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🏛 | Okinawa's urgent declaration, up to 92 days ... Governor Tamaki, few words to snuggle up to the citizens of Okinawa


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Okinawa's urgent declaration, up to 92 days ... Governor Tamaki, few words to snuggle up to the citizens of the prefecture

 
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However, if you broaden your horizons, there are other people who are in trouble, such as students and single mothers. "
 

The state of emergency for the new coronavirus has been extended until August 11nd, just before the 8th, when it was scheduled to be lifted.plans… → Continue reading

 Ryukyu Shimpo


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Narrow question

Single-parent family

Single-parent family(I am alone)motherorfatherEither one of theChild(Children) Consists of家庭Say.Single-parent householdIt is also called (I want to tanshin).

Of these, the homes of mothers and childrenMother and child household(I want to leave it) orFatherless family(I'm foolish), the family of father and childrenFather and son household(I want to pray) OrFamilyIt's called "Fushai". Also, the parents of such a familySingle mother(British: single mother), for fathersSingle father(British: single father).In addition, it should be noted.Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareIn the definition of, even if there is a cohabitant other than the mother and child / father and child, it is included in the mother and child family / father and child family.[1].

Japanese single-parent family

Number of single-parent families

The number of single-parent households with unmarried children under the age of 20 (estimated) was 2016 for mothers and children and 123.2 for fathers and children in 18.7.[2], Both households have an increasing tendency compared to 58 (71.8 and 16.7 respectively)[3].. The ratio of single-parent households to the household structure was 2017% in FY7.2, showing a gradual increase from 1986% in 5.1.[4].. The reason why there are more mother-to-child families is, for example, when a couple with children divorcesParental authorityIt is often the case that the child becomes a child.1960(Showa 35), the proportion of fathers who became parents was 47%,1996(8), 78% of mothers have parental authority[5].

Cause

The reason for becoming a single-parent household is that "divorce" accounts for less than 8% of both mother-child households and father-child households.[1]..Most of the remaining 2% ​​are "bereavement" for single-mother households and "bereavement" and "unmarried" for single-mother households.

Other causes other than divorce and bereavement include the following reasons.[Source required]..In addition, one of the parentsSingle assignmentIt does not include "when the living base is temporarily placed separately from the home" due to work reasons.

  • One of the parents is missing (evaporation)
  • One of the parents is detained by law
  • One of the parents is hospitalized due to mental disability
  • One of the parents has a severe disability and the other is rearing
  • The other is rearing due to abuse or abandonment by one of the parents
  • The circumstances when the mother conceived due to abandoned child etc. are unknown
  • Unmarried / unmarried single mother

Also in JapanSame-sex legal marriageIs not allowed, so even if a same-sex couple has a child, it may be considered a single-parent household.

Poverty in single-parent families

Labor Policy Research and Training OrganizationSurvey of[6]According to, of single-parent familiesMinistry of Health, Labor and WelfarePublicPoverty lineThe proportion of households that fell below this was 51.4% for mother-child households and 22.9% for father-child households, which is a large difference from 5.9% for two-parent families. Furthermore, the proportion of “Deep Poor” households whose disposable income is less than 50% of the poverty line is 13.3% for mother-child households, 8.6% for father-child households, and 0.5% for two-parent households. .. In the case of mother-child households, households with older children have higher financial difficulties.

“Income disparities among families with children have been widening over the past 15 years, and the income disparities are particularly large within independent mother-child/father-child households.” The bias of households toward low-educational groups remains stable.” “From the estimation results of the factor decomposition method, the disparity in household income between educational backgrounds contributes to the widening income gap among independent single-parent households. Living with an adult relative had the role of buffering the difference in class between single-parent households."[7], Of single-parent familiespovertyThe actual situation differs depending on the gender, educational background, and cohabitation style of the parents.

Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare"Guide for Child Abuse"[8]In, single-parent homes including unmarriedChild abuseIt is listed as one of the risk factors of.Survey that more than half of families suspected of child abuse or abuse attending a certain nursery school are single-parent families[9]AndAbandoned childcareThat the probability of occurrence of babies in households with low birth weight infants and single-parent homes is relatively high[10]and so on.

Single-parent povertyThe vicious circle of povertyThere is a danger of falling intoChildren's cafeteria[11][12]And holding free cram school[13]Private support such as is also provided.

Differences between single-mother families and single-parent families

The employment rate is over 8% for both mothers and fathers, of which 68.2% are regular employees and employees in single-mother households, while 44.2% are non-regular in single-mother households.[1]..The average annual income is 243 million yen for single-mother households and 420 million yen for single-parent families (when including relatives living together, single-mother households increase by about 100 million yen and single-parent families increase by about 150 million yen).

Country(Japanese goverment, Main jurisdiction:Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare)・MunicipalitiesSupport system is economically difficult compared to father and son households (=poverty), Which is mainly composed of mother-child households, and is equipped with a child-rearing support system for father-child households.For parents and children, traditionally, rather than financial supportHouseworkIt is said that there is a higher need for support such as consultations on child-rearing and child-rearing, and the child-rearing allowance was initially targeted only at single-mother families.But,TochigiKanuma City,ChibaNoda-shi,TokyoMinato-kuEtc. began to set allowances similar to child-rearing allowances[14]Starting with this, from August 2010, parent-child families will be included in the scope of child-rearing allowances.

Administrative support

For single-parent familiesMunicipalitiesMainlyParenting,Medical, Various support such as subsidies are provided for moving into public housing.alsoEmployment support,Job trainingEach measure such as is being carried out.In addition, although it is not intended only for single-parent families, it is in an economically deprived state (=).poverty) Homes have livelihood protection, employment counseling, and child-rearing counseling services.Furthermore, although it is not an administrative agency, the Mother and Child Welfare Federation provides support by contacting the administrative agency.On the other handDisguised divorce,Common-law marriage, It may be a problem for those who have a partner to illegally move in or use public housing, receive illegal benefits or receive preferential treatment.[15][16][17]..In addition, about 1% of both mother-child households and father-child households receive welfare protection.[1].

Allowances, exemptions, subsidies, services

Various systems have been established by the government for single-parent families.

  • Children's allowance -0 years old or older junior high school graduate living in Japan (=Compulsory educationAllowance for children up to the completion of the course).
  • Child-rearing allowance --Allowance provided by the local government for children in single-parent families who cannot receive child support from either their father or mother due to divorce of their parents.1 yen per month for one child.
  • Child-rearing allowance-For single-parent families supporting children under the age of 18. 1 yen per child per month.
  • Welfare ――When you are in financial distress, you will be paid an additional welfare fee depending on the situation. (Life assistance, housing assistance, education assistance, medical assistance, childbirth assistance, livelihood assistance, funeral assistance, long-term care assistance)
  • Housing allowance-Payment conditions are set by the local government.
  • income tax-Resident taxPreferential tax exemption- Single parent deductionAnd residence tax exempt households.
  • National pension-National Health Insurance(Tax) exemption-Reduced or exempted if both incomes are low.
  • TransportationDiscount system-There is a discount system for single-parent families.For example, households receiving child-rearing allowances can purchase a JR commuter pass at a discount of 3%.
  • Depending on the local governmentPublic transport(Route bus, subway, tram, new transportation system) and private route bus can be boarded free of chargeWelfare boarding certificate,Welfare coupon,Welfare taxi ticketIs delivered in some cases.
  • Water and sewerageExemption system-may be exempted by the municipality.
  • Public housingRent exemption system-Depending on the municipality, rent may be exempted for single-parent families with children under the age of 18.
  • Preferential system for admission to licensed nursery schools[17]
  • Oversized trashExemption system for processing fees such as
  • ChildcareHalf-price exemption / full-price exemption
  • LunchHalf-price exemption / full-price exemption
  • Half-price / full-price exemption for public high school tuition
  • Single-parent family, etc.MedicalSubsidy program-Up to 18 years old, subsidize part of medical expenses.
  • Medical expenses subsidy system for children-In recent years, it has been substantial in any local government.
  • System (Maru Yu)
  • Mother and childwelfareLending system- joint guarantorIs required, but the loan can be received without interest.If you cannot appoint a guarantor, you can get a loan with interest.
  • Mother-child dormitory (facility support for mothers and children)-If the child is under the age of 18, he/she can live at a burden according to his/her income.Welfare,Resident taxExempt households are free.
  • Helper dispatch- Ceremonial occasion,Sudden illnessWhen it is difficult to continue working, the temporaryHouseworkIf you need helphome helperWill be dispatched.
  • Single-parent rest home-Some local governments may assist you in using recreational facilities.
  • Family Support Center-Keeps children in case of emergency.
  • Short stay (short-term child care support project)-The government will take care of your child for a short period of time.
  • In some municipalities, single-parent families with children under the age of 18Public housingIn some cases, the lottery rate is given preferential treatment.
  • Depending on the local governmentRent guarantee companyThe guarantor required for moving into public housing may be exempted on condition of the use of.
  • Depending on the municipality, designated collection bags may be issued.
  • Depending on the local governmentpublic bathhouseIn some cases, a bathing ticket will be issued.

Works dealing with single-parent families

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

Source

  1. ^ a b c d "About support for single-parent families, etc.”. Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. 2021/2/15Browse.
  2. ^ "28 national single-parent household survey results report”. Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. 2020/3/15Browse.
  3. ^ Ministry of Health. 58 national mother and child household survey. Ministry of Health 
  4. ^ Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare Policy Director (Statistics / Information Policy, Policy Evaluation) (December 2018.12). 29 National Lifestyle Basic Survey. Policy Director, Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare 
  5. ^ "Part 1 Part 1 Chapter 2 Section 3 4 Divorce/Remarriage". 10 welfare white paperMinistry of Health, Labor and Welfare (June 1988, 6). As of March 15, 2006オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2008/9/30Browse.
  6. ^ https://www.jil.go.jp/press/documents/20191017.pdf
  7. ^ Tomohiro Saito, "Income Disparity and Social Stratification of Single-parent Households," Sociology of the Family, Vol. 30, Japan Society for Family Sociology, 2018, pp. 44-56, two:10.4234 / jjoffamilysociology.30.44.
  8. ^ https://www.mhlw.go.jp/seisakunitsuite/bunya/kodomo/kodomo_kosodate/dv/dl/130823-01c_004.pdf
  9. ^ Katsumi Ito, "Issues of Child Abuse and Support for Nursery Schools," Bulletin of the Humanities Society of Sapporo Gakuin University, Sapporo Gakuin University Research Institute, February 2020, pp. 2-133.
  10. ^ Zhou Yan Fei, "Empirical Analysis of Causes of Child Abuse by Mothers," "Medical Care and Society," Vol. 29, No. 1, Institute of Medical Sciences, 2019, pp. 119-134, two:10.4091 / iken.2019.001.
  11. ^ (日本語) Possibility of "dining room activity", (2018-03-16), two:10.15099/00018341, https://doi.org/10.15099/00018341 2020/4/22Browse. 
  12. ^ "The ever-increasing number of children's restaurants is the largest ever, increasing by 1,400 to 3,718 nationwide (Makoto Yuasa)-Yahoo! News”(Japanese). Yahoo! News Individual. 2020/4/22Browse.
  13. ^ INC, SANKEI DIGITAL. “Learning support for children in poverty A private organization tries a free cram school”(Japanese). Sankei News. 2020/4/22Browse.
  14. ^ "The voice of the child-rearing allowance "for parents and children" spreads". Red flag(July 2008, 7). http://www.jcp.or.jp/akahata/aik07/2008-07-17/2008071702_04_0.html 
  15. ^ "Divorce and Money: What Happens? Housing Loans!" P23, Aiko Takahashi 2016
  16. ^ INC, SANKEI DIGITAL. “Livelihood protection G-men angry report XNUMXnd "camouflaged divorce" illegally received ... Pursuit for over a month”(Japanese). Sankei News. 2021/2/13Browse.
  17. ^ a b "A camouflaged divorce is a great crime!Even if you try to cheat, you will be caught”(Japanese). Divorce Lawyer Consultation Square Official Website. 2021/2/13Browse.

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