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🏛 | Constitutional Agricultural and Regional Revitalization Commitment Axis of Conflict with Liberal Democratic Party Administration


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Constitutional Agricultural and Regional Revitalization Commitment Axis of Conflict with Liberal Democratic Party Administration

 
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In the administration's pledge on regional policy announced by the Constitutional Democratic Party, he stated that he was trying to break away from the current agricultural policy, saying that it had "focused on regulatory reform and strengthening competitiveness."
 

The Constitutional Democratic Party has made a commitment to agriculture and regional revitalization for the lower house elections, and has set the axis of opposition to the LDP administration, which emphasizes competition. → Continue reading

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Manifest

Manifest(English: posterWhat is

  1. A document or speech for an individual or group to inform a wide range of people of their policies and intentions.Statement(Seimeibun) ・DeclarationMeans (declaration)Foreign words.
  2. The above turns into a guidebook that announces the main points of the political party's promises in the election prior to voting.Election pledgeA loan word that means (election).→ Detailed in this section.

the term

The etymology of ManifestoLatinThe predominant theory is that "manus" and "fendere" are combined. It is thought to be derived from "striking by hand" ⇒ "clear enough to be felt by hand" ⇒ "showing clearly".This is the Italian word for Manifesto (Italy) "statement (sentence) / declaration (sentence)".Later, in Britain, the party leader's speech became known as the Manifesto. manifest (English) is a general noun, verb, and adjective in English, but Manifest derived from Italian and Latin.oIs a noun that means a political statement. pronunciation of manifest / ˈmænɪfest / is close to "manifest"[1], ManifestoHas a diphthong ending like / ˌmænɪˈfestəʊ / / ˌmænɪˈfestoʊ / and is close to "manifestow"[2].

ManifestoThe party leader's (statement of belief) speech, called, was first used as an election promise in Britain.(English editionInConservative partyParty leaderprime ministerBaronet Sir Robert Peel (English editionIt is said that it was issued to the constituency residents of.This "Tamworth Manifesto" was a strong personal pledge of Peel, the leader of the Conservative Party and the former Prime Minister.This statement was officially adopted as a political policy of the Conservative Party in the general election the following year.Since then, major political parties have published manifests in each general election in Britain. In 1906, the Labor Party issued the first manifesto as a political party promise.It is said that the Conservative Party at the time of the 1935 general election was the first to form a booklet as it is today.Also, since the early 1980s, the manifests of each party have become color-printed booklets with photographs.[3]..Today, the manifesto as an election promise in Japan is based on this British political practice since the 19th century.However, there is a view that the understanding that the manifesto in the United Kingdom details numerical targets and financial resources is incorrect.[4].

In parliamentary elections such as England, "party manifesto"(Or" the manifesto of a party "),United States presidential electionThen "party platformAlso called ".

Not limited to election promises, the following are world-famous examples of using manifest terms.

Overview

Manifests are often translated as government promises, but they are not just political ideas, but also include financial backing, numerical targets, deadlines, etc., and are said to have originated from what the Tories started in 1934 in the United Kingdom. Tories.This expression has been used in Japan since the 2003 general election.[5].

In Japan, from its appearance, "with votersAgreementIs often claimed[*1][6][7], It's not really legally binding, it's just a form of election promise.Of the head familyThe United KingdomBut the imperative nature of the contract in the legal sense is denied[8].

in Japan,electionIn, the English manifesto was often used in the statements (books) of political party election promises, so it is often limited to this meaning, with the aim of encouraging voters to make policy-oriented decisions.Political partyorChief-MemberWe promise in advance the policies that candidates will implement after they are elected.Pledge), And it means a statement (book) to clearly inform it.The manifesto in this case is often translated as "policy platform," "government promise," "policy declaration," "(political) basic policy," and so on.However, since this usage results in the fact that "the basic policies and principles of politics change with each election," "Election pledge","(Political)Basic policyThere is also an issue that it is appropriate to say.

The United Kingdom

Britain's first manifestation is said to have been issued by Robert Peel to the constituencies of his Tamworth constituency in the 1835 general election.However, this "Tamworth Manifesto" had a strong character of Peel's personal statement of belief. In 1906, the Labor Party issued the first manifesto as a political party promise.It is said that the Conservative Party at the time of the 1935 general election was the first to form a booklet as it is today.Also, since the early 1980s, the manifests of each party have become color-printed booklets with photographs.[3].

back ground

The composition in which Manifesto, which is a statement of the platform of policy, becomes a concrete statement of election promises is largely related to the parliamentary system of the head family in the United Kingdom.In Britain, Manifesto was initially intended for use in the inner circle of expressing the personal beliefs of politicians such as the leader of the party and issuing a statement at the party convention on the points of policy policies decided within the party.However, due to the reform of the electoral system in the 19th century, the proportional representation system was abolished and the one-person district was supported.[*2]In this single-seat constituency election system, the first party is usually the ruling party with a majority.

On the other hand, the British Senate (House of Peers) is a life-long system by aristocratic lawmakers.[*3]The fixation of the faction has been a problem since the 19th century.In particular, the Labor Party's bills and budgets were often rejected for various social policies in the latter half of the 19th century, which frustrated them in 1911.Congressional lawAfter the debate over 1918 and the composition and authority of the Senate, the composition and authority of the Senate were reviewed, and since the Labor Party expanded in 1945 after World War II, non-traditional policies such as nationalization of industry. The tradition that the party that took power in the general election of the House of Representatives did not abolish or delay the establishment of the agenda as a reflection of the people's will.Salisbury Convention[10][11][12]) Has been established.Under this political practice in the UK, winning an election in the House of Representatives usually not only wins a majority, but also guarantees that the Senate promises to pass the bill, and because it is a cabinet system, the promises enacted by the ruling party, There is an extremely rare condition that it can be immediately reflected in the administration.In reality, however, the Soleberry Doctrine only guarantees up to the second reading of the Senate, and subsequent amendments are allowed for a considerable period of time, according to a joint committee of the Senate and Senate. Has become[13]..In fact, with regard to the Blair administration's ID card bill, the government bill was defeated 12 times due to strong resistance at the House of Lords, even though it was specified in the manifesto.[14]..Similarly, in the English-speaking United States, not only is the administration and legislature separated by the presidential system, but the presidential election, the Senate election, and the House of Representatives election are held regularly at different times, not only in the Senate and the House of Representatives, but also in the legislature. The system is such that administrative twists are likely to occur.For this reason, unlike Britain, where the victory of one election directly leads to the acquisition of power, even if a specific promise is declared, it is not reserved in the system that it can be executed immediately after the election.For this reason, in both the House of Representatives and the presidential election, it is often the case that the British manifesto method is not used, but a broader, more ideological or goal is declared.[*4].

In a country that adopts a bicameral system, the political culture in which all administration is concentrated in the general election of the House of Representatives, as in the United Kingdom, is very special.Two-party systemIn the United States, the president does not have the right to submit bills, and even in countries that fall under this category, the head of political parties (Democratic Party National Chairman,Republican National Chairman) Does not have the authority to draft a bill, and is largely entrusted to the parliamentary activities of both members of the House and Senate.

In addition, in countries with a proportional constituency system, after the election is over and the number of people in the parliament is clarified, the actual policy management guidelines are held in consultation with the political parties participating in the coalition government at the stage of establishing a coalition government. Is decided. Only in the United Kingdom, the scheme of "winning a single election" = "majority of the House of Representatives" = "only the ruling party controls the legislature and administration" = "the promise is enacted as it is and executed by the Cabinet".In the United States, terms such as "Party Platoform" are often used instead, and it is more of a policy within the party.It should be noted that the manifesto as an election promise statement is a commonly used term in the United Kingdom.Clearly deny mandate mandates to lawmakers like France and Germany[15]There is also a regime, and the manifesto in the British parliamentary system isBritish Parliamentary SovereigntyIt occupies a unique position under the tradition of.

Discussion of imperative delegation

[16]In the United Kingdom, it is basically prohibited to interpret the manifest as an imperative mandate.This is called mandate theory (mandate), and the first is the aspect of interpreting the manifest as being ordered to perform a particular matter.The second is "authorization," which is interpreted as giving the electorate a promise and becoming the ruling party, which gives the ruling party the right and authority to carry out the promise.

The concept of command is denied in the strict legal sense. In 1947, the Committee for Privileges and Privileges of the House of Commons stated that "a contractual agreement with an organization outside the parliament that governs or limits the complete independence of parliamentarians and freedom of action in parliament" is inconsistent with the maintenance of the privilege of freedom of speech. "Independence of members of the Diet," "freedom of speech by members of the Diet," "freedom of activities of members of the Diet," and "prohibition of imperative delegation" have been confirmed, and the Committee has repeatedly confirmed this.On the other hand, the attitude of the case law is not always consistent, and it has been decided that the Tameside case regarding the promise of the survival of the grammar school requires the implementation of the policy.However, the trend of judicial precedents in recent years is said to be that they are not bound by the manifesto.

Strictly in the legal sense, the manifesto is not legally enforceable, but it is said to have some effectiveness in the political context.In the general election, there is a view that the position of the major political parties on the issue is clearly different on one of the issues, and if many electorates are aware of it, a mandate will be established.For example, in the 1911 general election, regarding the reduction of the authority of the House of Peers, the Labor Party manifesto at the time of the 2001 general election made the European Human Rights Treaty domestic law, and the reform of the House of Peers was widely supported by the electorate. In such a case, it is possible to assume that the concept of Mandate has been established.

When viewed as authorization, the electorate will be forced to make a yes-no choice with the policy presented in the manifest as a package, and will not be able to express their approval or disapproval of the individual cases described therein.In some cases, policies that contradict each other are listed in the manifest, or policies that are considered to be unsupported by the electorate are intentionally removed, and the electorate who voted for the party is listed in the manifest of the party. It cannot be said that all the promises have been approved, and it cannot be said that the electorate has the confidence and authorization.

Manifest-mandate theory in Britain is understood as a fairly flexible principle, and critical views prevail in the rigorous operation of this principle.In this respect, there remains a great deal of doubt about the proclamation as if "the British manifesto election is being realized in an ideal way" in Japan.Furthermore, in Japan, the misunderstanding that the political party manifesto in the United Kingdom contained many numerical targets and the financial resources were described in detail was disseminated, but in reality, it was based on the detailed financial resources in the political party manifesto in the United Kingdom. There is also the view that numerical targets are not stated.[4].

Japan

Overview

Unlike conventional election promises, delegation between voters and candidates by clearly stating what to do by when and how much (concrete measures, implementation deadlines, numerical targets) and ensuring post-verification. The purpose is to clarify the relationship.In other words, it clearly states when (implementation time) the budget (target setting) should include what (concrete measures) to realize, and inevitably.administrationTakebudgetEstablishedAdministrationBecause it is a condition to operateGovernment pledgeIt has been established since the 2003 general election of members of the House of Representatives.

It is unlikely that you will be involved in the administration because it is premised on the seizure and operation of the administration.OppositionThere is also a view that promises of the second party and below should not be the subject of discussion and consideration as a manifesto.In fact, opposition parties are more likely to make promises that are extremely unlikely to be realized.

On the other hand, changing the "regime promise" from election to election results in inconsistent political parties and an ad hoc character, so the expression "government promise" as "manifest" is used by the political party itself. There is also an understanding that it is not an expression.Furthermore, there are criticisms in Japan that "it may not be much different from the conventional election promise" because the Japanese manifesto itself has not been verified by both the ruling and opposition parties with the above-mentioned post-verification. To do.

Incidentally,Democratic PartyOf October 201447th House of Representatives general electionAdopted "manifest" method[17]However, it is considered that it is based on its own judgment.

There are also criticisms that if you are bound by the manifesto, you will not be able to respond quickly to change.[18].

The announcement of the government's pledge does not mean that the pledge must be achieved, or conversely, that it is a very important issue but that the manifesto should not be included in the manifesto, but public distrust. A feeling is born.Violation of pledgeMay be shouted, but the manifest is usuallyLegally bindingIs not considered to be.Legally binding here is the perspective of whether the implementation of the manifest can be realized by judicial enforcement.The Constitution of JapanUp,Member of ParliamentThere is a legal debate over whether to allow mandates forArticle 43 of the Constitution of Japan).In politics, if the reality of the world is different from the assumptions that were made when the manifest was created, the withdrawal of the manifest could give the opposition a great source of attack.

PHP Research InstituteIn the verification of the 2007 House of Councilors election manifesto conducted by the Manifest Verification Committee in May 5, the Liberal Democratic Party achieved 2004-100 points out of 22 points.KomeitoIs 19-36 points[19].

Requirements

The manifest is expected to have the following effects.

  • Clarify the problems of current politics.
  • We will present a policy that guarantees the feasibility, which does not end with the promotion activities that line up the rhetoric.
  • Of voterspolicyContribute to the selection of the standard.
  • Allows ex-post evaluation of administration by a candidate or political party who has made a promise and won.

Therefore, the manifest includes the following elements.

  1. Consider the basic principles of consul and the policies that will be needed in the future.
  2. Clarify indicators such as purpose and implementation method, deadline, and financial resources for each policy.
  3. For policies that require deadlines and financial resources, calculate specific figures that will be the basis for judgment and set target figures.
  4. It will be formulated in a form that can be evaluated after the fact, and will be clearly stated in expressions that are easy to understand even for general voters who do not have specialized knowledge.
  5. Announce and distribute before the election.

Furthermore, the candidates who are elected with the manifest are required to manage the following policies.

  1. Consul according to the manifesto.
  2. When a problem occurs in the manifest (such as when there is an error in the basic data that is the basis for formulating the manifest, or when there is an unexpected change in the situation), the situation is explained to voters and related organizations to gain their understanding. Is required.
  3. After the fact, evaluate and announce the achievement of individual policies listed in the manifest.

History

Parliamentary distrust

In Japan, the "manifest" manifest is a technical term used in limited situations such as international trade, passenger business, or environmental waste management (item list, passenger manifest, emission process control form), or the Communist Party's declaration outline Manifest.o, It was a terminology that was rarely used when expressing the program rules in the Constitution and the character of the preamble to the Constitution.

In postwar Japaneconomic growthHas been the most important goal,High economic growthWhile Congress loses its primary goal with the achievement ofLockheed case,Recruit caseな どMemberbycorruptionHas come to be widely reported.Around that time, distrust of Congress began to spread, andelectionPublic interest has moved away from the parliament, such as the slump in turnout in Japan.DemocracyIt becomes a concern as a problem that shakes the foundation of.

It began to be used as the current meaning (political goal indicated by political parties) in the Diet on January 1991, 3 (Heisei 1) at the plenary session of the House of Representatives.Keigo Ouchi(Democratic Party)ofRepresentative questionHe argued that Roosevelt, Reagan, Atley, Neil, and Zhou Enlai should be taken as an example to explain the importance of showing political goals to the public and to declare a political manifesto both internally and externally.[20].

In response to this, in the early 2000s, the voting reception time was expanded.Absentee voting systemTo make it easier to useEarly voting systemIn addition to efforts to improve the system that is expected to improve turnout, such as the enforcement of the vote and the counting of votes on the same day, individual candidates and political parties will also seek measures to raise their interest in the parliament.

"Promise" in parliamentary democracy

Than beforeElection bulletinThere were many candidates who made "promises" in posters and posters, but some of them were more than policy policies.public relationsSome of them are used as a means of, for example, tend to be biased toward rhetoric, lack of practicability, and lack of concreteness (so it is not possible to judge whether the promises made by the incumbent candidate in the past have been fulfilled). ) And other problems have become apparent, so "it's not a big deal that (the promise) wasn't kept a little."[21]MemberThe trend that I think has come to be seen. Originally, a "promise" is a promise to the public, but there was concern that the meaning of the "promise" would become a mere ghost as the situation continued in which it was not possible to verify whether or not the promise was fulfilled. ..

On the other hand, existing name recognition, strong financial power, support organizations, etc.Vested interestsThere is also a tendency for members and chiefs to be fixed by candidates who use to participate in elections, incumbent candidates, and for political affairs rather than policies.Parliamentary democracyIt begins to be recognized as a problem that shakes the foundation of.

Returning to the origin of parliamentary democracy, the purpose of parliament ispolicyCandidates are the purpose of the parliament because it is the selection and operation of the parliament, and the act of selecting members and chiefs (voting and winning in elections) is the means.policySetting up (administrative policy) in advance is a prerequisite for voters to make appropriate decisions.In addition, in the case of incumbent lawmakers and chiefs, whether or not the policies set forth in past elections have been implemented (that is, whether or not past promises have been fulfilled) is also a factor in determining, so candidates and political parties must manifest in advance (whether or not they have fulfilled their past promises). By clarifying the policy as a policy code), it is expected that it will be a means to secure the responsibility in the administration and gain the trust of voters.

Introduction

In response to such a situation, in Japan1999 OfUnified local electionsManifests have been made since around that time.But when you distributePublic office election lawTo the unspecified number of people specified indocumentsViolates restrictions on the distribution of drawingsElection violationTherefore, it was not distributed during the election period.

2003 Due to the revision of the Public Offices Election ActBy-electionIn national elections except, political parties can now distribute manifests during the election period.2003 Lower House electionNow, the Democratic Party has declared the creation of a manifest,Komeito(However, the Democratic Party of Japan pre-distributed the manifest in the by-elections for members of the House of Councilors Saitama constituency, which was executed as a unified by-election in the fall before the announcement of the House of Representatives election in 2003. doing).Also, in 2003, in the local electionsMasayasu KitagawaMieThe governor (at that time) saidLocal manifest”(Manifest in local governments)Hiroya MasudaIwateGovernor (at that time),Yoshihiro KatayamaTottoriGovernor (at that time),Matsuzawa ShigefumiCandidate (laterKanagawaGovernor) agrees, Matsuzawa implements this and wins (Kitakawa retires in April without running for governor election). In 4, each political party created and distributed a manifest booklet in the general election of members of the House of Representatives, which was also called the "manifest election."New Word/Buzzword AwardThen, "Manifest" won the annual grand prize.[22]

At that time, the manifesto presented by Matsuzawa had a parallel translation of "policy declaration", but in subsequent media reports, the parallel translation of "regime promise" was often used, and this has become established now. It's getting better.

Implementation

Matsuzawa, who conducted the manifesto, has not settled on the ex-post evaluation during his term, but after the fact that he organized a "manifest progress evaluation committee" consisting of academic committee members and prefectural committee members to ensure the effectiveness of the manifesto and raise awareness. Efforts are being made to publish the results of evaluations and self-evaluations.

National and local governmentChiefThe manifesto, which was introduced from the election and became widespread, is now expanding to candidates for local assembly due to public awareness and growing opinions aiming to realize a policy-oriented election.Second stageWe also have the problems described in the above, and we are at the stage of searching for a solution.

In addition, since the system is such that manifests cannot be distributed during the election period in by-elections in local elections and national elections, manifests in these elections can be distributed.Public office election lawAmendments were also desired,2007 OfUnified local electionsTherefore, the ban on distribution in the form of "villa" was lifted in the election of chiefs.However, there is a limit on the number of copies distributed depending on the scale of the election.On the other hand, candidates who publish the manifest usually publish the manifest on their homepage so that anyone can view and download the file.Therefore, information can be widely disseminated across constituencies via the Internet without being restricted by distribution on paper media.

However, the criteria for what is considered a "manifest" are ambiguous, and in the case of a candidate for a member of the Diet, it is not practical even if it is listed alone or in a small number. Although it isTajimi CitySpecial zone for structural reformOr apply for[23]Efforts are being made to implement policy-oriented elections, such as compiling policies by parliamentary groups in a form that does not fall under the "preliminary movement" prohibited by the Public Offices Election Act and making proposals before the election period.

Dead language

In this way, since the word "manifest" was selected for the New Words and Popular Words Awards in 2003, it has come to be used in various elections in a different form from the "promise".Especially,2009 Of45th House of Representatives general electionThen.Democratic Party,Social Democratic PartyFive political parties used the term "manifest."However, in the subsequent Democratic Party administration, only 5% of the manifesto could be achieved by self-evaluation.[24],Yukio HatoyamaFormer Prime Minister "I'm worried that the word manifest will be a dead language."[25],Mizuho FukushimaThe image of the Social Democratic Party leader went down, saying, "It's becoming synonymous with'liar'."[26].

Liberal Democratic Party2012 Of46th House of Representatives general electionI announced the draft manifesto for[27]Later "Government promise"[28], "Priority policy", the Social Democratic Party changed the name to "election promise", and the Komeito also wrote the manifest in light letters, and the name of the manifest became dead language.[29].. In 201624rd House of Councilors ordinary electionThen.Osaka Restoration SocietyAnnounced Manifest[30].

Concrete example

45th House of Representatives general electionDemocratic PartyWill pay 15 yen per child per month (half price in 2) to households with children under the age of 6.Child allowanceWas an election promise[31][32][33].. It was enforced as a monthly payment of 2010 yen from 1, but the full payment after April 3 was abandoned and the payment of 2011 yen was continued.[34], Income restrictions have been set since April 2012Children's allowanceWas renamed to[35][36].

As long as tariffs without sanctuary are eliminatedTrans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership AgreementIf you oppose (TPP) participation in negotiations 46th House of Representatives general electionThere is an example of the Liberal Democratic Party mentioned in the election promise.One member of the Diet clearly declared his opposition to participation in the negotiations and was elected, and one branch produced a poster stating "Do not lie, do not categorically oppose TPP, do not shake, and cultivate Japan."[37].

Local manifest

Local manifestIt is,Local politicsManifest in.

In modern Japanese national affairsThe Constitution of JapanBy国会Is defined as the supreme body of state power and the only legislative body.Also,MassesReferenceLegislation has also been enacted as a solution when the opinions of both houses are divided.

on the other hand,Local governmentIn the same way, according to the Constitution of JapanChief(PrefecturesGovernororMayor) And as a parliamentary bodyLocal councilDue to the division of roles, their positions are almost equal, and all of them are residents.Direct electionSince it is selected in, it is a de facto dual representation system, so it may be difficult to guarantee the feasibility.For example, it gained the greatest power in the parliament with a manifest that was different from the measures taken by the elected chief with a manifest.Political party,Parliamentary groupIf the policies set forth in the above are in conflict, neither will be able to guarantee the feasibility of the manifest.

Due to these problems, there is a natural difference between manifests in national politics and local politics, but based on this, when referring to manifests in local politics in particular, they are sometimes called "local manifests". ..

A solution to the above-mentioned local manifest problem is currently being sought. For example, in some regional parliamentary elections, it is common to large units such as parliamentary groups that have a certain number of seats before the election. Efforts are being made to improve the feasibility by compiling policy proposals and giving consideration to existing policies.

International promise

Definition of international promises and their fulfillment[38]There is a discussion about such things.EconomistYoichi TakahashiAccording to this, it is an international promise to unilaterally declare matters that have already been decided in Japan at an international conference.At an international conference, not only Japan but also each country unilaterally makes a statement as an international promise, but if that international promise is subsequently amended due to the need to be consistent with the domestic laws of each country.[38]But that decision is not subject to criticism from each country.Etsuro HondaIs a sovereign state協定,TreatyNot bound by anything other than documented interstate arrangements such as[39]Point out that it is a thing.

September 2009, 9, then Prime MinisterYukio HatoyamaIn a speech at the United Nations Climate Change Summit, reduced carbon dioxide emissions by 25% (compared to 1990)[40][41]includingHatoyama InitiativeWas issued as an international promise of Japan. At the 2010th Diet in 174, the Basic Bill for Measures against Global Warming submitted by the government was passed by the House of Representatives, but it was abolished by the House of Councilors at the end of the session.[42]..Then in 2011Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant AccidentBecause it became difficult to achieve it due to the policy change to the dependence on nuclear power plantsYoshihiko Noda CabinetRevised its 25% reduction target downwards[43].. In 2014, the Liberal Democratic Party promised to "submit a draft promise as soon as possible" in the 47th House of Representatives election promise.[44]In July 2015, the United Nations drafted a promise to reduce the reduction target in 7 by 2030% compared to 2013 (26% reduction compared to 2005 and 25.4% reduction compared to 1990).Framework Convention on Climate ChangeSubmitted to the secretariat[45][46].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ On the other hand, Keizai Doyukai clearly states that the manifesto is a "contract with the people."Next House of Representatives general election Hope for "administrative promise (manifest)" of each party (PDF)
  2. ^ Britain has always been in the 13th century since the reform of Simon De Montfort in the mid-19th century.Small districtRather than a system, England was dominated by two-person wards, and London had four-person wards, with only a few percent of one-person wards.Ireland, Wales and Scotland were dominated by one-person districts, but less than 2% of the UK as a whole.[9].. Around 1970, there was much debate in Britain that the stagnation of policies due to the single-seat constituency system and the two-party system caused the stagnation of its own country (British disease).It should be noted that the UK single-seat constituency / two-party system is not unconditionally idealized.
  3. ^ The number of hereditary peers has decreased significantly due to the House of Lords Act 1999, but it is still alive and controversial.House of Lords (UK)See also
  4. ^ For exampleBarack Obama Commitment at the time of the 2008 presidential election, "Aiming for all Americans to be covered by insurance."Or numerical targets such as "tax increase for households with an average annual income of more than $ 25 (about 2500 million yen) and tax reduction for working households and households with an annual income of less than $ 7 (about 5000 million yen)" ..

Source

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ [2]
  3. ^ a b Hiroshi Komatsu 2004.
  4. ^ a b Masahiro Kobori 2011.
  5. ^ Manifest-Kotobank
  6. ^ Naoto KanCited the 1997 British Labor Party Blair manifesto, explaining that "the manifesto is not just a slogan. It is a contract between the people and their parties ..."."The 156th Diet National Basic Policy Committee Joint Examination Committee No. 4 (June 15, 6)". Diet record search system.National Diet Library (August 2003, 6). October 2020th, 2Browse.
  7. ^ LDPKazuhide SugawaraIs the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare on September 2009, 9Akira NagatsumaThe Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare's instruction was introduced in the Diet, saying, "The Democratic Party's manifesto (ha) ... It was a collection of promises before the election, but now I think that this is a contract between the people and the government, an order from the people. It's okay ... I want you to give me some wisdom to do it. "Minutes of Parliament"The 174th House of Representatives Welfare and Labor Committee No. 16 (April 22, 4)". Diet record search system.National Diet Library (August 2010, 4). October 2020th, 2Browse.
  8. ^ Hiroshi Komatsu 2004, p. 134.
  9. ^ Takashi Naruhiro "Electoral reform in the UK"Journal of the Okayama University Law Society," Vol. 57, No. 1, Okayama University Law Society, September 2007, pp. 9-234, NOT 40015672471.
  10. ^ Second readingIs a tradition of passing unconditionally and only making technical corrections such as wording
  11. ^ Yoshihiko Tanaka "House of Peers Reform under the British Blair Administration: Composition and Function of the Second House"Hitotsubashi Law," Vol. 8, No. 1, Graduate School of Law, Hitotsubashi University, March 2009, two:10.15057/17144, NOT 110007620135.
  12. ^ "Issues of the Series Constitution ⑥" Bicameralism "" National Diet Library Survey and Legislative Examination Bureau March 2005[3]PDF-P.32
  13. ^ Joint Committee on Conventions (2006) Conventions of the UK Parliament: Report of Session 2005–06: Volume I, House of Lords and House of Commons[4]PDF-p.32
  14. ^ Masahiro Kobori "Theory of Remodeling the Diet" (Bunshu Shinsho), Masahiro Kobori "Electoral Reform Referendum and Afterwards" "Study Julist" Spring 2013 Issue
  15. ^ Some of the current European constitutions explicitly prohibit the interpretation of imperative mandates.Article 27, Paragraph 1 of the Fifth Republic of France Constitution stipulates that "all imperative mandates are invalid", and Article 38 of the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany "... Members are representatives of the entire nation, and mandates and instructions. Not bound by, and obey only one's conscience. "[5].
  16. ^ This section,Hiroshi Komatsu 2004I wrote it from.
  17. ^ Democratic Party Election Promise Manifest
  18. ^ Trick screaming "manifest elections"
  19. ^ Manifest White Paper 2007PHP Research Institute, Inc. July 2007, 7 (PDF)
  20. ^ "The 120th House of Representatives plenary session No. 8 (January 3, 1)". Diet record search system.National Diet Library (August 1991, 1). October 2020th, 2Browse.
  21. ^ Minutes of the 156th Diet Budget Committee No. 3 (House of Representatives)
  22. ^ [6]
  23. ^ From "request" to "promise" The ban on the chief election manifesto has been lifted (Asahi Shimbun, February 2007, 02)
  24. ^ Democracy "Manifest realization is 2012%" Considering giving up unachieved (Asahi Shimbun, October 10, 30)
  25. ^ Former Prime Minister Hatoyama announces retirement from politics "Walks in the Third Life" without complying with party official conditions (Mainichi Shimbun, November 2012, 11)
  26. ^ "Manifest" becomes a dead language due to democratic mismanagement (Sankei News, December 2012, 12)
  27. ^ Liberal Democratic Party, consumption tax "10% for the time being" House of Representatives election manifest draftNihon Keizai Shimbun January 2012, 4
  28. ^ Liberal Democratic Party does not use "manifest" but "government promise"Sankei News July 2012, 11
  29. ^ "Manifest" becomes a dead language due to democratic mismanagement (Sankei News, December 2012, 12)
  30. ^ "Osaka Restoration Society 2016 House of Councilors election manifesto (PDF)”. Osaka Restoration Society. October 2016th, 6Browse.
  31. ^ “Democratic Party Policy Collection INDEX2009 (PDF1.68MB)” (Press Release), Democratic Party, (July 2009, 7), http://www.dpj.or.jp/news/?num=16667 October 2010th, 6Browse. 
  32. ^ "Hatoyama announces 2009 Democratic Party manifesto for the peaceful transition of power" (Press Release), Democratic Party, (July 2009, 7), http://www.dpj.or.jp/news/?num=16673 October 2010th, 6Browse. 
  33. ^ "Democratic Party Policy Manifest 2009”. Democratic Party (February 2009, 7). October 2009th, 8Browse.
  34. ^ "Prime Minister gives up full child allowance". Yomiuri Shimbun(July 2010, 6). http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/politics/news/20100612-OYT1T00744.htm October 2011th, 4Browse. 
  35. ^ “Resurrection of children's allowance!. MSN Sankei News (Sankei Shimbun). (November 2012, 3). http://sankei.jp.msn.com/politics/news/120315/stt12031522160006-n1.htm October 2012th, 5Browse. 
  36. ^ Pension reduction and electricity price increase starting in the new yearNTV NEWS24 April 2012, 4
  37. ^ "Do not lie, do not lie against TPP, do not shake, Liberal Democratic Party that cultivates Japan !!" [Dot Commodity] February 2013, 02News Release Portal Viewed March 2013
  38. ^ a b Politics / Society [How to solve Japan] International conferences are unilaterally declared by each country Even if the tax increase is withdrawn, it will not violate international promisesZAKZAK December 2013, 8
  39. ^ Consumption tax hike will be raised by 1% in 5 years, with the first priority being to break out of deflation-Special Advisor to the Cabinet (Professor, University of Shizuoka) Etsuro HondaDiamond Online August 2013, 8
  40. ^ Prime Minister Hatoyama declares greenhouse gas reduction target of 25% as an international promiseReuters April 2009, 9
  41. ^ Prime Minister Hatoyama declares greenhouse gas "25% reduction" to the worldasahi.com (Asahi Shimbun) October 2009, 9
  42. ^ Trends and issues surrounding the three major measures against global warmingHouse of Councilors Environmental Committee Research Office Keizo Abe
  43. ^ CO2, 25% reduction to withdraw government, present realistic goalsMSN Sankei News January 2012, 1 (as of January 6, 2012)Internet archive
  44. ^ Liberal Democratic Party Priority Policy 2014LDP
  45. ^ Japan's Draft Promise (New Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets for 2020 and beyond)Ministry of the Environment
  46. ^ COPXNUMX Results and Future ChallengesTakahiro Tajiri, Director, Global Environmental Measures Office, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry January 2016, 1

Literature information

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Regulatory reform

Regulatory reform(Kiseikai,English: regulatory reform) Is in the marketRegulationBy mitigating / eliminating and strengtheningEconomyThe aim is to revitalize. Also,Vested interestshaveMinistries,GroupSince the 1980s, regulations that cannot be relaxed, abolished, or tightened due to strong oppositionBedrock regulationthey said[1].

The need for regulatory reform is as follows: (XNUMX) Adapted to changes in the economic environmentInnovation(XNUMX) Enable the public to enjoy new products and services and increase choices, (XNUMX) Create an environment that makes the most of the ingenuity of the company and increase productivity, (XNUMX) All people can demonstrate their abilities. Diverse work styles and so that society can be realizedThe laborEstablishing a mechanism to support movement, ⑤Local economyIt is mentioned to remove the inhibitory factor of activation.

Regulatory reform under the LDP administration

Responsible for general affairs of the Regulatory Reform Council and the Regulatory Reform Promotion Council


Positions related to regulatory reform

Regulatory reform under the Democratic Party of Japan

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ Digital Daijisen Koto bank. Retrieved May 2018, 8.

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