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🏛 | International conference from Japan that organizes the relationship between technology and society, behind the scenes


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Behind the scenes of an international conference originating in Japan that organizes the relationship between technology and society

 
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Industrial revolution

Industrial revolution(Sangyo Kakumei,British: Industrial Revolution) Is18st centuryFrom the middle19st centuryA series of things that happened overindustry OfChangeAnd by using coalEnergy revolution, Along with thatSocial structureIt is a change of.

Some of the most important changes in the Industrial Revolution are the various technological innovations in the cotton fabric production process, the growth of the steel industry, and above all.Steam engineRenewal of the power source by the development of.by thisFactory-based machinery industryIs established, and by applying the steam engine to transportationSteam ship,TrainBy the invention ofTraffic revolutionIt is also important that this happened.

Per capita that was stable until then in economic historyGDPSince (gross domestic product) began to increase after the Industrial Revolution, it can be said that economic growth began in the capitalist economy, but the Industrial RevolutionCivil revolutionと と も にModernIt is said that it was an event that heralded the dawn of.Also, the Industrial RevolutionIndustrialization", And based on thatIndustrial revolutionAlso translated as.HoweverThe United KingdomIn addition to the conventional social changes, the term "industrial revolution" is generally used because it is the first industrialization and has world historical significance.

Overview

The word "industrial revolution" was first used1837, EconomistJerome-Adolf BlankiIt is from.afterwards,1844ToFriedrich EngelsSpread byArnold ToinbyEstablished as an academic term because it was used in the work.Originally from the 1760s to the 1830sThe United KingdomIt is a term that refers to the "first" Industrial Revolution that took place in Japan, and along with the Bourgeois Revolution, it is said to be a watershed that divides modern times and earlier.Starting from Englandベルギー,France,America,Germany,ロシア,JapanIt was said that the Industrial Revolution occurred in each country one after another.

Raw material sources and factors that started the world's first industrial revolution in BritainMarketAsColonyExistence ofPuritan Revolution-Honorary revolutionSocio-economic environment improvement and accumulationcapitalOr an environment where funding is easy, andAgricultural revolutionBrought byLabor forceAnd so on.France also had these conditions, but the difference between the twoColonyThe presence or absence of.

The British Industrial Revolution1760 eraIt is said to start with.Seven year warEnded,1763 OfParis TreatyIn America,IndiaBritain's dominance over France was determined.Because the colony itself had existed for a long time, France lost the markets and raw materials needed to spearhead the Industrial Revolution, rather than Britain gaining markets and raw materials in 1763. It should be said.In any case, Britain started the Industrial Revolution ahead of its rival France and was becoming one, not just France.地球It will occupy an advantageous position over all the above countries.In other words, the victory of the Seven Years' War brought BritainModern world systemInhegemonyIt determined the status of the nation.[1].

The British Industrial Revolution1760 eraから1830 eraIt progressed gradually over a relatively long period of time.Not limited to the United KingdomWestern EuropePrior to the "Industrial Revolution" in the regionProto industrializationと 呼 ば れ るInnovationExisted.Therefore, in the first place, long-term, slow, and not the only progress such as the "Industrial Revolution" is "revolutionThere is also a debate about whether it is worth calling.

Earlylight industry"First Industrial Revolution" at the centerElectrical-oilbyHeavy chemical industryAfter the transition toSecond Industrial Revolution"Nuclear power"The present age that uses energy"Tertiary industry revolutionHowever, from the understanding of the Industrial Revolution, which emphasizes such technological forms, it is difficult to make a strong counterargument to the "Industrial Revolution Absence Theory."Therefore, from the viewpoint that the changes in industry and the changes in society that accompany it are not as rapid as a "revolution",IndustrializationIs often expressed by the word.However, the term "industrial revolution" is still used in the case of England.

If you look at EnglandWorking classIs established,Middle classGrowth, andLandlord貴族Establishment of a three-class structure by maturity of the class消费From the 1760s, such as the establishment of society1830 eraA big social change can be found across the "Industrial Revolution period".AlsoWorld historyIf you look atFirst industrializationIn the wake of the British Industrial RevolutionSlave tradeincludingTradeExpansion and internationalDivision of laborIt can be said that a major change on a global scale, such as the establishment of a system, has begun.

This global impact (including the negative side) was not the preceding proto-industrialization.Therefore, the Industrial Revolution needs to be understood from a broader perspective, not just as a technological change, nor as a national event.[2].

Prerequisites for the British Industrial Revolution

Woolen industry and capital

Prior to the Industrial Revolution, a thin fabric called new woolen fabric in EnglandwoolProduct manufacturing was thriving.Originally in England中 世Woolen fabrics have been popular since the end of the periodFlandersThey were exporting relatively thick semi-finished products to.This type of woolen fabric is called an old woolen fabric as opposed to a new woolen fabric.

After that, the mainstream of woolen fabrics changed to new woolen fabrics, and initially England was France andThe NetherlandsI was importing new woolen fabrics fromReformationAfterスペインDue to worsening relationship with輸入StopsNetherlands War of IndependenceEscaped from the continentProtestantAnd start production in their own country.

Such woolen production was often carried out in rural areas, not in cities.This is because surplus labor is always present in rural areas, and although it has been considerably abolished in the United Kingdom, it is easy for free production to be hindered in urban areas due to restrictions.Wholesalers in cities supply raw materials to farmers with equipment, and farmers often produce textiles as a side business.Wholesaler cottage industryWas called.In some cases, this has become even larger, and producers are concentrated in factories for production, so-calledFactory craft industrySome have evolved into (manufacture).SuchRuralIndustrial progressProto industrializationIs called.The capital accumulated in the woolen industry was laterCotton fabricIt is said that it was used in industry and led to the Industrial Revolution.Not so big for the early cotton textile industryCapital investmentWas not necessary.Lower landowners who were the bearers of woolen fabricsGentryAnd other miscellaneousOccupation OfA humanI know the entry of.Many of them are not accumulated capitaldebtIt is said that they provided the necessary funds, and it is said that flexible funding was a problem at that time.

Labor force

From the 18th century to the 19th centuryWestern EuropeIn a series of agricultural technology reforms (especially in the UK)Agricultural revolutionWas called).Lost fallow landFour crop rotationIntroduction of,EnclosureBy intensive land use byfoodWhile production has grown exponentially, small and medium-sized farmers have turned from self-employed farmersWage workerI fell into.However, although he became a wage worker, he did not lose his job and flow into urban areas as previously said.

The new farming method of the Agricultural Revolution required a large amount of land, but it still required manpower for cultivation, and it is correct to say that those who were self-employed farmers became agricultural workers on the same land.Rather brought about by increased food productionpopulationIt can be said that the labor force required for the Industrial Revolution was covered by the increase in the number of workers.

This population increase is occurring not only in the United Kingdom but throughout Western Europe, and is also called.In addition to thisアイルランドPopulation influx from Japan also responded to labor demand, but was exposed to competitionProtestantCaused conflict with British workers of descent,1780ToUKAnti-occurrenceCatholicIt also caused a riot.

Overseas colonies and the commercial revolution

Capital accumulation and population growth, in any case, rather than being unique to BritainEuropeAs is often said, there was not much difference between Britain and France on the eve of the Industrial Revolution.Rather than Britain in terms of handicraftsContinental europeIt is said that the countries were slightly more developed.

The reason why the Industrial Revolution that did not occur in France occurred in England was that it was in England but not in France, that is, a vast overseasColonyMet.The importance of foreign colonies in the Industrial Revolution can be seen in the fact that many of the miscellaneous industrial products produced in the early Industrial Revolution were directed to regions outside Europe.Due to the rise of foreign trade,British Commercial RevolutionThe rapid commercial growth called, has made Britain able to accumulate the capital needed for the Industrial Revolution.Also,guildReforms of domestic commerce itself, such as the abolition of

Demand and market protection

Made in IndiaCalicoAgainst cotton fabricsneedHowever, the only products that could be exported from the United Kingdom were woolen fabrics, and there was little demand for woolen fabrics in warm regions such as India, so the UK's trade balance in the 18th century always had a large trade deficit. Was there.In order to improve this, domestic production of cotton fabric has been promoted.The cotton fabric industry was mainly establishedLancashireIt is a rural area, sandwiched between the woolen industrial zone in the east and the hemp textile industrial zone in the west, where the capital, know-how and technology of both industries can be used.[3]..The cotton fabric produced in this wayflaxThe cotton fabric industry, which gained a market, gradually grew as the cotton blend (Fastian) was sent to the Atlantic Triangular Trade for export due to poor quality.[4].. furtherLife revolutionAs a result, the demand for other miscellaneous industrial products has increased dramatically.As a result, a domestic market was formed that absorbs and consumes the increase in product production capacity brought about by industrialization.

Improvement of technical capabilities

Machines such as steam engines and spinning machines, which have been the driving force of the Industrial Revolution, require technology to accurately produce and combine many parts and finish them so that they operate without deviation, and advanced technical capabilities are required to create them. Be done.The technology to combine such a large number of parts and operate them accurately isclockIt was brought about by the development of industry.Watches are advanced mechanical products that do not work without the correct combination of many parts, but in the late 18th centuryJohn Harrison OfChronometerWatchmaking technology has made great strides as represented by the development of the United Kingdom, France and France.スイスThere was a group of craftsmen with advanced technology who could produce watches by division of labor.This machine manufacturing technology and system was applied as it was to the manufacturing of industrial machines in the early days such as steam engines and spinning machines, and became the technical basis of the Industrial Revolution.[5].

Progress of the industrial revolution

Improvement of loom / spinning machine

The most important of the driving forces of the British Industrial RevolutionCotton fabricVarious technological innovations in the industry.The beginning of such technological innovation was1733John KayBut,loomIs part of杼ImprovedFlying shuttle(Flying shuttle) was invented.This eliminated the need to move the shuttle by hand and speeded up the loom.This was only one improvement in the process, but it was traditional because it speeded up cotton production.spinning wheelThe cotton yarn production capacity could not keep up with the demand in spinning using.Therefore, to meet the strong demand1764ToHargreaves Spinning jennyInvented.This was a multi-screw spinning machine that could simultaneously pinch 1 threads (later improved to 8 threads) instead of the conventional hand-grinding machine taking threads one by one.However, at this stage, spinning still depends on human power and skill, and due to the small size of the Jenny spinning machine, this spinning machine has become widespread in rural industrial areas.

1771,Richard Arkwright Hydraulic spinning machineWas developed.It is a machine that stretches cotton with a roller and then twists it. It is not a small machine like the Jenny spinning machine, but a large machine that cannot be moved by human power, so it uses hydraulic power.Since it cannot be used in a private house, a factory was set up, a machine was installed, and hundreds of workers were worked to produce a large amount of cotton thread.Thismass productionThis has made it possible, and the location is no longer restricted, and workers who are skilled in spinning work are no longer needed, which has been hindered by workers who fear unemployment and their peers.This invention marked the beginning of a full-scale factory-based machinery industry.

And it has these characteristics togetherSamuel Crompton OfSpinning mule 1779Born in cotton threadSupplyIs improved.That is, the yarn of the spinning jenny was thin but easy to break, and the yarn of the hydraulic spinning machine was strong but thick, so the spinning mule was born in an attempt to make a thin and durable yarn.What is a mule?MuleSo, in shortA horseとロ バIt means that it took the advantage of.

Although the spinning process was greatly improved by these inventions, the weaving process had not been significantly improved since the shuttle and the production capacity was insufficient.Therefore, in response to thisEdmund Cartwright Steam enginePowered byPower loomThe1785Invented in.As the name implies, it was the world's first powered loom, which further increased production speeds.Also in the supply of raw cotton1793To americanEli WhitneyInvented a cotton gin, which greatly improved the worsted cotton and supplied a large amount of raw cotton.Spinning mules have long been the mainstay of the spinning process, but they are constantly being improved by many.1830Fully automated by Richard Roberts.

As described above, as a result of the improvement of the problems in various places, the productivity has been accelerated.With the synergistic effect of solving problems creating production surplus or promoting production increase in the previous process and increasing production efficiency, the final product can now be produced at a ratio that cannot be compared with the past.As a result of these improvements, British cotton fabric production has increased dramatically and quality has been improved so that it can be exported worldwide.1802から1803At last, it has surpassed the export of woolen fabrics, which was the main industry in the UK until then.[6], Cotton fabric has become a new main British industry.

Improvement of steelmaking technology

Along with the textile industry, it was the driving force behind the British Industrial Revolution.Steel industryIs.Demand for iron products had already increased in Britain since the 16th century, but at that timecharcoalWhile responding to the rapidly growing demand for ironwoodIs seriously in short supply, in the 17th centuryロシア,スウェーデンIt was a situation of importing iron from.Coal has been used as fuel for ordinary households since this time in order to cope with the shortage of charcoal.This is because there was abundant coal in England.However, all attempts to use coal for steelmaking were unsuccessful because the sulfur content of coal made iron brittle.

Entering the 18st century,1709ToAbraham DerbyI steamed coalCokeAlthough the situation has changed with the development of the coke ironmaking method that uses FINEX for ironmaking, it took several decades for this ironmaking method to become widespread.1735Was further refined by his son Abraham Darby II, and from around 2 the coke ironmaking process became widespread throughout England. In the 1750sBenjamin HuntsmanBy the crucible steelmaking method of good qualitysteelWas also made, but this steel could not be mass-produced and made available to the public.[7].. In the 1760sJohn SmeatonImproved the blower for the blast furnace[8]By combining this with a Watt steam engine, the ventilation process became even more efficient.By the way1784Henry CortPuddling methodInvented, which made it possible to mass-produce high-quality wrought iron.[9].

The demand for such iron was initially driven by light industrial products that were used by the Seikatsu Kakumei, but as the Industrial Revolution progressed, industrial machinery andTrainMore iron was needed for this.Industrial machines made in England1774Although exports to overseas were banned,1825This ban was lifted, and after that, excellent British machines were exported overseas, and industrialization in Germany and other countries was promoted.

Development of various industries

The invention and development of various industrial machines gave birth to the machine industry that produced the industrial machines, and the processing technology for producing the machines continued to develop.1774John Wilkinson, a steelmaker, invented a boring machine, which greatly improved the accuracy of the inner surface of cylinders and the like.With this improvement in accuracy, the premise that the operation of the Watt steam engine, which will be described later, can be guaranteed has been established.Also,1800ToHenry MoseleyIs practical thread cuttinglatheInvented[10]By doing so, the threads are of a unified size.screwBeing able to produceboltとnutHas become possible for mass production in a compatible manner.Until then, the pair of bolts and nuts was the only one in the world.compatibilityI didn't even ask for it.With this, Henry MoseleyMachine ToolsAlso known as the father of.

In addition, the development of other industrial technologies also progressed during this period.1791In FranceNicolas LeblancIs soda ash (sodium carbonate) Invented the mass production methodLeblanc methodByalkaliUse in large quantitiesガ ラ スThe bottleneck of raw material supply in industries has been resolved, and glass production has increased.Paper industryIn1798Louis-Nicolas Robert of France is a continuous typePaper machineInvented1799Henry Ford Linear of England put this into practical use.[11].PrintIn the industry1800Charles Stanhope (Stanhope) of England is made of iron and manually Stanhope (Stanhope)PrinterInvented and replaced the old wooden Gutenberg printing press.1811Friedrich Koenig of Germany developed a steam printing press[12]By improving papermaking and printingPublicationBecame even more popular.Building materialsInJohn Smeaton Hydraulic limeResearch on cement has progressed since the conditions of hydraulic lime were identified.1824ToJoseph Aspdin Portland cementInvented, and thereaftercementHas come to occupy the position of an important building material.照明Even in1792ToWilliam Murdoch Gas lampInvented and became popular in Europe in the early 19th century.

Power source development

The price of charcoal, which was an energy source at that time, was steadily rising due to the limit of wood resources.Coal appeared there.The energy revolution was about to take place.Although coal had various drawbacks compared to charcoal, it was not restricted in production, which prompted an increase in coal production.

When coal mining became popular,Coal mineAccumulate ingroundwaterProcessing became a problem.Under these circumstances1712ToNewcomenDrainage using a steam enginepumpHas been put into practical use.However, this is inefficient, and it is said that one-third of the coal produced was used to operate the steam engine, but anyway, this improved mine drainage and increased coal production.

1765,James WattFrom the steam engineCondenserWith the independence of the steam locomotive, the capacity of the steam engine has increased significantly, and it has become a truly revolutionary power source.This has significantly improved energy efficiency, saving 75% of fuel.It took some time to put it to practical use,1775ToMatthew BoultonWith the investment ofBoulton and WattSince the establishment of the company, the design has progressed smoothly,1776The first practical Watt steam engine was completed in.Furthermore, Watt1781ToPlanetary gear mechanismPatented for steam engine energyPiston movementSucceeded in converting from to circular motion[13]..With this improvement of the steam engine, the steam engine has been applied not only to mine drainage but also to various machines.Until then, the factory had to be built along the river to use hydraulic power, but Watt's improvement of the steam engine made it possible to leave the river and build a factory near the city.This will allow the emerging commercial and industrial cities to grow further, but on the other hand.OvercrowdingWill lead to deterioration of the living environment.Watt banned the use of steam engines at high pressures to prevent explosions,1800When Watt's patent expires[14]Richard Trevithick and others immediately increased the pressure of the steam engine, and the steam engine whose output soared became more versatile.

Development of means of transportation

With the development of the industry, the means of transportation within the UK have gradually improved.The earliest improvement of transportation means is mainlycanalMade by the construction of.The trigger wasEarl of BridgewaterFrancis Egerton 1761Was built in[15]..This canal is the territory of the Earl of Bridgewater, a coal mine and an industrial cityManchesterIt was a huge success, and Manchester's coal prices fell by half.[16]Besides, I was able to save a lot of money.This success has created imitations everywhere,1760 eraから1830 eraIn EnglandCanal ageAn era called has emerged.Especially in the early 1790sCanal feverA canal construction / investment boom called ", and the construction of the canal progressed rapidly.The development of this canal network has secured stable mass transportation in various places and has become one of the major forces promoting the Industrial Revolution.[17]..Also, in mines that have to rely on land routes,lineLaying and on itDollyIn the latter half of the 18th century, rails were made of cast iron, and horse-drawn carriage railroads that let horses pull cars instead of human power were introduced, and they are used in many mines. It was supposed to be.Also, by the early 19th century, the so-called MacadampavementWas put into practical use, and the road was greatly improved.

However, at this point, no drastic improvements had been made to the transportation system itself.However, as the steam engine was improved, attempts were made to use the steam engine as a means of transportation.The earliest of these attempts was put into practical use.Steam shipAnd1807ToRobert FultonCan be sailed by riverPaddle steamerWas put to practical use[18]..Paddle steamers could not be used for ocean navigation because they were vulnerable to rough seas, but in the 1830s improved paddle steamers began to sail in the ocean.However, steamships began to be used in earnest in the 1840s because of their high speed and high stability.Screw propellerIt took until was developed[19]..Also, during the Industrial RevolutionsailboatIs also being improved,Rapid sailing shipIt was not until the 1850s after the end of the Industrial Revolution in Britain that the high-speed sailing ship called (Clipper) appeared and the sailing ship reached its heyday.[20]..For this reason, it should be noted that steamships did not replace sailing vessels at this time.

また1804ToTrevithickBysteam locomotiveWas invented.This steam locomotive was not practical, but after that, the steam locomotiveGeorge StephensonImproved by1825Is the world's first commercial railwayStockton and Darlington RailwayHas opened.Further improvements to the steam locomotive have been promoted.1829ToRobert StephensonDesigned byRocketThe basic mechanism was completed by.The following 1830Liverpool and Manchester RailwayWith the opening of the steam locomotive and it runsTrainThe system was completed[21]..In contrast to the slow spread of steamships, the spread of railroads, where there was no other high-speed transportation system on land that could compete with them, was rapid, and by the late 1830s the railroad network had already been developed. Has begun to move forward, with 1850 miles of railroads open by 6,000.[22]..In addition, railroads were quickly transmitted to countries, and by the 1830s, the United States, France, Germany, and even more.ロシアRailways were also opened in these countries, and around 1850, a considerable length of railway network was opened in these countries as well.The development of these means of transportation is "Traffic revolutionIs called.Railroads were not the driving force of the Industrial Revolution in Britain, but a fruit, and Britain became the only nation to achieve the Industrial Revolution without railroads.[23]..Railroad laying was a prerequisite for the Industrial Revolution and industrialization of latecomers.

Social change and impact

The Industrial Revolution was a very long and gradual change from the 1760s to the 1830s, but the appearance of society changed drastically before and after the Industrial Revolution.The proportion of farmers decreased and the number of commerce and industry workers increased sharply, but the number of workers engaged in the mining industry increased significantly.As the ratio of industry increased, many workers began to live in cities, and urbanization gradually began to progress from this time.The production system up to that pointDomestic handicraftからFactory craft industryInstead of (manufacture), the proportion of so-called factory-based machinery industry, in which large-scale factories are built in cities and produced by machines, has increased.However, it should be noted that even in the United Kingdom, the factory-based machinery industry was not the mainstream of industrial production until after the 1830s, and the handicraft industry remained in various places.[24]..In addition, in this trend, stratification occurs among those engaged in industry, and the industry that owns the factory.CapitalistWork in the layer and the factoryWorkerThe layer was established.

The progress of the Industrial Revolution and the resulting increase in industrial production have brought about an increase in the power of industrial capitalists who own factories.SuffrageThere was also a growing demand for.This movement1832ToWhig partyGray Cabinet has an extremely small population, the so-called "Rotten and pocket boroughAbolishedbourgeoisThis led to the expansion of voting rights to the strata.In the midst of these movements, the industrial capitalists have deepened their ties with the traditional landowners and aristocrats to join the ruling class, but on the other hand, the dissatisfaction of the workers has also increased significantly.The standard of living of workers is very low, and in mines and factorieschild labourProblems such as were also serious.1811から1812OverLuddite exerciseProtests such as have come to be repeated.This conflict between capitalists and workers became even more serious as industrialization progressed, and became one of the important undercurrents of world politics thereafter.

Britain's industrial production accounted for half (1820%) of the world's industrial production in the 50s, when it was at its peak. From then on, Britain continued to be the world's largest industrial production until the 1870s. Came to be called "the factory of[25].

The standard of living during the Industrial Revolution has always been a source of controversy.Especially in urban areas, there is a view that the development of urban development technology and the development of hygiene ideas cannot keep up with the population increase, the wage level is low, and the living standard is lower than before the Industrial Revolution, but the transportation cost is reduced. In particular, there is a view that the improvement in the clothing situation due to the fall in the price of cotton fabrics offset it to a large extent.

Propagation outside the UK

The Industrial Revolution is almost complete in the UK1830 eraWhen you enter, countries other than England (Wealthy soldiersEuropean and American homes that promotedBakumatsuからMeijiEarlyJapan) Also spread the Industrial Revolution.The first thing that the Industrial Revolution spread wasベルギーso,1830The Industrial Revolution has begun almost at the same time as the independence of.The reason Belgium has spearheaded the Industrial Revolution is in the southWalloniaAbundant in the areaIron oreとcoalDue to the fact that it was buried in Europe and that it was located in the center of Europe and was blessed with convenient transportation.Then, at about the same time,July MonarchyEntered the periodFranceWhen,US-UK war(1812 -1814) Later, economic independence from Britain deepened, and further development in the west is progressing rapidly.AmericaBut the Industrial Revolution has begun.The biggest difference in the Industrial Revolution between Britain and the rest of the world is the presence or absence of railroads. The steam locomotive-type railway, which was put into practical use in 1825, quickly spread to Europe and American countries, transforming the transportation system.In addition, these latecomers were able to develop by incorporating the preceding British technology and social systems, allowing for faster growth.However, the speed of the Industrial Revolution in these countries varies from country to country. For example, in France, the progress of the Industrial Revolution is slow, and it is not possible to start progressing rapidly.Napoleon IIIbySecond EmpireHad to wait[26].

For these starting countries1834 OfGerman Customs UnionThe German countries, which gained a vast common market due to their establishment, started the Industrial Revolution in the 1840s.Then in the latter half of the 19th centuryイタリア,ロシアAndスウェーデンNordic countries such asAsiaWas the world's largest economy until thenChugokuとIndiaLost in the war with Britain and failed in industrialization, the only oneJapanSucceeded in the Industrial Revolution and built an industrialized society.While the British Industrial Revolution was achieved "from below" almost exclusively by private capital, in many of these latecomers the government was actively working to foster industry, promoting the so-called "from above" Industrial Revolution. It was.Countries that have succeeded in industrialization, countries that have not been industrialized, and countries that have succeeded in industrializationColonyThe difference in national power between Japan and Japan has become very large compared to before the Industrial Revolution.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ I. Wallerstein "Modern World System 1730-1840s -The Age of the Atlantic Revolution-" The University of Nagoya Press 1997
  2. ^ Yukio Mochida et al., "Introduction to Western Modern History Studies [Augmented and Revised Edition]", The University of Nagoya Press, 1999, p.19.Or Minoru Kawakita "The Age of the Atlantic Revolution" ("Iwanami Lecture World History17 ”Iwanami Shoten, 1997) etc.
  3. ^ "World Economic History" p303 Katsumi Nakamura Kodansha Academic Bunko, 1994
  4. ^ "10 Lectures on British History" p188 Kazuhiko Kondo Iwanami Shinsho, 2013
  5. ^ "World History of Rise and Fall 13 Modern European Conquest" p183-184 Norihiko Fukui Kodansha December 2008, 12 17st print
  6. ^ "10 Lectures on British History" p189 Kazuhiko Kondo Iwanami Shinsho, 2013
  7. ^ "How People Made Iron 4000 Years of History and Principles of Ironmaking" p100-102 Kazuhiro Nagata Kodansha Bluebacks May 2017, 5 First print issued
  8. ^ "Fire and humans" p73 Hiroshi Isoda Hosei University Press April 2004, 4 First edition, first edition
  9. ^ "How People Made Iron 4000 Years of History and Principles of Ironmaking" p102-104 Kazuhiro Nagata Kodansha Bluebacks May 2017, 5 First print issued
  10. ^ "Fire and humans" p113 Hiroshi Isoda Hosei University Press April 2004, 4 First edition, first edition
  11. ^ "Visual Edition of the History and Culture of Books: The Power of 5000 Years of Books" p133 by Martin Ryans Translated by Fumiya Kuramochi Translated by Yasuyoshi Miyoshi Hiiragifusha May 2012, 5 22st print
  12. ^ "Visual Edition of the History and Culture of Books: The Power of 5000 Years of Books" p132 by Martin Ryans Translated by Fumiya Kuramochi Translated by Yasuyoshi Miyoshi Hiiragifusha May 2012, 5 22st print
  13. ^ "Fire and humans" p92 Hiroshi Isoda Hosei University Press April 2004, 4 First edition, first edition
  14. ^ "Fire and humans" p106 Hiroshi Isoda Hosei University Press April 2004, 4 First edition, first edition
  15. ^ "Urban Regeneration from the Waterside" p184 Yuji Miura, Hidenobu Jinnai, Katsuhide Yoshikawa, Kajima Institute Publishing, February 2008, 2
  16. ^ "UK in the Georgian Age" by Georges Minowa Translated by Ririko Tezuka and Takasuke Tezuka Shiramizusha Bunko Kuseju 2004/10/10 p.81
  17. ^ "Commercial History" p172 Akio Ishizaka, Kinzaburo Toshinaga, Minoru Morota, Yukio Yamashita Yuhikaku November 1980, 11 First edition, first edition
  18. ^ "The Birth of Around the World: The Origin of Globalism" p46 Hidehiro Sonoda Bunshu Shinsho July 15, 7 First print issued
  19. ^ "The British Empire of the Sea of ​​Asia" p39 Katsuhiko Yokoi Kodansha March 2004, 3 First print issued
  20. ^ "The Story of the Rapid Sailing Ship Clipper in the Age of Sail" p4 Akinori Sugiura Chuko Shinsho Published June 54, 6
  21. ^ "History of Japanese Railways, Bakumatsu, Meiji Edition" p2 Yoshinobu Oikawa Chuko Shinsho Published May 2014, 5
  22. ^ EJ Hobsbawm "Industry and Empire" Translated by Masao Hamabayashi et al., Miraisha, 1984, p.132
  23. ^ "Oxford Modern History of Europe" p55 TCW Brunning ed. Translated by Yukio Mochida and Shiro Yamada Minerva Shobo September 2009, 9 First Edition First Edition
  24. ^ "Oxford Modern History of Europe" p62 TCW Brunning ed. Translated by Yukio Mochida and Shiro Yamada Minerva Shobo September 2009, 9 First Edition First Edition
  25. ^ "Western History: Modern and Contemporary" p116 Shoichi Oshita, Haruhiko Hattori, Yukio Mochida, Masao Nishikawa (Minerva Shobo, 1988)
  26. ^ "Oxford Modern History of Europe" p71 TCW Brunning ed. Translated by Yukio Mochida and Shiro Yamada Minerva Shobo September 2009, 9 First Edition First Edition

References

  • "Great Divergence-China, Europe, and the Formation of the Modern World Economy" Kenneth PomeranzWritten and translated by Minoru Kawakita, The University of Nagoya Press, 2015.
  • (Swedish version) "Industrial Revolution and Government-The Visible Hands of the State" Translated by Toshiaki Tamaki, Chisen Shokan, 2012.

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