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🏛 | Choosing a new “face” will improve the direction of the wind.


Candidates for the House of Representatives election waving at the intersection = Part of the image has been modified (Nishi-ku, Hiroshima City)

Wind direction improves by selecting a new "face" To solidify the ground through support [House of Representatives election and presidential election] <Top> Ruling party

 
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Many posters in the constituency will wait for the election of the new president and will consider whether to remake them.
 

The LDP presidential election to replace Prime Minister Yoshihide Suga will be announced on the 17th.One month until the expiration of the term of office of members of the House of Representatives (October 10) ... → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

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Constituency

Constituency(Senkyoku) is singular or pluralMemberTo electelectionThe unit that is the basis for doing this.

Overview

Electoral districts generally refer to the geographical divisions used to elect representatives.[1].

However,UnionIn some cases, the functional group is an electoral district, such as each affiliated union in the elections within the coalition, and in a broad sense, the constituency is a certain group of voters who are eligible to elect representatives.[1]..This broad constituency is synonymous with the Electoral College[1].

Normally, it is divided by region, but in countries where nomads are the main constituents, there are cases where it is not divided by region, such as by establishing constituencies for each tribe.In generalDirect democracyTake the place ofProportional representationIn order to select, the constituencies are often divided into large constituencies that reflect the social structure, but determination is required.Many representativesIf the purpose is to elect, the constituencies are divided into smaller constituencies in a way that divides the social structure.

"Representing" constituency "in English"Constituency"Is a broad term that means" elements that combine to form something. "The same is true for the usage of constituencies, not necessarily temporary divisions just for elections." It has the meaning of "a piece of a puzzle to unite and decide the will of the parliament. It is also possible for members of many countries to attend the parliament on weekdays and return to the constituency on weekends to exchange opinions with voters. An example of this, and most notably in Britain, in parliamentary debates, people call each other by constituency name, such as "I oppose the remarks of members elected to the constituency." There are also practices.

Types of constituencies

If you classify the constituency systemSingle-seat constituency systemとLarge constituency systemDivided into[2].. Used in Japan until the early 1990sMiddle-election systemThe election system called is theoretically a kind of Daisenkyokusei (single non-transferable vote Daisenkyokusei).[2][3].

The method of classifying the election system according to the number of representatives that can be elected from one constituency is said to be unique to Japan.[4].

Single-seat constituency system

The single-seat constituency system is a constituency system in which the number of constituencies is 1.[5].. Also called a one-person ward system[5].

  • Single-seat constituency single-seat voting system
    The single-seat constituency single-seat voting system is an election system in which an elector fills in the name of only one candidate and votes.[6]..In the single-seat constituency system, the number of winners in each constituency is 1, and the voting method for voters is a single-seat vote in which the name of one of the candidates is entered.[2].

Large constituency system

The single-seat constituency system is a constituency system in which multiple members are elected from one constituency.[5].

  • Daisenkyokusei system (Daisenkyokusei complete system)
    Daisenkyokusei (Daisenkyokusei) is an election system in which voters list and vote for the same number of candidates as the number of members elected from the constituency.[6].
  • Daisenkyokusei Limited voting system
    The large constituency limited voting system is an election system in which an elector fills in the names of candidates who are less than the number of members elected from the constituency and votes.[4].
  • Daisenkyokusei single-entry system (Daisenkyokusei single-entry voting system)
    The Daisenkyokusei single-entry system (Daisenkyokusei single-entry voting system) is a system in which electors make a single-entry vote (enter the name of only one of the candidates) and reach the number of MPs based on the relative majority. Refers to the election system that elects[4].
  • Proportional representation
    Proportional representation is classified as a large constituency system in political science (see below).[2].

Characteristics of the election system

The characteristics of the electoral system are organized in political science in relation to the representative law.Representative methods include majority representation, minority representation, and proportional representation.[7].

Multiple voting

The majority voting system is a system in which the party that has won a majority of votes in the constituency monopolizes the winners. There is a ward complete registration system)[6].

  • Single-seat constituency single-seat voting system
  • Daisenkyokusei system (Daisenkyokusei complete system)

Minority representation method

The Minority Representative Law is a system that allows those who are ranked second or third in the constituency to have the opportunity to elect some members, and the election system classified under the Minority Representative Law includes the Daisenkyokusei Limited Voting System. There is a single voting system for large constituencies[4].

  • Daisenkyokusei Limited voting system
    The Daisenkyokusei Limited Voting System aims to protect the minority as it is classified in the Minority Representative Law, but in this system the majority party can sometimes secure all seats.[4].
  • Daisenkyokusei single-entry system (Daisenkyokusei single-entry voting system)
    This is the system that was called the middle election district system in Japan.[4]..In the Daisenkyokusei single-entry system, it is easy for candidates to vie for seats within the same party, and if the number of votes is almost the same, they will collapse together.[4].

Proportional representation method

Proportional representation methodProportional representationIt is a kind of representative law along with the majority voting system (majority voting system) and the minority voting system (minority voting system).[3][6]..In politics, the proportional representation system is classified as a type of Daisenkyokusei system.[2], The proportional representation system is "a system that allocates the fixed number of the entire Daisenkyokusei so that it is proportional to the vote rate of each party."[3]It may be defined as.

Electoral district division

Factors for constituency division

It is said that there are three factors in the division of constituencies.

  1. Demographic factors such as the number of voters by region[2]
  2. Geographical and historical factors such as topography, tradition, and history of each region[2]
  3. Political factors such as political party election strategies[2]

Reversal phenomenon and gerrymandering

Under the system that divides constituencies, it is not possible to move votes in the constituency.Therefore, even if the number of votes required to obtain a seat differs in the election section, it will not be corrected, and it will not be corrected for each constituency.Death voteThe vote that becomes is also a dead vote for the entire seat allocation.Therefore, the number of seats per number of votes is small for a political party that obtains seats only in the constituencies that require a large number of votes, or that has many constituencies that win or lose.On the other hand, political parties that get seats only in constituencies that require a small number of votes or have many constituencies that win or lose badly have a large number of seats per vote.

This effect is apparent in an easy-to-understand manner, "a reversal phenomenon in which the number of seats of a political party with a large total number of votes is less than the number of seats of a party with a small total number of votes."Also, things that artificially use this effect are (in a narrow sense).gerrymanderCalled.

The exception is the proportional district of Germany's national elections, where all votes counted in each constituency are centrally combined and converted to the number of seats in each party, and then the seats are distributed to each constituency according to the percentage of votes obtained. To.In other words, the number of seats in each party is determined only by the total number of votes obtained nationwide, and is not affected by the zoning.

Electoral system of each country

Japan

Japan OfNational electionInHouse of Representatives general electionとHouse of Councilors ordinary electionAnd different from each otherPlurality voting districtとProportional constituencyCoexist with each other at the same time.

The United Kingdom

Common name for the characteristics of the constituency

See also each item for details.

Japan

  • Safe seat
    An electoral district where there is an overwhelming difference in approval ratings among candidates even before the election, and the winners and losers are almost fixed before the vote. It is different from "no vote".
  • Close battle zone
    An electoral district where multiple candidates are believed to be competing against each other before the election.In political parties, the approval rating is in competition with the candidates of other parties, and the constituencies of big politicians of other parties are attracting attention, so that they can be brought into close quarters and become national attention zones. Efforts may be focused on election campaigns.
  • ○○ Kingdom (Conservative Kingdom-Democratic KingdomSuch)
    "○○ Kingdom" is an electoral district or region where a specific political party or candidate is overwhelmingly strong.A term used not only in national elections but also in local elections such as governor elections. In some cases, the name of an individual or group that has overwhelming support in the area may be entered in ○○.
    A "conservative kingdom" is an electoral district or region where conservative candidates are overwhelmingly strong.LDPIn most cases, the candidate is an independent candidate of another conservative party or conservative system.
    "Democratic Kingdom" is oldDemocratic Party(CurrentConstitutional Democratic PartyとNational Democratic Party) Candidates were overwhelmingly strong constituencies or regions.
  • Ruling party blank ward
    An electoral district where the ruling party does not support candidates.
  • Communist blank area
    Japan Communist PartyIs an electoral district that does not support candidates.
  • House of Councilors
    House of Councilors ordinary electionIn the constituency with one seat for re-election.
  • House of Councilors two-person ward
    House of Councilors ordinary electionIn the constituency with one seat for re-election.
  • Upper House Joint Election District
    A constituency that combines the constituencies of neighboring prefectures in the general election of members of the House of Councilors.

Western

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ a b c Fukashi Horie, Norio Okazawa, "Modern Political Science," Law School, 2002, p. 197.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Fukashi Horie, Norio Okazawa, "Modern Political Science," Law School, 2002, p. 198.
  3. ^ a b c Ikuo Kume et al., Political Science, Yuhikaku Publishing Co., Ltd., 2003, p. 453.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Fukashi Horie, Norio Okazawa, "Modern Political Science," Law School, 2002, p. 200.
  5. ^ a b c Ikuo Kume et al., Political Science, Yuhikaku Publishing Co., Ltd., 2003, p. 452.
  6. ^ a b c d Fukashi Horie, Norio Okazawa, "Modern Political Science," Law School, 2002, p. 201.
  7. ^ Fukashi Horie, Norio Okazawa, "Modern Political Science," Law School, 2002, pp. 200-201.

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