Liberal Democratic Party Presidential Election 4 Candidates Sunday Immediately After Announcement Energetic Activities
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Acting Secretary-General Noda revealed that in the lower house elections, the system that allows candidates who lost in single-seat constituencies to be "revived" in proportion should be abolished.
The Liberal Democratic Party presidential election was energetically active on the first Sunday after the announcement, with four candidates running.Kono, Minister of State for Regulatory Reform, ... → Continue reading
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Overlapping candidacy system
Public office election lawArticle 87 prohibits duplicate candidacy in two different public office elections at the same time.
However,1994 Due to the revision of the law, the election of members of the House of RepresentativesProportional representationin the case of,Small districtIt is stipulated that you can run for the same time asPublic office election lawArticle 86-2, Paragraph 4), belonging when runningPolitical partyWith the permission of, candidates can run for both "single-seat constituency elections" and "proportional representation elections."However,Public office election lawupperPolitical party requirementsIf you run for "other political organizations" that do not meet the above requirements, you cannot duplicate.
A list of proportional representations allows political parties to rank multiple duplicate candidates in the same order.In this case, the ratio of the number of votes of the losing candidate to the number of votes of the winner in the single-seat constituency (Loss rate), And the ranking of the proportional list is decided from the candidates with the highest defeat rate.
Duplicate candidates are in proportional districts even if they lose in single-seat constituenciesResurrection winningTherefore, there is a phenomenon that there are multiple members based on a single single-seat constituency to which one seat is assigned, depending on the district.In the election system, the single-seat constituency system in which votes are held at the same time and the proportional representation system are equal systems that stand side by side and are in a mutually complementary relationship.Therefore, the expression "proportional revival" that is originally the result of the single-seat constituency system is inappropriate, but as mentioned above, the result of the single-seat constituency may affect it, and the proportional representation system is effectively subordinate. It has become.In addition, the word "proportional revival", which is widely used by the mass media, has strengthened this impression.Therefore, candidates who have "revived" will be labeled as "winning even though they lost in the single-seat constituency" even after winning.
1996 House of Representatives electionThen, 10 people in the single-seat constituencyCandidatesLegal votesEven less than (6/1 of the total number of valid votes)Resurrection winningAnd two of them Deposit forfeiture pointIt was noted as a systematic problem that even less than (10/1 of the total number of valid votes) was revived and won.further2000 In February, one loser who received less than the deposit forfeiture pointIs a proportional representationAdvance winninghave done.From this reflection2000 House of Representatives electionFrom now on, candidates whose votes in the single-seat constituency were less than the deposit forfeiture point will not be allowed to revive.If the number of votes in the single-seat constituency is less than the legal number of votesResurrection winningAbout even after the 2000 House of Representatives electionIt recognized.Proportional candidates who are elected in the single-seat constituency and proportional candidates who received less than the deposit withdrawal point in the single-seat constituency are excluded from the proportional list of the election, and the lower-ranked candidates are moved up. ..
Movement of each political party
Duplicate candidacy under the parallel system of proportional representatives of the House of RepresentativesHouse of Councillors electionIn addition, each political party has a slightly different policy for duplicate candidacy, which is prohibited in the election of public officials.
LDPIn the case, duplicate candidacy is basic, but every time people run for single-seat constituencies only (73 years old only in proportional districts)Retirement ageCandidates aged 73 and over who are forced to run only in single-seat constituencies due to the system, and single-seat constituencies that appeal to cut off the retreat of the revival election such as the president class).It is natural to list duplicate candidates with a higher "list" ranking than other duplicate candidates in order to expand the support votes, and the candidates and parties who have moved the constituency from the original ground are emphasized Candidates who ran for the constituency that was positioned as the constituency (1996 OfSuzuki Muneo-Ryuji Fukaya-Shinichi Eto,2000 OfTadao Iwasaki-Hiroshi,2003 OfKunio Hatoyama-Tokuichiro Tamazawa-Koichi Hirata-Tatsuya Ito・ Iwasaki,2005 OfMasatada Tsuchiya-Satsuki Katayama-Yukari Sato-Abe Toshiko-Makiko Fujino-Tomomi Inada-Kyoko Nishikawa-Sanae Takaichi・ Tamazawa, etc.) are ranked high in the list.
2009 House of Representatives electionBeforeMakoto KogaParty election chairman"Since the opponent is strong, the method of giving the winning range and certifying the candidate has been done with one wisdom, but is it a plus for expanding the party? There is also an aspect of taking a step back without fighting. There is, and it is necessary to think carefully. "Masayoshi YoshinoBecame two people). From the 2 House of Representatives election, all duplicate candidates have the same ranking.
In the party, the members who lost the election in the constituency more than once in a row and revived proportionally are placed in the position of "provisional branch chief", and every spring, the party member acquisition situation etc. are examined and it is decided whether to make it a formal branch chief. ing.Regarding the relevant candidates, in principle, we were considering a policy of not allowing duplicate candidacy with proportional representation in the next House of Representatives election.However, there are no cases in which duplicate candidacy was not accepted for this reason.
IncumbentLDP PresidentOf these, those who ran for duplicate2000 House of Representatives election OfIshikawa 2 wardsWon overwhelminglyMori(Mori has been running for five consecutive times in 73, 1996, 2000, 2003, and 2005, when he was under the age of 2009 since the introduction of the single-member district proportional representation system, and all won the single-member district. doing).
Political parties supported by Soka Gakkai
Budding partyIs welcoming the 1996 House of Representatives electionParty leaderIchiro OzawaWith one exception (in the 1 House of Representatives election)Proportional Hokuriku Shin-Etsu blockWith Yasuo Ichikawa in Ishikawa 2nd districtFukui 3nd districtThere is only one case in which two of them were listed as duplicate candidates and they were listed in the "list" with the same rank and fourth place), and one in the proportional representation election.Proportional blockThe policy was to allow only one person per candidate.In tokyoTokyo 5 Ward OfSachiyo Nomura, In South KantoChiba 10 ward OfHiroshi Sudo, In KinkiHyogo 9th Ward OfIchizo Miyamoto, In ChinaOkayama 4 wards OfJune Kato, In KyushuFukuoka 4 wards OfJunji Higashi..There were no duplicate candidates in each block of Hokkaido, Tohoku, Kita-Kantou, Shikoku, and Tokai.
New Frontier PartyOppositionAs the first partyRegime change14 months and 11 days after the election day of the above House of Representatives election that failed1997 May 12Political Party Subsidy LawDivided party based on.
New Frontier Party formed by the New Frontier Party, Komeito (composed of members of the House of Councilors, prefectural and local government members), and Ozawa Liberal Democratic Party (who belonged to the Komeito Party before the formation of the New Frontier Party) were reunited from October 1999. Along with his colleague Ozawa Liberal Party-Conservative (New) Party, he formed a coalition with the Liberal Democratic Party and cooperated in the election.
In the 2000 House of Representatives election, there were seven duplicate candidates.South Kanto block OfIsamu Ueda(Kanagawa 6 Wards)・Shigeyuki Tomita(Chiba 2 ward), The two "list" ranks are the same, 2rd place,Tokyo block OfYamaguchi Natsuo(Tokyo 17 Ward)・Otohiko Endo(Tokyo 4 Ward)・Yuriko Ohno(Tokyo 20 Ward), 3rd place with the same "Roster" ranking, 3 duplicate candidates in 2 proportional blocks, and they were in the same rank as each other (others)Shikoku blockIn second place aloneKochi 1 ward OfIshida Minoru,Northern Kanto blockIn second place aloneSaitama 6 Wards OfWakamatsu Kaneshige).However, all seven of the duplicate candidates were defeated in the single-seat constituency, and only two were Ueda and Wakamatsu who were revived as proportional representatives.
Since then, he has not run for duplicates since the 2003 lower house election, and has been running for either a single-seat constituency election or a proportional representation election.
Formed in 1996Democratic PartyIn 1996, 2000, and 2003, duplicate candidates were placed in the same rank as possible in the proportional list, and in the past several cases were allowed to differ in the list rank among duplicate candidates, but in 2005 It was completely abolished from the House of Representatives election.However, it has been partially revived in the 2014 House of Representatives election.
In the past, there were some duplicate candidates at the top of the "list" (the 2000 House of Representatives election was changed from the single-seat constituency of the New Frontier Party).Saito GotoIn the New Frontier Party era, he was forced to run from the ward next to the single-seat constituency that he originally wanted as a proportional single candidate.Koriki JojimaIn the same Tokyo as Jojima, the former Democratic Party era was a proportional independent candidateYukihisa Fujita-Ishige, Run in a different constituency than the one in the old Democratic eraAkira Nagatsuma, In the 1996 House of Representatives electionPunchI changed the country from the constituency that was rejected as an incumbent to the next districtNoboru UsamiWas not given preferential treatment.
The 2003 House of Representatives election is just beforeMinyu mergerI was forced to change countries because the Liberal Party joined inTakeshi Hidaka-Yuzuru Tsuzuki, 1996, from the constituency that ran as a candidate for the former Democratic PartyChuji Ito-Yoshio Hachiro, 1996 Change of country from the constituency that ran as a candidate for the New Frontier PartyToshio Mitsui-Hiroyuki Nagahama-Kazuya Tamaki7 people), no longer allowed since 2005.In addition, as a general rule, it is a policy not to allow the higher ranks of proportional alone, and in the 2005 general election, there were candidates for higher ranks of proportional alone.Hokkaido block(Seiji Osaka）とSouth Kanto block(Hiroyuki Nagahama) Was the only two. (In addition, Nagahama is in office21rd House of Councilors ordinary electionHe ran for the House of Representatives and lost his job.Osaka ran for the 2009 general election and was elected in the single-seat constituency. )
In the 2009 general electionDemocratic whirlwindIn response to this, it was expected that there would be a shortage of proportional representation candidates due to the large number of single-seat constituency candidates being elected, so we proceeded to support proportional representation candidates.As an exampleTohoku blockThen, all the single-seat constituency candidates were ranked first (except for Ichiro Ozawa mentioned above), and all the Democratic Party's single-seat constituency candidates were double-seat candidates, and seven people were placed below them.As a result, 1 people were elected in Tohoku, and 7 independent candidates were elected after deducting 7 proportional revival.
In the 2012 general election, a big headwind to the Democratic Party caused a large number of single-seat constituency candidates to be defeated, and ministers and party leaders could not make a proportional revival.In addition, the votes are broken due to the rush of political parties.Hokkaido blockAnd other than the Tohoku block, the voter turnout came in third.
In the 2014 general electionNew party earthTransferred fromTakako SuzukiIn Hokkaido block, the zoning has changed significantlySaga 2 wardCandidate fromHiroshi OgushiTheKyushu blockPreferentially ranked first in proportion alone.
IncumbentDemocratic Party RepresentativeThose who ran for duplicate in 1996Tokyo 18 Ward OfNaoto Kan(Co-representative at that time), 2000Hokkaido 9th district OfYukio Hatoyama, 2012Chiba 4 ward OfYoshihiko Noda, 2014Tokyo 1 Ward OfMari EedaThere are four people.Suga ran for multiple times in 4, 1996, 2000, 2003, 2009, and 2012, and was a single-member candidate only in 2014, and was elected as a single-seat constituency except in 2005 and 2012 (2014). Proportional revival in both year and 2012).Hatoyama is a single-seat constituency election in 2014, 1996, 2000, and 2003 as a duplicate candidate and in 2005 as a single-member candidate.Noda lost the single-seat constituency in 2009 when he was incumbent as the above-mentioned New Frontier Party, and after joining the Democratic Party, he ran for multiple candidates six times in 1996, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2009, and 2012. You have won consecutive single-seat constituencies.Kaieda has been running for duplicate in all House of Representatives elections from 2014 to 6, was elected in the single-seat constituencies in 1996, 2014 and 2000, and was revived in 2003 and 2009, but in 1996. In 2012, when he ran as the active leader of the party, he was unable to make a proportional revival and was rejected.
Constitutional Democratic Party
2017 10 of the month48th House of Representatives general electionFormed just beforeConstitutional Democratic PartyPlaced all single-seat constituency candidates in first place, except for the Shikoku block, which has no single-seat constituency candidates.Single-seat constituency candidates wanted to run alone in the single-seat constituencyHokkaido 6th district OfTakahiro SasakiAll but were candidates for duplication.
In the 2017 House of Representatives election, the representative of the Kinki blockYuriko KoikeHad a close relationship withKazunori InoueWas given preferential treatment over other duplicate candidates.
Japan Communist Party
Communist partyThen.2005 general electionUntil then, duplicate candidates were not ranked in the same order, and the list consisted of a mixture of proportional single candidates and duplicate candidates.In addition, many of the single-seat constituencies were not proportional and were single-seat constituencies alone.
However, in 2009, instead of reducing single-seat constituency candidates, it increased duplicate candidacy.Furthermore, in proportional districts other than Tokyo, the same ranking was set for the first time in the lower rank candidates.
Social Democratic PartySo, although there are many duplicate candidates, there are two exceptions (2 exceptions) to make a difference in the "list" ranking among duplicate candidates (1996 House of Representatives election OfProportional tokyo blockとProportional South Kanto blockExcept for 2 times).
In 2005, due to concerns that all of the duplicate candidates could not be elected below the deposit forfeiture line due to the decline in the party power, a proportional single candidate may be set up in the lower ranks.Northern Kanto block OfFumihiro Himori, Tokyo blockNobuto HosakaWon at the bottom of each proportional single. (Hosaka is a seat inherited from the Liberal Democratic Party, where all the candidates were elected. Details will be described later.)
Everyone's partyIn the 2009 House of Representatives election, the northern Kanto blockKoichi YamauchiExcept for, all were duplicate candidates.The difference in the "list" ranking among the duplicate candidates was ranked first due to the change of saddle from the incumbent House of Councilors.Keiichiro AsaoOnly the South Kanto block where other candidates are ranked second in the same rank.
In the 2012 House of Representatives election, with the exception of Yoshimi Watanabe, all the candidates for the single-seat constituencies were running in duplicate, and all were in the same rank.In addition, Yamauchi was the only proportional independent candidate as before.
A political party based on the Osaka Restoration Association
- Japan Restoration Party (2012-2014)
- Japan Restoration PartyIs a member of the Diet at the time of the dissolution of the House of Representatives in the 2012 House of Representatives electionHiroshi Ueno,Takashi Ishizeki,Keito Ozawa,Masato Imai,Matsuno Yorihisa,Kenta Matsunami,Takashi Tanihata) And the dynasty candidate of the Diet members at the time of the dissolution of the House of Representatives (Koichi Nishino) And local council members belonging to the Ishin no Kai (Hidetaka Inoue,Kei Miki,Nobuyuki Baba,Yasuto Urano) And a former parliamentary secretary (Naoto Sakaguchi) And the former Spirit of Japan Party representative (Hiroshi Yamada) Was given preferential treatment in the proportional list among the duplicate candidates.
- Restoration Party
- In the 2014 House of Representatives election, all duplicate candidates were ranked the same.
- Nippon Ishin no Kai (2016-)
- Japan Restoration PartyIn the 2017 House of Representatives election, gave preferential treatment to those who had been active in the party for many years at the top of the proportional list.
Liberal Party, People's New Party, New Party Nippon, Japan Future Party (Party of Life), New Party Daichi
- Liberal party(1998-2003)
- Candidates are nominated in the 2000 House of Representatives election, and duplicate candidates are ranked or have the same ranking in the proportional list.
- New National Party
- Candidates are nominated in the 2005 House of Representatives election and the 2009 House of Representatives election.The ranking of duplicate candidates varies, and in the 2005 Hokuriku block, they were elected in single-seat constituencies.Minsuke WatanukiRookie of single independent candidate onMasaaki ItokawaWinning with. Political critic who was the single independent candidate in the Tokyo block in 2009Keiichiro NakamuraAnd placed duplicate candidates in 2nd place. (Both lost)
- There were no duplicate candidates in the 2012 House of Representatives election.
- New Party Japan
- Candidates were nominated in the 2005 House of Representatives election and the 2009 House of Representatives election, and in 2005, he was in the previous position at Kinki Block, which had multiple candidates.Makoto Taki(Nara 2nd district) was placed in 1st place and the proportional district was elected.The South Kanto block arranged two newcomers who ran for duplicate in the same order. In 2009, the party representative at Kinki BlockYasuo Tanaka(Hyogo 8th district, single-seat constituency elected), in Tokyo blockYoshio Arita(Tokyo 11th district, defeated) was placed in 1st place.
- Japan Future Party-Party of life
- Candidates are nominated in the 2012 House of Representatives election.Basically, duplicate candidates are given the same ranking, but in the Tohoku / North Kanto block, former candidates are given preferential treatment in the proportional list ranking over new candidates..
- In the 2014 House of Representatives election, all duplicate candidates were ranked the same.
- New party earth
- In the 2005 House of Representatives election and in 2009 and 2017, he was only a proportional candidate because he did not meet the party requirements, but in the 2012 House of Representatives election.National political partyWhen the party requirements were met, all the candidates in the single-seat constituency were proportionally overlapped and ranked the same.
New Party Sakigake, Liberal League, New Socialist Party, Democratic Reform Party, Reform Club (New Party Reform), Next Generation Party (Japanese Heart)
- New party
- In the 1996 House of Representatives election, candidates were duplicated in the Kita Kanto block, Hokuriku Shinetsu block, Kinki block, and Kyushu block.In Kinki and Kyushu, duplicate candidates with the same ranking were set up.
- Free Union
- Candidates are nominated in the 1996 House of Representatives election and the 2000 House of Representatives election.All duplicate candidates are ranked the same in the proportional list.
- New Socialist Party
- Candidates are nominated in the 1996 House of Representatives election.There is an example in which one person each from the Tokyo block and the China block is given the top preferential treatment, but basically the duplicate candidates are ranked the same.
- Democratic Reform Party
- Candidates are nominated in the 1996 House of Representatives election.Duplicate candidacy in Kinki blockRyuichi DoiWas the only candidate, but Toi was elected in the single-seat constituency.
- Reform Club / New Party Reform
- The Reform Club was the only candidate for the 2009 House of Representatives electionShingo NishimuraHowever, he ran for the first place in Kinki and 1th district in Osaka, but was rejected.
- There were no duplicate candidates in the 2012 House of Representatives election. In the 2014 House of Representatives election, he was only a proportional candidate because he did not meet the party requirements under the Public Offices Election Act.
- Next-generation party, the heart of Japan
- In the 2014 House of Representatives electionHiroshi Yamada(Tokyo block) andTakao Fujii(Tokai block) was given preferential treatment over other duplicate candidates and ranked first alone.
- There were no duplicate candidates in the 2017 House of Representatives election.
Candidates who are not duplicate candidates are not guaranteed to be revived in proportional representation, so they will be elected in single-seat constituency elections.VotersThere is a merit that you have to be enthusiastic about appealing to.
In addition, since each single-seat constituency is always included as part of the proportional representation constituency, the more duplicate candidates there are, the more advantageous it is to carry in the constituency. ..
Furthermore, if the "list" ranking of duplicate candidates in the same proportional block is the same and the competition is made at the defeat rate, even if the single-seat constituency system ("single-seat constituency") cannot be won, another Just fight better than the candidateLoss rateIt is easy to maintain the hope that it can be revived with.In other wordsClose battle・ There is an advantage that it is easy to inspire the morale of the struggling candidates.
From the standpoint of the elector (voter), the possibility of a revival election in the proportional representation election can be considered in advance, so in the single-seat constituency election.Death voteIt can be said that it is a mechanism that can relieve the problem with a certain probability.Also,Article 67 of the Constitution of JapanSince it is stipulated in the Diet that "The Prime Minister will appoint this from among the members of the Diet by a resolution of the Diet."Party leaderIn the case of "the person selected by the people as the next prime minister cannot become the next prime minister due to the defeat in the constituency", "No matter how much the party that won the House of Representatives electionHead nominationIf the party leader runs for duplicate, the problem of "cannot be nominated by" will be resolved to some extent.However, the defeat of the single-seat constituency, a person who has shown one public opinion as "a person who is not suitable for a'national representative'", is a candidate for the prime minister, and there are doubts about his appointment.The Social Democratic Party in the 1 House of Representatives election is an example of a party leader losing a single-seat constituency and making a proportional revival.Takako DoiHowever, Doi was not voted in the nomination election because he resigned as leader immediately after the election.On the other hand, the single-seat constituency was defeated and a proportional revival was made.Mari EedaBecame the leader of the Democratic Party of Japan and got a vote in the nomination election for the leader.
It is believed that the duplicate candidates listed on the top of the "list" of the major political parties are almost guaranteed to win the revival.
For example, Liberal Democratic Party candidates have fallen below the 1996% voter turnout (which has become one of the requirements for a resurrection election since 10), which is the deposit forfeiture point, in the single-member constituency elections of the House of Representatives since 2000. Absent.The lowest voter turnout of LDP candidates in the lower house election single-seat constituency election was in the 1996 lower house election.Iwate 4rd districtThe voter turnout is 10.39%.Therefore, in the case of multiple candidates for the LDP, the condition of 10% or more of the total number of valid votes can usually be met almost certainly.
Therefore, in the case of duplicate candidates who are listed at the top of the "list" of proportional representation elections, there is a demerit that the enthusiasm for winning in the single-seat constituency system election district and the appeal to voters will be weakened. ..
In addition, if the number of duplicate candidates or single top candidates listed in the "list" of proportional representation elections increases, the loss rate in single-seat constituency elections will increase for many other (same rank) duplicate candidates. It has also been pointed out that the chances of winning a revival are relatively reduced.
For example,2000 House of Representatives electionThen, the Liberal Democratic Party is ranked high in the "list"Proportional representationSince there were many single candidates, the revival election of other duplicate candidates of the same rank wasHokkaido 9th district OfHirofumi Iwakura(Proportional Hokkaido),Kanagawa 14 Wards OfTaei Nakamoto(Proportional South Kanto),Chiba 8 ward OfYoshitaka Sakurada(Proportional South Kanto),Hyogo 1th Ward OfKeisuke Sunada(Kinki proportional) 4 people (laterAdvance winningDid12 wards of Osaka・ Kinki proportionalTomokazu KitagawaThere were only 5 people if you put in.
The Diet members are constitutionally "representatives of all the people" and not the representatives of the constituencies, but as a matter of fact, the votes obtained in the next election are of great concern.Normally, the members who have won the resurrection will aim to run from the constituency in the next election, so the constituency winners and the resurrection elected members will work for the benefit of the constituency, and the candidates for the small constituency Causes injustice with constituencies that have not won the resurrection.
Furthermore, by determining the ranking of the revival election based on the defeat rate, candidates with the highest number of votes will be defeated even if they are candidates of the same political party, and candidates with fewer votes will be elected.One vote disparityThe distortion is carried over to the proportional representation frame.
The same ranking of duplicate candidates is optional
If duplicate candidates are ranked the same, from the voter's point of view, they can partially participate in the ranking of the proportional list through elections.From the standpoint of a political party organization, there is a big disadvantage that it is extremely difficult to predict who will be revived and won in the sekihairitsu match of duplicate candidates in the same rank.As mentioned above, it is up to the political party to rank the duplicate candidates in the same order, so it is often the case that the political party avoids placing the duplicate candidates in the same rank.
Komeito, the Communist Party, and the former New Frontier Party avoid placing duplicate candidates in the same rank on the "list" as long as they are in the "list" proportional representation election (restricted list). It is based on the judgment of the party headquarters that the person who wants to be elected should be surely elected.
Therefore, in political parties that do not rank duplicate candidates in the same rank, the ranking does not change due to the defeat rate, and voters cannot partially participate in the ranking of the proportional list through elections.In the past, there are many cases in which candidates with a lower sekihairitsu rate were given preferential treatment in proportional order within the same proportional block, so they were revived and won (article "Article"Loss rate21 people from the Liberal Democratic Party, 11 people from the Communist Party, 6 people from the Democratic Party, 6 people from the Ishin no Kai, 2 people from the Social Democratic Party, 1 person from the Party of Hope, 1 person from the Liberal Party, and 1 person from the Future Party. A total of 49 people are applicable).
Resigned as a member of the House of Representatives and ran for a by-election in the House of Representatives
In the case of a member who was revived as a proportional representative election instead of a single-seat constituency election due to the double-member constituency system, if the other member elected in the single-seat constituency loses his job for some reason, he himself resigns from the position of a member of the House of Representatives and is elected as a substitute election ( There are times when you run for the House of Representatives single-member district system election.In this case, a very strange phenomenon occurs in which a person who should have resigned from the House of Representatives is running for the election of a member of the House of Representatives immediately after resigning from the House of Representatives.
However, due to the following factors, it is possible to resign as a member of the House of Representatives and run for a by-election in the House of Representatives.
First, even if a proportional representation member resigns, the runner-up candidate of the same party will be elected in advance, so even if the proportional representation member who resigned loses in the by-election, the party organization will be concerned with the seating power of the Diet. There are no disadvantages (there are disadvantages if there is no runner-up candidate who can win by-elections, but such cases are limited to winning elections more than the party expected, and there are few examples in the past).
In addition, if a political party has a candidate other than the proportional representation revival in a by-election, and that candidate is elected, one political party has two prospective candidates in a single-seat constituency where only one is elected. It is expected that the official adjustment of the next general election will be difficult.Therefore, in order for the party executives (party executives) and the proportional representation revival themselves to eliminate the issue of official adjustment in advance, the party headquarters supports and supports the candidacy of the proportional representation revival in the by-elections. The resurrected person also declares his candidacy until he resigns from the post of member of the House of Representatives without waiting for the next election of the House of Representatives.
This example is from 2002Fukuoka 6 wardsBy-electionKazunari Koga(Democratic Party), 2004Saitama 8 WardsBy-electionAtsushi Kinoshita(Democratic Party), 2008Yamaguchi 2th districtBy-electionHideo Hiraoka(Democratic Party), 2010Hokkaido 5th districtBy-electionNobutaka Machimura(Liberal Democratic Party), 2016Kyoto 3 wardsBy-electionKenta Izumi(Democratic Party) 5 times.When Issei Koga resigned, at that timeMinsuke WatanukiThe chairman of the House of Representatives did not accept the request for resignation, considering that the request for resignation was "to run for a by-election."However, even if the chairman did not accept it, there was no problem with the candidacy itself because the members of the Diet would lose their jobs when they submitted the candidacy for the by-election.Of these five, Hideo Hiraoka, Nobutaka Machimura, and Kenta Izumi were elected, but Issei Koga and Atsushi Kinoshita were defeated.
Restriction of duplicate candidacy due to political party requirements
As mentioned above, legally duplicate candidacy is limited to candidates for political parties that meet the party requirements.For this reason, it has been pointed out that candidates for political organizations that do not meet the requirements are unfair because their chances of winning are narrower than those of major political parties.For example, we have won candidates for proportional districts.New party earthDid not meet party requirements until 2011, so candidates for the party could not run twice in the 2005 and 2009 House of Representatives elections.
Seat relocation issue
Since the priority is given to winning in the single-seat constituency for duplicate candidates, if a political party wins more than expected, most of the duplicate candidates will be elected in the single-seat constituency and the remaining candidates will be proportional representations. It may not be possible to meet the number of seats won.In addition, while all the proportional blocks are candidates for duplication, there may be no candidates for proportional registration because all the candidates for the block are below the deposit forfeiture line.
In the past, the Liberal Democratic Party in 2005, the Democratic Party in 2009, and the Constitutional Democratic Party in 2017 had problems with the former, and the Your Party in 2009 had the latter problem. The seats have moved to the party.Of course, this relocation destination is determined regardless of the policy distance from the party from which it was relocated, so the Social Democratic Party candidate may be elected on behalf of the LDP, or the LDP candidate may be elected on behalf of the Constitutional Democratic Party.As a solution to this problem, there are alternatives such as allowing the addition of candidates and making them vacant, but each has its own problems and has not yet been realized.
- Parliamentarians with many revival elections
- Grain field, Satoshi Abe, Nagaoka, Kawauchi, Goto, Shun Abe, Imai are continuous. ★ is still ongoing.
- Resurrection winning in the lower constituency
- The revival of the lowest ranking in the single-seat constituency is the revival of the 5th place in the single-seat constituency (eg,Shozo Azuma,Nobuto Hosaka,Ryushi Tsuchida).
- 3 winners
- Due to duplicate candidacy, there may be three winners from a single-seat constituency where only one is elected.TaiziAll candidates are elected.
- 1996-7 constituencies (Tokyo 6 Ward-Tokyo 22 Ward-Kanagawa 10 Wards-Shiga 1 ward-Nara 1 Ward-Hiroshima 2 wards-Okinawa 1st district) 8 constituencies for additional advance (Shimane 1st District）
- 2000-6 constituencies (Saitama 13 Wards・ Tokyo 6th district ・Kanagawa 6 Wards-Kanagawa 7 Wards-Kanagawa 14 Wards-Hyogo 8th Ward）
- 2003-4 constituencies (Saitama 8 Wards-Tokyo 4 Ward-Kanagawa 12 Wards-Kyoto 1 wards）
- 2005-2 constituencies (Kanagawa 8 Wards-Yamanashi 3st district) 3 constituencies for additional advance (Tokushima 2nd district）
- 2009-3 constituencies (Ibaraki 7th district・ Saitama 8th district, Kyoto 1st district)
- 2012-10 constituencies (Miyagi 1rd district-Tochigi 2rd district-Chiba 1 ward-Chiba 9 ward-Chiba 13 ward・ Yamanashi 3rd district ・Kanagawa 9 Wards-Nagano 1 Wards-Nagano 3 Wards-Aichi 12 Wards）
- 2014-5 constituencies (4 wards of Osaka-10 wards of Osaka-11 wards of Osaka-Fukuoka 9 wards-Okinawa 1st district）
- 2017-3 constituencies (Kyoto 3 wards-Fukuoka 10 wards・ Okinawa 1st district) 4 constituencies (XNUMXst district in Okinawa)4 wards of Osaka）
- To date, there have been no cases of four winners in the same single-seat constituency.
- All candidates in the prefecture are elected
- 2014 years47th House of Representatives general electionThen,OkinawaThere was a rare event in which nine people who ran for four of the constituencies were all elected, including a proportional revival of five people...In addition, this is the only case in which all the candidates in the prefecture have been elected.
- Two winners in the same constituency enter the cabinet
- Due to duplicate candidacy, it is possible that two members of parliament who were elected in conflict in a single-seat constituency where only one was elected will join the same cabinet as a cabinet member.
- 2011 yearsKan 2st remodeling cabinetThen, the Democratic Party of Japan who fought for the seat in Tokyo 1st districtMari Eeda(Electoral district elected) and left the Liberal Democratic PartyKaoru Yosano(Proportional revival election) both entered the cabinet as ministers.
- Proportional duplication and political party posters
- When a party leader or other influential party candidate overlaps with a proportional block, the party's face using the candidate's face is used in the proportional block.Election posterCan not be pasted.This also applies to the proportional single candidate.
Resurrection winners with low turnout
|Place||candidate||Political party||Election year||Constituency||Voting rate|
|1||Nobuto Hosaka||Social Democrats||1996||Tokyo 22 Ward||5.89%|
|2||Tadasu Kikuchi■||Social Democrats||1996||Shizuoka 7 wards||8.47%|
|3||Hajime Fukada||Social Democrats||1996||Saitama 6 Wards||9.18%|
|4||Mori Natsue||Japan Restoration Party||2017||Kyoto 3 wards||10.03%|
|5||Tetsuya Shiokawa||Japan Communist Party||2003||Saitama 8 Wards||10.21%|
|6||Kazuko Saito||Japan Communist Party||2014||Chiba 4 ward||10.53%|
|7||Ryushi Tsuchida||Liberal party||2000||Kanagawa 6 Wards||10.83%|
|8||Kentaro Ishihara■||Liberal party||2000||Fukushima 1 ward||10.89%|
|9||Yamaguchi Tomio||Japan Communist Party||2003||Tokyo 4 Ward||10.92%|
|10||Satoru Ienishi||Democratic Party||1996||Nara 1 Ward||11.61%|
|11||Seiko Kitazawa||Social Democrats||1996||Nagano 2 Wards||11.84%|
|12||Shozo Azuma||Liberal party||2000||Tokyo 15 Ward||12.10%|
|13||Yoshio Suzuki||Liberal party||2000||Tokyo 6 Ward||12.28%|
* Indicates an advance election (2000) due to the lack of high-ranking members of the proportional candidate.
Candidates after 10 who could not win the revival because the voter turnout was less than 2000%
|Times||Years||Proportional section||Political party||candidate||Voting rate||Advance winning candidate|
|42||2000||Kinki||Liberal party||Juntaro Toyoda(Kyoto 4 wards）||8.06%||Kazuhiro Nakatsuka|
|44||2005||North Kanto||Social Democrats||Tomihisa Tsuchiya (Gunma 1th district）||4.58%||Fumihiro Himori|
|Mutsuko Yamaguchi (Tochigi 3rd district）||4.11%|
|Rei Saruta (Ibaraki 3th district）||2.20%|
|Tokyo||Japan Communist Party||Yoshiharu Wakabayashi(Tokyo 22 Ward）||9.82%||Ryo Kasai|
|Social Democrats||Naoto Nakagawa(Tokyo 9 Ward）||5.25%||Nobuto Hosaka|
|45||2009||Tokai||Everyone's party||Tsuyoshi Sato (Shizuoka 1 wards）||8.30%||Kayoko Isogai(Democratic Party)|
|Kinki||Everyone's party||Koichi Yoshino (9 wards of Osaka）||5.70%||Koichi Tani(LDP)|
|Social Democrats||Tomoko Ichirai (Hyogo 8th Ward）||7.50%||Ryoichi Hattori|
|Takakage Fujita (Kyoto 2 wards）||2.90%|
Similar systems in other countries
GermanyHouse of RepresentativesGerman ParliamentElection (Single-election district proportional representation combined system) Also has a duplicate candidacy system.This is different from the method of determining the winners of the single-seat constituency and the proportional representation separately like Japan, the number of seats of each party is decided according to the votes of the proportional representation, and the winner in the single-seat constituency is prioritized there. Since it is a method of applying to the target, duplicate candidates are used positively and positively.
As an example, over the yearsGerman Prime MinisterServed ascallHe was the Foreign Minister of the Cole CabinetGenscherAlthough popular nationwide, the ground was weak and he suffered defeats in single-seat constituencies in most elections, but continued to win thanks to duplicate candidacy..
- ^ Nobuto Hosaka(Social Democratic Party, proportional representation Tokyo block) ・Hajime Fukada(Social Democratic Party, Proportional Representative North Kanto Block) ・Satoru Ienishi(Democratic Party, Proportional Representation Kinki Block) ・Seiko Kitazawa(Social Democratic Party, proportional representation Hokuriku Shinetsu block) ・Takashige Hiraga(Communist Party, proportional representation Tokai block) ・Shigeru Ito(Social Democratic Party, Proportional Representation South Kanto Block) ・Naoaki Haruna(Communist Party, proportional representative Shikoku block) ・Takeshi Omori(Communist Party, proportional representation South Kanto block) ・Tsutomu Yamamoto(Democratic Party, Proportional Representation Kinki Block) ・Hideo Kijima(Communist Party, proportional representation Hokuriku Shinetsu block)
- ^ Nobuto Hosaka, Hajime Fukada
- ^ Tadasu Kikuchi(Social Democratic Party, proportional representation Tokai block.Maejima Hideyuki(Advance winning due to the death of)
- ^ In the 2000 House of Representatives election, the number of votes in single-seat constituencies from the Liberal Party, Social Democratic Party, and Communist Party was less than the legal number.Resurrection winningThere were multiple people. In the 2003 House of Representatives election, there were two revival winners from the Communist Party who received less than the legal number of votes in the single-seat constituencies.In subsequent elections, no one was elected to revive with less than the legal number of votes,2014 Of47th House of Representatives general electionChiba Prefecture 4st WardCandidate from the Communist Party and lost with less than the legal number of votesKazuko Saito Deposit moneyHe won the revival because he exceeded the confiscation point by 1217 votes.Also2017 Of48th House of Representatives general electionKyoto Prefecture 3st WardCandidate from the Nippon Ishin no Kai and lost with less than the legal number of votesMori NatsueHas won the revival because it exceeded the deposit forfeiture point by 49 votes.
- ^ Proportional duplication of continuous proportional resurrection "not tolerated" Liberal Democratic Party, final adjustment with new policySankei News Retrieved September 2017, 11
- ^ Hachiro was the party's representative of Hokkaido in August 2005.NisekoMayorSince he requested Osaka to run in the first place in proportion to his current position, he declined to run for duplicate.
- ^ Immediately after the 1996 House of Representatives election, he was nominated for the Democratic Party's prime minister.
- ^ There are exceptions, and in the Tohoku block, Aomori 4th districtNoriko NakanowatariWas in 9th place, the same as a newcomer, despite his previous job
- ^ Including one advance winning
- ^ "[House of Representatives election XNUMX] Okinawa is elected by all nine constituency candidates with proportional revival". Sankei Shimbun(July 2014, 12) October 2018th, 11Browse.
- ^ Kyushu blockKanzaki martial arts(Komeito), South Kanto blockShizu KazuoThere is an example of (Japanese Communist Party).
- ^ reference Shujiro Kato"Japanese Elections-What Changes Should Change Politics-" p106–107 (2003 Chuokoron-Shinsha) ISBN 4121016874