DHC chairman "TV commercial was rejected because it was a discriminatory expression" Remarks about Koreans living in Japan, newspaper insert advertisement
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Discriminatory expressions against Koreans living in Japan, such as "Let's go back to your home country," and criticisms of other companies that are not based on grounds, such as "NHK is an enemy of Japan," "Most of our employees are Korean," and "Chairman," are often posted. Chairman Yoshida who was doing.
Yoshiaki Yoshida, chairman of DHC, a major cosmetics sales company, repeatedly posted a discriminatory message against Koreans living in Japan on the site ... → Continue reading
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Koreans in Japan
Koreans in Japan(Zainichikankoku / Chosenjin,Morning: 재일 한국인 ・ 조선 인; British: Koreans in Japan) IsJapanToResidenceTo South Korea-Korean register OfForeigner, Or Korean-registered / Korean-registered, including foreign residentsSpecial permanent residentPoint to.
In general,Special permanent residentIncluded as a special permanent resident regardless of naturalization, who came to Japan for work, school, sports, etc. after the recovery of diplomatic relations between Japan and South Korea from the independence of the Korean Peninsula and the liberalization of study abroad in South Korea. A person equivalent to a general permanent resident foreigner (described later)Newcomer) IncludingDPR KoreaSettled in Japan after asylum from (North Korea)North Korean defector(one timeReturn businessIncluding those who returned to Japan and their descendants, and Korean Japanese (naturalized and nationality holders), The definition may change, including the ancestors who are Korean-registered but born with Japanese nationality), but in this itemJapanese GovernmentDefined as a Korean-registered person residing in Japan, which is recorded as official statistical information..
Also in this articleAnnexation of Japan and South KoreaFrom (1910)South Korea(Korea)DPR KoreaResident in Japan until the founding of (North Korea) (1948)Korean peopleThe word "Korean in Japan" is also used for those who live in Japan, but the official name at that time was "Korean".
Korean residents in JapanJapanese foreignerOut of South Korea-Korean register Is about the personIndependent administrative agencyStatistics CenterAccording to the statistics released, as of the end of December 2020, among them, "foreign residents (Korea / Korea)" (total foreigners (Korea / Korea))[Annotation 1](Apart from Korea)Mid- and long-term residents[Annotation 2]There are 463,154 people, of which 435,459 are Korean and 27,695 are Korean, often abbreviated as "resident in Japan".Special permanent residentIs 305,615. (Alien Registration SystemHas been abolished, so in the statistics after July 2012, "alien registrant" has been replaced by "resident foreigner". )
Chosen-seki is a symbol for alien registration and has nothing to do with the actual nationality.Since the Japanese government does not nationally recognize the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), there is no nationality of North Korea in Japan, and even if it is a Korean citizen, it is a "citizen of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea". I can't say there is.
For many years, it was the largest force of foreigners residing in Japan,NaturalizationとDieThe number of special permanent residents will continue to decrease, and will increase sharply in FY2007.Chinese in JapanExceeded the Korean population in Japan..New values are spreading mainly among the younger generation, and naturalization on the premise of settling in Japan and the departure of ethnic groups such as Mindan and Chongryon are progressing.Even Korean-registered people often want to keep a distance from their home country of North Korea and Chongryon.A person familiar with Korean society in Japan also said, "The current children are the 4th and 5th generations in Japan, and it is a major premise that they will settle in Japan. Grandparents and parents who want to inherit the Korean language and culture. Unless the influence of the above is strong, I will not dare to attend Korean school, "said the Japanese society's departure from Korean school... In 2020, Vietnamese residents in Japan, whose acceptance is expanding as foreign workers, surpassed Korean nationality to become the second..
Due to the shortage of workers in Japan and the difficulty of finding employment in Korea, the number of Koreans residing in the qualifications of technology, humanities, international work and study abroad is increasing., The total number continues to decrease.
Japanese territoryIn (1910-1945)KoreaからTravelResidents who have returned to the Korean Peninsula after the war, but who have stowawayed again because their lives in Japan are better than their hometowns, which have poor economy and politics.・ I didn't live in Japan before the warJeju Island XNUMX/XNUMX Incident (1948),Korean WarTo escape from (1950-1953) etc.Stowaway20-40 people[Annotation 3], And many of its descendants were found to have been in Japan before September 1945, 9.Special permanent resident statusWas granted.After that, he has a permanent resident in Japan as a special permanent resident.Japanese foreignerAmong them, it occupies a special position.In particular, the metropolitan area centered on Tokyo and Osaka, and Kansai have become a residential area for Koreans living in Japan due to the influence of large-scale Korea towns such as Okubo and Tsuruhashi.
Korean WarSometimes some Koreans in JapanVolunteer soldierReturned to the Korean Peninsula.This was triggered by the Korean representative in Tokyo proposing to GHQ to organize volunteers in 1950, and since August of the same year, Korean volunteers in Japan have been sent to the Korean Peninsula. It is a thing.The selection of volunteers is done carefully so that North Korean molecules do not infiltrate.The actual number sent to the Korean Peninsula is unknown, but it is reported that 8 people are active in South Korea about a year later..
Korean residents in JapanCitizenshipとPolitical spectrumAre not always the same.Among Koreans living in Japan, although they are Korean or JapaneseKorea FederationMany people self-define themselves as "citizens of the Democratic People s Republic of Korea" because they have been educated..
Returning business for Koreans in JapanKoreans residing in Japan who returned to North Korea due to such reasons are treated as the lowest layer of Japanese women who came to Korea as spouses and suffered from hunger, and North Korean residents said "Jecki (Korean notation unknown)". Or as a derogatory term, it was called "Chepo (Korean: 째포)".The family who returned home with property had their property confiscated, and about 10 people and their descendants who were considered to be useless for remittances from family members and relatives who remained in Japan and for acquiring science and technology from Japan. People,Political prisonerAsNorth Korean defectorWithCampSome were sent and executed.Also, under the North Korean government and its affiliatesKorea Federation(General Assembly of Koreans in Japan) Is a nationalist dictator who uses his family and relatives who have returned to Japan.Kim Il Sung,Kim Jong Il,金正恩To the clanPersonal worshipInviting some Koreans in Japan tospyIt is also said that it is used for activities.
|Nationality column||Total number||Special permanent resident||Number of people excluding special permanent residents||Remarks|
|South Korea||435,459||278,465||156,994||necessarilySouth KoreapassportNot the holder|
|Korea||27,695||27,150||545||Not North Korean|
|Permanent domicile||of people||%|
|Jeju Special Autonomous Road||88,510||15.6|
South Korea annexationAfter that, until before and after the founding of South Korea and North KoreaKoreans in Japan(Official name includes residents of the Korean PeninsulaKorean) Called,San Francisco TreatyAfter the entry into force, Korea was entered in the nationality column of the alien registration, but after thatJapan-Korea Basic TreatyWith the conclusion of the agreement, some people switched to Korean nationality, and from the latter half of the 1970s to the 1980s, "Korean residents in Japan" became more popular..
Depending on nationalityKoreans in JapanorKoreans living in JapanIn addition, it is deeply related to the position of South Korea and North Korea as orthodox nations, and the entire Korean population in Japan may be referred to as Korean in Japan or Korean in Japan. ..South Korea has been promoting the elimination of "Korea" since the 1970s and supports it.Korean nationals in Japan(Commonly known as: Korean Mindan or Mindan) is "Korean in Japan" (재일 한국인), And in response to this, North Korea and a Korean organization in Japan that supports it.General Assembly of Koreans in JapanIn (commonly known as Chongryon or Chongryon), the Japanese continue to be "Koreans in Japan" (재일 조선 인) Should be called.
Avoiding the north-south conflict regarding these names, they are also called "Korean in Japan" and "Korean Japanese" regardless of nationality.It may be roughly shortened to "resident in Japan".Even if the Japanese nationality or one parent is Japanese, they may be Koreans living in Japan because of their ethnic identity.
South Korea,north koreaIn, including naturalized peopleResidents in Japan(Chale Kyoppo,재일 교포) OrBrotherhood in Japan(Chale Donpo,재일 동포) Called..The Korean government enacted "" in 1999 and has not fulfilled its military service obligations.Special permanent residentPermanent residents abroad such asKorean AmericanFormer Koreans of foreign nationalities such as "Overseas Koreans" (재외 동포, F-4visa) Was given legal status and the same level of treatment as Koreans was allowed.(However, Koreans residing in Japan are not eligible. Also, due to opposition from the Chinese government, ChinaKorean, Former Soviet UnionKoreanIs not subject to the Overseas Brotherhood Act.
The voting right of Koreans abroadForeign voting rights in South Korea(Since 2005) It has been delayed since 2010).South KoreaForeign Trade DepartmentAccording to the current situation of overseas compatriots at the end of 2018, there are 82 people living in Japan..
On the other hand, in the North Korean private sector, it is common to call Koreans and Koreans living in Japan "Chepo (째포)".Former Koreans and South Koreans who have traveled to North Korea are called with distrust of their origin in Japan, as they are classified as "upset class" in the social class.I have to say that there are restrictions on promotion and important positions.
It is said that the personality of Koreans living in Japan varies greatly depending on when they first came to Japan and settled in Japan, where they came from, where they settled, and their nationality in their home country.Koreans who came to Japan after the 1980s, when study abroad was liberalized by South Korea,Newcomer', "Korean residents in Japan and their descendants who have been resident before thatOldcomer", And sometimes distinguish.
As mentioned above, in the general statistics on the number of foreigners of the Japanese government since July 2012, when the alien registration system was abolished, "medium- to long-term residents" and "special permanent residents" are counted as "foreign residents". (Total foreign residents)[Annotation 1](Apart from), this item also mainly describes foreign residents residing in South Korea.
On the contrary,NaturalizationThose who have one Japanese parent and those who choose Japanese nationality are "Korean Japanese(Korean Japanese) ".These "Korean / Korean Japanese" are distinguished from Koreans living in Japan and are simply regarded as "Japanese".This was because few people declared their origin to Koreans to naturalized people, and in most cases they identified themselves as Japanese.In addition, there have been long periods of naturalization only for those who self-identify.
In addition, it is related to the fact that the residence became indistinguishable after several generations, that naturalization used to seek ethnic assimilation rather than procedural acquisition of nationality, and that there were few naturalized persons who expressed their origin. doing.
But,1980 eraSince the end of the year, an increasing number of people have acquired Japanese nationality and have revealed their ethnic origin.,Han Chang WooThere is also an example of naturalizing the Korean reading of an ethnic name with a name transcribed in Japanese, such as (Han-chanu)...In addition, the number of Koreans living in Japan who see Koreans as Koreans is increasing.[Annotation 4], Korea's home country also positions Korean-Korean Japanese as "brothers in Japan".
JapaneseMinistry of JusticeAccording to the statistics of the Civil Affairs Bureau, the cumulative number of people who have acquired (naturalized) Japanese nationality by the end of December 2019 is 12..
Korean Residents in Japan
| South Koreasystem,Korean nationals in JapanHeadquarters Building (Minami Azabu, Minato-ku, Tokyo, left)|
north koreasystem,General Assembly of Koreans in JapanHeadquarters (Fujimi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, right)
Supporting South Korea as a national ethnic group centered on Koreans living in Japan and their descendantsKorean nationals in JapanSupports (Korean Mindan or Mindan) and North KoreaGeneral Assembly of Koreans in JapanThere is (Chongryon or Chongryon). As of the end of 2016, 67 people, 326,411% of all Koreans living in Japan, including naturalized people, are registered in the Mindan... Besides thisShinjuku ward OfKorean TownCentered onTokyoMainly newcomers living in the countryKorean Federation in Japan(Korean Association), The Korean Bar Association in Japan, which was formed in 2001 when Japanese conservative parliamentarians began to consider a new bill to acquire Japanese nationality., Korean Legal Forum in Japan under Mindan and so on.
The amount of support from the Korean government in 12 to Koreans living in Japan, which is 2012% of all overseas Koreans including naturalized people, was 78 billion.ウ ォ ンIt accounts for 67% of the overseas compatriot exchange support budget, and while budgets are set for each project in other countries, the Mindan, which is pointed out to be omission in the management and supervision of budget execution, has a fixed amount continuously every year. Being supported..Support for other Korean-American groups such as the Korean Association is also provided through the Mindan, and about 1% of the Mindan support budget is used to support these non-Mindan groups..
In 2018, the Mindan leader said about the Chongryon, "In the abduction and nuclear and missile development issues, the Chongryon is no different from the enemy of the Japanese people. If the Chongryon joins hands with such a Chongryon, the Japanese people will say,'It is still the same. There is no choice but to talk about "Korean people." The Chongryon should reflect on it and become an ordinary organization. " Chongryon officials said yesterday, using the claim that "we are a human rights nation and never abducted", but the next day, Korea reiterated what the North Korean leadership said and changed the word. Criticizing that it is an organization under the Labor Party.
Korean resident industry in Japan
|Medical health technician||543||867||2648||4224|
|Other professional workers||1447||667||No statistics||1813|
|Senior Managing Worker||14530||20769||40179||52748|
|Old iron and waste trading workers||7802||7494||No statistics||No statistics|
|Other sales workers||23437||23099||36256||35264|
|Agriculture and forestry workers||5333||3699||1588||960|
|Quarry and quarry workers||673||484||181||132|
|Transportation / communications workers||1200||826||12733||9976|
|Construction worker||8701||10815||No statistics||No statistics|
|Other skilled workers / production process workers||33700||34909||40722||34220|
|Other service workers||3638||3025||10399||11708|
|Artist / entertainer||524||703||902||1203|
|Literary artist / artist||99||116||143||190|
|No entry||123964||109697||No statistics||No statistics|
The ratio of lodging and eating and drinking workers in the total population of Koreans living in Japan is 13.0%, which is more than double the 5.5% of the total population of Japanese people... EspeciallyGrilled meat,Korean cuisineKoreans living in Japan are the owners of restaurants and other restaurants.self employedIt is said that there are many people, and it is also said that there are many Korean self-employed people.pachinko,Real estateSometimes referred to as "ethnic industry" or "industry in Japan".Yokohama Central Credit UnionAccording to the president of the company, Korean companies in Japan are mainly engaged in pachinko, restaurants, architecture and civil engineering, etc...For these self-employed people, it is said that there was a nationwide movement to reduce taxes through ethnic groups in the 40s..
It is said that there was ethnic discrimination and employment discrimination in the background of such a fast-turning business and the so-called "3K" industry that Japanese people dislike..
There is a theory that the yakiniku industry was born and raised in Japan.,All Japan Yakiniku AssociationChairman is Yasumichi Park (Arai)LianyuanThe president,Kimchi・ Support yakiniku, Korean restaurants, and izakayaJapan Korean Food Promotion Association(Old Kimchi Net Council) The chairman was the representative of Yakiniku Culture Company...Yakiniku industry in 2003American beefWas greatly affected by the import suspension problem..Mindan bulletinMindan newspaperAccording to the report, as of 2001, there were 2 yakiniku restaurants, annual sales of 7000 billion yen, and 6% of the yakiniku industry was Japanese., Reduced to 2010% in 4 due to economic downturn.
Leisure hotelThe industry was promulgated on July 2010, 7, and amended to take effect from January 9.Wind management law We held a study session on development, management, and operation in relation to.
Precious metalIn the industry, there are many Koreans living in Japan as newcomers, partly because engineers from South Korea entered Japan in the latter half of the 1970s, and about 7% of precious metal products produced in Japan, especially high-end products.Jewelry goodsMostly KoreanTechnician(Precious metal jewelry making technician).They areOkachimachiIt is said that he was also involved in the formation of "Jewelry Town Okachimachi" around the station...There is a Korean Precious Metals Association in Japan made by Koreans in Japan in Tokyo, and there is also a Korean Yamanashi Precious Metals Association in Yamanashi..
|Mining, quarrying, gravel pitting||0.0|
|Electricity, gas, heat supply, water supply industry||0.1|
|Information and communication industry||3.2|
|Transportation and postal services||5.5|
|Finance and insurance||1.9|
|Real estate business, goods leasing business||3.4|
|Academic research, professional / technical service industry||2.8|
|Accommodation business, restaurant service business||13.0|
|Life-related service industry, entertainment industry||5.0|
|Education, learning support business||3.3|
|Medical care, welfare||8.0|
|Complex service business||0.1|
|Service industry (not classified elsewhere)||6.6|
|Public affairs (excluding those classified elsewhere)||0.2|
Boryokudan / Yakuza
Ethnic financial institution
Korea-Korean Credit Union Association in Japan (Han Xin Association)Commercial Bank Credit Union(Commercial Bank) and North Korea / Chongryon Association in Japan (Chongryon, now dissolved) / ChongryonMorning Bank Credit UnionThere is a (Chogin) financial institution,Bubble burstSince then, bankruptcies have occurred one after another.Koreans living in Japan are more likely to receive loans from Japanese financial institutions than before, so the reasons for the existence of ethnic financial institutions are diminishing, and in addition to accepting the Japanese president in the process of resolution The ethnic color is also fading.
Inheriting the bankrupt Chogin's debtSorting and collection mechanism TheChongryon Central HeadquartersChongryon regional headquarters and schools in major cities such as Osaka and Osaka, Debt collection procedure in progress..In addition, by March 2004, more than 3 Chogin officers and employees, including the former director of the Chongryon Central Finance Bureau, had been arrested and more than 25 were interrogated in connection with the collapse of the Chogin...Commercial bank systemCredit unionOn April 2009, 4 and August 24, 2010, one of the central commercial credit unions said that they were lending to companies related to the gangsters.Financial Services AgencyKanto Finance BureauからBusiness improvement orderReceived.. June 2010, 6, Commercial BankKinki Industrial Credit UnionRevised the internal regulations,Democratic PartyToPolitical contributionRevealed that it spent 100 million yen etc...Regulate co-operativesSmall and Medium-Sized Enterprises Cooperative Association LawEstablishes the "Political Neutrality Principle",Small Business Administration"Political contributions are not desirable in general," but replied that they would not conflict if they did not interfere with business operations and reflected the consensus of the members.
Korean residents in Japan invested by the Korean government in the wake of the bankruptcy of the commercial bankOrdinary bank OfDragon BankThere was also a move to establish a company, but in 2002, it failed because it could not obtain preferential negotiation rights..
It is the first purely private capital bank in South Korea established in 1982 by a Korean resident in Japan, based on the credit union that was a member of Han Xinkyo at that time.Shinhan Bank The, Shinhan Bank Tokyo / Osaka / Fukuoka branch office, 2009, Japanese corporationSBJ BankStarted business..Most of the loans are for small and medium-sized enterprises, mainly entertainment and real estate leasing, and both deposits and loans are competing in the Korean and corporate markets in Japan, where commercial bank-affiliated credit unions have an overwhelming share... PossessionSecuritiesIs procured and operated in dollars, and foreign exchange risk is avoided.
Survey on Korean businessmen in Japan
Opinions and future regarding the type of business, the number of employees, the size of the company, the problem of corporate succession, the continuity of the company, the investment in Korea, which was held in 1982 for young Korean entrepreneurs living in Tokyo. According to a questionnaire survey on the plans, many entrepreneurs in Tokyo were in their 30s or older, and in many cases they were mainly engaged in the service industry such as eating and drinking, pachinko, finance and real estate.In addition, there were few cases of working side-by-side with other industries, and many entrepreneurs operated small self-employed businesses with annual sales of less than 1 million yen.In addition, 65.5% started their own business and 27.6% inherited from their parents...In addition, a similar survey conducted in 1982 on 1,103 Korean businessmen in Japan showed the same general survey results, but management problems included a shortage of human resources, a decrease in profits, and tax problems. pointed out.
In a survey of 1,059 entrepreneurs from November 2004 to February 11, 2005 people (recovery rate 2%) were surveyed by mail, and 62 entrepreneurs responded to the interview survey, for a total of 5.9 people. Quantitative and qualitative analysis was conducted on Korean entrepreneurs living in Japan..Among these, it is thought that many Korean Korean companies in Japan are small and medium-sized micro enterprises, but there are also companies with 1,000 or more employees, and the final educational background of entrepreneurs is junior high school and high school ( 25.8%), specialized universities (6.2%), universities / graduate schools (64.9%), and other non-educated (3.1%), and unlike the existing research results that the education level is low, the degree of education is increasing. understandIn terms of distribution by industry, the pachinko industry (23.4%), real estate / financial industry (21.9%), and food / beverage / accommodation industry (16.4%) were the top three industries, but in the case of the third generation, there are many knowledge industry occupations. Be done.Excessive competition was said to be the biggest problem in management activities.As for the usage of financial institutions, the usage rate of Japanese banks has risen to more than 3% due to the bankruptcy of Mindan and banks affiliated with Chongryon.Regarding investment in South Korea, only 3% answered that they had investment experience, 9% were satisfied with the investment results, and only 14.8% were interested in the possibility of future investment in South Korea. There was.On the other hand, the causes of failure and low interest were excessive reliance on family and relatives, fraud, betrayal from peers, differences with Japanese people who value the concept and trust of promises, and lack of information. ..In addition, the World Korean Business Convention 86.3% want to participate in the construction of a global Korean commerce network like this, either actively or by looking at the situation, but some pachinko companies, which are businesses limited to Japan, do not feel the need. Some pointed out.As a whole, the consciousness of Korean entrepreneurs in Japan is becoming Japanese, and it can be seen that they want to use the World Korean Commerce Network as a foothold for global expansion rather than as an investment opportunity in their homeland.
Korea NewsHas published "Brotherhood Economic Research" edited by the Economic Laboratory of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry since 2001 (from the same site, you can check the publication up to the 2002th issue in the winter of 7)..
Korean resident culture
Korean Literature in Japan
Korean in Japan
At present, the language spoken by Korean permanent residents in Japan is mainly Japanese, and the minority speaks Korean.Mother tongueThe generation born and raised in Japan, where is JapaneseKoreanEven if you learn, you will learn as a second language, and the Korean language they use isJapaneseIs influenced by, and has a unique difference from that of the Korean Peninsula.Korean in JapanWas born.
In addition, the number of people who can only understand Japanese is increasing from the 3rd, 4th, and 5th generations.Many of them grew up in Japanese education rather than Korean or Korean schools, and many families do not use Korean on a daily basis.
Until the 1970s, the bodies were transported to South Korea by plane.BurialThere were many cases where it was done, but recently it has become Japanese style.FuneralIn JapanCremationMost of them are buried in Japan..On the other hand, as the generations increase, the number of young people who do not know their own bon-gwan increases, and the red cloth (culture) on which the deceased's bon-gwan is written and put on the coffin, the shoujo worn by the deceased, the traditional costume worn by the bereaved family, etc. It is feared that the funeral culture will be inherited for the memorial service called Sun, which carries the food from the casket, and the shroud, which was set up in a corner of the room as a temporary residence for the deceased.In addition, family funerals are increasing due to financial reasons and the reluctance to go back in time to the days of parents and grandparents.In the midst of this trend of society in Japan, the Mindan Kanagawa Prefectural Headquarters launched the ceremonial occasion business "Mugen Hana Service" in 1998, and provides funeral support in line with the times while incorporating ethnic elements., "I thought that I wouldn't do anything just because I was paid for the group," which led to a review of the Mindan activities...Chongryon also has a similar service, "Brotherhood Life Counseling Center," for each headquarters and branch...Also, in JapanJogye OrderSuch asKorean BuddhismThe temple is also erected.
- The beginning of horumonyaki was when a Korean female worker got the offal meat that had been thrown away or used as fertilizer before the war and ate it. There is no custom of horumonyaki in Korea, and horumonyaki is done in Japan. Was started.After the war, while the horumonyaki stalls became known as "hormone shops" and "Korean restaurants," there were shops that used not only offal but also meat, and the Meigetsukan, which is run by a Korean woman in Japan, is a horumonyaki restaurant. Be the ancestor.
- Since the 1965 Japan-Korea Basic Treaty, the number of people who have acquired Korean nationality has increased, and the name "Yakiniku" has been controversial between Korean restaurants claimed by Koreans in Japan and Korean restaurants claimed by Koreans in Japan. It is assumed that "Yakiniku", which is a literal translation of bulgogi, was used as a plan to collect.Besides this,Grilled meat sauceAlsoYangnyeomThe influence of (medicine) can be seen (1968)Ebara foodThe product name released by is "Yakiniku Sauce / Korean Style").
Community Korean Towns around the world
Famous Koreans in Japan
Issues surrounding Koreans in Japan
Involvement in national affairs
In Japan, foreigners donate to Japanese politiciansPublic office election lawForbidden by Article XNUMX-XNUMX,Naoto Kan,Seiji MaeharaIt was reported that Koreans living in Japan have been making donations for many years.
Recruitment and smuggling
The transfer of Korean recruiters to Japan19449から19453Was carried out for the period until.1946By March, 3 million Koreans residing in Japan have returned to Korea by arrangements of the Japanese government..
1959According to the announcement by the Japanese government, the number of Koreans living in Japan due to the annexation of Japan and Korea is 245..1990 eraEnterPostwar compensationWhen the problem becomes a national controversial issue in Japan,RecruitmentWas also discussed from various angles.Korean nationals in Japanの子団体、在日本大韓民国青年会の中央本部が、1988年に刊行した『アボジ聞かせて あの日のことを—我々の歴史を取り戻す運動報告書 -- 』では、渡日理由について、在日一世1106名から聞き取り調査し、「徴兵・徴用13.3%」「経済的理由39.6%」「結婚・親族との同居17.3%」「留学9.5%」となっている。2005年の日韓基本条約関係文書公開に伴う韓国政府に対する補償申請者は、2006年3月の時点で総受理数21万件のうち在日韓国人からは39人に留まっている(Detail is#Recruitment and travel,#Korean residents in Japan after the warSee each section).According to Korean Representative Park, in 1933, about 5 Koreans were increasing in Japan every year..
The Japanese government tried to return the KoreansUnder the occupation, the occupation forces did not thoroughly repatriate, and after the restoration of sovereignty, the Syngman Rhee administration refused to repatriate Koreans...And the Koreans in Japan did not demand it.The reason is that while living in Korea, he suffered from food and work difficulties and could not eat in Korea.I couldn't stand the lack of money and hunger, so I moved to Japan in search of a high-paying job, so there is no way to live when I return to my country. On June 1955, 6, the Legal Committee of the House of Representatives took up matters concerning criminal acts in Japan, such as those who smuggled from the Korean Peninsula.Became the later Prime MinisterJunichiro KoizumiIs the father ofJunya Koizumi"It is no exaggeration to say that none of the estimated 60 Koreans want to leave Japan and return to their homeland," said the then Vice-Minister of Justice. There are still a lot of people trying to smuggle to Japan by any means, and the Japanese government puts a national blood tax on those who come in this way, and they live. We are in a situation where we have to take care of them so that we can do it. "" If we do not treat them well, we will raise the issue that Japan is infringing on human rights. Depending on the viewpoint, the blood tax of the Japanese people will be sacrificed. At the same time, it seems that they are demanding that they be the first priority in Japan. "In response, Senator Shiina said, "If you somehow enter Japan, there will be no problem in living. So, why not come in more and more?"Furthermore, regarding the situation of Koreans living in Japan at that time, "I am by far the victorious country. There are quite a few fishermen in our (electoral district) town, but every time I go there, I get scared and go fishing. It is in a state of having to do it. It is also tightened in the fishing industry. "" The malicious people among Koreans manufacture and sell heropon, which is very damaging to the health of the people, or come here and drink sake. I'm making more and more. Moreover, it's hindering the income of the national liquor tax. Many of them are doing bad things. "" This is so good for me, so Koreans are going to eat over there. If you are in trouble, you should go to Japan, if you go to Japan, you will be treated better, and if you go to Japan, you will be able to live a life. " It states that measures should be taken.
On December 1965, 12, the Park Chung-hee administration hoped that those who participated in the Chongryon would return to the protection of the Korean government, and even those who tried to smuggle into Japan without sensibleness should come as Koreans. It has stated that it does not matter.
Japanese style for Koreans and Chinese in JapanFull name,Popular nameThere are many people who call themselves "(common name)", and in the media coverage of newspapers, TV, etc., the coverage may be made by the common name according to the policy of each company.It can be said that the common name is a real name in real life for many Koreans living in Japan.There is a high tendency for a common name to be used for resumes and ID cards (most resumes have a nationality column, so in many cases only the common name is entered, and the driver's license is only the real name or "real name (common name)) Notation).Since the name change of Soshi-kaimei during the Empire of Japan, they have lived under the Japanese name in Japan, and are more Japanese than the Korean-style real name, which is unfamiliar to many Koreans living in Japan as of the 21st century. The common name has a meaning as a real name when talking about identity.
However, in recent years, the number of people who give their surnames in the Korean style is gradually increasing in order to regain their ethnic identity.This is due to the fact that South Korea's reputation in Japan has risen due to the recent economic development of South Korea, in addition to the enlightenment activities by Koreans living in Japan, and the cultural exchange between Japan and South Korea continues to expand and develop. It seems that things are not unrelated.2009In the case ofBallistic missileA suspect who illegally exported a trailer that can be used as a launch pad from Japan to North Korea was arrestedUnauthorized export of North Korean tank truckIt can be confirmed in the news report.Korean nationals in JapanIn the announcement, it was revealed that only a little over 1% of people live under the Korean real name, and one in three people "use it properly depending on the situation"..
In addition, in Japanese real estate registration, either the common name or the real name could be used for the qualification required when applying for real estate registration, so the creditor collected the debt (even if the creditor obtained the debt name in the trial) The creditor has to search for the debtor's property. If the name at the time of the trial and the name of the real estate registration are different, the creditor will have a hard time identifying the real estate which is one of the debtor's property. ), When the debtor is a Korean resident in Japan, it is more difficult than when the debtor is Japanese national (Japanese nationals can only register real estate with their real name, so the creditor It was advantageous to identify the debtor's real estate. For creditors who have to search for the debtor's real estate by themselves, if the debtor is a Korean resident in Japan who has multiple names, it is practically difficult. T).[Source required]
Social security issues
For Koreans in Japan社会 保障There is also much debate about.
1950ToNagata Ward Office Attack Case,1951ToShimosato Village Office Group Blackmail Case,1952ToManrai Town IncidentThere has been a turmoil in government agencies requesting the receipt or increase of welfare expenses.1952IsUtoro districtThe receipt of welfare expenses due to threats to the government in various places including the above was raised as a problem in the Diet..
According to the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare's Survey of Protected Persons in 2019, the total number of livelihood protection cases in Japan is 161 households. At 204Of these, 4 households are headed by foreigners. At 6 people であり、全体のうち外国人が世帯主の受給率は世帯数で2.8％、人数で3.2％。国籍別でみると、在日韓国・朝鮮人2万9109世帯3万4848人、在日中国人5496世帯8968人、在日フィリピン人4968世帯1万1352人となっている。
Since Japan's livelihood protection is provided on a household basis, even if the foreigner is the head of the household, there is a Japanese family, and vice versa, so it is not accurately counted as a foreigner's livelihood protection recipient..
In terms of age group, the average age of Filipinos in Japan is 27.9 years, and the average age of Chinese recipients in Japan is 54.4 years, while the average age of Koreans in Japan is 65.7 years, which is a foreign nationality. Aging compared to the average age of beneficiaries of 53.4 years.
This is because foreigners could not enroll in the national pension until 82, and in 82, those over 35 years old did not reach the required enrollment period (60 years) up to 25 years old even if they enrolled at that time. It is thought that one of the reasons is that many Koreans living in Japan from that time have low pensions and no pensions because many of them did not join.
Assistance for foreigners1954(Showa 29) Company's first No. 5 dated May 8Ministry of Health and WelfarePublic Assistance Act by notification from the Director of Social AffairsMutatis mutandisIt is said that protection will be implemented, and further1990According to (2), the subject of the mutatis mutandis is a person who legally stays in Japan and has a status of residence such as permanent residence or permanent residence without restrictions on activities...Protection based on this notice is carried out at the discretion of the local government, and the administrative side protects foreigners.GiftIs said to have the properties of..ForeignerWelfareEven if the beneficiary is not granted the right to oppose (the right to request examination and the right to request reexamination) regarding administrative sanctions such as administrative acts related to livelihood protection, it cannot be said that the legal interests of the foreigner have been infringed. , If you have permanent residenceDeveloped countryMost countries provide foreign nationals with social security such as livelihood protection without distinguishing them from nationality holders..
Article 25 of the Constitution of JapanParagraph 1 stipulates that "all citizens have the right to live a healthy and culturally minimal life", since 1950.Welfare ActIn Article XNUMX, "This law is based on the idea stipulated in Article XNUMX of the Constitution of Japan, and provides necessary protection to all the people who are in need of living in the country according to the degree of their need. The term "national" has been added to "the purpose is to guarantee the minimum standard of living and to promote its independence.", The guarantee of rights under the Public Assistance Act is limited to Japanese citizens.The Oita District Court ruled that "the guarantee of social rights required by the Constitution is based on the obligation of the state to protect the people, so the obligation to protect foreigners lies with the country of nationality.". Also19656 of the monthJapan-Korea Basic TreatyWhen exchanging ratification documentsPark ParkThe President of South Korea also acknowledged that the cause of the "difficulty of the Koreans in Japan" was "the responsibility of the Korean government" and promised that the Korean government would make more active efforts on the safety and freedom of the Koreans in Japan and provide the maximum possible protection. did.
It is also said that it is difficult for welfare recipients to apply for naturalization (even if they are special permanent residents with relatively loose naturalization conditions, it is difficult to naturalize if the main part of their income is welfare)..
No pension problem for Koreans in Japan
1981In JapanRefugee ConventionRatified1982,National Pension ActLegislation has been put in place, such as abolishing nationality requirements, and Koreans living in Japan are also Japanese.National pensionYou can now subscribe to.further1986The minimum 60-year enrollment period up to the age of 25, which was required to receive the national pension due to the revision of the system, is required for those who are 20 years old or older and under 60 years old to stay in Japan from April 1961 to December 4. Going back to the period I was doingOld age basic pensionAdded as a subscription period (commonly known as "Kara period").. Enforced in 2017According to the "Law for Partial Amendment of the National Pension Law, etc. for Strengthening the Financial Base and Minimum Guarantee Function of the Public Pension System"Subscription period reduced from a minimum of 25 years to 10 years.
On the other hand, the participation rate has remained at a low level even after the relief measures taken during the “empty period” since 1986, and the number of non-pensioners is increasing year by year.2004ToOsaka Prefectural UniversityAccording to a survey of 70 Koreans living in Japan who are 300 years old or older,1926There were 15 people who were born before (Taisho 1986) and were already over 60 years old in 116 and did not meet the enrollment qualifications, and most of the 139 people who were eligible for relief did not join, and there was insufficient notification of relief measures. In addition to dissatisfaction with the low amount of benefits, it is believed that there are cases in which they did not join in consideration of returning to Japan in the future..
There was criticism of the government that had not signed a social security agreement between the two countries for a long time so that the pension enrollment period could be summed up mutually, and in 2, "" (Japan-Korea Social Security Agreement) was finally signed., Korea's national pension system (established in 1988, universal insurance since 1999)) Has a short history since its enforcement and the average subscription period is short, so it is difficult to meet the requirements for receiving the minimum subscription period of 25 years in Japan for the time being., South Korea insisted that the agreement should not have a total pension period, and as a result, like the UK-Japan agreement, it did not incorporate mutual pension period measures and concluded an agreement limited to preventing double participation. ing.
On the other hand, some Koreans residing in Japan filed a lawsuit for those who were out of the relief measures and for insufficient notification, but the national pension was initially intended only for Japanese people. "Within the discretion of the legislature, the constitution andInternational human rights agreementIt cannot be said that it is contrary to the judgment of the first and second trials.2009ToSupreme CourtIt ended with the defeat of the Koreans living in Japan, such as being confirmed in.
Currently, the Japanese government does not provide pensions to Korean residents in Japan who have not paid their pensions, from the standpoint that "the responsibility for social security such as pensions should be taken by the home country to which the nationality belongs".He denounces the Japanese government's view that "the Japanese government does not pay pensions to Japanese living overseas," and demands that Koreans living in Japan also receive pensions.If you submit a Japanese pension, it will be transferred to a financial institution). "Persons with Japanese nationality who live abroad and are between the ages of 20 and 65" can voluntarily enroll in the Japanese national pension.For foreign residents (limited to low-income elderly people) who could not legally enroll in a pension in some local governmentsWelfare benefitsWe have a system to pay.
In addition, among those who receive welfare benefits (a 65-year-old welfare recipient, the monthly fee is 12 yen including housing assistance), there are also non-pensioners who receive a larger amount than the national pension members. (Detail is#Social security issuesreference).
Elderly people whose whereabouts are unknown
2010Was widely taken up byElderly location unknown problemThen.Re-entry PermitIt is said that there are many cases in which he left Japan and died in his hometown.North Korea demanded a permanent return to Japan by advertising to elderly people of the Chongryon Association (Chongryon) who live on pensions in Japan, saying, "If you have 3 yen a month, you can live affluently in the north." After returning to Japan, sources say that they are "dressing" a pension of 12 yen per person by a method that does not tell the Japanese side even if they die...The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare has taken measures to injunction pensions for elderly people whose whereabouts are unknown..
Suffrage of Koreans in Japan
Koreans residing in Japan have the right to suffrage.In the past, Koreans did not have that right and discussions were held.North Koreans have both overseas voting rights and eligibility for election.In South Koreamilitary service,Tax paymentDiscussions have been held on the unconstitutionality of not giving suffrage to overseas citizens who are exempt from obligations because of inadequate resident registration requirements...There is also a local suffrage controversy in Japan.
Korean resident in Japan suffrage
Korean short-term residents happen to be their own citizens living abroad, and as a national rightAbsentee ballotPermanent residents say that it is easy to get a national consensus on demanding rights.military service,Tax paymentObligations were exempted, and it was cautious to grant suffrage because of inadequate resident registration requirements (permanent residents in Japan postponed conscription until the age of 37, and at the age of 37, the obligation to serve in the military disappeared... In October 1962, the item "Exemption from military service for foreign nationals" was added to the Military Service Law as Law No. 10).on the other hand,Constitution of South Korea # Chapter XNUMX National Rights and ObligationsArticle 24 states that "all citizens have the right to vote," and there has been ongoing debate that permanent residents should also be guaranteed suffrage in accordance with this.
On the other hand, South KoreaConstitutional courtIn May 2007, as long as expatriates and international students, as well as permanent residents abroad, have Korean nationality, they should be given the right to vote and referendum even if they do not have a resident registration in Korea. Overturned the March 5 decision..The Constitutional Court also ordered the Diet to make the necessary amendments by December 2008, 12.Ten items such as "development of information and communication technology" and "expansion of economic power" were cited as the reasons for this decision.Also, regarding the idea that exemption from tax payment and national defense obligations is a problem, the Constitution of the Republic of Korea assumes that the exercise of basic national rights such as suffrage and equality rights is a counter-benefit to tax payment and national defense obligations. In addition, he acknowledged and dismissed the plaintiff's complaint that even foreign nationals could fulfill their military service obligations and that women who were not required to serve in the military also had the right to vote.
In response to these movements, preparation work was carried out for absentee ballots modeled on overseas short-term residents... In March 2006Foreign Trade DepartmentIn collaboration with more than 50 diplomatic missions abroad, 80% of the participants answered that they would "exercise their voting rights."In this case, the actual number of short-term residents in Japan was 82000, of which 21000 were estimated to vote.
The ruling and opposition parties have agreed to grant suffrage to Koreans abroad, and by the end of February 2007, the Central Election Commission and the ruling and opposition parties had submitted five bills to amend the election law to the National Assembly of South Korea.However, in 2, he was initially aiming for confusion over how to introduce overseas voting.Presidential electionIt became difficult to introduce overseas voting from.Permanent residents overseas are generally considered to have a strong conservative tendency, and are conservatives who want to incorporate this.Grand National PartyI want to have a support base for young people and attract temporary residents such as foreign students and diplomats.Uri PartyWas pointed out to be due to the party conflict.
The Korean National Assembly in February 2009 is expected to pass the bill and vote from the 2 national elections, but the plaintiffs are trying to get to know the merits of the suffrage in their homeland. (Lee Ken Rain) Is the origin of the "Korean Suffrage Liaison Preparatory Committee for Koreans in Japan" established by Koreans living in Japan in Hyogo and Osaka to carry out PR activities..
In addition, the law was amended so that even if the main place of residence is set overseas, if the place of residence in Korea is registered with the Legal Department, the law was amended, so on June 2010, 6The 5th Korea National Simultaneous Local ElectionsThen, "Koreans living in their home countries", including the first Koreans living in Japan, also experienced elections in their homeland for the first time when they were born a little earlier..
2012 Republic of Korea presidential electionOf the 462,509 voters in Japan, 37,342 registered as electors, 25,312 voted, and the turnout was 67.8%., Voter turnout in April 201219st General Election (Korea)Although it increased by 52.6% from 15.2%, it was below the average overseas turnout of 71.2%..Osaka,Los Angeles,BeijingAccording to a survey conducted on Koreans abroad, the fairness of overseas elections was 10 out of 7.1 on average, while it was 6.6 points in Japan, asking "Is overseas elections useful for Korean political development?" Averaged 8.1 points, but remained at 6.7 points in Japan..In the overall overseas voting, Park's voter turnout was 13.9%, which is 42.8 points lower than Moon's, but in Japan, Park's approval rating (20%) despite the fact that the majority of respondents were in their 40s and 70.0s. Was significantly higher than Mr. Moon (30.0%).Regarding the results of this survey, "Koreans in Japan have experienced discrimination as Koreans, and they are wary of the Chongryon, and because they want political stability in their home countries, they are more conservative than the United States and China. "Strong."
Korean resident in Japan suffrage
Korean citizens aged 17 and over have both the right to vote and eligibility for North Korean national affairs even if they are overseas.,20093 of the monthNorth Korea Supreme People's AssemblyIn the deputy election, from Koreans in JapanSo Man-sulKorean UnionPayChongryon executives including the chairman of the Central HeadquartersKorean UniversitySix people, including the principal, have been elected as representatives (members of parliament).
Local suffrage issue
For many years, there was an argument to treat Koreans living in Japan as members of Japanese society.In this case, the word "member of Japanese society" has various meanings depending on the position. As far as "members of society" are concerned, there is a view that this is merely a reflection of the actual situation.But this isLocal suffrageWhen it comes to granting, the debate is divided (Foreigner suffrageSee).
This is just conservativeLDPSystem supporters and leftistsJapanese Socialist Partysystem·Japan Communist PartyThey are not separated by their supporters, but are divided into groups that emphasize ethnic origin and groups that think that ethnic origin and political thought should be separated based on the statutory nationalism in modern and contemporary nations.
Korean nationals in JapanIt is,2009May 8Of voting45th House of Representatives general electionからForeigner suffrageSupporting candidates for grants and instructing members of the Mindan to support elections through rallies.. on the other hand,Korea FederationThen, Koreans living in Japan are foreign citizens of North Korea, which is a well-established independent country.MindanThe movement to acquire the right of foreigners to vote is opposed to the Korean government's abandonment policy and the Japanese government's assimilation policy..
Li ZhongyuanRikkyo UniversityA professor of law pointed out that one of the ways to deal with Japan's shift to the right is to change Japanese society from the inside along with the acquisition of local suffrage by Koreans living in Japan., South Korea first granted local suffrage to permanent residents Was highly evaluated.
Foreigners are granted suffrage in South Korea as part of the support for the movement to acquire local suffrage in Japan., This movement is also supported in South Korea.In addition, the issue of local suffrage has been suppressed by Koreans living in Japan.hateIt can be seen as an opportunity to raise the issue, and there are opinions that welcome it as an expression of the Japanese government's positive attitude toward solving historical problems..
MindanIs actively seeking the granting of Korean suffrage in Japan, and for the local assembly, which has a majority of members who oppose the local suffrage, "cooperation with" and "in the local assembly"HearingCountermeasures such as "do" are being considered.. For example,ChibaIchikawa CityThen, the following 2010 opinions against the granting of local suffrage to permanent resident foreigners, which was passed by the general affairs committee of the city council on January 1, 29, due to the systematic "rewinding work" of the Mindan Ichikawa branch. Succeeded in rejecting at the plenary session of the day.
pachinkoThe percentage of Koreans living in Japan who are engaged in industry is higher than in other industries.2007May 12 OfJoongAng Daily NewsAccording to the article, about 90% of the industry management is controlled by Korean residents in Japan and Chongryon.[Annotation 5]..However, there are various theories about the proportion of Korean residents in Japan in the pachinko industry, and as of January 2008, 1.Han GyoreAccording to the article, 6% of the pachinko industry is Korean-based in Japan.,Also,Separate Treasure IslandOf "The Truth of Anti-Korean Style"Nomura FlagkeeperAccording to the article, the number of halls, which had only 1949 stores nationwide in 5, increased dramatically to more than 3 stores three years later, causing a tremendous boom. At the beginning, there were more Japanese business owners, but "Shooting Many Japanese companies have withdrawn after being regulated by the industry because it "inspires the heart", and 4% of the Japanese companies have been in Japan after the regulation, and this ratio has not changed even now. ..At the Korean Chamber of Commerce in Japan under the Mindan, about 7% of the 1 companies that belong to it are involved in the pachinko industry...The largest pachinko machineMaruhanFounder of the former Korean I in JapanHan Chang WooFrom this, we can see the strength of the position of Koreans living in Japan within the pachinko industry.For this reason, "Pachinko is not regulated as gambling even though its substance is gambling, and the profits generated by the business are remitted to North Korea for dictatorship and missiles.Nuclear developmentIt is pointed out that it supports.2008Jung Dong-hwan, an adviser to the Korean Mindan in Japan, said, "The Chosun Soren raised funds for the pachinko business, but what did the Mindan do?" When asked by a reporter, "The main business of the Mindan is also pachinko. The Chosun Soren organized all of its income and sent it to the north. ".Land InstituteAccording to a senior economic adviser, remittances from Japan to North Korea are more than 200 billion yen a year, and the main source of funds is pachinko, which is two of the net income earned by Korean business owners from the 30 trillion yen industry. It is estimated that if% is sent regardless of whether it is legal or illegal, it will exceed 2 billion yen by itself...Also, in Japan, from a Korean pachinko parlor owner in JapanNaoto KanPrime MinisterIt is reported that political funding is being provided to.
However, "Asahi Shimbun"2011May 6朝刊15面記事によると、90年代半ばに売り上げ30兆円・店舗数1万8000店は、2010年までに売り上げ20兆円・店舗数1万2000店の3分の2に激減しており、現在のパチンコ店経営者のCitizenshipIt is,South KoreaIs 5%,JapanIs 3%,People's Republic of China-TaiwanIs 1%,Korea(north korea) The registration is 1%, and pachinko = North Korea is not a correct criticism.
The Korean Mindan in JapanLee Myung-boPresident of South KoreaThe tightening of regulations on the pachinko industry has had an impact on the people living in Japan.Ichiro OzawaLobbyed and asked Lee to work on Ozawa..
Foreign crime and Korean residents in Japan
According to the National Police Agency statistics, foreigners other than "permanent residents (permanent residents, spouses of permanent residents, special permanent residents), U.S. Forces Japan personnel, and persons with unknown status of residence" are foreigners visiting Japan, and others. Is defined as another foreigner.
2019年の全外国人の刑法犯・特別法犯の検挙人員数は 1位：中国（4366人）、2位：ベトナム（3494人）、3位：韓国・朝鮮(2757人)、4位：フィリピン(1187人)、5位：ブラジル(971人) となっている.
Number of foreigners arrested in Japan (criminal offenses / special law offenses) 24 2012st place: China (1 people) 3881nd place: South Korea / Korea (2 people) 1015rd place: Philippines (3 people) 789th place : Vietnam (4 people) 661 (25) 2013st place: China (1 people) 4232nd place: Vietnam (2 people) 1118rd place: South Korea / Korea (3 people) 938th place: Philippines (4 people) 760 (26) 2014st place: China (1 people) 4565nd place: Vietnam (2 people) 1548rd place: Philippines (3 people) 803th place: South Korea / Korea (4 people) 802 (27) 2015st place: China ( 1) 3637nd place: Vietnam (2 people) 1967rd place: Philippines (3 people) 833th place: South Korea (4 people) 696 (28) 2016st place: China (1 people) 3409nd place: Vietnam (2 people) 2179rd place: Philippines (3 people) 772th place: South Korea / Korea (4 people) 622 (29) 2017st place: China (1 people) 2854nd place: Vietnam (2 people) 2459rd place: South Korea / Korea (3 people) ) 855th place: Brazil (4 people) 839 (30) 2018st place: China (1 people) 3221nd place: Vietnam (2 people) 2924rd place: Philippines (3 people) 771th place: South Korea (4 people) First year (543) 2019st place: Vietnam (1 people) 3365nd place: China (2 people) 3162rd place: Philippines (3 people) 746th place: Thailand (4 people)
Other foreign arrested personnel (criminal law offenders / special law offenders) 24 (2012) 1st place: South Korea / Korea (3430 people) 2nd place: China (1398 people) 3rd place: Philippines (414 people) 4th place : Brazil (383 people) 25 (2013) 1st place: South Korea / Korea (3245 people) 2nd place: China (1538 people) 3rd place: Philippines (511 people) 4th place: Brazil (393 people) 26 (2014) 1st place: South Korea / Korea (3080 people) 2nd place: China (1508 people) 3rd place: Philippines (521 people) 4th place: Brazil (450 people) 27 (2015) 1st place: South Korea / Korea (2943 people) 2nd place: China (1618 people) 3rd place: Philippines (486 people) 4th place: Brazil (469 people) 28 (2016) 1st place: South Korea / Korea (2843 people) 2nd place: China (1398) 3rd place: Philippines (465 people) 4th place: Brazil (443 people) 29 (2017) 1st place: South Korea / Korea (2673 people) 2nd place: China (1361 people) 3rd place: Philippines (489 people) 4) 456th place: Brazil (30 people) 2018 (1) 2520st place: South Korea / Korea (2 people) 1365nd place: China (3 people) 419rd place: Brazil (4 people) 418th place: Philippines (2019 people) People) First year of Reiwa (1) 2301st place: South Korea / Korea (2 people) 1204nd place: China (3 people) 463rd place: Brazil (4 people) 441th place: Philippines (XNUMX people)
Examples of incidents caused by Korean residents in Japan
According to Yoshio Morita, "Koreans in Japan from the Viewpoint of Numbers" (Monthly Report of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Vol. 1, No. 9, December 1960), the crime rate of Koreans in Japan at that time was five times that of the Japanese. It is said that.In addition, Yasuo Wakatsuki's "Korea, Korea and Japanese" has a high level of around 12 times. 5Return businessIn the official document "North Korea-related Consular Affairs" (Asia Bureau, Northeast Asia Division, January 1959, 1-August 30, 8), both the government and public opinion consider the crime rate of Koreans in Japan as a problem. It is stated that there is (8 times that of the Japanese), and it has been pointed out that it has influenced the attitude of the Japanese government toward the return business, and there is a position to consider this point as a problem..
Deportation of Korean residents in Japan, illegal stay
1965,Japan-Korea Basic TreatyEstablished the legal status of Korean residents in Japan (permanent residence of agreement) concluded with the conclusionJapan-Korea Legal Status AgreementArticle XNUMX stipulates that you will not be forced to leave Japan unless the following reasons apply.
- In japanCivil warOrTreason in JapanPersons who have been sentenced to imprisonment or higher due to such reasons (excluding attendants and suspended sentences).
- A person who has been sentenced to imprisonment or more for a crime related to diplomacy in his / her home country and a criminal act against a foreign head of state, a diplomatic mission or its diplomatic mission, and has harmed the serious diplomatic interests of Japan.
- For commercial purposesNarcotics and Psychotropic Drugs Control ActThose who have been sentenced to imprisonment or imprisonment for life or three years or more (excluding suspended sentence) or those who have been sentenced to three or more times in violation of the above.
- A person who has been sentenced to imprisonment with work or imprisonment for an indefinite period or more than seven years in violation of Japanese laws and regulations.
1991,Immigration Special LawByKoreanThe agreement permanent residence that was only targetedKorean registerThe permanent residents of, have also been unified as a special permanent residence permit.Special permanent resident TheDeportationThe condition that becomes is anotherForeigner(Article 22 of the Immigration Special Law)..The specific conditions are as follows.
- Civil war(Excluding accompanying sum),Preliminary crime of internal disturbance,Civil war conspiracy crime,Aiding crimes such as civil warThose who have been sentenced to imprisonment or more (except when suspended sentence is given).
- Treason in Japan,Treason in Japan, Or those who have been sentenced to imprisonment or more for attempted crimes, preliminary crimes, and conspiracy crimes (except when suspended sentence is given).
- Foreign national emblem damage crime,Private war preliminary crime,Private war conspiracy crime,Neutral order violation crimeThose who have been sentenced to more than imprisonment.
- Being sentenced to imprisonment or more for a crime against a foreign head of state, diplomatic mission or diplomatic missionMinister of JusticeBut(Minister of Foreign AffairsThose who have determined that Japan's significant diplomatic interests have been impaired.
- A person who has been sentenced to imprisonment with or without work for more than 7 years and has been found by the Minister of Justice to have impaired Japan's significant interests.
1970 eraIn the second half, 20 Koreans living in Japan who committed crimes in Japan tried to be deported to South Korea, but the Korean government refused to accept them... on the other hand,Ministry of Justice(I.e.According to 1978, for the first time, two Korean-registered peopleDeportationThere are records that 1988 more people were repatriated by 17...It is unlikely that they will be repatriated to North Korea, which has no diplomatic relations, and it is highly possible that they were repatriated to South Korea..
Koreans as of January 2021, 1Illegal stayThe number of people was 12,433 (4,996 men and 7,513 women), which was 8% of the total (2868), second only to Vietnamese (15.0, 15,689.%)... this houseVisa Waiver ProgramThe number of illegal immigrants after the above was 11,780, accounting for more than 90% of the total... The number of Koreans who refused to land in 2019 was 375, which is the eighth in the composition ratio of 10,647% out of a total of 3.5..
Boryokudan and Koreans in Japan
In 1986Kaplan and DubroIs Japan's largest wide-area gangsterYamaguchigumiAbout 10% of the members of the book stated that they were Koreans in Japan...Designated BoryokudanAizu KotetsukaiHe was the fourth chairman and a Korean resident in Japan.Tokutaro TakayamaIs "YakuzaKoreans living in Japan account for about XNUMX% of the world, but I am about XNUMX%. ".. ExPublic Security Intelligence AgencyOf the second director of the surveyMitsuhiro SuganumaOn March 2006, 10Foreign Correspondents' AssociationIn the lecture I gave at, the XNUMXth generationYamaguchigumiAs a story I heard from a young head, 6% of the members of the gangstersDowa(Burakumin), 3% are Koreans living in Japan, 1% are not DowaJapaneseAndRight wing activityRepresented the view that they are making more money..In the case where a Korean resident in Japan, a member of a right-wing group of gangsters, was arrested as a perpetratorHideo Murai stabbed caseIs famous.
yuanYamaguchigumiAdviserLawyer OfYukio Yamanouchi"The yakuza are Koreans living in JapanDowa areaIt is also true that there are many people from Japan. "" About 65% of the 50 Koreans living in Japan are concentrated in Hyogo, Osaka, and Kyoto, and the development of the Yamaguchi-gumi is not unrelated.Buraku discriminationAnd cannot talk without the issue of discrimination against Koreans in Japan. ".
on the other handKenji InoIn "Yakuza and the Japanese," there are many young people who have no choice but to "become a yakuza or a Hijikata" in Japanese society, taking up the dire situation of the villages of Kansai and northern Kyushu in the middle of the Showa era. He expressed the view that what he does is a hotbed of yakuza.[Where?]..Also, as an impression I got from my own interview, although I do not have systematic statistics, half of the current gangsters do not have Buraku or Korean residents in Japan. I'm guessing it's a dropout group.In fact, according to the 2019 correction statistics, the percentage of prisoners who entered prisons that year by nationality was about 894% for 97.9 Japanese nationals and about 13% for 1.4 Korean nationals. Has become.
According to the announcement by the National Police Agency in 2008 (Heisei 20), 22Designated gangOf which, the XNUMXth generationSakaume-gumiGold crane[Annotation 6],Far East AssociationThe conversion ofMatsubaLee Shunsei, the third generationFukuhakukaiKintora Jun,Kyushu SeidokaiPark Ueya is introduced as a representative..In addition, on July 2010, 7, the Tokyo Metropolitan Public Safety Commission designated Jiro Kiyota as the representative of the designated gangster Inagawa-kai, which has 20 members..
Stimulants and Koreans in Japan
National Police AgencyIssued annually byPolice white paperAccording toStimulantThere have been multiple reports of Korean residents in Japan being involved in smuggling...Also distributed in JapanStimulantMost of the products are from North Korea and China.In 2001, when a large-scale smuggling from North Korea to Japan was carried out, there was a case in which a Korean resident in Japan was involved as a liaison with the North Korean side..
Tax exemption measures for Korean residents in Japan through ethnic groups
Relationship with South Korea and North Korea
Military service exemption provisions
There is also an exemption for children born on or after January 1994, 1, or if their parents apply for permanent residence.However, if you apply for permanent residence under the age of 1, you will be obliged to serve in the military if you stay in Korea for more than 37 months in the past year, or if you engage in commercial activities such as finding a job in Korea..
While the Republic of Korea has a conscription system that grants military service to its citizens, it is the sailors of ships traveling abroad, those who are staying or residing abroad, those who are detained by crimes, and those who are being sentenced. Man,high schoolStudents enrolled in the above schools, those who are taking the prescribed process at a training institution, and those who excel in the field of physical education to raise national prestige can postpone the draft examination.Also,Korean ArmyThe military service obligation ends at the age of 40.Therefore, Koreans residing overseas do not have to undergo a draft inspection, and even if they return to Korea after the age of 40, they are not obliged to draft.There is no particular distinction between Koreans living in Japan.
Relationship with the North Korean issue
With the attention to the North Korean issue (abduction case, nuclear possession issue, etc.), the pressure on South Koreans living in Japan, especially those with Korean nationality, has increased. Some sympathize with those who have their relatives held hostage by the North Korean government and are reluctantly manipulated at the will of the North Korean government. "
On the other hand, "Koreans in Japan have both the right to vote and the right to be elected in North Korean national affairs, and from the Koreans in JapanKorea FederationChairmanKorean UniversitySix people, including the principal, have been selected as members of the North Korean parliament, and the amount of remittances from Japan is considerable, so it is hard to say that there is no responsibility on the part of Koreans living in Japan. "In addition, the Chongryon has taken over the view of its home country and adheres to the position that the abduction issue has been "solved" and "there is a problem on the Japanese side."In connection with North Korean missile launchCimachogori Ripper CaseAnd so on.
Koreans living in Japan are from North Koreanuclear weapons,Biological weaponsSuch asWeapons of mass destructionIllegal export of export-controlled goods to North Korea for developmentUnauthorized export of North Korean tank truck,Freezer / dryer illegal export caseIs causing an incident such as.Some of them cooperated with North Korean spies.Foundation personSome have been arrested.
The University of TokyoKoreans in Japan who have obtained a PhD in rocket development authorityKorean Science and Technology Association in JapanIllegal acquisition of Japanese technology as an advisor to North Korea, and frequently provided technical guidance to North Korea.When launching a missileIs witnessed locally.
- ^ a b The classification of each qualification that constitutes a resident foreigner plus the qualifications of "diplomatic", "public use", "short-term", and "stay" is called a total resident foreigner.
- ^ A person who does not fit into any of the following
1. Persons whose period of stay of "March" or less has been decided
2. Persons whose status of residence has been decided for "short-term stay"
3. Persons whose status of residence has been determined to be "diplomatic" or "public"
Persons specified by the Ordinance of the Ministry of Justice as conforming to 4, 1 to 3 (the office of the Association of East Asian Relations in Japan where the status of residence of "specific activities" has been determined, orGeneral Representative of Palestine in JapanEmployees or their families)
5, Special Permanent Resident
6, people who do not have a status of residence
- ^ "The total number of Koreans who illegally entered Japan after the end of the war is estimated to be about 20 to 40, which is said to be half of the estimated 80 Koreans living in Japan."
- ^ Korean schoolEven in ethnic schools such as Japan, they are becoming multinational, including Japanese nationalities.
- ^ Susumu NomuraBecause there is employment discrimination based on nationality and originself employedClaims that there are many Koreans living in Japan in the pachinko industry where.
- ^ Currently, another person is at the top.
- ^ a b c d “Foreign residents by nationality / region status of residence (purpose of residence)” (Excel) (Press release), National Statistics Center, (Announced in July 2020)
- ^ a b Changes in the number of naturalization permit applicants, the number of naturalization permit persons, and the number of naturalization non-permitted persons - Ministry of JusticeCivil Affairs Bureau
- ^ Linguistic consideration of the language names "Korean" and "Korean"Hosei University Academic Institutional Repository
- ^ a b ""I'm treated as Korean in Japan and Japanese in Korea, but I'm an original Korean ..." Become stronger "" (Chosun Ilbo Japanese version)”(Japanese). Yahoo! News. 2021th of February 5Browse. "I was treated as a third-generation Korean living in Japan who couldn't speak Korean, and was treated as a Korean in Japan and a Japanese in South Korea. In 2019, when anti-Japanese sentiment was serious, I was the target of a Japanese company non-buying movement."
- ^ Japanglish: New comer
- ^ Some of the parents were Japanese nationals when they were born in Japan, or they were stateless or missing when they were born in Japan. They are from foreign countries and previously possessed foreign nationality. It will be a different category from the naturalized person who was there.
- ^ "Submitted by Mr. Yoshihiro Kawakami, Member of the House of Councilors We will send a separate answer to the question regarding the notation of "nationality" of Koreans living in Japan.”. House of Councilors. 2021th of February 5Browse.
- ^ "The number of Korean overseas compatriots is XNUMX million ... the highest ever”. JoongAng Ilbo. 2021th of February 5Browse.
- ^ Unestablished diplomatic relations with JapanDPR KoreaNot registered (North Korea)
- ^ Yusuke Yashima. “Difference between Korean and Korean nationality Does North Korean nationality exist in Japan?”. Korea World Times. 2020th of February 6Browse.
- ^ "Statistics of Alien Registration Cards as of the end of 19" (PDF) (Press Release), Immigration Bureau, Ministry of Justice, (June 2008), オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2008, 6. 2010th of February 1Browse.
- ^ "Mindan newspaper". www.mindan.org. Korean Mindan in Japan. 2021th of February 4Browse. “But now, the decrease in the number of people living in Japan and the diversification of values are causing a“ departure from the Mindan ”. ”
- ^ INC, SANKEI DIGITAL (January 2019, 12). “Declining birthrate in the background of the decrease in Korean school students”(Japanese). Sankei News. 2021th of February 4Browse. "Historically, with the revision of the Nationality Law in XNUMX, if either of the parents is Japanese, it will be possible to acquire Japanese nationality, and if the Japanese and Koreans living in Japan get married. The number of cases of choosing Japanese nationality is increasing. The conditions for naturalization have been relaxed, and Japanese nationality is progressing. Even if you are Korean, some people want to keep away from the political aspects of their home country and the Korean Soren. Not a few. A person familiar with Korean society in Japan said, "The current children are the XNUMXth and XNUMXth generations in Japan, and it is a major premise to settle in Japan. I hope that they will inherit the Korean language and culture. Unless the influence of my grandparents and parents is strong, I will not dare to attend Korean school. " ”
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- ^ ""Paradise on earth" The pain of Koreans living in Japan who went to North Korea (JBpress)”(Japanese). Yahoo! News. 2021th of February 4Browse. “At that time, South Korea had poor politics and economy, and even those who returned home were in a situation where they would return to Japan on a smuggler.”
- ^ "Abandoned homeland To Japan The hell of "Jeju Island massacre" Background of Korea Town in Tsuruhashi, Osaka”(Japanese). PRESIDENT Online (September 2017, 8). 2021th of February 4Browse.
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- ^ September 2000, 9 Sankei Shimbun
- ^ 1950May 6Industrial economy newspaper(Old name of Sankei Shimbun) Morning edition
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- ^ Residence cardorSpecial permanent resident certificate"Nationality / Region"
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- ^ (2008) Entrepreneurial motivation and corporate typology research of Korean entrepreneurs in Japan, Ritsumeikan University
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- ^ (Korean) "<동포를 만나다>" 야키 니쿠가 일본 음식 이 라니요? "(<Meet your compatriots>" Is yakiniku Japanese food? ")", 재외 동포 신문 (Overseas Brotherhood Newspaper) December 2010, 12
- ^ Regulation of "dating cafe" and "camouflaged love hotel" Amendment of the Fuei Law Police Agency, Sankei Shimbun, 2010.5.27.
- ^ "A study session will be held with the partial revision of the Tokyo Hansho Fuei Law", Toitsu Nippou, August 2010, 08
- ^ "<Precious Metals Cooperative in Japan> 30 Years of History Shining ... Successful Spot Sale", Mindan Newspaper, 2009.5.27.
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- ^ "Korean technician" uncertain "hit the prefecture's precious metal processing industry directly in the recession., Yamanashi Nichinichi Shimbun/Kyodo News, August 2009, 2
- ^ Postwar Japan-Korea backside history The encounter between the strongest yakuza in Japan and Ryotaro Shiba ZAKZAK Fuji
- ^ Kinryu "Chongryon Chongryon (1)" Anti-North Korean sentiment heightened by the abduction issue "", Daily NK, August 2009, 11 (Korean) "추락 하는 조총련 (1)…" 납치문 제로 Anti-North 정서 커져 ", Daily NK, November 2009, 11
- ^ Liang Sadako "Chongryon HQ in Japan, Central Headquarters Crisis for Foreclosure", Daily NK, August 2010, 6 (Korean) "조총련, 대출 은 행 파산 으로 중앙 본부 압류 위기", Daily NK, 2010-06-30.
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- ^ "Lending to companies related to gangsters, ordering business improvement to Korean cooperatives in Japan", Asahi Shimbun, August 2010, 8
- ^ "Kinki Sangyo Credit Union of Koreans in Japan donates 100 million yen to democracy", Asahi Shimbun, June 2010, 6
- ^ "<Society in Japan> Road to" Bank in Japan "5", Toyo Keizai Daily, August 2002, 2
- ^ a b "BBB / Stable Rating of SBJ Bank's Long Term Preferred Debt", Japan Credit Rating Agency, August 2009, 11
- ^ "SBJ Bank opens", Unified Daily Report, August 2009, 09
- ^ Based on Nagahiko Hayashi (2007). Mitsuyoshi Lee, "Survey and Study of Koreans in Japan (II)", "Korean Cultural Anthropology (14th Collection)", 1982.
- ^ Based on Yong-dal Soo, "Awareness and Actual Conditions of Korean Commerce and Industry in Japan", Seisho-Aiming for a Prosperous Brotherhood Society, Seisho, 2007.
- ^ Nagahiko Hayashi, "Entrepreneurial Motivation and Corporate Typology Research of Korean Entrepreneurs in Japan", RitsumeikanInternational Area Studies, No. 28, December 2008, 12-111.
- ^ a b Nagahiko Hayashi, "Management activities and network prospects of Korean entrepreneurs in Japan", Ohara Institute of Social AffairsMagazine, No.588, 2007.11, 44-60.
- ^ "8 people (above) at the 3500th World Korean Business Convention", Unified Daily Report, July 2009, 11.
- ^ Chongryon Association of Koreans in Japan publishes "Brotherhood Economic Research" No. 7, Korea News, August 2002, 12
- ^ Funeral of a fellow society (above), Mindan Newspaper, 2008.05.28.
- ^ Funeral bean knowledge unique to Osaka Confucianism Korean funeral, Kawakami funeral.
- ^ Funeral of a fellow society (below), Mindan Shimbun, November 2008, 6
- ^ Mindan Kanagawa Prefectural Headquarters Mugunfa, Funeral Assistant, Office Grandma.
- ^ The response that the Mindan spreads closer to the "Unsatisfied Flower Service", Mindan Shimbun, November 2007, 6
- ^ Chongryon's compatriot life support, Chongryon in Japan.
- ^ <Society in Japan> Established Koryo Funeral Company in July to perform traditional Korean funerals, Toyo Keizai Daily, August 2004, 11
- ^ "Separate volumeBUBKA』July 2006 (Heisei 18) issue, p. 7.
- ^ Company Information> History, Ebara food.
- ^ a b The prime minister also develops into a problem of advancing and retreating 105 million yen from foreigners[Broken link] Sankei Shimbun 2011/03/11
- ^ a b There is no reaction to the mass media flooding the pachinko parlor management company of the donating man Archived 2011-03-11 publisher = Sankei Shimbun at the Wayback Machine. 1
- ^ a b c "Asahi Shimbun" July 1959, 7 Page 13 "Mostly voluntarily announced by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Koreans in Japan Wartime recruitment is 2 people"
- ^ “Korean residents in Japan, wartime recruitment is only 245”. Sankei Shimbun(November 2010, 3). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2010, 3. 2010th of February 3Browse.
- ^ South Korean government decides to compensate for recruitment, Unified Daily ReportJuly 2006, 3
- ^ "Many Koreans living in the mainland come to Japan indiscriminately, regardless of how they live (5/5) (XNUMX/XNUMX)Keijo Daily (August 1933, 8) ”. Kobe University Library. 2018th of February 1Browse.
- ^ Translated by Rinjiro Sodei "Shigeru Yoshida = MacArthur Round-Trip Letters-1945-1951" Hosei UniversityPublishing Bureau 2000.05. ISBN 4588625098
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- ^ South Korean President Park Chung-hee talks on the exchange of ratification documents between Japan and South Korea Akihiko Tanaka Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Studies on Asia, University of Tokyo
- ^ https://japanese.joins.com/JArticle/64371
- ^ 1% and 3% of Koreans living in Japan use their "real name" properly Asahi Shimbun 2001/03/23
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- ^ "Number of Protected Households-Composition Ratio, Household Personnel / Household Type / Year”. Statistics Bureau. 2021th of February 6Browse.
- ^ "Protected personnel-total population-protection rate, by age group / year”. Statistics Bureau. 2021th of February 6Browse.
- ^ a b c "Personnel of protected households whose head is foreign nationality-average age, by nationality and age group of head of household”. Statistics Bureau. 2021th of February 6Browse.
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- ^ https://yomidr.yomiuri.co.jp/article/20161221-OYTET50036/*貧困と生活保護（45）在日外国人は保護を受けやすいという「デマ」読売オンライン
- ^ Burmese refugee application defense team in Japan "Application to the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare regarding foreigners residing due to humanitarian consideration under the status of residence" specific activities "",, April 2010, 4.
- ^ a b "Oita's permanent resident Chinese woman sues foreigners for" protection claim "", Kyodo News, 2009/06/19.
- ^ a b “Application for livelihood protection“ Not applicable to permanent resident foreigners ””, Oita Joint Newspaper, July 2010, 10.
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- ^ South Korean President Park Chung-hee talks on the exchange of ratification documents between Japan and South Korea, Japan Political and International Relations Database, Institute of Oriental Culture, University of TokyoAkihiko TanakaLaboratory.
- ^ Kobe / Osaka Naturalization Application.com Q3: Can I apply for naturalization if I am currently on welfare?
- ^ Nagauchi administrative scrivener office Case 3 of naturalization application
- ^ “Life Counseling Kihonki-8 Q Self-employed 57 years old, unpaid insurance premiums Can I get a pension after retirement? A Yes. With empty period + insurance premiums”, Choson Sinbo, 20020626.
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- ^ Voter turnout for overseas elections increased to 75% ... Decreased in Japan 3%
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- ^ (Korean) [시론] 지방 참정권 일본 변화 리트 머스 시험 지로 / 진창 수 세종 연구 소일 본연 일, Seoul Shinmun, August 2010, 1
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The following are references not directly mentioned in the article text and footnotes.
- Yasunori Fukuoka,Myungsoo Kim "Life and Consciousness of Korean Youth in Japan" University of Tokyo Press, 1997.ISBN 4130560522.
- Shuji Yamanaka, Takayuki Oshima, Hirohiko Tani, Masafumi Kim, Photo "Double New Wind-Korean and Japanese Married Family in Japan", 1998.ISBN 4915924858.
- Kazushige Nakamura "People over non-pension proceedings in Japan" Impact publishing, 2005.ISBN 4755401534.
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- Tae-gyun Chung, "The Myth of Forced Entrainment in Japan," Bungeishunju <Bunshu Shinsho>, 2004.ISBN-978 4166603848.
- История иммиграции корейцев. Книга первая. Вторая половина 19в.-1945г. Глава 6. Иммиграция корейцев в("Korean Immigration History," Volume 2, 19th Century-1945, Chapter 6, "Korean Immigration to Japan," German Kim)
- Корейцы за рубежом: прошлое, на стоящее и будущее. Корейцы в Японии("Koreans abroad: past, present, future", "Koreans in Japan", German Kim)
- Xu Kyung-Ue "What kind of person is a Korean in Japan? 』\平凡 社, 2012.ISBN 978-4-582-83555-7
- Western part"I'm really grateful for that section," Seki Isamu "in Japan." "Life and Death, Its Extraordinary Ordinary" Shinchosha, 2015, pp. 96-100.ISBN 9784103675068. --The West is discussing Koreans living in Japan.
- Shion Kanemura"Landscape seen from my edge: Japanese-registered, Korean in Japan" Bunamori, December 2017.ISBN 978-4907873035.
- Japanese ethnic problems
- A federation of parliamentarians promoting the legal status of permanent foreign residents, including Koreans living in Japan
- Korean expeditionary force
- Potsdam Order
- Citizens' association that does not allow privilege in Japan
- Dowa problem
- Buraku Liberation Alliance
- Homepage of Korean History Museum in Japan
- Fifty years ago, there was such a great "resident in Japan" - Fumiko Wu-Yutokutaishi Akiyama-Western part
- Rosalia AVILA-TAPIES., "Comparative analysis of population migration patterns between foreigners living in Japan and Japanese people Taking Ikuno Ward, Osaka City as an example"Human Geography," 1995, Vol. 47, No. 2, p. 174-188, two:10.4200 / jjhg1948.47.174
- Overview of Korean life in Motoichi Report of the Social Affairs Department of Osaka City. No. 85 (Labor Division, Social Affairs Department, Osaka City, 1935)
- Working and living of Koreans living in Barracks Report of the Social Affairs Department of Osaka City. No. 51 (Labor Division, Social Affairs Department, Osaka City, 1935)