Next House of Representatives election Toyama XNUMXnd district Hidetoshi Ueda Prefectural assembly Intention to run
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He is currently in his sixth term and was chairman of the prefectural assembly until March this year.
It turned out that the Liberal Democratic Party's Hidetoshi Ueda prefectural assembly decided to run in Toyama 2nd district over the next House of Representatives election.for now… → Continue reading
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Chair(Gicho) is the position that represents the conference and supervises the operation of the conference.There is a "chairman" in a similar position.
Depending on the organization, executive authority other than the administration of proceedings may be granted, and some organizations have the chairman of the highest resolution body as the representative of the entire organization.It is used as a translation for Speaker, Chairman, President, etc. in the translation of English notation.In the English-speaking worldChairmanIn many cases, he is a representative with strong real power.PresidentIt may also be used as the title of.The title of "chairman" in Japanese national institutions is1869(Meiji2 years)ClanIt is a parliament by representativesPublic officeIt goes back to the chairman of.
Similar job titleChairman,ChairmanThere is also a job title.People's Republic of China OfNational People's CongressThe title of the chairman is "Managing Committee Chairman",China People's Political Cooperation ConferenceIs the "chief".
Chairman in parliament
Chair of each country
国会And the representative of the local council and the presiding officer of the council.The chairperson's seat will be located at the top center of the hall.
Speaker of parliament
The chairpersons of both chambers are officers under the Diet Act (Article 16 (1) of the Diet Act).
Each house has its own chairMemberFrom among these, a single-entry bearer vote is selected by mutual election, and the person with the most votes is the chairman (Article 23 of the Diet Law, Article 3 of the House of Representatives Rule, Article 4 of the House of Councilors Rule).Prime Minister Nomination ElectionIs a secret ballot, while the chairman's election is a secret ballot..
In general, there are many cases in which an elder politician of the first parliamentary group is elected, and it is regarded as an "Agari Post".1973Since the chairpersons of both chambers belong to each other for the sake of fairness.Parliamentary groupWithdraw fromNon-inscritious activityIs customary.PreviouslyYuzo ShigemuneIn some cases, he exerted influence on the personnel affairs of his political party, but there was also a time when the House of Representatives had previously agreed to leave the party of the Vice-Chairman...There are mixed cases of maintaining party membership and leaving the party.When running for elections shortly after the expiration of the term, the House of Representatives usually runs for the official approval of the political party to which it belongs.Therefore, when the House of Councilors runs for election in an electoral district (former local district), it is customary to run for non-official.British House of RepresentativesElections that leave the party completely, such as the chairman, are not completely neutral, as major political parties do not offer counter-candidates.
Under the Constitution of Japan, there are many cases of unanimous election in the chairperson election, but in the House of Representatives chairperson election in March 1955.Shuji Masutani Takekichi MikiIn the July 1971 House of Councilors electionKenzo Kono Shiro KiuchiIn the election of the Speaker of the House of Representatives in August 1993Takako Doi Seisuke OkunoThere was also an example of fighting.In both cases, the former was elected.
Experienced as chairman of the House of Representatives in 1948, shortly after the warTakeshi YamazakiIs a candidate for the prime ministerYamazaki head group conceptThere isDuring the transitional period of postwar Japanese politics, it was not uncommon for an experienced chairman of the House of Representatives to assume a key position in the administration with the aim of further motivation for power...After the transitional period of postwar Japanese politics, the chairman's post is considered to be the last post to be appointed by an elder politician.Shigezaburo Maeo,Michita SakataHe declined when he was called to take office as prime minister after he retired, saying, "It is not good for an experienced chairman to become prime minister because of the authority of the Diet." Since the 1970s, the experienced chairman has more power. The tendency to refrain from aiming for greed has permeated.Candidate for chairNikaido Susumu,Keizo ObuchiRespects the above-mentioned trend and shows motivation to the prime minister and refuses to take office as chairman. An example of an experienced chairman appointed to an administrative position after December 1978 isYoshihiko Tsuchiya(Retired as chairman on October 1991, 10, July 4, 1992SaitamaGovernor)Eda May(Retired as chairman on October 2010, 7, July 25, 2011Minister of JusticeHowever, there are criticisms that the appointment of an experienced chairman to an administrative position undermines the authority of the chairman.Takako DoiとMinsuke WatanukiAfter the experience of chairing the House of RepresentativesParty leaderWas appointed toHead nominationThere is an example of getting a vote in.
To dismiss an officer appointed by CongressDiet lawIt cannot be achieved unless there is a special provision in the Parliamentary Law...Currently, the Diet Law stipulates dismissal rules for the standing chairperson, and the plenary sessionDismissal resolutionCan be passed and dismissed (Article 30-2 of the Diet Act).Chair at the plenary sessionNo confidence resolutionIt is said that it is not legally binding even if it is passed.To force a dismissal if a vote of no confidence refuses to resign voluntarilyDisciplinary offenseAsExpulsionAnd disqualified as a member of the DietHowever, it is impossible for the chairman to disregard the convention and deliberate on the agenda for himself without letting the vice-chairman act for the management of the proceedings and ex officio deliberation and voting of disciplinary decisions.
The term of office of the chairman depends on the term of office as a member of the Diet (Article 18 of the Diet Act).It is customary for the House of Councilors to resign at the time of convening the Diet after the election and hold another election.
The authority of the chair is as follows.
- Right to maintain order in the House of Representatives (Article 19 of the Diet Act)
- It is understood to be both a right and an obligation..For the right to maintain order of membersHouse police rights(Article 114 of the Diet Law) is also included.
- Right to organize proceedings (Article 19 of the Diet Act)
- The right to organize the proceedings includes the decision on the agenda (Article 55 of the Diet Law), referral to the committee (Article 56, Paragraph 2 of the Diet Law), and the decision to open the meeting (Article 103 of the House of Representatives Rule, Article 81 of the House of Councilors Rule)..Casting vote(Article 61 of the Diet Law) is also included in this.
- The chairman's right to organize proceedings is a very powerful political authority, but in realityParliamentary Steering CommitteeIt is considered to be a de facto honorary position in the political world because it is a post that has few opportunities to exercise authority by its own judgment because the practice of entrusting the decision on the arrangement of proceedings in the form of consultation has been established.If a situation different from the prior meeting of the ruling and opposition parties occurs during the plenary session, the directors of the House Steering Committee will gather to discuss and the chairman will proceed with the proceedings according to the conclusion.The phase in which the chairman exerts political influence is limited to mediation and mediation when the conflict between the ruling and opposition parties becomes stalemate.Against the background of the chairman's authority, he calls for mediation proposals and party leader talks, and both the ruling and opposition parties will lead to a settlement while maintaining the ment.However, if the mediation is unsuccessful, the authority of the chairman may be damaged and he may be forced to resign.
- Legislative Chamber Administrative Supervision Right (Article 19 of the Diet Act)
- Representative right of the House of Representatives (Article 19 of the Diet Law)
- The chairman will perform, send, and accept on behalf of the House of Representatives..
- Former Imperial Court CodeIn the bottomImperial AssemblyOf the chairs of both housesNext to the palace seatIt is,Secretary of State,Secretary counselor,generalAnd otherShinninkanIt was lower, butThe Constitution of JapanBelow, although there is no explicit provision, it is customaryPrime MinisterPlaced in the second seat of.. From 1980 to mid-1990LDPNow, let's take a person who has experience as chairman of both houses of the Diet together with a person who has experience as president and vice president.Top adviserTo the chairman of both Houses of Parliament in public seats and politics, such as being treated asHead of the three powersHas been given a high prestige as one of them.
Vice-chairman becomes chairmanACCIDENTA person who presides over a meeting when there is a meeting or when the chairman is absent (Article 21 of the Diet Act).Specifically, when the chairman is absent due to sick leave or an accident, or when the proceedings take a long time, the chairman休息Sit in the chairman's seat and proceed with the parliament.Its duties and authority are the same as those of the chairman.
The vice-chairmen of both chambers are officers under the Diet Act (Article 16-2 of the Diet Act).The term of office of the vice-chairman depends on the term of office as a member of the Diet (Article 18 of the Diet Law).However, it is the same as the chairman in that it is customary for the House of Councilors to resign at the time of convening the Diet after the regular election and hold another election.
Vice-chairmanMemberSelected from among them by mutual election.According to the convention of the Diet, the chairman of both Houses of Parliament is elected from the first parliamentary group, while the vice-chairman is elected from the second parliamentary group. ,Work independentlyIt is customary (previously the vice-chairman was also elected from the first parliamentary group).
The provisional chairman is the chairman who is appointed when both the chairman and the vice-chairman have an accident (Article 22, Paragraph 1 of the Diet Act).How to chooseSecretary-GeneralOrexecutive directorSit in the chairman's seat and elected the provisional chairmanelectionAnd the person with the most votes becomes the provisional chairman (Article 22, Paragraph 2 of the Diet Act).However, the House of Representatives may also delegate the appointment of a provisional chairman to the chairman (Article 22, Paragraph 3 of the Diet Act).The provisional chairman is also an officer under the Diet Act (Article 16-3 of the Diet Act), and all authority regarding his duties and proceedings is the same as that of the regular chairman.
As a recent election example,2004(Heisei 16)May 6At the House of Councilors plenary session, the opposition party chaired the deliberation of the revision of the National Pension Act.No confidence resolutionThe proposal was submitted, but the vice-chairman from the opposition declared a vote of no confidence and refused to continue the plenary session (which was treated as an invalid vote), so the chairman distrusted the proposal.Yutaka TakeyamaLDPMember of the House of CouncilorsPresidentHas been elected as the provisional chairman.
Local council chair
There is a chairman in the prefectural assembly and the municipal assembly.In some municipalities, it is customary to change members every one to two years regardless of their term of office.As with the Diet, the chairman does not participate in the vote, so in the municipal council, where the number of chairpersons is small, there are occasional situations where "the side that issued the chairman loses the vote and pushes the chairmanship" (in recent years).2007 OfOsakaChihaya Akasaka VillageCongress, September 2018, 9OkinawaYonaguni TownCongress).
- Extraordinary chair
The extraordinary chairman is the extraordinary chairman of the local council.If the vice-chairman is not decided on the day of the first convocation, the local government council will hold an election to elect the chairman with the senior member as an extraordinary chairman among the attendees.So to speak, it is a chairman who is placed only for the election of the chairman.Different from the provisional chair..Even if the oldest member of the Diet is the extraordinary chairman, if an older member attends in the middle, the extraordinary chairman must be replaced promptly.
Chairman in the military
Chairman of the American Joint Chiefs of Staff (Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff)
- JapaneseSDF OfJoint Chief of StaffUntil 2006, he was the chairman of the Joint Staff Office.Dainichi this empireArmy and Navy "Supreme War CouncilAlso, a chairmanship was appointed, and it was said that a high-ranking veteran among military counselors would be assigned to this (although it was not usually called "chairman").The military counselor, who is a member of the Supreme War Council, was a sinecure, but an old general who chaired the House of Councilors (also known as the House of Councilors) had authority as an elder (for example).Heihachiro Togo).
Chair in the munitions industry
In small and medium-sized munitions industry companiesMetal stormMany companies, such as companies, have the title of representative as Chairman.This comes from the fact that the Chairman in the military is at the top of the organization.
Chairman in a corporation
CorporationInBoard of directorsThe person who is responsible for advancing the proceedings of such meetings is called the chairman.The authority of the chairman is not lawArticles of IncorporationMay be defined in..The Articles of Incorporation may stipulate, for example, "the chairman chairs the board of directors."In this case, there is no "chairman" as a title for the position of the corporation.
In Japanese companiesboard of directorsThe person who carries out the proceedings of the above acts as the "chairman".ManyPresidentThe presidentOr often the chairmanBut,Corporate governanceTo separate supervision and execution as part of the reformKonica MinoltaLike, appointing a "board of directors chairman" position separately from the president and chairman,Hitachi, Ltd.-Toshiba.Sony GroupIn some cases, outside directors are given the right to proceed with the proceedings of the board of directors as the "chairman of the board of directors"..
- Supreme Council Executive Chairman - Soviet UnionNationHead.
- National Council Chair - キ ュ ー バ(1976-2019),Former East Germany,Bulgaria in the communist eraSuch asSocialist country OfHead.
- Ministerial Council Chair - Italian Prime Minister,Cuban Prime MinisterOfficial titles such as (1976-2019).
- Japan Communist Party - Party leaderThe title of is "Chairman of the Central Committee".However, for regular party leader meetings, etc.ChairmanAttend andKenji MiyamotoThere was also a time when non-members were in the chairmanship.
- National Union of Trade Unions --The title of the representative is "Chairman".
A position similar to the chair.The nuance of being a representative of a meeting is thin, and in many cases it is a provisional position that is responsible for managing the proceedings of the meeting at that time.In particular, it has the role of moderating and facilitating one frame (session) for presentations at academic conferences., Corresponds to the English (session) chair.However, even with the name "meeting," the coordinating translation may be referred to as the chair in a collegial body that lasts for a certain period of time rather than a single meeting.For exampleConference of experts on the Imperial Court CodeIn, a chairman and a deputy chairman were appointed.
ChairHas the meaning of the chairman and general manager of "Za", an organization that conducts entertainment-related entertainment (basically, the leading actor is responsible. Not only the entertainment, but also the leading actors of TV dramas and TV animations are also called chairpersons. ).
- ^ Ichiro Asano and Hisashi Kono, "New Parliamentary Encyclopedia-Explanation of Parliamentary Law in Terms," Yuhikaku Publishing, 2003, p. 85
- ^ 1925年3月24日の帝国議会衆議院本会議で、議長権限は絶大であるので不偏不党のために正副議長はその在職中に限り党籍を離脱することを望むという旨の決議が行われ、それ以降はおおむね正副議長は党籍を離脱していた。（衆議院先例集 平成15年版 1-6-6 (65) pp.75-76）
- ^ Was the Speaker of the House of Representatives at the timeUmekichi NakamuraIt was triggered by the fact that (the Liberal Democratic Party) was forced to resign because he said that he had "fooled the opposition party" about the turmoil in the Diet (see Nakamura's section for details).
- ^ Hirokichi Nadaは1979年2月1日の衆議院議長就任に際して自民党を離党、同年9月7日の解散で議長の身分を失った後に復党し総選挙に臨み当選、10月30日に議長に再任された翌日に再び離党している。（衆議院先例集 平成15年版 1-6-6 (65) p.77）
- ^ However, Yamazaki was the last chairman of the Imperial Diet era.In prewar politics, the chairman's position is lower than it is now, and the chairman of both houses of the DietNext to the palace seatIs the 12th place and the prime ministerVeteranOf course, the Admiral of the Army and NavySecretary counselorWas below.Konoe AtsumaroIs fiveFamilyAt the age of 33, there is also the first familyChairman of the House of LordsHas been inaugurated.
- ^ Ono Mutsumi（1953年3月14日衆議院議長退任・1954年1月14日北海道開発庁長官就任・1954年7月27日北海道開発庁長官退任・1957年7月自民党副総裁就任・1960年自民党総裁選出馬・1964年5月29日死去により自民党副総裁退任）、To Matsunaga(Retired as Chairman of the House of Representatives on January 1955, 1, assumed office as Minister of Education on July 24, 1957, retired as Minister of Education on June 7, 10),Shuji Masutani（1958年4月25日衆議院議長退任・1959年1月自民党総務会長就任・1959年6月総務会長退任・1959年6月18日副総理就任・1960年7月自民党幹事長就任・1961年7月自民党幹事長退任）、Umekichi Nakamura(Retired as Chairman of the House of Representatives on May 1973, 5, assumed office as Minister of Justice on November 29, 1973, retired as Minister of Justice on November 11, 25),Funanaka(Retired as Chairman of the House of Representatives on November 1972, 11, assumed office as Vice President of the LDP in November 13, and retired as Vice President of the LDP in December 1977)
- ^ Koichi Matsuzawa, Parliamentary Law, Gyosei, 1987, p. 265
- ^ Imperial AssemblyIn the House of RepresentativesHoshi ToruExample.The chairman of the Imperial DietEmperorCould also be dismissed.
- ^ a b Koichi Matsuzawa, Parliamentary Law, Gyosei, 1987, p. 272
- ^ a b Koichi Matsuzawa, Parliamentary Law, Gyosei, 1987, p. 273
- ^ Koichi Matsuzawa, Parliamentary Law, Gyosei, 1987, p. 278
- ^ Nakano Bunko-Miyanaka Satoshi
- ^ Law on general incorporated foundations and general incorporated foundationsArticle 54
- ^ Tokyo Stock Exchange OfTSE Listed Company Corporate Governance White Paper 2021According to P84-85, 82.7% of TSE-listed companies have the president and 14.7% have the chairman as the chairman of the board of directors.
- ^ How to make the board function as chair(Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu LLC）
- ^ Increasing number of corporate board chairpersons and external appointments Supported by the Financial Services Agency, governing reforms incorporating external perspectives(Sankei Digital June 2018, 7 Read June 13, 2021)
- ^ Physical Society of Japan, Chairman's Manual
- Proceedings --A member of the Diet who submits motions regarding the proceedings.In the House of Representatives, it also plays a role in tightening the parliament by saying "Chairman ---!"