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🏛 | Female / female emperor see-off order of succession to the throne, unchanged


Photo: A meeting of experts held at the Prime Minister's Office to discuss stable measures to succeed to the throne = 16th afternoon

Sending off female and female emperors, the order of succession to the throne, unchanged

 
If you write the contents roughly
It was decided that confusion should be avoided because the imperial system could be upset if the current ranking was reviewed.
 

At the 16th meeting on the 7th, the Council of Experts (chairman Atsushi Seike, former president of Keio University) discussing stable measures to succeed to the throne ... → Continue reading

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Emperor System

Emperor System(Uranus,English: Japanese Monarchy)EmperorCentered onJapan OfMonarchy,National systemIs[1]..In a narrow senseImperial Japanese ConstitutionUnderMonarchyIn a broad sense, the pre-modern emperor system andThe Constitution of JapanUnderSymbolic emperor systemAlso include[2].

the term

meaning

Dictionaries and encyclopedias that describe the meaning of the term "emperor system" include:Most refer to the system centered on the emperor, and in a narrow senseImperial Japanese ConstitutionUnderMonarchyRefers only to the emperor system, which is, in a broad senseThe Constitution of JapanUnderSymbolic emperor systemAnd the ancient emperor system.

  • "Japan centered on the emperorNational regime("Japanese History Dictionary"[3]
  • "A political system in which the emperor is the monarch or symbol of the country." ("Imidas])
  • "In a broad sense, the pre-modern emperor systemSymbolic emperor systemIn the narrow sense, includingMeiji RestorationからdefeatFor up toModernRefers to the emperor system "(" Iwanami Japanese History Dictionary ""[4]
  • "Widely, the system of the nation with the emperor as the monarch. (Omitted) It is used in many narrow senses and refers to the modern emperor system from the Meiji Restoration to 1945."Encyclopedia mypedia"[5]
  • "In a broad sense, the Japanese national system with the emperor as the supreme authority. The ancient emperor system. In the narrow sense, the emperor established by the Constitution of the Dainichi this empire is the political and spiritual supreme authority. System. "("Daijirin Third edition[5]
  • "In a narrow sense, it refers to a national system in which the emperor is the source of authority for monarchs or political control, and in a broader sense, the term emperor system is used, including the social structure and domination ideology that underpins such a national system. . "("Complete Encyclopedia of Japan Nipponica "[5]
  • "The governing system in which the emperor is the monarch. In particular, it refers to the political system under the Constitution of the Empire of Japan. Also, the system of the emperor as a symbol of the country under the current constitution is sometimes called the emperor system." Edition Japanese Language Dictionary "[5]
  • "A term that refers to a monarchy peculiar to Japan. In a narrow sense, it refers to the modern emperor system from the Meiji Restoration to the defeat in World War II, but in a broader sense it also includes the ancient emperor system and the symbolic emperor system after the war." (""World Encyclopedia 2nd edition "[5]

Term history

The term "emperor system" is a national controversy in the early Showa period (Japanese capitalist debate,1932 years thesisEtc.)MarxismAppeared as a term,Second World WarAfter the conclusion, it became established as a social science term ("World Encyclopedia 2nd edition "[5]).

Since 1945, the use of the term "emperor system" has gradually become commonplace in newspapers and parliament.

  • News (Chinese)
    • Sports Hochi --October 1945, 10 "Emperor system decided by the will of the people"[6], December 12, "(Editorial) Freedom to discuss the emperor system"[7], December 12, "(Editorial) Shinto and Emperor System"[8]
    • Asahi Shimbun --October 1945, 10 "The fate of the emperor system, it is a good idea to ask the election"[9], November 11 "Voice of the World on the Emperor System"[10], November 11, "Public Opinion Poll of the Emperor System"[11]
    • Nihon Keizai Shimbun --June 1978, 6 "Heavy Emperor System Debate"[12]
    • Chunichi Shimbun --May 1988, 5 "22% support the emperor system"[13]
    • Mainichi Newspapers --January 1990, 1 "I don't see the emperor system taboo"[14],
    • Sankei Shimbun --May 1995, 5 "(Claim) Emperor System and Popular Sovereignty Considering the Constitution"[15], August 2013, 8 "(Editing Diary) End of War Day and Emperor System"[16]
  • Diet (2 cases on the first use date in the minutes)
  • Prime Minister (minutes of the Diet)
    • Satoshi Katayama --September 1947, 9 "((Human emperorAbout) There, the new emperor system of our country is shown. "[19]
    • Ichiro Hatoyama --January 1955, 1 "(Regarding constitutional amendment) Regarding the emperor system, this is a serious problem."[20]
    • Shinsuke Kishi --March 1957, 3 "(The EmperorHeadIt does not mean to revive the emperor system or to become the head of state in the sense of increasing the emperor's political power. "[21]
    • Hayato Ikeda --January 1964, 1 "(Regarding constitutional amendment) Our party clearly states that we are not thinking about the revival of the emperor system, the conscription system, or the reconstruction of the old family system."[22]
    • Masayoshi Ohira --June 1979, 6 "(The Showa era) has something to do with the emperor system from two perspectives."[23]
    • Yasuhiro Nakasone --November 2004, 11 "We have been inherited by the islands of Northeast Asia and have formed a unique culture and unique ethnic life under the emperor system."[24]
    • Junichiro Koizumi --February 2006, 2 "I want to bring the emperor system, which is a symbol of national unity, to a form that maintains the history and tradition of Japan."[25]
  • Supreme Court
    • 1948/5/26 Placard incident Judgment sentence "(The form of Japanese rule) the existence of the emperor system was also a matter that should be decided by the free will of the people."[26]
  • Political party
    • LDP --2011 Party Convention Party Information Report "(Regarding Constitutional Amendment) Presented issues that should be further discussed, such as the preamble to the Constitution, the Emperor System, the national flag and anthem, Article 9, unicameral or bicameral system, local autonomy, and amendment clauses. "[27]
    • Japan Restoration Party --2017 Statement "I think it is necessary to continue discussions in the Diet on the emperor system and the imperial system."[28]
    • Komeito --2019 News "The symbolic emperor system has taken root among the people."[29]
    • Japan Communist Party --2004 81st Anniversary Lecture "We are in a position to eliminate the emperor system with the spirit of democracy and human equality as our goals."[30]

Criticism of the term

From the standpoint of conservatives and emperors, avoiding the word "emperor system"Royal family"Or"National body"(Kokutai, Kunigara, Kuniburi) and other words are also used.Eiichi TanizawaIn his 2001 book, "The name of the emperor system is a term for hating, degrading, and swearing at His Majesty the Emperor and the imperial family. It would be reasonable to use it. "[31]Also, according to Tanizawa, the novelistRyotaro ShibaSaid, "The word emperor system is an excuse word, and malicious intent is input."[31].

Emperor system absolute principle

Emperor system Absolutism (or absolutist emperor system) is the emperor system under the Constitution of the Empire of Japan.AbsoluteismA term from the perspective of being regarded as. Socialist and Communist in the 1930sLecture groupUsed by[32]..The Meiji Restoration is incomplete for the lecture groupbourgeoisAfter the bourgeois revolution, it is a revolution and the current situation is a semi-feudal landowner system.Socialism-CommunismAiming for a revolution (Two-stage revolution theory).On the contraryLabor groupThe Meiji Restoration is a bourgeois revolution, and the current situation is資本主義-ImperialismTherefore, he said he would aim for a socialist and communist revolution (One-step revolution theory).Japan Communist PartyDescribes the emperor system under the Constitution of the Emperor of Japan as "a tyranny (absolutist emperor system) in which the emperor has full authority to govern the country" in the platform (revised in 2020).[33].

HistorianTakashi IshiiIt is,Meiji RestorationAs a pure feudal systemBakuhan systemWas dismantled and the absolutist emperor system and nation were established.[34].

Emperor Fascism

Emperor system under the Constitution of the Empire of JapanfascismA term from the perspective of being regarded as a type of.

Symbolic emperor system

Under the Constitution of JapanSymbolA term that refers to the emperor system as.

Overview

Yamakawa Shuppansha's "Dictionary of Japanese History" summarizes the "emperor system" as follows.That is, "Ancient timesAtReligiousOfauthorityCentered on the emperor against the background ofRitual systemA nation was formed,Samurai politicsAge (especiallyEdo Period) Lost the emperor's political power[3].Meiji RestorationWith that as an opportunityTraditionModernity centered on the emperor against the background of authorityNation-stateConstruction was advanced[3].1889(Meiji 22) PromulgationImperial Japanese ConstitutionStipulated that the Emperor was the general sovereign of the sovereignty, and stipulated that the sovereignty should be exercised under the provisions of the Constitution.[3].. This allowsSovereigntyConstitutionalismThe emperor system nation was established[3].. The 1930s are part of the power systemMilitaryWas politically bloated,1945(Showa 20)defeatThe "Emperor System of Power" was largely dismantled by[3].1947EnforcementThe Constitution of JapanThen the emperor'sNational politicsThe authority toNational democratic rightThe symbolic emperor system was formed under[3]. "

History

Ancient times

Many theories have been submitted about the origin of the imperial family, but according to the Kiki, the first Emperor Jimmu took the throne in 660 BC.The original emperor is believed to have had military and ritual aspects.

645 OfRenewal of DahuaAs a result, emperor-centered politics began, and the title "Emperor" began to be used. Following the Chinese political system from the latter half of the 7th centuryRitual systemWas introduced in 701Great treasure lawThe decree system was established by.The national name (Japan) and the era name (Taobao) have been officially set, and the successive emperors have a Han style.RumorThe issue was promoted all at once.In this way, the emperor was the centerCentralized systemWas established and pro-government took place (ancientNational body"Founding body"). In 710, he moved to Heijokyo.

From around the 9th century, the aristocrats gradually took control of the actual political decision-making power. In the 10th century, he had a strong relationship with the emperor among the aristocrats.Mr. Fujiwara(Fujiwara Kita) Occupies the center of political decision-makingCustoms politicsWas established.

At the end of the 11th centuryEmperorIs a real monarch (Haritoku no Kimi) Reigns and is in charge of political affairsPoliticsHas begun.Although there were many restrictions while he was in the emperor's throne, he became a free position when he transferred and became the emperor, and gained the real power of a substantial monarch.PoliticsIt was the middle-class aristocrats who supported the event, and Mr. Fujiwara (Customs)'S status has declined relatively.

中 世

KamakuraToSamurai governmentWhen was established, the imperial court centered on the emperor and emeritus and the shogunate centered on the shogun took on the appearance of a dual government.Seku no RanThen the shogunate side won.However, the power of the emperor is still strong,Kamakura ShogunateWhen is destroyedEmperor GodaigoRevived the emperor's pro-government.Kenmu's new governmentreference.

Muromachi ShogunateWhen was established, the emperor split into the Southern and Northern courts (Northern and Northern Dynasties).After a long war, the third shogun of the Muromachi ShogunateYoshimitsu AshikagaThe union of the North and South Dynasties was achieved by (1392).Yoshimitsu strengthened the power of the shogunate and said, "King of JapanAsLightIn the form of tribute to the emperorJoint tradeWas done.At the time of Yoshimitsu's death (1394), the imperial court gave him the title of "Cloistered Emperor Rokuonin" (for these reasons, some historians believe that Yoshimitsu had the intention of seizing the throne).

8nd shogunYoshimasa AshikagaIn the age ofOnin's rebellionHappened and eventuallySengoku periodEntered, the power of the shogunate declined.In the world of war, the power of the emperor and the imperial court declined, but mainlyculture-TraditionThe role as a successor to was alive.

The early modern period

Oda Nobunaga,Hideyoshi ToyotomiHe did not deny the existence and authority of the emperor, but increased his authority by using it politically.Edo ShogunateThe authority of the emperor was preserved even under the name of "Tenshi Performing Arts, Daiichi Gakugakuya".Forbidden Nakanami officialsWas established, and the position of the imperial court was severely restricted.Purple clothing incidentAs you can see inName of an eraThere was almost no political power, with a few exceptions.

Shogunate to studyConfucianism OfZhu ZixueBecause we adoptedChampionThe Mito Tokugawa family (Mito Tokugawa family) has a theory that "Mikado" is a legitimate ruler than the Tokugawa family.Mito Domain) Became popular.

At the end of the Edo periodEmperorThe theory rises, and the emperorProtestIt was held at the center of the movement.Sonnojoi became a political idea to build a political system centered on the emperor and maintain independence externally, which greatly shook the political situation at the end of the Edo period.Yoshida ShoinThe one-kun universal thought that was advocated byequalityIt is an idea and denies the authority of the shogunateideologyIt also became.However, of the Sonno Jōi factionAspirantSome of them called the emperor a "jade" and recognized it as a means to use to take power.

After the Meiji era

Meiji New GovernmentDefeated the Edo Shogunate,Nara periodSincePrime MinisterControlRoyal reconstructionRevived with.In addition, in order to inform that the true ruler is not a general but an emperor, at that time, the general manager of Kyushu, Kyushu, wrote a document to the effect that "the general has changed, but Tenshi has not changed and the pedigree is constantly present." It is distributed to the people.Kyoto Prefecture is also making a statement to inform the Emperor's rule.Furthermore, the new governmentYukiyukiWas often done[35].

By the Meiji government to create an independent nation against EuropeCentralizationA system was created.Meiji government complainsSamuraiRebellionFreedom Civil Rights MovementFrom the response to, he recognized the necessity of the parliamentary system.In order to modernize Japan, it is necessary to recognize the involvement of the people in politics to some extent, and a modern national system was sought.It was thought to be a model in EuropeConstitutional monarchyMet.

After the end of World War II

The Constitution of JapanBy so-calledSymbolic emperor systemIt became.

system

Imperial Japanese Constitution

Imperial Japanese Constitution TheKingdom of Prussia,BelgiumIt is said that it was created with reference to the Constitution of.Hirobumi ItoEuropeThen, on the basis of national integration that supports the political system including the parliamentary systemReligious(キ リ ス ト 教), And expected the emperor as a "axis" (spiritual pillar) that could replace religion.

Emperor status

Article 1 of the Japanese Empire ConstitutionThen, "The Empire of Japan Hamansei Ichikei no Emperor's Governance",Article 3It is stipulated as "Emperor Ha Holy Nishite Invasion Suhekaras"Article 4Unlike the Constitution of Japan, it was clearly defined as the "head of state", saying, "The sovereignty of the head of state of the Emperor Ha.

Emperor's power

Imperial Japanese ConstitutionIn, the emperor was written as follows.

Constitutional monarchy

Machinery Six ArticlesWith the conclusion ofImperial Japanese ConstitutionWith the enactment ofConstitutional monarchyIt is said that it became.Drafted the Constitution of the Empire of JapanIto HirobumiHowever, he never expected the emperor to play the role of an absolute monarch.If you interpret the legal text obediently, you can read that the emperor in the Constitution of the Empire of Japan had great power, such as "to rule the emperor of all ages" and "to be sacred and not to invade", but after the Meiji era. However, the emperor rarely orders directly to carry out politics, and even after the Meiji Constitution was enacted, at the beginning,Feudal clanThe government was in politics under the authority of the emperor, but later began to try to compromise with parliament.There is an opinion that this point was almost the same as in modern Japan and Britain, which take the principle of "reigning but not governing".[By whom?]..Also, considering the state at the time of the enactment of the Meiji Constitution, in pre-modern Japan, as the times progressed, "the prince (=" owner "as a corporation or" emperor "as a religious / sovereign existence" ) ”And“ The head of state (= “institution” as a corporation or “general” as a political / powerful entity) ”was separated by duality in normal times. From this point of view, it can be considered that the emperor became a "prince = head of state" because of the religious and political integration of the "emperor" since modern times.

On the other hand, with regard to the military, including the commandership, the involvement of the parliament and the cabinet is not received, and the involvement of the parliament is not received.Privy CouncilThe power of is huge, not in the constitutionVeteran,MinisterHowever, it can be read that the emperor's authority can intervene in politics and, in interpretation, can infringe on basic human rights indefinitely by law (ReservationBecause there are various words in various places that stipulate "within the scope stipulated by law without violating the obligations of subjects"), among constitutional scholars[Who?]There is an opinion that it is onlyIt is a popular theory[Source required].

Commandership

House of RepresentativesIn anticipation of the majority of opposition to the government inAristocratHas the same authority as the House of Representatives.

It is not the emperor who actually runs politicsVeteran,CabinetIs the Minister of State of the country.Administrative powerWas attached to the emperor by the condolences of the ministers of state, and was made an enforcer of power.The Constitution of the Empire of Japan stipulates that the Minister of State mourns the Emperor (the Prime Minister has the same rank as other ministers).However, it was ambiguous as to who would make the final political decision.Externally, the emperor is the head of state, but the actual executive branch isCabinetWasCabinetIs not the constitutionCabinet systemIs stipulated inPrime MinisterAlthough he was the prime minister of state, he was on an equal footing in the constitution.

The power structure stipulated in this constitutionShowaAfter entering, it was used by the military and expanded the constitution, saying, "Because the emperor has the commanding authority of the army, there is no need to follow the government policy."InterpretationIt is said that the military has a great political influence (dual structure of power,Marshal Right Criminal Problem).The army carries the emperorCoup d'etatThere was no way for the government to stop and suppress it. (XNUMX incident-Marshal Right Criminal Problem(See) Political Scientists'Maruyama MasaoCalled the "irresponsible system".

The emperor from the Meiji era to the end of the war said that the system would change drastically for extremely political reasons different from the conventional emperor.AbsoluteismEmperor system ""Modern emperor systemIs sometimes used (Emperor Fascismreference).

The Constitution of Japan

Constitution of Japan Chapter 1By so-calledSymbolic emperor systemNational democratic rightWas stipulated.

The emperor is a symbol of Japan and a symbol of Japanese national integration, and this position is based on the consensus of the sovereign Japanese people.

The composition of Articles 2 to 8 is as follows.

Article 2 Succession of the throne
Article 3 Advice and approval of the Cabinet for the Emperor's act of state
Article 4 Limits of the emperor's authority, delegation of the emperor's state affairs
Article 5 Regent
Article 6 Right to appoint the emperor
Article 7 State affairs of the emperor
Article 8 Imperial property transfer

The Emperor is now supposed to perform only acts related to specific national affairs stipulated by the Constitution of Japan, and he no longer has the authority to be directly involved in national affairs. Is said to be responsible for that.

Allied Supreme Commander General CommandHas adopted a policy of continuing to maintain the imperial family at the center of the national politics, while undertaking the so-called "human declaration" by Emperor Showa.The Constitution of JapanThe emperor as a national symbolEmperor) Instructed the policy to introduce the position.This policy isEmperor ShowaTo various placesYukiyuki,Crown princeThrough events such as marriage, it permeated the masses and gained a certain amount of support.The post-war imperial family based on this popular supportKeiichi Matsushita TheMass emperor systemWas described as[36].

In the theory of, the current system under the Constitution of JapanConstitutional monarchyAnd the emperorHeadThere is also a theory that it is not, and there is a theory that it is actually the head of state ("monarchy (the monarch is the head of state)" and "monarchy (the monarch is the head of state)" have slightly different meanings. , "Democratic government" and "monarchy" cannot be compatible, but "democratic government" and "monarchy" can be compatible).

The official view of the Government of Japan (the view of the Legislation Bureau) is as follows.[37].

  • June 1973, 48 (Showa 6) Cabinet Committee of the House of Councilors,Ichiro YoshikuniAnswer from the Director-General of the Cabinet Legislation Bureau "Japan has a modern meaningConstitutionAs long as it is a nation that has politics according to the ConstitutionConstitutional monarchyIt's safe to say, but it's clear that it's not a constitutional monarchy like the one in the Meiji Constitution that has the emperor as the general ruler of sovereignty. "[37].
  • On March 1975, 50 (Showa 3), at the House of Representatives / Cabinet Committee, a member of the governmentReijiro TsunodaIn answering the question, (Cabinet Legislation Bureau First Section Director) acknowledged that there is a great difference in the authority and status of the emperor under the old constitution and the emperor under the current constitution, and the big difference (first) The emperor under the current constitutionArticle XNUMXAs specified in, of JapanSymbolIt is a symbol of the Japanese people, and I think that it is in a non-political position in a nutshell. Second, the current emperor (= under the current constitution) is from the beginning (under the old constitution). (While it was said that he had a position), as specified in Article XNUMX, thatStatusBut,sovereigntyJapanese people[Note 1] I think it's based on the consensus of[37].
  • October 1988, 10 House of Councilors Cabinet Committee,Takao OdeCabinet Legislation Bureau First Section Chief's reply. (In response to the question of whether the emperor is the head of state or not) "The current constitution (= Constitution of Japan) does not stipulate what the head of state is, and the concept of the head of state is various academically and legally. It seems that there is a different way of thinking, so it is important to know whether the emperor is the head of state or not.DefinitionI think it depends. If we adopt the definition of "head of state" that represents the country (and knows the administrative authority) through all diplomacy, I think that the emperor is not the head of state under the current constitution.However, in modern times, there is also the view that "a person who is in the so-called head position in the state is regarded as the" head of state "even if he does not have the power of substantial national rule." If the definition is adopted, the emperor is a symbol of the country and also has the aspect of representing the country in diplomatic relations, so (in that case) I think that it can be said that it is the "head of state".[37]''Article 7 of the ConstitutionNo. 9 "Receiving foreign ambassadors and ministers" means receiving foreign ambassadors and ministers dispatched to be stationed in Japan as a state act.形式TargetRitualAlthough it is a target, the emperor has a side that represents the country.On the other hand, a power of attorney or Japanambassador-Minister OfCredentialsIs originally issuedCabinet OfAuthorityThe emperor only certifies this.AlsoRatification document, Other creations also belong to the authority of the Cabinet, and the Emperor made thisAuthenticationJust do.In that sense, I understand that it is hard to say that it has a representative aspect of the country in diplomatic relations.[37]"

America·Central Intelligence Agencyof"The World Fact BookIn Japan, the "Government type" is "a parliamentary government with a constitutional monarchy."[38]", And the" chief of state "is" Emperor AKIHITO (since 7 January 1989) ".[38]..Foreign countries generally外交Above, Japan was headed by the emperorConstitutional monarchyIt is treated as.

議論

Some of the prominent discussions about the emperor system are:

Since modern times

National scholar OfAtsushi HirataIs conventionalConfucianismFor the world viewShinkoku ThoughtPositioned the emperor as the ruler of the whole worldSonno-ArrogantIt influenced the idea.

After the Meiji Restoration

Centered on the emperor promoted by the Meiji governmentShinto national religionAgainst, in 1872Shimaji MokuraiFrom the Buddhist world and Western countriesSeparation principleCriticism has occurred.Shinto nationalization was abandoned, but instead, "Imperial worship is not a religion but a national ritual, and it does not violate the principle of separation of church and state as a national obligation."Shinto non-religious theoryWas born.

In 1874Hiroyuki KatoCriticized the national polity, "as if the people were the only private vassals of the emperor," and insisted on the "rights and obligations of the national princes" of the Western European countries, but was criticized by the government and defended the government.Conversiondid.

Since 1876Imperial Japanese ConstitutionIn draft deliberation,Ito HirobumiCompared to European religions, "the only thing that should be the basis of our country is the imperial family alone," and the king's authority is powerful.PrussiaA constitutional monarchy of the type was adopted[39].

After the 1889 constitution was enactedShinkichi UesugiWesternMonarchyWas applied to JapanEmperor sovereigntyTheory andTatsuyoshi MinobeLanoNational corporation theoryBased onEmperor Organization TheoryThe discussion was held at.at firstFeudal clanGovernmentTranscendentalismAlthough the theory of emperor sovereignty was dominant,Sino-Japanese war-Russo-Japanese WarLater, the Emperor's institution theory became mainstream.

1891 yearsUchimura Kanzo Disrespectful CaseThen,Tetsujiro Inoue TheNationalismFrom the standpoint ofキ リ ス ト 教Criticize,Uemura MasahisaInsisted that imperial worship and ancestor worship were not allowed from a Christian standpoint.

1914 years,Yoshino SakuzoEtc.DemocracyAs a translation of (democracy)democracyTo insist on politics for the majority of the people, regardless of where the sovereignty is (monarch or people)Taisho democracyInspired.

1910 yearsGreat reverse case(High Treason Incident), 1921Oomoto case, 1930CommandershipThe Criminal Problem, 1932Fifteen-fifteen incident, 1935Emperor Institution Theory CaseNational polity statementAs a result, the military expanded its political influence, making it difficult to discuss the emperor system itself.

Ikki KitaCriticized the emperor system in the Constitution of the Empire of Japan, arguing that a "restoration revolution" and "national remodeling" were necessary for an equal and democratic society centered on the "emperor of the people."Imperial schoolInspired.

Kishi IshiharaIs a work "World Final War Theory"After the final war in the world, all humankind became the emperorGod of lifeWe should believe as (Arahitogami) and unify the world by the spiritual power of the emperor. ".

By socialists and communistsJapanese capitalist debateLecture groupCalled the emperor "semi-feudalAbsolute monarch"Labor groupIs "bourgeois"Monarch".

IllegalSecond Communist Party The27 years thesisAdopted "Abolition of Monarchy"32 years thesisAdopted "Abolition of the Emperor System".

After World War II

After the defeat of World War II, free discussions including the emperor system became possible.Many draft constitutions, including the abolition of monarchyWas created and the Japanese Communist PartyDraft Constitution of the People's Republic of Japanannounced.

In parliamentThe Constitution of JapanIn the enactment discussionArticle 1 of the Constitution of Japanso"National bodyHas it changed? ”Was discussed, and the Constitutional Minister of StateTokujiro Kanamori"Although the national system has changed, the national polity, which means that the people are connected and a country exists with the emperor as the center of admiration, has not changed," and was criticized as "double tongue."AlsoOtaka and Miyazawa controversy,Sasaki-Watsuji ControversyAlso occurred.Symbolic emperor systemInJapanese monarchs and heads of stateWas also discussed.

In 1946Takahito MikasamiyaThe imperial prince said that the emperor had no freedom to abdicate, so he would "become a slave to the cabinet connected to the iron chain."

Since the 1947st Parliament in 1Japan Communist PartyThe emperor's "words" "deviate the constitution"Diet opening ceremonyAbsent (Attend as "The content of the statement is ceremonial and formally established" from 2016[40]).Also in 1948Diet opening ceremonyAtCrab flat refusal caseThen, for the expulsion of public officeBuraku Liberation National CommitteeThey developed a campaign against expulsion.

1960 yearsFuryu YumetanIn the case, the Imperial Household AgencyLibel, Right wing is "profane", publisher sideFreedom of expressionInsist,Chrysanthemum tabooWas also called.

1964-1974Yasukuni Shrine billThen,Japan Bereaved SocietyInsist on national protection, other religious groups and leftistsNational ShintoAgainst the resurrectionSeparation principleInsisted.

1988 yearsEmperor ShowaIn the demise, "excessive self-restraint" and "war responsibility of Emperor Showa" were discussed.

In 2004Conference of experts on the Imperial Court CodeIs installed,The problem of succession to the throneAsFemale emperor,Female emperor,Lady Miyake,Old royal familyThe return was discussed.

In 2016, the "words" of the emperor's request for transfer were released.Concession is discussedIt became.

View of scholars and political parties

The views of the emperor system by prominent scholars, writers and political parties are as follows.

Shoichi WatanabeThe emperor is unprecedented in the world that has continued since the mythical eraMansei lineIn the presence ofShinto is not a specific religion,The Constitution of Japan is invalidAndAbduction,Female emperor,Female emperorCriticized as a leftist conspiracy[41].

Maruyama Masao"Prewar Japan"Emperor FascismAnd no oneWar responsibilityCriticized the society centered on the Japanese emperor who does not take it as an "irresponsible system"[42].

Takaaki YoshimotoHistorically, most of the emperor system was a religious authority, and the essence of the rituals in the emperor's inheritance was "eating with God" and "sexual activity with God", and the farming ritual was the basis.For this reason, "when Japan almost molts from the agrarian society, the political role of the emperor as the king of the Asian agrarian society in Japan will end."[43].

Mishima Yukio TheEmperor Showa OfHuman declaration"Sorry"[44] ,Shinzo KoizumiIn response to the "democratization of the emperor system" promoted byMass societyHe criticized it as a "weekly magazine-like emperor system".

Western partThere is a contradiction in the Constitution of Japan because politics and religion are fundamentally connected, and "the emperor is a" symbol "of the national character that is the source of value, and the" symbol "includes a direction toward the sacred. Said[45].

Takeshi UmeharaIs the 8th century when the word "emperor" was coinedEmperor SuikoFrom around that time, the emperor had a strong religious color, and even during the Ritsuryo era, the emperor's political power was excluded, and it was wrong to translate it as the same "emperor" as the Chinese emperor. It was.He said that the emperor was a symbol from the beginning and that it was a mistake to bring the emperor over the European state system in the Meiji Constitution.[46].

Satoshi HoriuchiArgued that the symbolic emperor system, such as the emperor's political remarks, had its limits, and that the emperor system should be abolished and the emperor should be returned to normal human beings.Daisaburo HashizumeInsisted on the abolition of the emperor system by constitutional amendment because the emperor system contradicts democracy[47].Atsushi OyanoBecause the emperor system is discriminated against by birth, the constitution was amended and the emperor system was abolished, and the emperor and royal family became Japanese citizens.Basic human rightsInsisted that[48].Shoji YamakiIs his own book, "Like a refreshing wind-in search of a welfare look-"[49]"It is generally understood that Japan is a fairly free country, but when it comes to the issue of the emperor system, the situation is different. Even a considerable amount of intellectuals will shut their mouths tightly." ing. ..

LDPIn the platformVoluntary constitution enactmentWas described, and the Emperor was described as the "head of state" in the 2012 "Draft Amendment to the Constitution of Japan".

Daisaku IkedaIs a workJosei Toda"From the perspective of Buddhist law, the issue of the emperor and the emperor system does not have to be stipulated in particular. There is no need to destroy the existence of the Japanese emperor who has continued for generations. You don't have to deal with it. I feel sorry for both positions. "[50][51].

Japan Communist PartyRemoved "abolition of monarchy" in the 2004 Code, while "the emperor clause that allowed the continuation of the emperor system is a weakness that goes against the thoroughness of democracy" in the future "consistency of the principle of popular sovereignty" In order to develop this, we should try to realize a political system of democratic republic. "[52]

poll

The Constitution of JapanBefore promulgation / enforcement1946(21)May 5 OfMainichi NewspapersThe result appeared in the morning editionpollThen,Symbolic emperor systemWas 85%[53].

after that,MediaLooking at the changes in opinion polls conducted by each company, it is said that in 1990 (Heisei 2), 73% of the respondents chose "the current symbolic emperor can remain" as an answer.[54]In 2000 (Heisei 12), 8% supported the symbolic emperor.[55], 2002 (Heisei 14), it is said that 86% of the respondents chose "(the emperor) can be the same symbol as it is now" as an answer.[56].

NHKAccording to the opinion poll conducted from October 2009th to November 21st, 10, 30% said that "the emperor may be the same symbol as the present", 11% said that "the emperor system will be abolished", and " "Give political authority to the emperor" is 1%[57].

Footnotes and sources

[How to use footnotes]

note

  1. ^ "Japanese people with sovereignty".sovereigntyIs on the people's side.National democratic right.

Source

  1. ^ Japanese History Dictionary[Page number required]
  2. ^ Emperor System-Encyclopedia Nipponica (Nipponica)
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Japanese History Wide Dictionary Editorial Committee 1997, p. 1492.
  4. ^ Nagahara & Ishigami 1999, p. 803.
  5. ^ a b c d e f "Encyclopedia My Pedia" (Heibonsha) --Kotobank
  6. ^ Yomiuri Bulletin Newspaper October 1945, 10 p20 Headline
  7. ^ Yomiuri Shimbun December 1945, 12 p7 Editorial Headline
  8. ^ Yomiuri Shimbun December 1945, 12 p18 Editorial Headline
  9. ^ Asahi Shimbun October 1945, 10 p20 Headline
  10. ^ Asahi Shimbun October 1945, 11 p15 Headline
  11. ^ Asahi Shimbun October 1945, 11 p23 Headline
  12. ^ Nihon Keizai Shimbun June 1978, 6 Evening edition p9 Headline "(Around the news) Era legislation and waist-Heavy emperor system debate"
  13. ^ Chunichi Shimbun May 1988, 5 p22 Headline "3% support the emperor system-Tokai 74 prefecture residents head office awareness survey"
  14. ^ Mainichi Shimbun January 1990, 1 p20 Headline
  15. ^ Sankei Shimbun May 1995, 5 p9 Headline
  16. ^ Sankei Shimbun August 2013, 8 Headline.Part of the text "The day of the end of the war was a day to think about the emperor system and the constitution as well as the thoughts of those who died in the previous war. (Editor-in-chief Masashi Kondo)"
  17. ^ "Isn't it possible to let the people know what the personality of His Majesty is now? There is an idea that today or the Emperor system is discussed and denied. National Diet Library Imperial Diet Minutes Database System
  18. ^ "As a result, under the provisions of the current criminal law, under the provisions of the current criminal law, the imperial system is openly claiming not only his wording but also communism. It depends on the fact that it is done without permission. ”National Diet Library Imperial Diet Minutes Database System
  19. ^ September 1947, 9 House of Representatives Judiciary Committee
  20. ^ January 1955, 1 Plenary session of the House of Representatives
  21. ^ March 1957, 3 House of Councilors Budget Committee
  22. ^ January 1964, 1 House of Representatives Budget Committee
  23. ^ June 1979, 6 House of Councilors Cabinet Committee
  24. ^ November 2004, 11 Hearing of the House of Representatives Constitutional Investigation Committee
  25. ^ January 2006, 2 House of Representatives Budget Committee
  26. ^ 22 Disrespectful Case Supreme Court full text
  27. ^ Liberal Democratic Party Convention Party Information Report 23
  28. ^ December 2017, 12 Regarding the decision of today's Imperial Household Council-Nippon Ishin no Kai
  29. ^ May 2019, 5 Komeito appeals for Constitution Memorial Day-Komeito
  30. ^ What to do with the emperor-Japanese Communist Party
  31. ^ a b Tanizawa "Why you shouldn't use the name" emperor system "" PHP Institute 2001
  32. ^ This word can be seen in the Japanese Communist Party Platform.Eitaro NoroFor example Yoshihiko Yamamoto "Eitaro Noro's Theory of the Emperor System (2): Eitaro Noro's Theory (XNUMX, XNUMX)"Hokei Kenkyu" Vol. 26, No. 2, Faculty of Humanities, Shizuoka University, 1978, p115-157, two:10.14945/00002345, ISSN 02872005, NOT 110007665657.
  33. ^ Japanese Communist Party Platform (revised January 2020)
  34. ^ Takashi Ishii "Meiji Restoration: Criticism of Theory"Yoshikawa Hirofumikan 1961, p.1, 281-297
  35. ^ Hiroshi Nakaoku "Imperial News and Honorable Words" Sanichi Shinsho
  36. ^ Matsushita "Popular Emperor System Theory",Central public opinion1959 year 4 month number
  37. ^ a b c d e "Basic materials on the symbolic emperor system (created by the Secretariat of the Constitutional Investigation Committee of the House of Representatives in February 15) (PDF) House of RepresentativesConstitutional Investigation CommitteeInvestigation Subcommittee on the Ideal Constitution as the Supreme Law ・ Reference materials for February 15, 2 and March 6, 3
  38. ^ a b Japan section of each country's handbook of CIA Factbook
  39. ^ Emperor "From Arahitogami to Symbol" Asahi Shimbun April 2019, 4
  40. ^ Parliament opening ceremony to attend the Japanese Communist Party-Japanese Communist Party
  41. ^ Shoichi Watanabe "Theory of Japan's Kokoku" (2012, Chichi Publishing Co., Ltd.) p199-205
  42. ^ Masao Maruyama "Thoughts and actions of modern politics"(1956,Mikisha
  43. ^ Takaaki Yoshimoto "About the Emperor System and the Emperor" ("National Thought" (Postwar Japanese Thought System 5, Chikuma Shobo))
  44. ^ Mishima Yukio(Fusao Hayashi(Interview with) "Dialogue / Japanese Theory" (Banmachi Shobo, 1966. New edition at Natsume Shobo, 2002)
  45. ^ Susumu Nishibe The Emperor as "Fiction"(2017)
  46. ^ Yasuhiro Nakasone, Takeshi Umehara, "Politics and Philosophy: In Search of a New Mission for the Japanese" (PHP Institute) Chapter 4
  47. ^ "Emperor and Democracy" (Daisaburo Hashizume,Spring and autumn company, 2004)
  48. ^ "Common wisdom of criticism of the emperor system" (Atsushi Koyano, 2010,Yosensha) P3-9, p104-111
  49. ^ Like a refreshing wind-in search of a welfare look, Kirisuto Shinbunsha 1990 pp.114
  50. ^ Daisaku Ikeda "Human revolution』Volume 2 p245
  51. ^ "The Source of Hope-Understanding Ikeda's Thought"Third civilization September 2019 p6
  52. ^ Japanese Communist Party Platform-2004
  53. ^ "Mainichi Shimbun 1946: Welcome to the new constitutional government draft Constitutional amendment controversy, prototype in the 50s". Mainichi Newspapers(July 2016, 2). http://mainichi.jp/articles/20160208/ddm/004/040/012000c 2016/5/3Browse. 
  54. ^ Yomiuri Shimbun November 1990, 01, morning edition
  55. ^ Mainichi Shimbun September 2000.
  56. ^ National interview polls.Asahi Shimbun December 2002, 12.
  57. ^ "Heisei Imperial Family View”. NHK. 2012/5/20Browse.

References

  • Nagahara, Keiji (supervised), Ishigami, Eiichi et al. (edit) "Iwanami Japanese History Dictionary" Iwanami Shoten, 1999.ISBN 4-00-080093-0.
  • Tanaka, Hiroshi "Monarchy" "The complete encyclopedia of Japan (Nipponika)』Kotobank, 2017.
  • Japanese History Wide Dictionary Editorial Committee "Japanese History Wide Dictionary" Yamakawa Shuppansha, 1997, XNUMXst edition, XNUMXst edition.ISBN 9784634620100.
  • Kasai, Hideya "Establishing a Symbolic Emperor System: the Image of the Emperor and the Historical Significance of the" Mitchii Boom "" Society <The Japanese Journal of Contemporary History>, Volume 1, 2008, pp. 33-47.
  • Mizubayashi, 彪 "The Izumo Religious Ceremonies and Izumo Mythology in Ancient Imperial System (Part 1 Research on Prestige and Power in the) Ancient Period)> ”“ Bulletin of the National Museum of Japanese History ”, Vol. 1, 152, pp. 2009-105.
  • "Basic materials on the Emperor System (including investigations on the Imperial House Law and other royal laws)" Secretariat of the Constitutional Investigation Committee of the House of Representatives (Reference materials on February 16, 2)[1]
  • "Basic materials on the symbolic emperor system Investigation subcommittee on the ideal state of the Constitution as the highest law" Secretariat of the Constitutional Investigation Committee of the House of Representatives (Reference materials on February 15 and March 2, 6)[2]
  • Eiichi Tanizawa"Why you shouldn't use the name" emperor system "" PHP Institute, April 2001.ISBN 4-569-61572-4. --Clarify the history of the birth of the coined word "emperor system".
  • Terumasa Nakanishi-Japan ConferenceEdited by "The Imperial Family I Want to Know as a Japanese" PHP Institute, December 2008.ISBN 978-4-569-69904-2. ――In commemoration of the 20th anniversary of His Majesty the Emperor, the imperial theory of scholars, politicians, priests, etc. is recorded.
  • Fukuzawa Yukichi"Fukuzawa Yukichi's Theory of the Japanese Imperial Family Modern Translation (with Ruby)"Hiranuma YoshioSupervised, translated, Shimadzu Shobo, February 2008.ISBN 978-4-88218-131-6. -"Imperial theory”And“ ”are summarized, modern translations, and original texts are included.
  • Ben-Amy SironyTranslated "Past, Present, and Future of the Mother Emperor Female Monarchy", Kodansha, January 2003.ISBN 4-06-211675-8.

Emperor system absolutism literature

  • Nozomi Hattori"Establishment of Emperor System Absolute Principle" (collected in "New Japanese History Course 6")
  • Kiyoshi Inoue"Development of the Absolute Principle of the Emperor System" ("Problems concerning the Emperor System", 1954)
  • "Meiji Restoration: Establishment and Reorganization of Emperor System Absolute Principle" "Gifu Keizai University Ronshu"ISSN 0386-5932 岐阜経済大学学会編・岐阜経済大学学会発行、I~IVに分けて6巻1号〔1972年1月〕、6巻3号〔1973年3月〕、7巻1号〔1973年6月〕、7巻2号〔1973年9月〕に掲載。

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