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🏛 | G7 agrees on new infrastructure concept to counter China's "One Belt, One Road"


Photo The leaders of each country, including Prime Minister Suga (front right), who will be discussing the second day of the G7 Summit.British Prime Minister Johnson in the back center, Korean President Moon Jae-in on the left = 2th, British Cornwall (AP = joint)

G7 agrees on new infrastructure concept to counter China's "One Belt, One Road"

 
If you write the contents roughly
Against the huge economic zone concept Xi Jinping leadership advances of China "zone Ichiro", huge demand has agreed a new initiative to support the infrastructure of the expected developing countries.
 

[Cornwall Joint] The G7 Summit will be held on the 7th in Cornwall, southwestern England, on the second day ... → Continue reading

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infrastructure

infrastructure(English: Infrastructure) Means "supporting thing" and "substructure"ConceptualIt is a term with the following meanings.

  1. PeoplewelfareImprovement ofNational economyNecessary for the development ofpublic facility..Details in this section.
  2. A term that compares the main equipment of a company or the like to the above (a private property of an organization, but that behaves like a public facility within the organization).

Semantic

Often in JapanInfrastructure Although abbreviated as (infra), infrastructure originally means "below" and "less than", as infrastructure refers to "infra structure".prefixMeans "under" and "low"Latin Derived from inferusSupermarket It is an antonym of (super).

In JapaneseSocial infrastructure,Infrastructure facilities,Economic baseThere is also a translation.

Also, in Japanese, "SubstructureIs used in a different sense derived from the German word "Basis", so "substructure" is rarely used in the sense of infrastructure.

Infrastructure is the basic facility or system that serves a country, city, or other region, including the services and facilities that the economy needs to function.[1][2].

道路-Train-Port-dam-Water and sewerage・(インターネットConnectionBroadbandIndustrial base such as speed)Social capital,andDedicated to pre-school and extra curricular-hospital-park-Social welfare facilityLife-related social capital, etc.[3], Composed of private sector physical improvements, and is also commonly defined as "the physical components of interrelated systems that provide the goods and services essential to enable, sustain, or enhance social living conditions." I came[4].


Overview

PeoplewelfareImprovement ofNational economyNecessary for the development ofpublic facilityPoint to.Also,Information societyInformation network development and new fieldslawIt is also used in the sense of maintenance.

Public welfareForFacilityFor those that are difficult to establish as a private business,Central government,公共 機関Secures construction and managementeconomic growthThe foundation for.To similar termsSocial capitalThere are currently someSocial capitalAs a private sector social capital development by promoting financial structural reforms, etc.PFIThe method has been introduced.

What are the public facilities necessary for improving national welfare and developing the national economy?Dedicated to pre-school and extra curricular,hospital,道路,Port,Industrial land,Public housing,Bridge,Railway line,Bus route,Water supply,Sewer,Electrical,gas,TelRefers to communication facilities, etc.社会OfEconomyFoundation and social生産It is a general term for things that form the foundation.Buildingからパ イ プKind, in some casesElectrical equipment(serverEtc.hardware) The level is applicable.

Usually on the road,River, Bridges, railroads, gas, telephones, etc. This term is used as a general term for things that form a social life infrastructure and a socio-economic and industrial infrastructure, such as schools and hospitals.Public facilitiesAlso included,Land use planningThen roads, rivers, railroads,park,Water,Garbage disposal facility,Human waste treatment facilityEtc.Infrastructure facilitiesIt is said.MainlyPublic worksRefers to the basic facilities of the economy and living environment as social capital.

Merit

Goods that generally fall under infrastructureMarketSupply can be significantly shortage.Therefore, for infrastructure developmentCentral government,MunicipalitiesParticipation, infrastructure may be difficult to supply by the market,Public worksMany are done as.one timeJewelry businessAfter being maintained asSocial capitalAs a result, it has a great positive effect on the supply capacity of the economy.For example, between citieshighwayBy servicingTransportationLower costs, easier factory location,Trade areaThe expansion of the economy will stimulate economic activity in the region.Also,Irrigation facilityBy making, the productivity of farmland will increase dramatically.As a result of these activations, it is necessary for the initial construction and maintenance.costWas recovered,public investmentJustified as.In generalCentral government,公共 機関The collection of what was prepared by the company is done by tax revenue from activation,toll roadIn some cases, it may be collected directly at the user's expense.

River improvement projects such as embankment and dam construction have a large aspect of disaster countermeasures. "Fudai SluiceSee also

As of 2015International Monetary FundPointed out that fiscal spending on infrastructure has been declining over the last three decades, and said it needed to increase fiscal spending to boost the global economy.By improving roads, railroad tracks, digital infrastructure, power grids, etc.CompanyIs easier to improve productivity[5].

Demerit

Structure-WorkpieceIn the case of the infrastructure as a product, maintenance costs will be incurred after maintenance because it is a good.If economic growth is remarkable, infrastructure development is justified by subsequent economic growth, but if economic growth stagnation or population growth stagnation occurs, maintenance costs will increase as a percentage of the infrastructure budget, making new construction difficult. become.Also, if maintenance costs exceed the budget, some infrastructure will be abandoned.

Since “maintenance” of public facilities is a heavy fixed expenditure for national finance, loose development of infrastructure as public facilities is likely to lead to a financial crisis.Also related to infrastructure developmentCore industryIs established, so it is often difficult to reduce the budget.20st centuryIn the latter half of the year, there were many cases where the rational nature of infrastructure development conflicted with the local environment (for example, roads and railroads connecting cities in the shortest distance did not bring any benefit to the residents at the passing point). Conflicts of interest among residents over maintenance have sharpened, and negative public opinion about maintenance has increased.

There is a strong tendency for the industry that controls infrastructure to coalesce with politics, and corruptionOfficials TheOfficial riggingBy building opacity called or corrupt politiciansProfit guidanceHas been rampant among the peopleGovernanceThere is a background that caused distrust of.this isPeople's Republic of ChinaThe largest scale ever promoted by[6][7]Infrastructure investment projectOne belt one roadIt is also an international issue.

Of Japan's infrastructureBuilding・ For construction structuresHigh growth periodMany of them were constructed in Japan, and it is said that these will enter the era of mass renewal after the 2020s.public investmentBecause it has been doneNEWI'm stuck.For this reason,AgingAn accident has occurred.[8]

Sort

The panel of the US National Research Council in 1987 adopted the term "public works infrastructure" with reference to:

"... Both specific functional modes-highways, streets, roads, bridges. Mass transit; airports and airways Water and water resources Wastewater management Solid waste treatment and disposal Power and transmission telecommunications; and hazardous waste management --And the complex system that makes up these aspects. Understanding the infrastructure is not just about these public facilities, but also about interacting with social demands and the physical world to transport people and goods, supply drinking water, and Development procedures and management methods that work with public facilities, various other uses that extend to development policies, safe disposal of social waste, energy supply where needed, and information within and between communities. Communication "[9]

The American Society of Civil Engineers issues an "Infrastructure Report Card" every two to four years, which expresses the organization's views on the state of various infrastructures.[10] As of 2017 There are 16 categories including aviation, bridges, dams, drinking water, energy, hazardous waste, inland waterways, embankments, parks, recreation, harbors, railroads, roads, schools, solid waste, transit water, wastewater, etc. ..

Individual

The way to embody an individual's infrastructure is to think about it in terms of human capital.Human capital is defined in the Encyclopaedia Britannica as "intangible collective resources owned by individuals and groups within a given group."[11] The purpose of personal infrastructure isEconomic agentIs to determine the quality of the value of.[12] This brings about three main jobs: economic power of attorney work in the economic process (teachers, unskilled qualified workers, etc.) The importance of a personal foundation for an individual (short-term and long-term education) Consumption) and the social relevance of personal infrastructure.[11]

system

Institutional infrastructure diverges from the term "economic constitution." According to Gianpiero Torrisi, institutional infrastructure is the subject of economic and legal policies.[11]It jeopardizes growth and sets norms.It refers to the degree of actual equal treatment of equal economic data and determines the framework by which economic agents can develop their own economic plans and work with others to implement them.

Material

Material infrastructure is defined as "an immovable non-circulating capital product that essentially contributes to the production of the infrastructure products and services needed to meet the basic physical and social requirements of an economic entity." ing.[11]Material infrastructure has two different properties. 2) Realization of social needs, 1) Mass production.The first feature deals with the basic needs of human life. The second feature is the lack of access to infrastructure products and services.[11]

Economic

According to the business dictionary, economic infrastructure can be defined as "a domestic facility that enables business activities, such as communications, transportation and distribution networks, financial institutions and markets, and energy supply systems."Economic infrastructure supports productive activities and events.[13] This includes roads, highways, bridges, airports, water distribution networks, sewer systems, irrigation facilities and more.[11]

social

Social infrastructure can be broadly defined as the construction and maintenance of facilities that support social services.[14] Social infrastructure is designed to enhance social comfort and act on the basis of economic activity.These are schools, parks, playgrounds, public security buildings, garbage disposal sites, hospitals, sports areas, etc.[11]

コ ア

Core assets provide essential services and have exclusive characteristics.[15] Investors looking for core infrastructure look for five different characteristics: income, low volatility in earnings, diversification, inflation protection, and long-term debt matching.[15] The core infrastructure incorporates all major types of infrastructure.For example, roads, highways, railroads, public transport, water and gas supplies.

Basic

Basic infrastructure refers to major railroads, roads, canals, ports, docks, telegraphs, drains, embankments, and land reclamation.It consists of better known features of the infrastructure.[11] Things in the world we encounter every day (buildings, roads, docks, etc.).

補 完

Complementary infrastructure refers to light railroads, trams, gas / electricity / water services, etc. Complementing something means bringing perfection or perfecting it.[11]As such, complementary infrastructure handles a small part of the engineering world and brings more and better lives.Sidewalk lights, landscapes around the building, benches for pedestrians to rest, etc.

Related concepts

The term infrastructure can be confused with the following overlapping or related concepts.

Land improvement,Land developmentIs a common term to include infrastructure in some situations, but is not included in infrastructure as they are generally limited to a single in the context of infrastructure discussions. It is only referred to small-scale systems and works, and small-scale land is owned and operated by the land owner.For example, irrigation canals that serve areas and districts are included in the infrastructure, but private irrigation systems for individual parcels are considered land improvement rather than infrastructure.Service connections to municipal services and utility networks are also considered land improvement rather than infrastructure.[16][17]

The term public works includes government-owned and operated infrastructure as well as public buildings such as schools and courts.Public works are generallypublic serviceRefers to the physical assets necessary to provide.Public services include both infrastructure and services generally provided by the government.

Ownership and financing

Infrastructure, either by government or alonePublic utility,Railway companyMay be owned and controlled by private companies such as.In general, most roads, major airports and other ports, water distribution systems, and sewer networks are publicly owned, but most energy and telecommunications networks are privately owned.[Source required] Private infrastructure is generally paid by metered usage fees, while government infrastructure may be paid by taxes, tolls, or metered usage fees.[Source required] Major investment projects are generallyLong-term bondsFunded by the issuance of. ..[Source required]

Infrastructure owned and operated by the governmentPublic sectorIn addition, it may be developed and operated in the private sector or in public-private partnerships. As of 2008 For example, in the United States, on infrastructurePublic spendingHas changed between 1950% and 2.3% of GDP since 3.6 [18] Many financial institutions are investing in infrastructure.

type

Engineering and construction

EngineersGenerally refers to the term "infrastructure" in the form of large networksFixed assetThe usage is restricted to represent.So to speak, it is a hard infrastructure.[Source required] Efforts to make a more general definition of infrastructure are generally referred to in most network aspects of the structure, such as the cumulative value of investment in networks such as assets.[Source required] Defined from the 1998 infrastructure in the sense that "the entire system is a designated asset of service through the continuous replacement and refurbishment of its components and is intended to be maintained as a network indefinitely".[19]

Civil defense and economic development

Civil Defense Program Planner andDevelopment economistIs generallyDedicated to pre-school and extra curricular,hospitalSuch aspublic service, Police, fire department, etc.Emergency service, And basicFinancial servicesRefers to both hard and soft infrastructure, including.The concept of infrastructure-based development, which combines long-term government investment by government agencies at the central and regional levels with public-private partnerships, is in Asia (especially).SingaporeChugoku ), Mainland Europe, and Latin American economists.

Military

MilitaryInfrastructure is the building and permanent equipment needed to support military forces, whether the military is stationed at a base, deployed, or engaged in operations.For example, barracks, headquarters, airfields, communications facilities, military equipment stores, port facilities, maintenance stations, etc.[20][21]

communication

Communication infrastructureInformation technology, Informal and formal communication channels, as well as software development tools,PoliticalandSocial network, Or a belief held by a member of a particular group.Whether it's a city, country, business, or a group of people with common interests, the idea that infrastructure provides organizational structure and the systems or organizational support it provides is still for these more conceptual uses. Underlying.Examples include IT infrastructure, research infrastructure, terrorism infrastructure, employment infrastructure, and tourism infrastructure.[Source required]

Developing country

According to researchers at the Overseas Development Institute, manyDeveloping countriesLack of infrastructure ineconomic growthAchievement of Millennium Development Goals (MDG)Represents one of the most serious restrictions on.Infrastructure investment and maintenance in particularAfricaIt can be very expensive in landlocked, rural and sparsely populated countries.Infrastructure investment contributed to more than half of Africa's growth performance between 1990 and 2005, sustaining growthpovertyIt has been said that increased investment is needed to tackle.The return on investment in infrastructure is very high,Telecommunications Return on investment in (ICT) averages 30-40%,Power generationReturn on investment in 40% or more,道路The return on investment in is 80%.[22]

Regional differences

Infrastructure demand by both consumers and businesses is much higher than the amount invested.[22] There are severe restrictions on the supply side of infrastructure supply in Asia.[23] Asia PacificThe infrastructure lending gap between the investment (about US $ 480 billion) and the required amount (US $ 2,280 billion) is about US $ 1,800 billion annually.[22]

Latin AmericaSo to meet the demandGDP3% (about US $ 710 billion) needs to be invested in infrastructure, but in 2005, about 2% investment alone left a funding gap of about US $ 240 billion.[22]

In Africa, about 2015% of GDP, or about US $ 7 billion in infrastructure investment per year, is required to achieve the calculated annual growth rate of 15% to achieve the MDGs by 930. Become.In fragile states, more than 37% of GDP is considered necessary.[22]

Funding source

Sources of funding vary widely from sector to sector.Government spending in some sectors, othersOverseas Development Assistance (ODA), And is occupied by other private investors.[22] In California, local governments have set up infrastructure financing districts to take advantage of property tax increases to pay for physical facilities and services within certain areas.[24] In order to facilitate private sector investment in the infrastructure markets of developing countries, it is necessary to more carefully design risk allocation mechanisms, taking into account the higher risks of those markets.[25]

Government spending is less than it used to be.Compared to the world's GDP ratio, the United States has an average ratio of 2.4%, which is tied to the penultimate place.This means that the government will reduce spending on repairing old infrastructure and spending on the entire infrastructure.[26]

Sub-Saharan AfricaSo, the government is spending about $ 249 billion out of a total of $ 94 billion.IrrigationSo the government accounts for almost all of the spending.輸送andEnergy fieldSo most of the investment is government spending. With ICTWater supply-In hygiene, the private sector accounts for the majority of capital investment.Overall, aid, private sector, and non-aid among themOECDFundraiser exceeds government spending.Most are focused on ICT infrastructure investment, but only private sector spending is equal to state capital investment. External financing increased in the 2000s (10 years), rising from $ 2002 billion in 70 to $ 2009 billion in 270 in Africa alone.In particularChugokuHas emerged as an important investor.[22]

History

The history of humankind's settlement and the history of infrastructure are similar, but some characteristic history remains.MesopotamiaThe oldest library, dam, tunnel and other infrastructure was born, and it is said to be the "world's first empire".AssyriaThe era ofRoyal roadHe was also constructing a public road that was a precursor to this.

Rome

As the most famous country for infrastructure developmentRomeIs mentioned.Ancient romeIs the road and water and sewage (Roman aqueduct)・amusement facilitiesFor maintenance etc.modernThere are many things that can be understood.Also, thatbuildingTechnologyThe high standard ofModernIt can be said that it was a historical peak leading up to (Roman architecture).Especially the road networkRoman armyDue to the standardization by the Romans, it played a major role in maintaining the vast Roman version (Roman road).But at the end of the empire, maintaining such a large infrastructurecostIs bulky,financecrisisMilitary powerIt is said to have been one of the triggers for the destruction of the empire due to its decline.

Roman architecture, not stoneconcreteIt is noteworthy that the advanced technology of was present.

Railway maintenance

19st centuryPracticalized in the middleTrainWill be put in place all over the world in a short time.That revolutionary "speed" improvement was budding.Nation-stateIt supported the system from the side.In addition, the nature of railways, which can be cut off even at short distances, required military security along the railway lines.ImperialismIt was decided to accelerate the world division of.

The United States of America

1930 era OfWorld DepressionOn the occasion,Franklin RooseveltPresidentBy large-scale infrastructure developmentUnemployedI tried to rescue him.After this, infrastructure will be in demand all over the worldEconomic policyBecame important aseconomic growthIs said to have supported.These economic policies were implemented based on Keynesian economic theory, but his government's public investment did not escape the US economy from the recession following the Great Depression, and the subsequent wartime in World War II. Some scholars argue that the boom was the key to the revival of the American economy.

America ThePower plant-radio-highway(Park road)・Tel-インターネットHas created such infrastructure.

The modern American infrastructure, built in the 1920s and 1930s, has reached the end of its life after more than 50 years.lifeIn the 1980s, the deterioration of roads and bridges became serious and became a social problem.The Reagan administration at the time reduced federal involvement in rural areas.Small governmentHowever, as for measures against aging infrastructure, the Land Transport Support Law was enacted.Gasoline taxThe company has announced a policy of being actively involved, such as raising the price and securing financial resources.Since the 1990s, these measures have been successful, and social losses due to aging infrastructure have gradually declined.[7].

Barack ObamaUS PresidentIt is,BusinessTo make it attractive (logisticsThe second Obama administration plans to increase government spending on roads, bridges and other infrastructure, saying that railroads and highways need to be refurbished.[8].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ Infrastructure | Define Infrastructure at Dictionary.com
  2. ^ (2003). Economics: Principles in Action. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. P. 474. ISBN 978-0-13-063085-8 
  3. ^ Kojien XNUMXth edition
  4. ^ Fulmer, Jeffrey (2009). “What in the world is infrastructure?”. PEI Infrastructure Investor (July / August): 30–32. 
  5. ^ Davos 2015: Gordon Brown urges world leaders to invest infrastructureThe Guardian, 21 Jan 2015
  6. ^ China building biggest infrastructure project in history
  7. ^ Guardian : The $ 900bn question: what is the Belt and Road initiative?(2017 5 年 月 日 20)
  8. ^ NHK Special Survey Report Japan's Infrastructure is Dangerous --NHK Masterpiece Selection (Video / Still Image) NHK Archives
  9. ^ Infrastructure for the 21st Century, Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1987.
  10. ^ 2017 Infrastructure Report, 112pp, American Society of Civil Engineers, 2017
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i Torrisi (January 2009). “Public infrastructure: definition, classification and measurement issues". 2019/6/2Browse.
  12. ^ “Human capital | economics” (English). Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/topic/human-capital 2018/4/25Browse. 
  13. ^ "What is economic infrastructure? Definition and meaning" (English). BusinessDictionary.com. 2018/4/25Browse.
  14. ^ "What is social infrastructure? | ThinkingAloudUK | Thinking Aloud" (English). www.aberdeen-asset.fr. 2018/4/25Browse.
  15. ^ a b Pease (October 2014, 10). “Docs / Public Safety / 2014 Handouts / Robert Pease_Tuesday.pdf Infrastructure Investment Opportunities for Public Safety Plans". 2019/6/2Browse.
  16. ^ Land improvement, Online BusinessDictionary.com, [1] (accessed January 31, 2009)
  17. ^ Land development, Online BusinessDictionary.com, What is land development? Definition and meaning --BusinessDictionary.com (accessed January 31, 2009)
  18. ^ The New York Times, "Money for Public Projects", November 19, 2008 (accessed January 26, 2009)
  19. ^ Association of Local Government Engineers New Zealand: "Infrastructure Asset Management Manual", June 1998. Edition 1.1
  20. ^ DOD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, 2001 (rev. 2005)
  21. ^ DOD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, 2001 (rev. 2005)
  22. ^ a b c d e f g Christian KM Kingombe 2011. Mapping the new infrastructure financing landscape... London:
  23. ^ Peter McCawley (2010),'Infrastructure Policy in Developing countries', Asian-Pacific Economic Literature, 24 (1), May. See also Asian-Pacific Economic Literature Policy Brief No 19, May 2010, on'Infrastructure policy in developing countries in Asia'.
  24. ^ Barclay, Cecily; Gray, Matthew (2016). California Land Use and Planning Law (35 ed.). California: Solano Press. Pp. 585. ISBN 978-1-938166-11-2 
  25. ^ Koh, Jae Myong (2018) Green Infrastructure Financing: Institutional Investors, PPPs and Bankable Projects, Palgrave Macmillan.
  26. ^ “Large economic gains can come from mundane improvements in policy” (English). The Economist,. https://www.economist.com/leaders/2018/10/20/large-economic-gains-can-come-from-mundane-improvements-in-policy 2018/10/25Browse. 

References

  • Koh, Jae Myong (2018) Green Infrastructure Financing: Institutional, PPP and Bankable Projects, London: Palgrave Macmillan.ISBN 978-3-319-71769-2 ISBN   978-3-319-71769-2.
  • Nurre, Sarah G. "Infrastructure System Restore: Integrated Network Design and Scheduling (INDS) Issues" European Journal of Operational Research.. (12/2012), 223 (3), pp. 794–806.
  • Ascher, Kate; researched by Wendy Marech (2007). The works: anatomy of a city (Reprint. Ed.). New York: Penguin Press. ISBN 978-0-14-311270-9  Ascher, Kate; researched by Wendy Marech (2007). The works: anatomy of a city (Reprint. Ed.). New York: Penguin Press. ISBN 978-0-14-311270-9  Ascher, Kate; researched by Wendy Marech (2007). The works: anatomy of a city (Reprint. Ed.). New York: Penguin Press. ISBN 978-0-14-311270-9 
  • Larry W. Beeferman, "Investing Pension Funds in Infrastructure: Materials",Capital problem (Extraordinary dissertation series), 3rd December 2008
  • A. EberleHart, "Infrastructure Regulation in Developing Countries",PPIAF Working Paper No. 4 (2007) World Bank
  • M. Nicolas J. Firzli and Vincent Bazi, "Infrastructure Investment in the Austerity Era: Pension and Sovereign Wealth Fund Outlook," published Q2011 4,Revue Analyze Financière, Pp. 34–37 and USAK / JTW July 2011, 7 (online version)
  • Hayes, Brian (2005). Infrastructure: the book of everything for the industrial landscape (1st ed.). New York City: Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-32959-9  Hayes, Brian (2005). Infrastructure: the book of everything for the industrial landscape (1st ed.). New York City: Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-32959-9  Hayes, Brian (2005). Infrastructure: the book of everything for the industrial landscape (1st ed.). New York City: Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-32959-9 
  • Huler, Scott (2010). On the grid: a plot of land, an average neighborhood, and the systems that make our world work. Emmaus, PA: Rodale. ISBN 978-1-60529-647-0  Huler, Scott (2010). On the grid: a plot of land, an average neighborhood, and the systems that make our world work. Emmaus, PA: Rodale. ISBN 978-1-60529-647-0  Huler, Scott (2010). On the grid: a plot of land, an average neighborhood, and the systems that make our world work. Emmaus, PA: Rodale. ISBN 978-1-60529-647-0 
  • Georg Inderst, "Pension Fund Investment in Infrastructure",OECD Working Paper on Insurance and Private Pensions, No. 32 (2009)
  • Dalakoglou, Dimitris (2017). The Road: An Ethnography of (Im) mobility, space and cross-border infrastructures. Manchester: Manchester University Press / Oxford university Press 

Related item

外部 リンク

One belt one road

One belt one road(Well,pinyin: Yí dài yí lù,English: The Belt and Road Initiative, BRIOne Belt, One Road Initiative, OBOR) IsPeople's Republic of ChinaWith the country promoted by (China)EuropeOverWide area economic zoneIt is a concept.Xi JinpingGeneral Secretary of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist PartyOn June 2013, 9,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu OfNazarbayev UniversityIn his speech atSilk roadBeginning with the proposal to build an "economic belt"[1], Next day2014May 11To China北京市Held atAsia-Pacific Economic Cooperation(APEC) Advocated by General Secretary Xi at the Summit.From ChinaEurasia"Silk Road Economic Belt" by land that connects to Europe viaWhole area) And from the coast of ChinaSoutheast Asia,South Asia,Arabian Peninsula,Africa"21st Century Maritime Silk Road" on the sea route connecting the east coast (One way) In two areasinfrastructureMaintenance,TradePromotion,資金Is a plan to promote traffic[2][3].

The official name isSilk Road Economic Belt and 21st Century Marine Silk Road(Chinese: Belt and Road Economic Road 21st Century Maritime Silk Road,pinyin: Sī chó u zhī lù jīng jì dài hé è r shíyī shì jì hǎi shàng sī chó u zhī lù).

Overview

The largest infrastructure investment plan in history[4][5], 100th anniversary of the founding of the country2049Is aiming for completion[6].. The "One Area" concept was given by General Secretary Xi on September 2013, 9 at Nazarbayev University in Kazakhstan, and the "One Road" concept was on October 7, 10.Indonesian ParliamentIn a speech atAsian Infrastructure Investment BankProposed for the first time with (AIIB)[2].. AIIB and(English edition[7],Silk Road FundExpand infrastructure investment byDeveloping countryToFinancial aidThroughCNY OfInternational reserve currencyIt is said that it aims to establish a world economic zone centered on China through the transformation.[8].

Chinese government OfLee KeqiangPrime MinisterCalls for support from countries along the line and obtains support or cooperation agreements from more than 100 countries and regions[9][10],furtherUnited Nations Security Council[11][12],United Nations General Assembly[13][14],Association of Southeast Asian Nations(ASEAN),Arab League,African Union,European Union(EU),Eurasian Economic Union,Asia Cooperation Dialogue,Latin American and Caribbean Community(CELAC)[15],Shanghai Cooperation OrganizationMany international organizations such as (SCO) have expressed their support[1].. Prime Minister Li Keqiang said, "It is necessary to combine the construction of'Belt and Road'with the development and opening of the region, and strengthen the construction of the New Eurasian Land Bridge and the land and sea customs clearance base."[16]And

2017February, China in Beijing(English editionAnnounced that it will be held in May[17],GuterresUnited Nations Secretary-GeneralOver 70 international organization delegations[18]And Russian President Vladimir Putin and other leaders of 29 countries[18]Decided to participate in government delegations from more than 130 countries around the world, including the announcement of attendance[18][19], The forum was held from May 5th to 14th.

But,G7Most of the leaders were absent due to the attendance of ministerial level, etc.Italian Prime MinisterPaolo GentiloniBecame only[20].. ItalyGreeceIn addition to the above, EU member states are considered to be one of the countries that are active in cooperation with Belt and Road, and laterGiuseppe ConteThe administration has signed a memorandum of understanding with China on the Belt and Road Initiative for the first time in the G7.[20][21].. Japan and the United States, which have forgotten to participate in the AIIB, have dispatched a government delegation, being wary of the Belt and Road Initiative as a huge economic zone led by China.

2017 Year of 10 MonthChinese Communist Party XNUMXth National CongressSo, "One Belt, One Road" was included in the party rules.[22][23].

2019XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,(English editionWas held in Beijing and was attended by the UN Secretary-General and delegations from more than 37 countries including the leaders of 150 countries and Japan, but the United States, which participated last time, did not attend because of increased criticism of the Belt and Road Initiative.[24][25].

Central European train

The Trans-Eurasia Logistics, which is the route of the Belt and Road Initiative,Chongqing-Xin-Europe RailwayFrom before the conceptGermany OfDuisburgOpen to(English edition(English edition TheMainland ChinaEuropeIt is the longest railway line in the world that connects[26], Belt and Road was advocated2013At that time, the number of Trans-Eurasia Logistics trains, which was only 80, was2018Over 1[27][28].. fundamentallyEurasia Landbridge(Eurasian Land Bridge,English: Eurasian Land Bridge)ofBin prefecture line,Jining-ErenViaTrans-Eurasia LogisticsIs typical, but it is not suitable for transportation in the midwinter.ロシアAs a route that bypassesNew Eurasian Land Bridge(New Eurasian Land Bridge,English: New Eurasian Land Bridge)ofNorthern Xinjiang Lineからアゼルバイジャン,ジ ョ ー ジ ジ,トルコRoutes have also been developed[29][30],Tehran,Mother Richard,HairatanAlso tied to[31][32].Hewlett Packard[28],BMW[33]Western companies such asFox con,AcerlikeTaiwanCompany[34],ITOCHU Corporation,Nippon ExpressJapanese companies are also using it for transportation[35][36]..In addition, as part of the Belt and Road Initiative, China will transport cargo and passengers in the Trans-Eurasia Logistics Group, which has different gauges in each country.Speeding upit canVariable gaugeType rail car (Free gauge train) Is developing[37][38].

Silk Road on Ice (Arctic Ocean Route)

oceanThen.Arctic Ocean Route, The North American route is also included as a third route.RussianMurmanskDeveloped the pier, the route is Europe-Russia-Japan-China.this isPresident of the Russian FederationVladimir PutinProposed in the form of connecting the Belt and Road and the Arctic Ocean Route[39], China calls "Silk Road on Ice"[39].

Japan as "Northern Kushiro South Yushinkapo" (Northern Kushiro South Singapore)HokkaidoIn the eastKushiro PortThe gateway to Asia, in the northPort of SingaporeIt is also announced that there is a strong interest in the position[40][41].China Ocean Shipping Group TheGermanyOther than transporting grain from Kushiro Port to Kushiro Port[42],JapaneseMOLIs a joint venture with a Chinese company on the Arctic sea route of RussiaLNGCarrying[43][44][45].

Pacific Maritime Silk Road

(English editionThere is a concept such asLatin AmericaAgreed with countries to build "Pacific Maritime Silk Road"[46][15].

Correspondence of each country

Pakistan

The Belt and Road Initiative in Pakistan is being promoted as the "China-Pakistan Economic Corridor" (CPEC).Imran KhanInaugurated by the Prime Minister in 2019,Pakistan ArmyHas been led by the influential CPEC public corporation.The administrative order for the establishment of the public corporation expired in May 2020,Pakistan ParliamentIs proceeding with the enactment procedure of a bill that gives the public corporation the jurisdiction over the Belt and Road-related business.If established, the latter will report directly to the Prime Minister's Office and will no longer be required to report to the Ministry of Planning and Development, and the latter staff will be given impunity and the right to investigate uncooperative civil servants. [47].

ロシア

2015May 5, General Secretary Xi met with Russian President Vladimir Putin and went to Belt and RoadEurasian Economic UnionIssued a joint statement to connect with[48][49].. same yearMay 11Putin was at that timeThe United States of AmericaWas leadingTrans-Pacific Partnership AgreementCriticized (TPP) and announced that China-Russia Eurasian Economic Union would bring prosperity to the Asia-Pacific[50].

2016May 6 OfSt. Petersburg International Economic ForumPutin is in China,Pakistan,India,(I.e.Focusing on Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) participating countries[51]Announced the "Great Eurasian Partnership" concept to be promoted and the policy of collaborating with China as the first step[52]..Joint research on this concept was agreed upon by President Putin's visit to China on the 25th of the same month.[53], At the China-Russia Summit Meeting on the 24thEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu OfErbeg DorjiPresident raisesMeadow roadThe "China-Mongolia-Russia Economic Corridor Construction Plan Outline" was signed, proclaiming the concept, the Belt and Road Initiative, and the connection of the Eurasian Economic Union.[54][55].

2017At the opening ceremony of the Belt and Road Forum in May, President Putin addressed the Belt and Road, Shanghai Cooperation Organization, Eurasian Economic Union and others as the basis of the Great Eurasian Partnership.[56]..In Kazakhstan in June of the same yearAstanaSupport for Belt and Road at the Shanghai Cooperation Organization Summit[57]The Astana Declaration was adopted.

In a paper published by President Putin for Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) in November 2017, the completion of trade and economic cooperation agreement negotiations between the Eurasian Economic Union and China and the Great Eurasian Partnership Initiative are based on China's Belt and Road Initiative. Is stated to be[58][59], Next day2018Eurasian Economic Union with China in MayTrade and Economic Cooperation AgreementAnd Iran provisionallyFree trade agreementSigned[60].

2019At the second forum in April, President Putin addressed the ongoing Great Eurasian Partnership initiative.[61]..At the St. Petersburg International Economic Forum in June of the same year, China's General Secretary Xi expressed support for the Great Eurasian Partnership Initiative.[62][63]Announced a joint statement between China and Russia stating cooperation to build a Great Eurasian Partnership with Belt and Road[64].

Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu

General Secretary Xi was the first place to launch the Belt and Road Initiative.Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euWe value the relationship with[65], KazakhstanNursultan NazarbayevThe president also raises himself(English edition(The Road of Light) The concept is part of the Silk Road Economic Belt[66]Admitting that it will be connected to Belt and Road[65][67][68].

The United States of America

AmericanDonald TrumpThe administration goes to the Belt and Road International Cooperation Summit ForumAmerican National Security Council(NSC) Dispatched a delegation headed by Senior Asian Director[18][69][70][71]Insisted on transparency and utilization of private capital while announcing preparations for participation of US companies and establishment of working groups[72][73].

Former Presidential Advisor to TrumpCIASecretary(English editionU.S. non-participation in AIIBObama administrationCriticized as a "strategic failure"[74][75][76].

With Trump's supportersPrivate military companyBlackwater usa OfEric PrinceIs Chinese government (CITIC Group Company) Security / distribution companyFrontier Services GroupAs chairman, he supports the Belt and Road Initiative in Africa and elsewhere.[77].. After the Trump administration, meetings of U.S. and Chinese companies began to be held at the U.S. Embassy in Beijing.[78]..When President Trump visited China, he agreed with General Secretary Xi on cooperation with Belt and Road.[79], President Trump himself states that the United States is open about Belt and Road cooperation[80].

But what happened in 2018US-China trade warSince then, the Trump administration has strengthened its criticism of Belt and Road and has forgotten to participate in the 2nd Belt and Road International Cooperation Summit Forum.[24],Vice President of the United States OfMike Pence"One Belt, One Road"Debt-pickled diplomacyI criticized it, but it started[81],United States Secretary of State OfMike PompeoAlso restrains each country participating in Belt and Road[82][83]The United Nations Security Council has also accused the United States of Belt and Road as having "problems with excessive debt and transparency," and has also insisted on removing the wording from the Security Council resolution that had been included in the past.[84][85].

California GovernorJerry Brown[86]Etc. have independently announced their participation in the Belt and Road Initiative and have established a working group.[87].

Japan

JapaneseShinzo AbePrime Minister TheChina's economic and military riseCorresponding toCollective securityAs a concept, freedom,Democracy,Basic human rights,Rule of law,Market economyBased on the valueDiplomacyIn 2006NordicFrom the Eurasian Continent,Northeast asiaAreas that lead toThe arc of freedom and prosperityProposed to build as[88].2007Stated the Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean as one sea of ​​freedom in a speech to the Parliament of India[88],AlsoJapan-US Australia-India Strategy DialogueHas been established.Second Abe administrationIn December 2012 in ChinaSouth China SeaFreedom of navigation across the Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean is being threatened by the challenge in Japan, but Japan, the United States, and Australia are signed.Security diamond conceptAdvocate[89][88], 2013Policy statementHe said that he would deepen cooperation with maritime Asian countries in addition to Japan, the United States, Australia and India.[88].

When China's Belt and Road Initiative was announced from 2013 to 2014, Prime Minister Abe further advanced his maritime strategy.2016In 8 monthAfrican Development ConferenceSo, the marine region from the Indo-Pacific to Africa is free from force and intimidation.Rule of law(Maritime traffic safety(Building execution capacity) ・Freedom of navigation-Free tradeAs a regional order that valuesFree and open Indo-Pacific initiativeWas advocated[88][90][91][92][93].

For the Belt and Road International Cooperation Summit Forum in February 2017Japanese GovernmentIt is,Takaya ImaiPrime Minister Secretary[94],Satoshi MatsumuraDeputy Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry[18],Toshihiro NikaiLDP secretary general,Sadayuki SakakibaraNippon KeidanrenPresident[95]About 50 people[96]After delegating public and private delegations of Japan to appeal for open and fair infrastructure development[97][98], Announced that it will actively cooperate with Belt and Road[99]..Regarding AIIB, Toshihiro Nikai, secretary general, said, "How early should we decide to participate?"[100]Prime Minister Abe stated that he will be positive about AIIB's participation in Japan if the questions such as whether fair governance can be established will be resolved.[100]As for Belt and Road, "I would like to cooperate from the perspective of fully incorporating the common ideas of the international community."[101]Announces cooperation with General Secretary Xi at Japan-China summit meeting[102][103].. The Chinese government welcomed the attitude of the Japanese government[104][105].

In June 2017, Prime Minister Abe announced the Belt and Road Initiative, with conditions such as open access to infrastructure, transparent and fair procurement methods, repayable debt and financial soundness.Pacific RimOf the Indo-Pacific and Belt and Road plans[93].. In the same month, the Japan-China Trading Association established the Belt and Road Communication Council.[106], August 8th Japan-China ruling party exchange council summarized joint recommendations[107]..With Nippon KeidanrenKeizai DoyukaiEncourages consideration of participation in AIIB[108]In November of the same year, the business delegation to China recommended the cooperation of Belt and Road and welcomed the Chinese side.[109].

Donald TrumpIn November 2017, the President announced support for the Indo-Pacific concept along with the Belt and Road concept.[93].

In December 2017, Prime Minister Abe stated his intention to promote the Indo-Pacific Initiative and Belt and Road cooperation.[110][111][112]Formulated private economic cooperation guidelines while designating port developments that could be used by the military as exempt[113][114][115].

20181 month 22 dayPolicy statementBut Prime Minister Abe was welcomed by the Chinese government, expressing cooperation with China on infrastructure development in Asia.[116][117]At a meeting with Prime Minister Li Keqiang on May 5, the same year, an agreement was reached to establish a public-private council in a third country on Belt and Road.[118][119].. Incorporate Japan-China infrastructure development cooperation in third countries into infrastructure system export strategy in June[120]Held the first meeting of the joint public-private committee in Beijing on September 9 of the same year[121].. In October, the Prime Minister of Japan visited Japan for the first time in seven years, and Prime Minister Abe exchanged cooperation documents for joint investment in infrastructure in a third country.[122], General Secretary Xi said, "Building a Belt and Road together is a new platform for China-Japan cooperation."[123].

Governor of Okinawa OfTamaki DennyAs "Japan's gateway" to Belt and RoadOkinawaIs advocating to take advantage of and has gained approval from China[124][125].

Amami OshimaLarge sizeCruise linerIt is said that there is a boost to the Belt and Road in the port of call plan as well.[126].

north korea

north koreaRefuses to apply for AIIB[127]Although it has been reported that China has cooled relations with China over nuclear tests, Foreign Minister Kim Ei-tae attended the 2017 Belt and Road Forum.[128]..The U.S. government has expressed strong concern through the U.S. Embassy in Beijing over China's invitation to North Korea, which has been sanctioned by the international community, at the conference.[129]..North Korea coincides with the opening of the Belt and Road International Cooperation Summit Forum on May 5.Ballistic missileJapan's Prime Minister Abe strongly criticized this[130]..Secretary-General Nikai, who attended, also discussed the response over the phone with Prime Minister Abe and read the protest statement at the summit.[131].

South Korea

South KoreaIs for ballistic missile interceptionTHAAD missileConflicts with China deepened over deployment, and even forum invitations to leaders and ministers were not sent,Korea Institute for International Economic PolicyOnly the directors were expected to attend the forum subcommittee[70]. But,2017 Republic of Korea presidential electionCritical to THAADWen ZaiyinJust before the administration was born, an invitation was sent from China shortly before.[132], Urgently decided to send a delegation[133]..The first contact between South Korean and North Korean dignitaries under the Moon Jae-in administration was also held at the Belt and Road International Cooperation Summit Forum.[134].

India

It is also a member of Shanghai Cooperation Organization and AIIBIndiaIs part of the Belt and Road, May 2017, 5(English editionIs in disputeGilgit-Baltistan(Indian claims are Indian territoryKashmirPassing through the occupied Pakistan territories)sovereigntyNo country accepts a business plan that ignores core concerns about territorial integrity, "said a Foreign Ministry statement.[135]From the Belt and Road International Cooperation Summit ForumNarendra ModiRefused to invite the prime ministers[136]And the only official forum in the worldboycottBecame a country[137].. "We should follow the principle of financial responsibility to avoid doing business that creates an unbearable debt burden in the region," China said.Sri LankaWe are keeping in mind that we are in debt[136].. Russia said to its friend India, "Do not tie political solutions to all other disciplines, even if there are individual problems. Very savvy politicians who can only find ways to benefit from Belt and Road. I believe there is a diplomat in India"[137].. June 2018, ChinaQingdaoAt the summit of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization in India, India also expressed its disapproval of Belt and Road.[138].

problem

From the People's Republic of ChinaLoanReceivedfinanceSoundness and transparencyGovernancecomplianceHuge because there is nodebtTheDeveloping countryHas been inflicted and the land has been taken up as a problem[139][140].

MalaysiaThe ChineseState-owned enterprisePossibility that the loan received from was used for a state fund[141]And excessivecostSuspended railway construction business due to problems (later resumed)[142].

Pakistan has launched a $ 2015 billion project in 620 as a symbolic project of the Belt and Road Initiative that China will unveil to the world.Public fundsA huge amount of debt that cannot be continued unlessInternational Monetary Fund(IMF) andSaudi ArabiaIt was decided to request financial support from[143].. Also, before January 2013,GwadarTransfer of port operating rights to ChinaMarine transportIndia has become a key point ofHu JintaoOf the eraPearl necklace strategyFrom ChinaIndian OceanWas wary of military use of the port facing[Source required].

Sri LankaIn December 11, the infrastructure, which was completed with a loan from China for most of its construction costs, continued to be in the red and was subject to a $ 2000 billion debt cancellation to China.stockHanded over 70% of theHambantota PortWas forced to transfer 99 years of port operating rights to a Chinese company[Source required]..It has been pointed out that the acquired port will be used for military purposes.[Source required].

MyanmarPort business is also pointed out as a case where China's military purpose is suspected.[Source required].. 『Wall Street Journal』\ Paper is China's large-scale financial support,Laos,Maldives, Mongolia,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,ジブチReports that it is facing the risk of repayment of large-scale debt[Source required].

Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euIn case of one belt one roadGovernment bond OfGDP(GDP) ratio increased from 62% to 78%Chinese PLA Djibouti Security BasePutジブチEstimated to jump to 82% at 91%[Source required]..これらの問題の背景として、建設中のインフラは完成した後に中国に返済義務化されているが、事業採算性を判断する能力やThe background to these problems is that the infrastructure under construction is obliged to be repaid to China after it is completed, but the ability to judge business profitability andKnow-howDeveloping countries with a shortage of debt may have accumulated debt[Source required].

Korean newspaper "National daily reportAccording to China's interest-first principle, it is not transparent because it has to make a loan contract from a Chinese bank to a business, and Chinese companies are increasingly borrowing money to do the construction. It is a mechanism to bear[Source required]..China's state-owned "Ring and ball newsAn Indian strategic researcher who was criticized by name(English editionSri Lanka undermines the burden on China, a project by Japaninterest rateIs 0.5%, while the one by Chinese such as Belt and Road is 6.3%, giving the example of Sri Lanka, Belt and Road is "Debt-pickled diplomacyIs pointed out[144][145][146][147].

A country where China is considered as a military base

United States Department of DefenseAccording to the 2020 Annual Report on China's Military TrendsKingdom of Thailand,Myanmar,Pakistan,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,United Arab Emirates(UAE), Singapore,Indonesia,Sri Lanka,セ ー シ ェ ェ,Kenya,Tanzania,アンゴラOf the 15 countries, China is recognized as a country under consideration as a military base.Many of these countries are scattered along the Belt and Road Initiative.The Belt and Road Initiative of the economy runs the risk of becoming a Belt and Road Initiative of the military.[Source required].

footnote

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