful person in Japan, he shows the principle of confrontation within the Diet.OppositionNot only that, but also because the media, foreign countries, and industry groups can be critical of themselves, other parties and anti-executive departments within the ruling party, which should have the same purpose, will also be critical, so where is the enemy? A word that says you must be careful where you are targeted.
- The most important source of prime minister's power is the right to dissolve and personnel.
- Junichiro Koizumiword of.
- He pointed out that the right to dissolve the personnel and the House of Representatives, including ministers and party leaders, is the source of the prime minister's mighty power.
- In particularPostal dissolutionResist inYoshinobu ShimamuraDismissed the agricultural minister. In addition, sending assassin candidates one after another to candidates who are considered to be "resisting forces",Single-seat constituency systemI was impressed that the power of the Prime Minister was further strengthened.
"Phantom Prime Minister"
A person who is a big politician who can be appointed as prime minister but who could not be appointed as a prime minister for reasons such as early life is sometimes called the "phantom prime minister."Kazuya Fukuda"Price of Prime Minister" (Bunshun library) AndMikiVolume "The story of successive prime ministers" (ShinshokanIn addition to being a standard item in successive Prime Minister's Directories, "LDP Party No. 2 Study" (Kodansha library) Or "The Men Who Couldn't Become Prime Minister" (Business world) And other books featuring "Phantom Prime Minister" have also been published. Various people can be named, but as Fukuda, Mitsui, Asakawa, Kobayashi all mentionOgata TaketoraとIchiro KonoFukuda and Mitsui, both of whom I dealt with before the war,Jun Inoue-Shinpei Goto-Issei UgakiThere is. In addition to this, a person who "has become a prime minister unless he declines"Tokugawa familyOr postwarMasayoshi ItoSome people have declined while being promoted as the next prime minister.
|Record name||Record holder name||Content of record|
|Maximum tenure record||Shinzo Abe||3188 days (about 8 years and 9 months)|
|Longest continuous tenure record||Shinzo Abe||2822 days (about 7 years and 8 months)|
|Shortest tenure record||Higashi Kunimiya Toshihiko||54 days (about 2 months)|
|Oldest tenure record||Ohte Shigenobu||About 78 years and 6 months|
(When retiring on October 1916, 5 (Taisho 10))
|Youngest appointment and tenure record||Ito Hirobumi||About 44 years and 2 months|
(At the time of assuming office on December 1885, 18 (Meiji 12))
|Oldest inauguration record||Kantaro Suzuki||About 77 years and 2 months|
(At the time of inauguration on April 1945, 20)
|Most-time appointment record||Yoshida Shigeru||5 times|
Number of days and period of employment
|Ranking||Name||Number of working days||Tenure||Era|
|9||Saionji public aspiration||1400||1906-1908, 1911-1912||Meiji, Taisho|
|11||Yamagata Yuho||1210||1889-1891, 1898-1900||Meiji|
|13||Ohte Shigenobu||1040||1898 years,1914-1916||Meiji, Taisho|
|16||Masayoshi Matsukata||943||1891-1892, 1896-1898||Meiji|
|25||Masateru Terauchi||721||1916 - 1918||Taisho|
|28||Yuki Hamaguchi||652||1929 - 1931||Showa|
|33||Noboru Takeshita||576||1987 - 1989||Showa-Heisei|
|34||Murayama Tomi City||561||1994-1996||Heisei|
|35||Masayoshi Ohira||554||1978 - 1980||Showa|
|36||Yamamoto Gonbei||549||1913-1914, 1923-1924||Taisho|
|37||Kiyotaka Kuroda||544||1888 - 1889||Meiji|
|41||Mori||387||2000 - 2001||Heisei|
|44||Hiroki Hirota||331||1936 - 1937||Showa|
|46||Satoshi Katayama||292||1947 - 1948||Showa|
|47||Yukio Hatoyama||266||2009 - 2010||Heisei|
|48||Hosokawa Goki||263||1993 - 1994||Heisei|
|51||Kijuro Shimehara||226||1945 - 1946||Showa|
|53||Kosei Takahashi||212||1921 - 1922||Taisho|
|56||Dog breed||156||1931 - 1932||Showa|
|57||Nobuyuki Abe||140||1939 - 1940||Showa|
|61||Ishibashi Tozan||65||1956 - 1957||Showa|
|63||Higashi Kunimiya Toshihiko||54||1945||Showa|
|Prime Minister died during his term due to illness||Yuzaburo Kato||Yuzaburo KatoColorectal cancerWas suffering from.AoyamaDied in his own house.|
|Takaaki Kato||Takaaki KatoHeart attackbyAcute heart failure.. For some timeChronic nephritisI had a heart disease,ParliamentHis condition suddenly worsened and he died 6 days later.|
|Masayoshi Ohira||OhiraMyocardial infarctionDue to acute heart failure. During the election campaignoverworkとarrhythmiaFall overToranomon HospitalAdmitted to. 12 days later, he died of myocardial infarction.|
|The Prime Minister died shortly after leaving the office due to illness||Keizo Obuchi||cerebral infarction.Prime minister's residenceOnset,Juntendo Clinic, Juntendo University School of MedicineHe was hospitalized urgently but retired due to a coma. He died about a month and a half later without returning to consciousness.|
|Prime Minister retired due to illness||Ishibashi Tozan||Ishibashi has a cerebral infarction. However, the official announcement at the time was "It was also found that there were signs of cerebral infarction in addition to having a cold and causing pneumonia." On the day of being diagnosed as "need to rest for one month", he announced that he would resign on the same day. After that, his condition recovered and he survived the rest of his life.|
|Hayato Ikeda||IkedaLaryngeal cancer.. For treatmentNational Cancer CenterWas admitted to the hospital, but after about one and a half months he announced that he would leave. After 1 monthsThe University of Tokyo HospitalHe underwent surgery to remove the affected area, but died of pneumonia shortly after surgery.|
|Shinzo Abe||Abe (First Cabinet) Is weakness due to a decline in gastrointestinal function. Originally from chronic disease (Ulcerative colitis) Was held,House of Councillors electionWas overwhelmed, the heavy pressure of criticism of successive cabinet scandals and overwork as prime minister. After expressing my resignation,Keio University HospitalWas urgently hospitalized inTemporary substitute for prime ministerDid not put.LDPAfter his successor was elected, he retired after a meeting with him about the circumstances leading up to his resignation. Later years,2012 Liberal Democratic Party presidential electionと46th House of Representatives general electionAfter being reappointed as LDP president and prime minister, he announced that he would resign in August 2020 after a recurrence of ulcerative colitis was found.|
|While in officeassassinationPrime Minister||Takashi Hara||HaraTokyo StationOn the premisesOtsuka StationStaffYuichi NakaokaIs stabbed in the chest. Blade cross fivedaggerDies through the lungs and heart (Takashi Hara assassination case).|
(Former Prime Minister when he died)
|Hamaguchi is in Tokyo StationHomeでRight wing groupBelongs toRumio SagoyaBe sniper to. One bullet was a serious injury reaching the pelvis, but four months later he pushed the patient to the hospital, but the condition worsened, but the symptom worsened, one month later the Cabinet resigned, and four months later he died (Hamaguchi Prime Minister's distress case ).|
|Dog breed||Inukai is an armed youth who broke into the prime minister's residence.OfficerBe shot by. On left cheek and right templebulletTwo shots were hit and bleeding caused death after about 2 hours (Fifteen-fifteen incident).|
|Former Prime Minister assassinated||Ito Hirobumi||Ito isManchuriaHarbin StationOn the premises South Korea OfnationalismSportsmanAn ZhonggenBe sniper to. He was hit by three bullets and died about 3 minutes later. At that time, Ito was the chairman of the Privy Council.|
|Kosei Takahashi||TakahashiAkasakaShot by an armed youth officer who broke into his own residence. In addition to receiving 3 bullets,Military swordWas stabbed in and killed immediately. At that time, Takahashi was the Minister of Finance (XNUMX incident).|
|Saito Minoru||Saito isYotsuyaIs shot by an armed youth officer who broke into his own residence.machine gunImmediate death from 40 bullets. Saito was the Minister of the Interior (XNUMX, XNUMX case).|
|Prime Minister whose death story appeared in the newspaper despite being alive||Keisuke Okada||A brother-in-law who looked similar to Okada by a young armed officer who invaded the prime minister's official residenceMatsuo DenzoIs shot. A young officer who misidentified Matsuo as Okada announced the death of the prime minister (XNUMX, XNUMX incident).|
Far East military trial related
Former Prime Minister
|Konoe Temple||Allied Supreme Commander General Command (GHQ) In response to an arrest order issued as a Class A war criminal, at his residence before the deadline for appearance.Potassium cyanidePoisoned and committed suicide.|
|Attempted suicide, but attempted|
Former Prime Minister
|Tojo Hideki||In response to an arrest order issued by the Allied Supreme Commander-General (GHQ) as a Class A war criminal,HandgunThen he shoots his own heart, but fails at the critical point.|
|Was sentenced to death|
Former Prime Minister
|Tojo Hideki||In the Far East International Military TrialHangedJudgment and execution.|
|Was sentenced to life imprisonment|
Former Prime Minister
|Kuniaki Koiso||In the Far East International Military TrialLife imprisonmentJudgment, later died in prison.|
|Kaichiro Hiranuma||He was sentenced to life imprisonment in the Far East International Military Trial and later died shortly after his illness was released.|
|Have been arrested and imprisoned|
|Shinsuke Kishi||Allied Supreme Commander-General (GHQ) issued an arrest order as a Class A war criminal and was imprisoned, but was released without charge.|
|Arrest,ProsecutionFormer Prime Minister||Hitoshi Ashida||AshidaShoden PrisonWas arrested and prosecuted. Innocent found innocent.|
|Kakuei Tanaka||Tanaka isLockheed caseWas arrested and prosecuted. In trialTrialとSecond trialConvicted of,AppealThe defendant died during the trial ofDismissal of prosecution.|
|trialFormer Prime Minister convicted of||Kakuei Tanaka|
|Prime Minister who has been arrested and prosecuted||Kakuei Tanaka||Tanaka was the Under Secretary of State for Legal AffairsCoal mining country jurisdictionWas arrested and prosecuted. Innocent found innocent.|
|Fukuda Yoshio||FukudaMinistry of FinanceHe was arrested and prosecuted at Shoden Prison during the time of chief accounting bureau. Innocent found innocent.|
|OnceRequest for arrest permissionPrime Minister who has been prosecuted for||Eisaku Sato||Liberal partySecretary-GeneralIn the ageShipbuilding PrisonThe Tokyo District Prosecutor filed a request for permission to arrest,Justice Command authorityWas triggered to postpone the arrest. After that, he was prosecuted at home, but was dismissed from the UN pardon.|
|Prime Minister, who was once chairman of the House of Lords||Ito Hirobumi||October 1890, 23 (Meiji 10)-July 24, 1891 (Meiji 24)|
|Konoe Temple||1933 (Showa 8) April 6-9 (Showa 1937) March 12|
|Former Prime Minister who later became Chairman of the House of Lords||Ito Hirobumi||October 1890, 23 (Meiji 10)-July 24, 1891 (Meiji 24)|
After retiring from the Prime Minister for the first term, he became chairman of the House of Lords and was appointed to the Prime Minister again.
|laterChairman of the House of RepresentativesFormer Prime Minister||Kijuro Shimehara||1949 (Showa 24) April 2-11 (Showa 1951) March 26|
|Prime Minister who had no experience of the Minister of State when he took office||Ito Hirobumi||Ito isEmperor OfAspirantAndGovernor of Hyogo(Then was officially elected),Lord Engineering Department,Lord of the InteriorHe was appointed as the first prime minister after many years.|
|Konoe Temple||Konoe is a Duke,Chairman of the House of LordsWas appointed as the prime minister.|
|Nobuyuki Abe||AbearmysoldierAndTaiwan ArmyCommander,Military counselorWas appointed as prime minister[Annotation 14].|
|Kantaro Suzuki||Suzuki isNavyA soldier,Combined Fleet Commander,Military departmentAfter serving as director, he entered the palace and was longchamberlainServed as Emperor Showa.XNUMX incidentSeverely injured and recovered but thenChairman of the Privy CouncilAfter that, he was appointed as the Prime Minister.|
|Higashi Kunimiya Toshihiko||royalToruhiko is an Army soldier,Second armyCommander,Defense CommandAfter serving as commander-in-chief, he was appointed as Prime Minister.|
|Satoshi Katayama||KatayamaLawyerBecame a member of the House of Representatives throughJapanese Socialist PartySecretary General,Japan Socialist Party ChairmanAfter having served asThe Constitution of JapanIs about to be enforced23th general electionAfter the Socialist Party became the first party for comparison in民主-National cooperationHe was appointed as the head of the three-party coalition government and was appointed as the Prime Minister.|
|Hosokawa Goki||Hosokawa is a member of the House of Councilors,OkuraUnder Secretary of State,Governor of KumamotoBecame a member of the House of Representatives throughJapan New PartyAfter serving as a representative,40th general electionでLDPAfter being split by more than half, he was appointed as the head of the coalition government of the non-LDP/non-communist eight parties and was appointed to the Prime Minister.|
|Murayama Tomi City||MurayamaOita Prefectural AssemblyMemberAfter becoming a member of the House of Representatives, became a special chairman of the House of Representatives on the issue of prices, Japan Socialist PartyDiet Countermeasures CommitteeChairmanAfter serving as chairman of the Japan Socialist Party,PunchHe was appointed as the leader of the three-party coalition government and was appointed as the Prime Minister.|
|Yukio Hatoyama||HatoyamaSenshu UniversityFaculty of BusinessAssociate ProfessorBecame a member of the House of Representatives throughDeputy Secretary-General, Cabinet Secretariat,Democratic PartySecretary general,Democratic Party RepresentativeAfter having served as45th general electionDemocratic PartyCorporate citizen-New National PartyHe was appointed as the leader of the three-party coalition government and was appointed as the Prime Minister.|
|Privy CouncilPrime Minister with a background of chair||Ito Hirobumi||After retiring from the first prime minister, he became the first chairman of the Privy Council, and then the Cabinet again.|
|Yamagata Yuho||After retiring from the first cabinet, he became the chairman of the Privy Council, and then the Cabinet again.|
|Saionji public aspiration||Appointed prime minister after becoming chairman of the Privy Council.|
|Kiyoura Keigo||During his tenure as the Chairman of the Privy Council, he died of a large life and became Prime Minister.|
|Kaichiro Hiranuma||During his tenure as the Chairman of the Privy Council, he died of a large life and became Prime Minister.|
|Konoe Temple||After retiring from the first cabinet, he became chairman of the Privy Council, and when he was in office, he died of a large life and became prime minister.|
|Kantaro Suzuki||During his tenure as the Chairman of the Privy Council, he died of a large life and became Prime Minister.|
|OnceChief of the BoardWas Prime Minister||Kaichiro Hiranuma||October 1921, 10 (Taisho 10)-September 5, 1923 (Taisho 12)|
|ArmygeneralPrime Minister with a history of||Kiyotaka Kuroda||When I took officeArmy Lieutenant General.|
|Yamagata Yuho||Army Lieutenant General, when he took office in the first cabinet,|
When I took office in the second cabinetArmy general.
|Keitaro||Army general at the time of assuming office in the first and second cabinets,|
Retired Army General when he took office in the Third Cabinet.
|Masateru Terauchi||When I took officeMarshalArmy general.|
|Yoshikazu Tanaka||When I took officeRetireArmy general.|
|Hayashi Kurjuro||When I took officeReserve roleArmy general.|
|Nobuyuki Abe||At the time of assuming office, it was a reserve army general.|
|Tojo Hideki||Upon taking office, he was promoted from Army Lieutenant General to Army General.|
|Kuniaki Koiso||At the time of assuming office, it was a reserve army general.|
|Higashi Kunimiya Toshihiko||Army general when he took office.|
|Prime Minister with a career as a Navy General||Yamamoto Gonbei||When I took office in the first cabinetAdmiral,|
Retired admiral when he took office in the second cabinet.
|Yuzaburo Kato||Navy Admiral|
Marshal Admiral when he retired (died during his tenure) (added after death).
|Saito Minoru||He was a retired Navy admiral when he took office.|
|Keisuke Okada||He was a retired Navy admiral when he took office.|
|U.S. Mitsumasa||Immediately upon taking office, transferred to the Reserve Navy Admiral.|
|Kantaro Suzuki||He was a retired Navy admiral when he took office.|
|Former Prime Minister||Keitaro||August 1912, 8-December 21, the same year|
After resigning from the second prime minister, he became a prime minister and was appointed to the prime minister again.
|Former Prime Minister of Japan||Ito Hirobumi||December 1885, 18-September 12, 22|
Due to the separation of “Miyanaka and Fuchu (executive government)”, it was decided that the Miyauchi ministry should not belong to the Cabinet, but Ito himself served as both Prime Minister and Miyauchi.
|OnceSamurai chiefWas Prime Minister||Keitaro||August 1912, 8-December 13, the same year|
Katsura was also the minister and chief of the samurai.
|Kantaro Suzuki||1929 (Showa 4) April 1-22 (Showa 1936) March 11|
|firstBachelor's degreePrime Minister with||Takaaki Kato||Kato isTokyo UniversityFaculty of LawGraduated fromBachelor of lawGot the issue. Kato graduated from the University of TokyoTokyo UniversityIt is the university that is the predecessor of. Kato's graduated (old) University of Tokyo became the current (new) University of Tokyo after going through Imperial University and Tokyo Imperial University.|
In addition to Kato, there are many prime ministers with bachelor's degrees.
|firstmaster's degreePrime Minister with||Keizo Obuchi||Obuchi is Waseda Universitygraduate SchoolGraduate School of Political ScienceCompletedMaster of Political ScienceGot the issue.|
There is no prime minister with a master's degree other than Obuchi, and this is the only example even now.
|firstPhDPrime Minister with||Kaichiro Hiranuma||HiranumaMinister of EducationThanDoctor of LawGot the issue.1887Based on the degree order promulgated by the Ministry of Education, the Doctor of Law was awarded by the Minister of Education. afterwards,1920With the enforcement of the revised degree order, the doctoral degree in law will be awarded from the university. Currently amended in 1991School education lawIs the successor to the doctor of lawDoctor of LawIs awarded by the university.|
In addition to the Hiranuma, the prime minister with a doctorate is Hitoshi Ashida, who received a doctorate of law from Tokyo Imperial UniversityStanford UniversityThanDoctor of PhilosophyThere are two people, Yukio Hatoyama who got the issue.
|firstBachelor of SciencePrime Minister with||Takaaki Kato||Kato graduated from the Faculty of Law of the University of Tokyo with a bachelor's degree. Before the promulgation of the degree in 1887, a law degree was also considered one of the degrees. Due to the enforcement of the degree order, the bachelor of law is no longer a degree, so after thattitleWas awarded as. The successor to the law bachelor due to the enforcement of the revised School Education Law in 1991.Bachelor (Law)Became one of the degrees.|
The five prime ministers who have a degree are Kato, Kaichiro Hiranuma, Hitoshi Ashida, Keizo Obuchi, and Yukio Hatoyama.
|Prime Minister graduated from the first new university||Toshiki Kaifu||After Kaifu, the prime minister from the former university has appeared again (Kiichi Miyazawa).|
|royalPrime Minister of||Higashi Kunimiya Toshihiko||laterLeave the Imperial familydid.|
|Prime Minister whose descendants became royalty||Yoshida Shigeru||Princess Tomohito of MikaIs my grandson.|
|Prime Minister whose brothers and sisters became a royal family||Taro Aso||Hirohito Nobuko is a sister.|
|oldOfficial housePrime Minister of||Saionji public aspiration||Saionji is the Fujiwara Kita familyKanain styleIn the Seika familySaionji familyThe owner.|
|Konoe Temple||Konoe isFive setsFirstKonoe FamilyThe owner.|
|oldDaimyo familyPrime Minister of||Hosokawa Goki||HigoKumamoto Domain54 stonesHosokawa familyThe owner.|
|firstcivilianPrime Minister||Takashi Hara||However, this is because the person continued to refuse the Victims hard. Hara's grandfatherMutsuMorioka Domain20 stonesNanbu family OfElderA senior samurai who was in the job.|
|Prime Minister with former Prime Minister in first degree||父とChild||Yoshio Fukuda and Yasuo Fukuda||Yasuo'sFirst son.|
|father in lawとSon-in-law||Yoshiyuki Suzuki and Taro Aso||Aso'swifeIs SuzukiThree daughters.|
|Prime Minister with former Prime Minister in second degree||BrotherとYounger brother||Shinsuke Kishi and Eisaku Sato||Kishi is my brother and Sato is my brother.|
|grandfatherとGrandchild||Fumimaro Konoe and Goki Hosokawa||Hosokawa'smotherIs KonoeSecond daughter.|
|Shinsuke Kishi and Shinzo Abe||Abe's mother is Kishi's eldest daughter.|
|Shigeru Yoshida and Taro Aso||Aso's mother is Yoshida's third daughter.|
|Ichiro Hatoyama and Yukio Hatoyama||Yukio's父Is the eldest son of Ichiro.|
|spouse Brothers and sisters|
■Civil lawNot applicable to the above relatives, but dare to list
|Takaaki Kato and Kijuro Susumuhara||Kato's wifeMitsubishi CorporationFounder'sYataro Iwasaki OfEldest daughter.. Suibara's wife is from IwasakiFour woman.|
|The prime minister most often re-elected after retiring with another person||Ito Hirobumi||3 times|
|The Prime Minister has the longest blank period before retiring and re-election||Ohte Shigenobu||About 15 years and 5 months (longest history)|
|Shinzo Abe||5 years and 3 months (longest after the war)|
|The Prime Minister has the shortest blank period before retiring and re-election||Keitaro||Approximately 1 year and 4 months (479 days, shortest history)|
|Yoshida Shigeru||About 1 year and 5 months (510 days, the shortest after the war)|
|The prime minister has the largest number of prime ministers between the time he retires and the time he takes office again.||Ohte Shigenobu||5 people (8 generations)|
|Yamamoto Gonbei||5 people (5 generations)|
|Shinzo Abe||5 people (5 generations)|
Change of Prime Minister
|Change of Prime Minister for 7 consecutive years||Junichiro Koizumi → Shinzo Abe (1st) (2006)|
Shinzo Abe (1st stage) → Yasuo Fukuda (2007)
Yasuo Fukuda → Taro Aso (2008)
Taro Aso → Yukio Hatoyama (2009)
Yukio Hatoyama → Naoto Kan (2010)
Naoto Kan → Yoshihiko Noda (2011)
Yoshihiko Noda → Shinzo Abe (Second) (2)
|Abroad in the pastFourth RepublicOf the eraFranceThere was a change of prime minister (a total of 1946 people) for 1959 consecutive years from 14 to 24.|
|Change of Prime Minister 5 times over 8 years||Hideki Tojo → Kuniaki Koiso (1944)|
Kuniaki Koiso → Kantarou Suzuki (1945)
Kantaro Suzuki → Tokuhiko Tokumiya (1945)
Higashi Kuzumiya Toshihiko King → Kijuro Nishihara (1945)
Kijuro Sanehara → Shigeru Yoshida (1st) (1946)
Shigeru Yoshida (1st stage) → Satoshi Katayama (1947)
Satoshi Katayama → Hitoshi Ashida (1948)
Hitoshi Ashida → Shigeru Yoshida (Second) (2)
|The frequency of changes of the Prime Minister exceeds the above record and becomes the highest. Especially in 1945, four prime ministers were in office each year (three times a prime minister change each year), which is also the highest record.|
|Nobel PrizePrime Minister who has received the award||Eisaku Sato||Three non-nuclear principlesThe advocacy of1974(Showa 49)Nobel Peace PrizeAward.|
|OlympicPrime Minister who has participated as a player in||Taro Aso||Montreal olympic(1976 (Showa 51))Clay shootingParticipated as a representative of (No. 41 result).|
|Bank of Japan notesPrime Minister used in a portrait||Ito Hirobumi||Ito is a C thousand yen ticket (1963 (Showa 38)-1984 (Showa 59) issued) Portrait.|
|Kosei Takahashi||Takahashi is a B Goten yen ticket (1951 (Showa 26)-1958 (Showa 33)) portrait. Takahashi is the only one in historyBOJHe is also the prime minister with experience as president.|
|Prime Minister experienced as a foreign government official||Shinsuke Kishi||1936From (Showa 11)1939(Showa 14)ManchuriaでGeneral Affairs AgencyPreviously held important positions such as deputy director (in ManchuriaCitizenshipThere is no law, the Japanese could be appointed to the official office of Manchuria with Japanese nationality).|
|Oldest prime minister with experience||Higashi Kunimiya Toshihiko||1887年（明治20年）12月3日 - 1990年（平成2年）1月20日。存命期間102歳48日。|
|The oldest prime minister with experience under the current constitution||Yasuhiro Nakasone||1918 (7th year of Taisho) May 5th-27 (Year 2019th) November 11th.|
|Prime Minister over 100 years old||Higashi Kunimiya Toshihiko||The oldest person with experience of the Prime Minister.|
|Yasuhiro Nakasone||The oldest person with experience of the Prime Minister under the current constitution.|
Number of people from each party
(The year after the name of the Prime Minister took office)
|Ranking||Political party||of people||First Prime Minister||Recent Prime Minister|
|1||LDP||23||Ichiro Hatoyama, 1955 (Showa 30)||Yoshihide Suga, 2020 (2nd year of Reiwa)|
|2||Constitutional society||5||Hirofumi Ito, 1900 (Meiji 33)||Inuyoshi, 1932 (Showa 7)|
|3||Taisei Tsubasa Council||4||Fumimaro Konoe 1940 (Showa 15)||Kantaro Suzuki, 1945 (Showa 20)|
|4||Democratic Party (1998 (Heisei 10)-2016 (Heisei 28))||3||Yukio Hatoyama 2009 (Heisei 21)||Yoshihiko Noda, 2011|
|5||Japanese Socialist Party||2||Satoshi Katayama 1947 (Showa 22)||Murayama Tomi City, 1994|
|Constitutional political party||Takeyuki Hamaguchi 1929 (Showa 4)||Reijiro Wakatsuki・1931 (Showa 6)|
|Constitutional society||Takaaki Kato, 1924 (Taisho 13)||Reijiro Wakatsuki, 1927 (Showa 2)|
|8||New Party||1||Takeshi Haneda, 1994|
|Japan New Party||Hosokawa Goki, 1993|
|Japan Democratic Party||Ichiro Hatoyama, 1955 (Showa 30)|
|Liberal Party (1950 (Showa 25)-1955 (Showa 30))||Shigeru Yoshida, 1952 (Showa 27)||Shigeru Yoshida, 1953 (Showa 28)|
|Liberal Democratic Party||Shigeru Yoshida, 1948 (Showa 23)||Shigeru Yoshida, 1949 (Showa 24)|
|Democratic Party (1947 (Showa 22)-1950 (Showa 25))||Hitoshi Ashida, 1948 (Showa 23)|
|Japanese Liberal Party||Shigeru Yoshida, 1947 (Showa 22)|
|Japan Progressive Party||Kijuro Shimehara-1945(20)|
|Constitutional Doshikai||Ohte Shigenobu-1914(Taisho 3)|
|Constitutional party||Shigenobu Okuma1898(31th year of Meiji)|
- In addition, the prime minister of the House of Representatives isHospital groupThere was also a member of parliament who belonged to (Fumimaro Konoe'sTuesday PartySuch).
List of successive Prime Ministers
|代||Person||Prime Minister||Date of Birth||age||Cabinet||Term of office||Number of days||Political party|
|72||Yoshihide Suga Cabinet||2020(Reiwa2 years)August 9-||LDP|
- ^ Although there is no direct provision in the Japanese constitution,Article 70 of the Constitution of Japan"(Omitted) When the Diet is convened for the first time after the general election of members of the House of Representatives, the Cabinet must resign entirely," and in fact, the term of office of the Prime Minister is the term of members of the House of Representatives. It will not exceed 4 years (although there are exceptions, details will be described later).
- ^ Infectious disease lawInfectious diseases such as new influenza prescribed in Article XNUMX, Paragraph XNUMX and new infectious diseases prescribed in Article XNUMX, Paragraph XNUMX (limited to those that may spread nationwide and rapidly).
- ^ However,Masayoshi OhiraThe prime minister has not been elected to the lower house because he died during the 1980 election for the same day.Morita Hajime Candidate for replenishmentAnd win).
- ^ According to the government's view (described later), the “civilians” in Article 66(2) of the Constitution are those who:Other thanSay.
(I) A person who has a career as a former military officer of the Navy,MilitarismThought to be deeply absorbed in intellectual thought
two SDFIn the position of
- ^ 1973(Showa 48) In the House of Representatives Construction Committee on December 12th (19nd Diet),Omura ShojiGovernment member(Deputy Secretary-General, Cabinet Secretariat) "For the government, with regard to the civilians in Article XNUMX, paragraph XNUMX of the Constitution, it is considered that he is a person who has a career as a former military officer of the Army and Navy and is deeply absorbed in militaristic thought. "What is done" and "Person in the position of self-defense officer". I answered.
- ^ In the case of an election for the expiration of the term of office, if the election day is after the expiration date of the term of office and the convocation of the special session of the Diet is delayed to the maximum limit stipulated by the Constitution, the term of office of the prime minister may exceed four years. Not without gain.
- ^ "If you cannot vote at the polling place due to a natural disaster or other unavoidable accident, or if you need to vote further, the election of the prefectural election administration committee (election of a member or chief of the municipal assembly). (Municipal election administration committee) must further set a deadline for voting. "
- ^ If you disband the House of RepresentativesCabinet resignationYou don't have toHouse of Representatives general electionAnd then for the first time国会When I was convened, I would eventually resign. If the prime ministers have a majority of the Lower House seats in the lower house general election,Prime Minister Nomination ElectionHowever, if the prime minister's supporters divide the majority and are not re-nominated in the nomination for the prime minister, they cannot continue to be the prime minister.
- ^ Hitoshi Ashida,Hosokawa Goki,Takeshi Haneda,Murayama Tomi CityAlthough the four members remained leaders of the party from which they were born (and their successors) for a while after the resignation of the prime minister, they all retired in a short period of less than a year after the resignation of the prime minister.Under the Constitution of Japan, the only example of having served as party leader for a certain period of time after resigning as prime minister isSatoshi KatayamaAnd even after the resignation of the prime ministerJapan Socialist Party ChairmanStayed for about 1 year and 10 months (Note that there is a special case regarding the president of the Liberal PartyLiberal Democratic Party President # General Separation TheorySee also).
- ^ As of 2016,2005 OfPostal dissolutionAt the time ofJunichiro KoizumiThe prime ministerYoshinobu ShimamuraAgriculture and water phaseThe only example is to dismiss.
- ^ laterCentral Technical SchoolAlthough I graduated from the university, the central engineering school at that time was not a school system.
- ^ Haneda is alsoSun partyParty leaderCivilian partyHe has also served as party leader.
- ^ Those who have retired from the Prime Minister exclude the PresidentLiberal Democratic Party ExecutiveAs of 2021, there are no cases of being appointed as (so-called party four roles),Sadakazu TanigakiHas been appointed Secretary-General of the LDP after retiring as president of the LDP.
- ^ Incidentally,armyUnder SecretaryAt that time, he acted as the army minister on behalf of the army minister Kazunari Ugaki for medical treatment. This timeBan LeiAs a member of the cabinet, but the group is not an official minister of state.
- ^ "List of English names such as Cabinet Secretariat organization". Cabinet Secretariat. 2020/10/18Browse.
- ^ Daijirin XNUMXrd edition
- ^ a b c d World Encyclopedia Second Edition "Prime Minister" Kotobank
- ^ a b c Encyclopedia Nipponica "Head of State"
- ^ a b Britannica International Encyclopedia Small Encyclopedia "Head"
- ^ Satoshi Watanabe "Constitution of Japan" p.198 (Kitaki Publishing）
- ^ a b "Right to dissolve』- Koto bank
- ^ Yoichi Higuchi, Mutsuo Nakamura, Koji Sato, Noriho Urabe "Complete Annotations of Legal Studies 3 Constitution III (Article 41-Article 75)" Seibayashi Shoin, 1998, p. 218
- ^ As an example2005(17)Postal dissolutionWhenJunichiro KoizumiPrime Minister refused to signYoshinobu ShimamuraMinister of Agriculture, Forestry and FisheriesThere is an example of dismissing
- ^ a b "Dissolution of Shichijo』- Koto bank
"Dissolution [Parliament]”- Koto bank
- ^ "Yuhikaku Legal Term Dictionary (3rd Edition) 2006" edited by the Legal Term Study Group, p. 374.
- ^ Nagano Kazuo 2006, p. 170.
- ^ Satoshi Watanabe "Constitution of Japan" p.36 (Kitaki Publishing）
- ^ Nobuyoshi Abe 2016, p. 47.
- ^ House of Representatives Constitution Survey, House of Representatives Constitution Survey Report, Secretary of the House of Representatives, April 2005, 4, p. 15.
- ^ House of Representatives Cabinet Committee "Minutes of the 71st Diet House of Representatives Cabinet CommitteeNo. 16, House of Representatives Secretariat, April 1973, 4, pp. 17-40.
- ^ Regarding the fact that the right to dissolve the House of Representatives is the exclusive matter of the Prime Minister,Cabinet chief].
- ^ House of Councilors Budget Committee Response by Osamu Tsuno, Director-General of the Cabinet Legislation Bureau, on April 12, 2000.The 147th House of Councilors Budget Committee No. 14 April 12, 4
- ^ Isao Sato "New constitution (lower)" Yuhikaku, 1984, 859-860
- ^ Yoichi Higuchi, Mutsuo Nakamura, Koji Sato, Noriho Urabe, "Commentary Legal Complete Works 3 Constitution III (Article 41-Article 75)" Seibayashi Shoin, 1998, pages 216-217, 219
- ^ Isao Sato "New constitution (lower)" Yuhikaku, 1984, 826-827
- ^ Diet lawArticle 65 2
- ^ s: Dependent on the parental ceremony and certifying officer appointment ceremony
- ^ Diet Law Article 64
- ^ The Complete Encyclopedia of Japan (Nipponika) "President" Kotobank
- ^ For example,Daiji ItobyImperial Japanese ConstitutionEnglish translation ofhttp://www.ndl.go.jp/constitution/e/etc/c02.html>
- ^ "Ozaki Miyoshi Autobiography"
- ^ Police officer in private residence even after resigning ... Unusual 2 million yen security continues Ryukyu Shimpo Style November 2020, 11
- ^ Former Prime Minister Noda murmurs SP Zero "No one opens or closes the door" Mainichi Shimbun Delivered on August 2018, 1 Retrieved March 18, 2021.
- Prime Minister Nomination Election
- Code of Secretary of State, Deputy Minister and Parliamentary Vice-Minister
- Cabinet (Japan)
- Temporary Deputy Prime Minister
- Big life drop
- One-person cabinet
- Cabinet collective responsibility (Cabinet collective responsibility)
- Four government speeches
- Dissolution of the House of Representatives
- Cabinet no confidence resolution
Facilities and equipment
- Prime Minister's Office
- Prime Minister's official residence
- Japanese Government Machine
- Prime Minister car
- One Cabinet One Job
- National Honor Award
- Prime Minister Cup
- Cabinet approval rate
- Prime Minister's movement