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🏛 | Governor of Tokyo Koike “Top priority is to prevent infection” Continue to request closure of large commercial facilities


Photo Governor Yuriko Koike of Tokyo at an extraordinary press conference = Tokyo Metropolitan Government Building on the night of the 7th

Governor Koike "Prioritize infection control" Continued request for closure of large commercial facilities

 
If you write the contents roughly
Mr. Koike said, "Many people are worried, and it's painful." He asked for his understanding that "thorough infection prevention measures are the most important prescription at present."
 

Governor Yuriko Koike of Tokyo will extend the state of emergency for the new coronavirus on the night of the 7th, from the 12th to the 31st of this month ... → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

prescription

prescription(Shohosen,British-Buddha: prescription,alone: Recepies) IsClinic,hospitalSuch asMedical institutionHave a medical examination atDoctor,Dentist,Veterinarian MedicineTo prescribe the drug, the type of drug, its dose, administration method, etc. were described.pharmacist DispensingUsed fordocumentsIs. In general,Prescription medicinesCannot be obtained without this prescription.

The letter of "note" is2010ToCommon kanjiBecame. Therefore, it is written as prescription in the law before revision.

Overview

In addition to those delivered to a hospital or clinic (clinic) at the time of accounting, there are also those delivered to hospitalized patients from doctors to pharmacists at in-house pharmacies inside hospitals and bed clinics (in that case CommonExternal medicineother than,Injection drugDoctor etc.nurseIncludes drugs that need to be administered by). This item mainly describes the prescription given when accounting for the former visit to the hospital.

In Japan, if you visit a medical institution,TravelUnless there were special circumstances, such as a prescription was rarely issued, but originallyDoctor lawArticle 22 stipulates the obligation to deliver prescriptions,1990 eraSo-calledDivision of laborIn principle, patients are given a prescription based onDispensing pharmacyMany medical institutions have changed to the method of submitting to and purchasing drugs.

In the current system, prescriptions are only received at a hospital or clinic and submitted at a pharmacy, but if it is possible to understand the contents, it becomes easier for the doctor to notice the carelessness, and when taking other doctors, state the medication status accurately. It will be possible to do so, which is very convenient.Medicine notebookIs also useful for investigating medication history.

As a special case, if a large-scale disaster occurs (eg, the Great East Japan Earthquake), it falls under the “justifiable reason” in the provisions of Article 49, Paragraph 1 of the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law, and it is difficult to see a doctor, etc., or a doctor, etc. If it is difficult to deliver a prescription from the patient, it may be possible to sell or give the required prescription drug to the patient.[1].

Prescription and pharmacist responsibility

There is a misunderstanding that a prescription is a "dispensing instruction" from a doctor to a pharmacist. However, pharmacists are not legally under the supervision of their prescribing physicians and operate independently. A prescription is "a doctor requires a pharmacist with a certain qualification license to dispense according to the instructions", while a pharmacist says "when there is a suspicion in a prescription, it must be confirmed after confirming it." It is stipulated in Article 24 of the Pharmacist Law, and it is allowed by Article 21 of the Pharmacist Law to refuse dispensing if there is a legitimate reason such as a problematic prescription. In other words, the pharmacist is responsible for "dispensing" as an independent function, and even if it dispenses according to the doctor's prescription, it will be the pharmacist's responsibility if the prescription is incomplete. Sometimes[2].

"Note" notation

The prescription "note" is2005At that timeCommon kanjiBecause it was not included in, the prescription "prescription" is often used mainly in the law. However, after that20106ToCultural Council"Revised Kanji Table for Regular Stations"[3]Then the "note"Common kanjiHas been added to.

Matters

All prescriptions

Doctor lawAccording to the regulations, it is stipulated that the prescription should be issued with the following items filled in.

  • Patient name and age
This is an important matter for prescribing because the appropriate dose changes depending on the age such as children and the elderly. You can change the date of birth.
  • Drug name
  • Weight
  • Usage/Dose
  • Date of issue
  • Period of use
  • Name and address of hospital or clinic or address of doctor
  • Imprint or signature

Insurance prescription

It is said that the aim is to make it easier for insurers to match the receptions of hospitals, clinics, and pharmacies, and utilize them for examination of medical treatment and dispensing fees.

Drug prescription

When prescribing narcotics, the following must also be stated: (Narcotics and Psychotropic Drugs Control Act

  • Patient's address
  • License number of drug applyer

Dispensed prescription

When the preparation is completed, enter the following items. (Pharmacist method

  • Dispensed amount or amount
  • Dispensing date
  • Name and location of the dispensing pharmacy
  • If you inquired about doubts, changes and answers

Electronic prescription

In March 2013, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare announced that there is a plan to revise the law by 3-2015 to promote the digitization of prescriptions that eliminate the need for paper documents.[4].. Has the purpose of reducing excessive medical treatment and prescription[4].

size

The paper size isJISStandard row A number 5 (so-calledA5It is decided with the paper size and the description style,A4Size One-sided printing can be handled in the same way by describing only the part corresponding to the back side of A5 printing on the right side, so that when prescription paper is put into the automatic reception machine of each dispensing pharmacy, it can be folded into A5 size and put in It is possible to deal with it.

expiration date

If you do not fill in the expiration date of the insurance prescription,4 days in principle including the issue date(Sundays and holidays are also counted). After this period, the prescription will lose its effect, and it will not be possible to dispense any more, so it must be reissued at a medical institution. In principle, extension by inquiry inquiry is not allowed. This is because the patient's condition changes after 4 days, and it may be necessary to reconsider whether or not medication is really needed.

Of course, there are times when the drug is out of stock. In that case, you will receive it at a later date, but you can receive it even after the expiration date if you submit the prescription within the expiration date.

If you can not go to the pharmacy on a long trip,in advanceYou may be given a prescription with an extended expiration date (the date is stated in the expiration date column). It is advisable to consult a doctor at the time of examination.

Prescription days limit

In the case of insurance prescriptions, in principledrug,Psychotropic drugsAnd new drugs have a prescription day limit of 14, 30, or 90 days.

Storage obligation

According to Article 28 of the Pharmacist Law, prescriptions are required to be stored for three years after the completion of dispensing.

Prescription content

Written notation

The detailed style differs depending on the medical institution and doctor.

(Example) Arosen (0.5) 2P 2 x 14TD after morning and dinner
How to read: 0.5 packs of 2g Arosen divided into 2 parts for 14 days in the morning and evening

The meaning of this sentence is that one dose of 1g powder powder called Arosen is used for two doses per day (0.5P) and two doses are taken in the morning and evening (1x) for 2 days.

Another commonly used symbol is T for tablet or tablet and C for capsule. Also, instead of ×, it may be described as minutes. When asked about medication history, it is generally kind to answer with the total amount of the day. In the above example, you can just say 1g arosen a day. However, there is no unified prescription, and it is difficult to handle it without knowing various notations.

Other, notable, notable conventions are listed.

  • M: GermanMorning Morgen
  • N: German after lunch Nachmittag
  • A: German evening Abend
  • ndE: German after every meal nach dem Essen
  • vds: German bedtime vor dem Schlafen
  • bid: twice daily Latin bis in die
  • tid: XNUMX times daily Latin Latin ter in die
  • qid: XNUMX times daily Latin Latin quarte in die
  • do.:: English Abbreviation for ditto(=the same). Latin dicere →Italian direIt is thought that the past participle of (say) deto changed to English.

Inquiry

Inquiry (Inquiries) is a task of confirming the prescription that the pharmacist has a problem or needs to confirm with the doctor who issued the prescription.Pharmacist methodAccording to Article 24, if there are any doubts in the prescription, you can inquireDispensingIt is stipulated that it should not be done.

In addition, in the case of a prescription for insurance medical care, it is stipulated that the prescribing insurer must respond appropriately to this inquiry.

Prescription issuance fee

At medical institutions, 68 points are added as a prescription fee (usually, except for cases such as emergency medical care, 1 point is converted to 10 yen, so 10 yen is charged at 680%).

Counterfeit prescription

Prescription forgery cases have occurred in recent years. Most of them are for the purpose of fraudulent psychotropic drugs, and in such cases, they are forged/altered using color copies.[5].. In addition to this, there are cases where the patient himself/herself corrects the drug due to lack of medicine, and the public health center calls attention.

Any of these may be punished for counterfeiting or exercising privately signed documents, fraud, narcotics, and violations of the Antipsychotics Control Law.

problem

PharmacyIn education, how to read a prescription is taught as a part of education conducted before practice. On the other handMedical scienceEducation does not teach how to write a prescription. For this reason, it is often the case that pharmacists (especially hospital pharmacists), including new pharmacists, are burdened with the task that inexperienced doctors and late-term trainees who are still young as doctors are subject to inquiry.

Recently, with the spread of prescription ordering systems, a very simple question inquiry (eg, powder unit is often wrong between mg and g) has become a problem.

Regarding the description of usage and dose, the description of daily dose and single dose is not yet unified. Currently, the daily dosage is more efficient and quicker to dispense in business, so it is popular in many fields.

Unlike drugstore pharmacists and hospital pharmacists, pharmacy pharmacists do not communicate well with medical institutions such as hospitals and clinics, and the number of inquiries about inquiries is increasing.

Symbol meaning prescription

The prescription symbol "℞" means "receive" in 16th century documents.Late Latin"RecipeAppears as an abbreviation for[6][Annotation 1]..Medieval prescriptions were due to doctors instructing drugstores to "receive" certain ingredients and formulate them in a particular way.[8].. This word isRecipesIt is also the etymology of.

Initially, it was abbreviated as "Rc", but now it is written as "℞" by adding a diagonal line to the lower right leg of "R" to mean abbreviation.[6].. It is sometimes written as "Rx", but this is incorrect from the origin.About the origin of this symbolEye of horusRelationship with[9][10],ancientZeus,UpitelSome point out the similarity with the symbol "♃" which means[11], There is no objective evidence in these theories.

Code position

symbolUnicodeJIS X 0213Character referenceName
U+211E-℞
℞

Related item

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Meaning of "receive" and "take"recipereSecond person singular imperative[7]

Source

  1. ^ "About the handling of prescription drugs in the 23 Tohoku-Pacific Ocean Earthquake (request to inform medical institutions and pharmacies)". www.mhlw.go.jpMinistry of Health, Labor and Welfare (March 2011, 3). 2019th of February 4Browse.
  2. ^ [ http://phnet.novartis.co.jp/ricetta/chozai/06-01/index.html What you need to know as a pharmacist (Novartis Pharma Ricetta)]
  3. ^ Kai Stationary Kanji Table (PDF) (Japanese) Agency for Cultural Affairs Cultural Council
  4. ^ a b “Computerized drug prescriptions: Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, now in the next few years”. Nikkei newspaper electronic version(July 2013, 3). http://www.nikkei.com/article/DGXNASFS2802G_Y3A320C1EE8000/ 2014th of February 8Browse. 
  5. ^ "Counterfeit prescription countermeasure manual for pharmacists association/pharmacy". 2016th of February 4Browse.
  6. ^ a b "Definition of Rx”. (June 2019, 12). 2021th of February 4Browse. “A 16th-century symbol, the letter R with a line through its slanted leg-the line signaling that the“ R ”is functioning as an abbreviation.”
  7. ^ "Latin verbs: recipere". cactus2000.de. 2019th of February 12Browse.
  8. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, articles on the letter "R" (sense 14b) and the word "recipe."
  9. ^ Eye of Horus, Eye of Ra (Udjat, Wedjat) Archived October 12, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
  10. ^ "First recorded incidence of the pharmaceutical sign'Rx'”. Egyptphoto.ncf.ca. 2012th of February 2Browse.
  11. ^ Amy Beth Dukoff. “Did You Know Where Rx Came From?”. Endomail.com. 2014th of February 1Browse.

 

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