Portal field news

Portal field news

in

🏛 | Tsukasa Akimoto, who is appealing in a casino corruption case, posted the reason for not running "I am not willing to fight LDP members"


Photo Tsukasa Akimoto (Tokyo Sports Web)

Tsukasa Akimoto, who is appealing in a casino corruption case, posted the reason for not running "I am not willing to fight LDP members"

 
If you write the contents roughly
In addition, after leaving the party, preparations for running as an independent party were in progress, but the Liberal Democratic Party decided on two nomination candidates in the 15th district of Tokyo. Has been a creed.
 

Tsukasa Akimoto, who was sentenced to prison in September for corruption over an integrated resort facility (IR) business including a casino, is appealing ... → Continue reading

 East Sports Web

The web news of East Sports (Tokyo Sports) provides news of various genres such as sports such as baseball and soccer, entertainment, professional wrestling, and horse racing.


Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

Preparing to run

Political party

Political party(SeitoIs commonPoliticsOfthe purposeBy those who have組織Be doneGroupIs[1].election,revolutionThroughPolitical powerAttempts to achieve policy by acquiring, maintaining, or exerting influence on the policy-making process.Political partyCivil revolutionSince modern timesWesternDeveloped with the electoral system in each country.In modern times, politics based on political parties is being developed in most countries, not just in Europe and the United States.[2].

Overview

In politicspolicyPeople who have something in common with each other gather together to gather opinions and form a unified policy.administrationA group that aims to realize a policy by being in charge of or having an influence on the policy-making process is called a political party.[2]..Consists of celebrity and influential activistsNoble family partyOrganize as many party members as possible, raise funds from them, and elect representatives by party members.Popular partyIn reality, most political parties have a mixture of these two types of elements.[2].

Forming a political partyParty[3],DissolutionTheDisbandingGood[4], Those who are members of political partiesParty member[5], Its chief executive officerParty leader[6], Those who support and support the party from the outsideParty friendCall[7].

Also, documents that define the purpose of a political party and the path to its realization are generallyPlatformCalled.Historically, parties aiming to reform the regime, especially socialist parties, often have a detailed platform.In the case of parties that do not have a specific world view, such as conservative parties and centrist parties, they often remain in the general and abstract platform.[8].

For analysis based on the number of political parties and their relationship with power,One-party dictatorship,Multi-party system,Hegemony party systemand so on[9]..Also, the political parties participating in the administrationRuling party, Political parties not participatingOppositionHowever, in socialist countries, the only political party is the Communist Party, and there are often no opposition parties.[10].

Features

Political parties need to present conflicts that occur in society as political issues.Gabriel AlmondCalled this function the profit expression function[11]..It also has the function of aggregating various interests within society and reflecting them in politics.Political parties present the aggregated interests to citizens in the form of policies and strive to present and implement them to the government.This is called a profit aggregation function.It also has the function of promoting the understanding and participation of citizens in politics by presenting the citizens with easy-to-understand policies and issues gathered by political parties.[11].

The function of recruiting and selecting political leaders is also important.Candidates with similar policies will be selected and run for elections, and if they are elected, they will be trained while gaining experience within the party, and leaders who can lead more advanced groups will be trained.And use the power of political parties to make that leaderHeadTo be appointed as a national leader.At this time, the political party is inside the governmentCabinetAnd Cheong Wa Dae are organized mainly by their own members, and policy-making bodies are also organized.[12]..The party that wins the election is in charge of the administration as the ruling party, and the defeated party has the function of criticizing the ruling party's policy deficiencies as an opposition party and monitoring and correcting them.[13]..If the ruling party and the opposition party are democratic nations, they will naturally be replaced depending on the election results, so political parties are required to possess both the ability to take charge of the administration and the ability to criticize the administration.[14].

As the term one-party dictatorship impliesDictatorshipEven in this case, political parties are by no means useless.AuthoritarianismThe function of political parties under the system is to secure the sharing of power.In a one-party dictatorship, the top of the administration often has a fixed term, and the successor is elected from within the party again, so influential people can expect to win the next administration, and power by force. It plays a role in restraining the movement of capture.[15]..In a one-party state, the system of inheriting power as described above has been established, so it is a system that is highly stable and easy to prolong even in the authoritarian system.[16].

Management

The strength of political party discipline varies from country to country.In countries with a parliamentary cabinet system such as Japan and Western Europe, there is strong discipline within the party, and each member of the Diet has strong discipline.Party detentionAnd the parliament is required to vote as the party decides.On the other hand, in the United States and other countries, the discipline of the party is weak, and each member of the Diet votes according to his or her own judgment, and the party is not bound.[17].

Political party income includes party expenses collected from party members and income from businesses run by the party itself.Political contributionThe main items are such as, and the pillars of income differ depending on each country and party.Also, from the government to political partiesSubsidyIs issued in some nations, and even in Japan since 1995Political party grantIs issued to each party[18].

A group formed by people who have something in common within the party to influence the entire partyFactionIs called.Factions have a main function of allocating gains such as funds and job titles.BranchIs different.A sect refers to a group that aims to change the entire route based on a certain claim, and in some cases does not hesitate to divide.[19].

Party system

Political parties have various systems depending on the country (Party system) Exists.The party system depends on the number of political partiesOne-party systemMulti-party systemIt is customary to be divided into two types.In a one-party country, there is no political party selection system, so a change of government is impossible in principle, and it is practically impossible.DictatorshipIs synonymous with.Even in countries that are nominally multi-party, for examplePeople's Republic of China,1989 previousEastern EuropeAs in some countries, the change of government is impossible in principle, and with the hegemonic partySatellite partyOnly exists, so-calledHegemony party systemThere are also nations, and these nations are not naturally considered democracies.In a country with a substantial multi-party system, it can be divided into several types mainly according to the number of political parties and the relationships between political parties.Maurice DuvergerIn the classification ofTwo-party systemMulti-party systemIt was classified into two, but laterGiovanni SartoriFurther subdivided byOne-party dominant party system, Two-party system,Moderate multi-party system,Polarized multiparty system, Became divided into five atomic party systems[20]..In addition, there are several other party system classification methods.

The party system of each country is governed by the various circumstances of the country.It is said that there is a close relationship between the electoral system and the number of political parties, and only one person from one constituency will be elected.Single-seat constituency systemThen, the political parties are likely to be consolidated into a two-party system, and seats are allocated according to the voter turnout of each party.Proportional representationIs likely to be a multi-party system[21]..If the largest party fails to win a majority seat in parliament, it is oftenCoalition governmentOrganize and secure a majority, but in rare cases, the cabinet may be organized and the administration may be operated with less than the majority.[22].

Also, political parties have their political claimsideologyIt is also divided into several categories.Communism,Socialism,Social democracy,Democratic socialism,Liberalism,Christian democracy,ConservatismAnd so on.Each of these parties is ideologicalInternational organizationTo belong to socialist, social democratic, democratic socialist political partiesSocialism internationalAnd to which the liberal party belongsLiberal international, Conservative party affiliationInternational Democrat UnionAnd so on.Political parties that are strict with respect to the platform are sometimes called ideological parties.[11].

In each country, political partiesPolitical spectrumClassified by.Political parties that find profit in maintaining the current system and emphasizing traditional values ​​and aiming for gradual reform rather than radical reformConservative partyIs called.United KingdomTory partyWas a typical example,19st centuryWhen socialist parties emerge in each country from the end資本主義Came to be called a conservative party to refer to the party that defends[23]..On the other hand, political parties seeking reforms and revolutions in the established national systemInnovation partyCalled.Generally refers to the Socialist Party and the Communist Party.In European countries, after World War II, the ideological conflict weakened due to the inclusion of political parties, and a coalition government including both camps was established. of55 yearsUntil the time of collapseUS-Japan Security,SDF,Emperor System, There was a fierce conflict of leather protection over issues such as constitutional amendment[24]..Political parties that make intermediate claims that are not biased to the left or rightMiddle roadA moderately innovative political party called a political partyCenter left, Moderate conservative partiesCenter rightCall[25].

Alternatively, act in a local council in a particular area or represent the interests of the area.Regional party[26]Aims to protect vested interests and beliefs in the social life of churches, cults, and religious groupsReligious party[27], Make only one claim the issue, do not claim other political issues / issuesSingle-issue party (one-issue party, single-issue party)[28]There is also a classification such as.

History

Modern

The EstatesThere was no political party in those days because parliamentary powers were weak and lawmakers had to accurately represent the will of their mothers.However, the power of the parliament has expanded to become a national decision-making body, the delegation to parliament has been relaxed, a representative delegation system has been established, and parliament has been able to vote freely within the parliament. At the innerMajority voteThe establishment of the principle increased the importance of political groups within the parliament and formed political parties.[29].

Made by a powerful member of the Diet for the operation of the parliamentNoble family party(Political party) Is an early political party.General electionMany outside the parliament when it becomes difficult to connect with the increasing number of electorates due to the adoption ofParty memberhavePopular partyHas appeared.In response to the challenge of the new mass-based party, the former noble party has also expanded its membership.Conservatism,LiberalismPolitical parties often take the form of noble parties,Social democracy,CommunismPolitical parties often took the form of mass-based parties.Then came political parties that garnered support from every group in society as a whole, rather than being based on a certain class or group.[30]..This type of partyBig tentAlthough the party members are thin and widespread, it is characterized by the fact that the members are in control.[31].

modern

Mass mediaWith the development of the party, the opinions of prominent politicians and parties came to reach the electorate directly, so the role of the party organization declined and the mass-based party also stopped acting.There are observations that the power of political parties has further declined as people's attention has focused on the prime minister and president, who are the chief of national affairs, and individual candidates for public office.

However, even now, decades after the phenomenon that leads to the decline of political parties has permeated society, the fluidization of election results, which should theoretically occur, has not occurred.Many in advanced democraciesParty systemHas remained unchanged.It is the cartel party theory that explains this as a party that has lost its infrastructure is simply surviving as a monopoly with vested interests in the election market.[32].

Legalization

public opinionThe attitude toward political parties has changed to antipathy toward political parties, acceptance of political parties, and legislation of political parties.Political parties were originally private associations and had no legal basis, but as this association advanced into parliament and government through elections, the function of connecting voters and parliament became effective. As it was recognized, political parties gradually became more important.[33].. In the 19th century, the idea that political parties were incompatible with democracy was the mainstream, but with the expansion of voting rights, the existence of political parties became large, and democracy centered on political parties was established.[34].

Definition in Japan's Political Funds Control Act

JapanesePolitical Funds Control LawThen, the following provisions are made[35].

  • Political party-A political organization that has five or more members of parliament or meets the following conditions.Law Concerning Grant of Legal Person to Political Parties, etc. Receiving Political Party GrantsBased onregistrationBy doingLegal personalityTo get
    • 2% or more of the votes obtained throughout the country in either the previous general election of members of the House of Representatives (single constituency, proportional representative) or the previous or previous general election of members of the House of Councilors (electoral district / proportional representative)
    • Notification systemPolitical Party Subsidy LawByPolitical party grantTarget of delivery[36]
  • Political fund --An organization whose purpose is to provide financial support for political parties
  • Other Political Organizations-Political organizations other than the above two examples
    • Principle advocacy groups, policy research groups, recommendation groups, sponsor groups, specific party holding groups (of political fund parties with income of 1,000 million yen or more), etc.
    • Political organizations that do not actually meet the above political party requirements, such as newly established organizations, even if they are treated as "political parties" in the media.
    • Money management group --Among the political organizations whose representatives are candidates for public office, those designated as political organizations that should receive political funding.

Political organizations related to parliamentarians (1 to 3 below) have special provisions regarding income and expenditure reports.[37].

  1. Political organization (No. 1 organization) whose representatives are members of parliament and candidates
  2. Among the political organizations that are subject to the donation deduction system, political organizations that aim to recommend or support specific members of the Diet and candidates (Group No. 2)
  3. A branch of a political party whose representatives are members of parliament and candidates (deemed No. 1 organization)

In the case of a political organization that mainly operates in one prefecture area, the notification destination is the election administration committee of the prefecture.In the case of political parties, political funding groups, or political groups that operate primarily across two or more prefectures, the prefecture'sElection Management CommitteeThroughMinister of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsIs[35].

Political party colors and symbols

Most political parties use symbol colors to help voters recognize and identify political parties.symbol markHas been enacted.In such an image strategy, people who cannot read letters judge by the symbol mark or color instead of the letters on the ballot and vote.Literacy rateEspecially effective in low-lying nations[38]..Political parties with the same ideology often use the same symbol color in every country.[39][40]..In addition, symbol color is highly convenient when expressing political parties on image media.[41]..By symbol colorPolitical allianceCan also be revealed[42].TaiwanInNakuryoku Federation,Cailan FederationIs an example of this.

However, the relationship between color and ideology is inconsistent, and it is rare for the same ideology to use different colors in different countries, or for political parties with different ideologies in the same country to use the same symbol color. Absent[43]..In the United States, for example, red, which is usually used for communism and socialism, is used by conservative Republicans, and blue, which is often used for conservatism, is used by liberal Democrats.[39][44].

ideologyColorsymbolAn examplefootnote
Agricultural principle
  •   绿
DBD logo transparent.png Logo of the Agrarian Party of Russia (2013) .svg Centerpartiet Teillogo.svg[40]: 58[45][46][47]
Anarchism
  •   black
  •   "Red"
Anarchist flag.svg FRE-AIT.svg Partido Liberal Mexicano button 1911.svg[48][49][50][51]
Centrism
  •   purple
LogoPFP.svg DieMitte-logo.svg[52][53]
Communism
  •   "Red"
Emblem of Vietnam Communist Party.png MLKP Badge.svg Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands Logo.svg[54][55][56]
Conservatism
  •   tag
Emblem of the Kuomintang.svg Bandera del Partido Conservador Colombiano.svg Liberal Democratic Party (Japan) Emblem.jpg[57][58]
Democratic socialism
  •   "Red"
  • Handshake
  • 赤 い バ ラ
  • fist
Democratic Action Party Logo.svg Bandera del Partido Revolucionario Febrerista.svg[59][60]
Totalitarianism
  •   black
  •   tea
Flag of the National Fascist Party (PNF) .svg Union of Ukrainian Fascists logo.jpg NationalSocialistMovementintheNetherlands (1) .png[40]: 56[61][62]
feminism
  •   white
  •   purple
  •   Fri
  •   pink
National Woman's Party logo.png FP logo.svg[63][64]
Green politics
  •   绿
  • (I.e.
  • sunflower
Global Greens logo.svg Alternattiva Demokratika.svg Logo of the Mongolian Green Party.svg[65][66]
Islamism
  •   绿
Logo PPP (1973-1982) .svg Logo of Jamiat-e Islami.svg PKS logo 2020.png[39][67]
Liberalism
  •   yellow
Logo of the United Party of National Development (Zambia) .jpg Social and Liberal Democrats logo.png File: ALIANZA COMUNIDAD CIUDADANA.jpg[41][68][69]
Libertarianism
  •   yellow
PorcupineLibertarian Disc.svg Partido Libertários Logo.png[39][70][71][72]
Royal party
  •   white
  •   Fri
  •   purple
crownPartito Nazionale Monarchico Logo.png Emblem of the Rexist Party.svg FUNCINPEC logo.png[40][73][74]
Pacifism
  •   white
Pacifistisch Socialistische Partij logo.svg EDA logo.svg[40][75]
Social democracy
  •   "Red"
  • Handshake
  • 赤 い バ ラ
  • fist
Socialdemokratiet symbol (2014–present) .svg Logo e Lëvizjes Socialiste për Integrim.svg CSSD Logo Alt.svg[76][77][78][59]
Socialism
  •   "Red"
赤 い バ ラEmblem of the Socialist Party of Chile.svg Partia Socialiste.svg Frente Farabundo Martí para la Liberación Nacional.svg[54][79][80][81][59]

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ "Political Science of Honor-Based on Burke's Political Party Theory" Chihiro Kamiya (Policy Science 14 (XNUMX) Ritsumeikan University)[1][2][3]according to18st centuryBritish House of CommonsEdmund BurkeIs a combination of honor and virtue about political parties, based on self-interestA humanIt is not a group (clique).
  2. ^ a b c Britannica International Encyclopedia Subitem Encyclopedia and Encyclopedia Mypedia "Political Party" (Kotobank)
  3. ^ Selected Edition Japanese Dictionary "Kaikai" (Kotobank)
  4. ^ Selected Edition Japanese Dictionary "Dissolution" (Kotobank)
  5. ^ Selected Edition Japanese Dictionary "Party Member" (Kotobank)
  6. ^ Daijirin XNUMXrd Edition "Party Leader" (Kotobank)
  7. ^ Daijirin XNUMXrd Edition "Party Friend" (Kotobank)
  8. ^ World Encyclopedia XNUMXnd Edition "Platform" (Kotobank)
  9. ^ Britannica International Encyclopedia Subitem Encyclopedia Hegemony Party System (Kotobank)
  10. ^ Encyclopedia Nipponica (Nipponica) "Ruling Party / Opposition Party" (Kotobank)
  11. ^ a b c Katsunori Mito Shujiro Kato-Yoshikazu Iwabuchi(Edit) "Political Sociology" Ichigesha 2013 5th Edition ISBN 9784863590502 pp. 68-71.
  12. ^ "Next Textbook Series Political Science" p117 Mitsuya Yamada ed. Koubundou Publishers March 2011, 3 First Edition 15st Edition
  13. ^ "New Edition of Political Science" p93-94 by Shujiro Kato, Noritaka Hayashi, Masao Furuta, Masato Hiyama, Katsunori Mito Ichigesha April 2002, 4 First edition printed
  14. ^ "Next Textbook Series Political Science" p126-127 Mitsuya Yamada edited by Kobundou March 2011, 3 First edition 15st edition
  15. ^ "Comparative Political Science" p144-145 Yuko Kasuya Minerva Shobo September 2014, 9 First Edition First Edition
  16. ^ "Comparative Political Science" p149 Yuko Kasuya Minerva Shobo September 2014, 9 First edition First edition
  17. ^ "Introduction to Political Science, 198rd edition" p2011 Shujiro Kato Ashi Shobo April 4, 15 3rd edition 1st printing
  18. ^ "New Edition of Political Science" p123-125 by Shujiro Kato, Noritaka Hayashi, Masao Furuta, Masato Hiyama, Katsunori Mito Ichigesha April 2002, 4 First edition printed
  19. ^ Encyclopedia Nipponica (Nipponica) "Faction" (Kotobank)
  20. ^ "Introduction to Political Science, 63rd edition" p64-2011 Shujiro Kato Ashi Shobo April 4, 15 3rd edition 1st printing
  21. ^ "New Edition of Political Science" p113-114 by Shujiro Kato, Noritaka Hayashi, Masao Furuta, Masato Hiyama, Katsunori Mito Ichigesha April 2002, 4 First edition printed
  22. ^ "New Edition of Political Science" p104-105 by Shujiro Kato, Noritaka Hayashi, Masao Furuta, Masato Hiyama, Katsunori Mito Ichigesha April 2002, 4 First edition printed
  23. ^ Encyclopedia Nipponica (Nipponica) "Conservative Party" (Kotobank)
  24. ^ Encyclopedia Nipponica (Nipponica) and Encyclopaedia Britannica Sub-item Encyclopedia "Innovative Political Party" (Kotobank)
  25. ^ Britannica International Encyclopedia Sub-item Encyclopedia "Centrist Party" (Kotobank)
  26. ^ Digital Daijisen "Regional Political Party" (Kotobank)
  27. ^ Encyclopedia Nipponica (Nipponica) "Religious Party" (Kotobank)
  28. ^ Digital Daijisen One Issue Political Party (Kotobank)
  29. ^ "Introduction to Political Science, 59rd edition" p60-2011 Shujiro Kato Ashi Shobo April 4, 15 3rd edition 1st printing
  30. ^ "Modern Political Science 3rd Edition" p141 Toshio Kamo, Hitoshi Onishi, Toru Ishida, Yasuhiko Ito Yuhikaku September 2007, 9 30rd Edition 3st Print
  31. ^ "The First Steps in Political Science" p88 by Yosuke Sunahara, Takeshi Hieda, Atsushi Tago Yuhikaku October 2015, 10 First Edition, First Edition
  32. ^ "Comparative Political Science" p184-185 Yuko Kasuya Minerva Shobo September 2014, 9 First Edition First Edition
  33. ^ "Political Party System" p189 Masahiro Iwasaki Nihon Keizai Hyoronsha February 2020, 2 Issued 25st print
  34. ^ "Political Party System" p194-196 Masahiro Iwasaki Nihon Keizai Hyoronsha, February 2020, 2, 25st print issued
  35. ^ a b What is a political organization? Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications
  36. ^ Political party subsidy system Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications
  37. ^ Election and political funding Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications
  38. ^ Manveena Suri; Oscar Holland (April 2019, 4). “Ceiling fans, brooms and mangoes: The election symbols of India's political parties”. CNN. https://www.cnn.com/style/article/india-election-party-symbols/index.html NovemberBrowse. 
  39. ^ a b c d "Understanding Political Color Designations”. Gremillion Consulting. NovemberBrowse.
  40. ^ a b c d e Enninful, Ebenezer Kofi (November 2012). “The Symbolism of Ghanaian Political Parties and their Impact on the Electorates”.. NovemberBrowse.
  41. ^ a b Malasig, Jeline (May 2018, 5). “Can you paint with all the colors of politics?”. . https://interaksyon.philstar.com/breaking-news/2018/05/16/126899/can-you-paint-with-all-the-colors-of-politics/ NovemberBrowse. 
  42. ^ Johnson, Ian P. (November 2017, 11). “Germany's colorful coalition shorthand”. Deutsche Welle. https://www.dw.com/en/germanys-colorful-coalition-shorthand/g-40654452 NovemberBrowse. 
  43. ^ Rost, Lisa Charlotte (August 2018, 8). “Election reporting: Which color for which party?”. Datawrapper. NovemberBrowse.
  44. ^ Farhi, Paul (2 November 2004), “Elephants Are Red, Donkeys Are Blue”, The Washington Post, https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A17079-2004Nov1.html NovemberBrowse. 
  45. ^ George, Jane (March 2013, 3). “Greenland vote likely headed for a squeaker this March 12”. . https://nunatsiaq.com/stories/article/65674greenland_vote_likely_headed_for_a_squeaker_this_march_12/ NovemberBrowse. 
  46. ^ Finnis, Alex (September 2020, 9). “Why Boris Johnson and MPs are wearing a wheat sheaf badge on their lapel: The campaign to support British farmers explained”. . https://inews.co.uk/news/politics/boris-johnson-wearing-wheat-sheaf-badge-lapel-today-keir-starmer-british-farmers-campaign-explained-641045 NovemberBrowse. 
  47. ^ "Agrarian Party of Russia”. Flags of the World (February 2014, 2). NovemberBrowse.
  48. ^ "The Classical Symbol of Anarchism”. Anarchism.net. NovemberBrowse.
  49. ^ "Disciplina: mando único: Partido Sindicalista”. University of California, San Diego (December 2014, 12). NovemberBrowse.
  50. ^ Translated by Baillargeon, Normand Mary Foster (2013). “Introduction”. Order Without Power: An Introduction to Anarchism: History and Current Challenges. New York: Seven Stories Press. ISBN 978-1-60980-472-5. https://books.google.com/books?id=hu0j22luZ_oC&q=%22circle+A%22 
  51. ^ "A quick history of the Circle-A”. Rival LA (June 2020, 6). NovemberBrowse.
  52. ^ Stephen Ansolabehere; Jonathan Rodden; James M. Snyder Jr. (2006). “Purple America”. The Journal of Economic Perspectives 20 (2): 97–118. 
  53. ^ McLarty, Scott (2019). “Forget Red vs. Blue: The Paradigm for the 21st Century is Orange, Purple, and Green”. United States Green Party. NovemberBrowse.
  54. ^ a b Klein, Sarah (April 2018). “Interview with Gerd Koenen: The Fading of a Political Color”.. NovemberBrowse.
  55. ^ Tran, Bich T. (August 2019, 8). “Evolution of the Communist Party of Vietnam's Control Over the Military”. The Diplomat. https://thediplomat.com/2020/08/evolution-of-the-communist-party-of-vietnams-control-over-the-military/ NovemberBrowse. 
  56. ^ Hatherley, Owen (February 2013, 2). “Has the communist hammer and sickle had its day?”. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/feb/12/hammer-and-sickle-french-communist-party NovemberBrowse. 
  57. ^ “Why is the Conservative Party Blue”, with the BBC, (20 April 2006), http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/magazine/4923050.stm NovemberBrowse. 
  58. ^ Alex Marland; Tom Flanagan (December 2013). “Brand New Party: Political Branding and the Conservative Party of Canada”. Canadian Journal of Political Science 46 (4): 951–972. two:10.1017 / S0008423913001108. 
  59. ^ a b c Gottfried Korff; Larry Peterson (Fall 1992). “From Brotherly Handshake to Militant Clenched Fist: On Political Metaphors for the Worker's Hand”. International Labor and Working-Class History 42: 70–81. 
  60. ^ Speedy, Sam (May 2017, 5). “The movement behind the rose emoji that you probably don't know about”. Mashable. https://mashable.com/2017/05/27/hidden-meaning-rose-emoji-dsa/ NovemberBrowse. 
  61. ^ Fuentes, Juan Francisco (27 June 2018). “Shirt Movements in Interwar Europe: a Totalitarian Fashion”. Read History 72: 151–173. two:10.4000 / lerhistoria.3560. 
  62. ^ "Hate Symbols Database”. (2021). NovemberBrowse.
  63. ^ "Symbols of the Women's Suffrage Movement”. United States National Park Service. NovemberBrowse.
  64. ^ "The Real Meanings Behind Six Symbols of Protest”. Elephant art (July 2020, 7). NovemberBrowse.
  65. ^ "Green Party Taiwan”. Global Greens (September 2014, 9). NovemberBrowse.
  66. ^ “AD + PD launches new logo to symbolise party's ethos”. Malta Today(July 2020, 11). https://www.maltatoday.com.mt/news/national/105892/adpd_launches_new_logo_to_symbolise_partys_ethos#.YA3dcOhKiUk NovemberBrowse. 
  67. ^ Suryadinata, Leo (August 2007). “The Decline of the Hegemonic Party System in Indonesia: Golkar after the Fall of Soeharto”. Contemporary Southeast Asia 29 (2): 333–358. 
  68. ^ O'Hara, Glen (August 2020, 8). “There is still a place for Liberal Democrats in British politics”. GQ. https://www.gq-magazine.co.uk/politics/article/liberal-democrats-comeback NovemberBrowse. 
  69. ^ Cassel-Picot, Muriel "The Liberal Democrats and the Green Cause: From Yellow to Green" in Leydier, Gilles and Martin, Alexia (2013) Environmental Issues in Political Discourse in Britain and Ireland. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p.105.ISBN 9781443852838
  70. ^ Huber, Eliza (July 2020, 7). “Why Are Primary Colors Trending In Fashion Right Now?”. Refinery29. https://www.refinery29.com/en-us/2020/07/9917658/primary-secondary-colors-fall-fashion-trend NovemberBrowse. 
  71. ^ “Youtuber mistura aberturas de“ Game of Thrones ”e“ Tiger King ”em animação” (Portuguese). UOL(July 2020, 5). https://entretenimento.uol.com.br/noticias/redacao/2020/05/18/youtuber-mistura-aberturas-de-game-of-thrones-e-tiger-king.htm NovemberBrowse. 
  72. ^ Block, Walter E. (November 2020, 11). “Libertarians Spoil the Election”. The Wall Street Journal. https://www.wsj.com/articles/libertarians-spoil-the-election-11604867668 NovemberBrowse. 
  73. ^ Iredale, Jessica (January 2021, 1). “The Deep Meaning of the Color Purple at the Biden Inauguration”. Town & Country Magazine. https://www.townandcountrymag.com/style/fashion-trends/a35269653/why-color-purple-biden-inauguration/ NovemberBrowse. 
  74. ^ Nandrea, Lorri (February 2020, 2). “RNC 2020 and the symbols of history: Crowns, Hornets, and Boiler Plugs”. People's World. https://www.peoplesworld.org/article/rnc-2020-and-the-symbols-of-history-crowns-hornets-and-boiler-plugs/ NovemberBrowse. 
  75. ^ "Peace symbols through history”.. NovemberBrowse.
  76. ^ Adams, Sean; Morioka, Noreen; Stone, Terry Lee (2006). Color Design Workbook: A Real World Guide to Using Color in Graphic Design. Gloucester, Mass .: Rockport Publishers. Pp. 86. ISBN 159253192X. OCLC 60393965. https://archive.org/details/colordesignworkb0000ston/page/86 
  77. ^ Kumar, Rohit Vishal; Joshi, Radhika (October–December 2006). “Color, Color Everywhere: In Marketing Too”. SCMS Journal of Indian Management 3 (4): 40–46. ISSN 0973-3167 . SSRN 969272. 
  78. ^ Pâk zâd, Poyâ (December 2020). “Denmark's“ Democratic Ownership ”Agenda Shows We Can Run Our Own Lives”. Jacobin. https://jacobinmag.com/2020/12/denmark-democratic-ownership-finance-act-social-democrats-red-green-alliance NovemberBrowse. 
  79. ^ “Uso de cores de partido em prédios públicos gera con de nação por improbidade” (Portuguese). Jusbrasil(2015). https://ambito-juridico.jusbrasil.com.br/noticias/192209688/uso-de-cores-de-partido-em-predios-publicos-gera-condenacao-por-improbidade NovemberBrowse. 
  80. ^ Einaudi, Luca (August 2017). “Coins of the Month --The symbols of the French socialists from the nineteenth century to today". www.histecon.magd.cam.ac.uk. Joint Center for History and Economics, University of Cambridge. NovemberBrowse.
  81. ^ “¿Coincidencia? ¿Por qué estos 3 logos de partidos de izquierda son tan parecidos?” (Spanish). Real time(July 2017, 9). https://www.tiemporeal.com.pe/farc-frente-amplio-partido-socialista-argentino/ NovemberBrowse. 

Literature information

  • Burke, E. 1839. Thoughts on the cause of the present discontents (1770), in The Works of Edmund Burke, vol. 1, Boston: Little, Brown & Co.
  • Dahl, R., ed. 1966. Political Oppositions in Western Democracies. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press.
  • Downs, A. 1957. An Economic Theory of Democracy. New York: Harper & Row.
    • Anthony DownsWritten by Seiji Furuta, "Economic Theory of Democracy," Seibundo, 1980
  • Duverger, M. 1954. Political parties. New York: john Wiley.
  • Katz, RS 1980. A Theory of Parties and Electoral Systems. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press.
  • Katz, RS 1987. Party Government: European and American Experiences. Berlin: de Gruyter.
  • Key, VO 1964. Politics, Parties, and Pressure Groups. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell.
  • Lawson, K., ed. 1980. Political Parties and Linkage: A Comparative perspective. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press.
  • Lipset, S. and Rokkan, S., eds. 1967. Party Systems and Voter Alignments. New York: Free Press.
  • Madison, J., Hamilton, A., Hamilton, J., and Jay, J., eds. The Federalist Papers. New York: New American Library.
  • Maisel, L., and Cooper, J. eds. 1978. Political Parties: Development and Decay. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.
  • Panebianco, A. 1988. Political Party: Organization and Power. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.
    • By Pane Bianco, Shinichiro MurakamiTranslated "Political Party Organization and Power" Minerva Shobo, 2005
  • Putnam, RD 1976. The Comparative Study of Political Elites. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  • Sartori, G. 1976. Parties and Party Systems. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.
    • SartoriAuthor,Norio Okazawa, Translated by Hideyuki Kawano, "Analytical Framework for Political Party System Theory", Waseda University Press, 1980, Popular Edition 2000
  • Schattschneider, EE 1942. Party Government. New York: Farrar & Rinehart.
  • Schumpeter, J. 1942. Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy. New York: Harper & Row.
  • Tocqueville, A. de 1969. Democracy in America. Garden City, New York: Anchor Books.
  • Weber, M. 1946. Politics as a vocation, in H. Gerth and CW Mills eds. From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.
  • Weiner, M. 1967. Party Building in a New Nation: The Indian National Congress. Chicago: Univ. Of Chicago Press.

Related item

外部 リンク


 

Back to Top
Close